- The scope and focus of a BCP is mostly dependant on the BIA (business impact analysis) - El Gamal is an unpatented, asymmetric

key algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem used in Diffie-Hellman. It extends the functionality of Diffie-Hellman to include encryption and digital signatures. - Function Point (FP) analysis is a measure of the size of an information system based on the number and complexity of the inputs, outputs and files that a user sees and interacts with - PGP uses the IDEA algorithm (symmetric) for encryption and the RSA algorithm (asymmetric) for key distribution and digital signatures. - Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) charts. PERT charts are project management tools used for time/progress estimation and resource allocation, NOT for estimating the financial burden of the project - Because of the amount of computation involved in public key cryptography, a DES hardware implementation of secret key cryptography is on the order of 1000 to 10000 times faster than RSA public key cryptography. - A SA is a one-way connection between two communicating parties, meaning that two SAs are required for each pair of communicating hosts. Additionally, each SA only supports a single protocol (AH or ESP). Thus, if both AH and ESP are used between two communicating hosts, a total of four SAs is required. - SESAME is subject to password guessing like Kerberos. The Basic Mechanism in Sesame for strong authentication is as follows: The user sends a request for authentication to the Authentication Server as in Kerberos, except that SESAME makes use of public key cryptography for authentication where the client will present his digital certificate and the request will be signed using a digital signature. The signature is communicated to the authentication server through the preauthentication fields. Upon receipt of this request, the authentication server will verify the certificate, then validate the signature, and if all is fine the AS will issue a ticket granting ticket (TGT) as in Kerberos. This TGT will be use to communicate with the privilage attribute server (PAS) when access to a resource is needed. Users may authenticate using either a public key pair or a conventional (symmetric) key. If public key cryptography is used, public key data is transported in preauthentication data fields to help establish identity. Kerberos uses tickets for authenticating subjects to objects and SESAME uses Privileged Attribute Certificates (PAC), which contain the subject’s identity, access capabilities for the object, access time period, and lifetime of the PAC. The PAC is digitally signed so that the object can validate that it came from the trusted authentication server, which is referred to as the privilege attribute server (PAS). The PAS holds a similar role as the KDC within Kerberos. After a user successfully authenticates to the authentication service (AS), he is presented with a token to give to the PAS. The

PAS then creates a PAC for the user to present to the resource he is trying to access. -The northbridge bus connects the CPU to the VIDEO and RAM - Continuous authentication provides protection against attacks that happen in a connection even after authentication is complete. This is usually done by applying a digital signature to every bit of data sent (eg applying some sort of cryptography to every bit sent) - The only difference between a circuit-level gateway and a simple port forwarding mechanism is that with a circuit-level gateway, the client is aware of the intermediate system, whereas in the case of a simple port-forwarding mechanism, the client must not be aware and may be completely oblivious of the existence of the intermediary - DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) enables different applications to share data and send commands to each other directly. - Objects sensitivity label = single classificiation + compartement set - Physical cable lengths: 10Base2, also known as RG58, or thinnet, is limited to 185 meters. 10Base5, also known as RG8/RG11 or thicknet, is limited to 500 meters. 10BaseT is only limited to 100 meters. Note that the 2 in 10Base2 refers to the maximum cable length (200 meters, 185, actually) and the 5 in 10Base5 is for 500 meters. - The WAP GAP is a specific security issue associated with WAP results from the requirement to change security protocols at the carrier's WAP gateway from the wireless WTLS to SSL for use over the wired network. WTLS is replaced by TLS in WAP 2.0. The gateway described above is no longer needed to translate (decrypt from one standard and re-encrypt to another) since the Internet servers are able to interpret the TLS transmission directly. All data remains encrypted as it passes through the gateway. At the WAP gateway, the transmission, which is protected by WTLS, is decrypted and then re-encrypted for transmission using SSL, leaving data temporarily in the clear on the gateway. - National Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (NIACAP), establishes the minimum national standards for certifying and accrediting national security systems. This process provides a standard set of activities, general tasks, and a management structure to certify and accredit systems that will maintain the Information Assurance (IA) and security posture of a system or site. - The object-relational database is the marriage of object-oriented and relational technologies and combines the attributes of both. - A system reboot is performed after shutting down the system in a controlled manner in response to a TCB failure. - An emergency system restart is done after a system fails in an uncontrolled

manner but consistency can be brought back automatically to the system. - A system cold start takes place when unexpected TCB or media failures take place and the recovery procedures cannot bring the system to a consistent state. Intervention of administrative personnel is required to bring the system to a consistent state from maintenance mode. - Information Labels are similar to Sensitivity Labels, but in addition to the classification and the category set of the Sensitivity Labels, they also have the necessary controls to be able to operate as a trusted computer. One other important difference is that the Reference Monitor does not use Information Labels for access permissions - DCE does provide the same functionality as DCOM, but DCE is an open standard developed by the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and DCOM, developed by Microsoft, is more proprietary in nature - Risk management consists of two primary and one underlying activity; risk assessment and risk mitigation are the primary activities and uncertainty analysis is the underlying one. After having performed risk assessment and mitigation, an uncertainty analysis should be performed. Risk management must often rely on speculation, best guesses, incomplete data, and many unproven assumptions. A documented uncertainty analysis allows the risk management results to be used knowledgeably. A vulnerability analysis, likelihood assessment and threat identification are all parts of the collection and analysis of data part of the risk assessment, one of the primary activities of risk management. - BIA should emphasize system dependancies. Then, prioritization can occur. - The Authentication Header is a mechanism for providing strong integrity and authentication for IP datagrams. It might also provide non-repudiation, depending on which cryptographic algorithm is used and how keying is performed. For example, use of an asymmetric digital signature algorithm, such as RSA, could provide non-repudiation." ESP is a mechanism for providing integrity and confidentiality to IP datagrams. It may also provide authentication, depending on which logarithm and algorithm mode are used. Non-repudiation and protection from traffic analysis are not provided by ESP - Extensible Authentication Protocol as a framework that supports multiple, optional authentication mechanisms for PPP, including cleartext passwords, challenge-response, and arbitrary dialog sequences - SSL : Presentation + transport layer. (recall presentation layer is to do with compression and encryption). Also remember successor is TLS = transport layer security - Individual accountability includes: * unique IDs (for ID) * access rules (to determine violations)

* audit trails (detective.In an online transaction processing system. Partitioning involves splitting a database into two or more physical or logical parts. for logging) . and apply a group of 26 common controls to categorize risk .External consistency ensures that the data stored in the database is consistent with the real world -DBMS: Cell suppression is a technique used against inference attacks by not revealing information in the case where a statistical query produces a very small result set.limited privilege : trusted process characteristic where operations are performed without allowing the user direct access to unauthorized sensitive data .DAC and MAC both employ least privilege.default open is not a prefered security model . .Telnet’s primary use is terminal emulation .As relates to operations security and TB : trusted paths are trustworthy interfaces into privileged user functions. it should be written to a report and reviewed . But only MAC employs need to know (compartmentalization) . if an invalid or erroneous transaction is detected. especially relevant for multilevel secure databases. test schedules assigned. in order to verify completeness (v .e. . they are pathways through the security boundary which separates the TCB components and untrusted components.MSR minimum security requirements state that a password should have .Flash can be read/written multiple times quickly.System development + system maintenance can be done by same people . and expectations outlined . Perturbation also addresses inference attacks but involves making minor modifications to the results to a query. . i.The functional design analysis and planning stage of an SDLC is the point at which a project plan is developed. Brainstorm and identify risk.Root cause analysis needed for eradication phase . trusted paths would be a form of API .The running key cipher is based on modular arithmetic .FRAP (facilitated risk analysis process) : business managers and technical staff. but at the cost of only writing large blocks at a time.Padded cells are simulated environments to which IDSs seamlessly transfer detected attackers and are designed to convince an attacker that the attack is going according to the plan.The reference monitor must meet three conditions: (1) it must be tamperproof (isolation) (2) it must be invoked on every access to every object (completeness) and (3) it must be small enough for thorough validation of its operation through analysis and tests.

along with confidentiality. (Simplex SA x2) . one of which is centralized (software or data).An interoperable.MTD = RTO + WRT .One time pads to be unbreakable the pads must: * have completely random characters * be secure * must not be re-used * key must be as long as the message . .Software librarian can enforce separation of duties to ensure programmers do not have access to production code .minimum length of 8 characters. does not provide for proper . Not to be confused with a decentralized database. The sender offers one or more transform sets that are used to specify an allowed combination of transforms with their respective settings.Data or information owner can determine if controls in place protect sensitive data sufficiently . IKE creates an authenticated. . The security administrator.IPSec peer authentication performed at phase 1 . secure channel between the two IKE peers. (bi-directional SA) In phase 2 IKE negotiates the IPSec security associations and generates the required key material for IPSec. The negotiated key will subsequently be used for message encryption . Maximum Tolerable Downtime = Recovery Time Objective + Work Recovery Time . or cooperative.IPSec: In phase 1 of this process.ITSEC vs Orange book : One major difference between the two is ITSEC’s inclusion of integrity and availability as security goals. A dispersed database involves interconnected and related platforms running the same software and using the same data.Graham-Denning model has 8 rules . The Diffie-Hellman key agreement is always performed in this phase.Diffie Hellmann : protocol used to enable two users using symmetric encryption to exchange a secret key (session key) over an insecure medium without any prior secrets. .SET = Secure Electronic Transaction : OSI L7 application layer protocol .Detection capabilities of host based IDS systems are usually limited by the audit logging capabilities of the host .One technique of process isolation is time-multiplexing . systems programming or data entry. database is defined as interconnected platforms running independent copies of software with independent copies of data. being responsible for application programming. called the IKE security association.Quality assurance can also be an additional responsibility of the security administrator. involving connected or unconnected but related platforms running independent copies of software with independent copies of data.

used for mobile devices .SQL = DDL (data definition language) + DML (data manipulation language) . most common insider attack .DES key length = 56 bits . . parity or key sequence of 8 bits = 64bit. etc).Coaxial cables need fixed spacing between connections (termination / reflection.Elliptic Curve Cryptography has the highest strength per bit of key length of any asymmetric algo.Output controls are used for two things: for verifying the integrity and protecting the confidentiality of an output . etc) . different data (eg secret data.A protection domain consists of the execution and memory space assigned to each process. which is in turn encrypted with public key of reciever . top secret data) .ISO 27001:2005 : standard for Information Security management .The main advantage of the qualitative impact analysis is that it prioritizes the risks and identifies areas for immediate improvement in addressing the vulnerabilities.A stream cipher generates what is called a keystream (a sequence of bits used as a key).Input controls are used to validate input (correct range. The security perimeter is the boundary that separates the Trusted Computing Base (TCB) from the remainder of the system . The purpose of establishing a protection domain is to protect programs from all unauthorized modification or executional interference. depending on the input message .Max key size for Rijandael is 256 bits . Uses 64-bit blocks and output 64-bit ciphertext . it must be able to restart without compromising its required protection scheme and to recover and rollback without being compromised after the failure.UTP categories based on how tightly a cable is twisted .Trusted recovery ensures that security is not breached when a system crash or other system failure occurs. hence less key length is needed.Differential cryptanalysis : attempt to determine key by statistically analysing a few plain .Degree of a table represents number of columns therefore not related to number of primary keys .Linear cryptanalysis : attempt to determine key from large amounts of plain / cipher text pairs . .RC4 is not a block cipher (variable-key-length stream cipher) . Trusted recovery is only required for . helps prevent certain types of attacks eg bugger overflow .Digital envelope: message encrypted with secret key.cipher text pairs .polymorphism : object acts differently.polyinstantiation : same object.segregation of duties . When the system crashes.data diddling : active form of attack that alters existing data.

Central station alarms are operated by private security organizations .secondary evidence : copy of a piece of evidence or oral description .Evaluation is the process of independently assessing a system against a standard of comparison. The master secret is then encrypted with the server's public key and sent to the server.clapper valve holds back water in dry system (fire suppression) .A single account on the system has the administrative rights to all the security-related functions of the system.B3 and A1 level systems. FRR : false rejection rate . Acceptance testing refers to user testing of a system before accepting delivery.CER : crossover error rate. schema objects. other than a public key. and reference keys.attribute certificate is a digital certificate that binds a set of descriptive data items.Regarding SSL: Once the server has been authenticated by the browser client. .direct evidence : can prove a fact by itself (does not need backup). but not vie-versa . The fact that the master secret is generated by the client's browser provides the client assurance that the server is not reusing keys that would have been used in a previous session with another client. for example oral testimony based on info gathered through a witness’s five senses . This secret serves as a seed to generate the session (private) keys. .The operation/ maintenance phase of an IT system is concerned with user authentication .Clark_Wilson model : achieves data integrity through well-formed transactions and seperation of duties (eg using middleware) . . Certification is the process of performing a comprehensive analysis of the security features and safeguards of a system to establish the extent to which the security requirements are satisfied. Accreditation is the official management decision to operate a system (achieved during implementation phase.The security perimeter is the imaginary line that separates the trusted . . either directly to a subject name or to the identifier of another certificate that is a public-key certificate . DIAMETER is compatible with radius. .Auxiliary station alarms automatically cause an alarm originating in a data center to be transmitted over the local municipal fire or police alarm circuits for relaying to both the local police/fire station and the appropriate headquarters.RADIUS and DIAMETER are only backward compatible. such as evaluation criteria. This demonstrates Trusted Facility Management because you restrict access to administrative functions. A failure or crash of the system cannot be used to breach security.A data dictionary is a central collection of data element definitions. This would fall under Trusted Recovery. the browser generates a master secret that is to be shared only between the server and client.

and authentication. which is derived from the contents of the message itself. .In order to protect against fraud in electronic fund transfers (EFT).BIA objectives: * interviews for data gathering * create data gathering techniques * identify critical business functions * identify resources that the above functions depend upon * how long can functions survive without the resources * identify vulnerabilities and threats to the resources * calculate risk to resources * document and report . Output feedback does not allow any sort of MAC .Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) is a communication protocol that allows wireless devices to send and receive encrypted information over the Internet.SSL session key length vary from 40bit to 256bit . not duplex .S-RPC provides authentication . ANSI X9. The Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) was developed by a consortium including MasterCard . . Cipher Block Chaining and Cipher Feedback can be used since they create a key that is dependent of the previous block and the final block serves as a Message Authentication Code. It is similar to a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).components of the kernel and the Trusted Computing Base (TCB) from those elements that are not trusted .In IPSec. was developed.For authentication via DES. and hash the output.Pipelining : overlapping steps of different instructions .soda acid removes the fuel supply of a fire .ARL vs CRL = Authority Revocation List vs Certificate Revocation List .Operational controls are concerned most with personnel safety .When access control is on what is contained in the database it is considered to be content-dependent access control .Keyed hash also called a MAC (message authentication code) is used for integrity protection. an SA is simplex in operation.9.BIA primary objectives: * Criticality prioritization * downtime estimation * resource requirements .Software plans and requirements usually addresses due care and due diligence . that is sensitive to the bit changes in a message.Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) is designed to send individual messages securely . the Message Authentication Code (MAC). Eg of MAC : encrypt message with secret key DES. The MAC is a check value.

Split knowledge involves encryption keys being separated into two components.known-plaintext attack : a cryptanalysis technique in which the analyst tries to determine the key from knowledge of some plaintext-ciphertext pairs (although the analyst may also have other clues. .An analytic attack refers to using algorithm and algebraic manipulation weakness to reduce complexity.A reference monitor compares the security labels on a subject and object . dictated) by the analyst. RSA is quite feasible for computer use.detects and corrects errors so CIA of network transaction may be maintained .Capacitance detectors is used for spot protection within a few inches of the object. etc) .Communications security management prevents.e. However.The computations involved in selecting keys and in enciphering data are complex.400 is used in e-mail as a message handling protocol.A central authority that determines which subjects have access to which objects is a fom of non-discretionary access control . such as the knowing the cryptographic algorithm).Reasonableness checks. .509 is used in digital certificates and X. ..chosen-ciphertext attack is defined as a cryptanalysis technique in which the analyst tries to determine the key from knowledge of plaintext that corresponds to ciphertext selected (i.star property in Bell-LaPadula = confinement property .chosen-plaintext attack is a cryptanalysis technique in which the analyst tries to determine the key from knowledge of ciphertext that corresponds to plaintext selected (i.X. .. X. rather than for overall room security monitoring.e. using mathematical properties of modular arithmetic and a method known as computing in Galois fields.Content dependant protection of info increases processing overhead . . range checks.Internet refers to the global network of public networks and ISP .to remember : simple = read. and are not practical for manual use.800 is used a network security standard . .500 is used in directory services.Simple Security property in Bell-LaPadula = no read up . each of which does not reveal the other . *(star) = write .cardinality of a database refers to the number of rows in a relation (eg 1 to 1. 1 to many.and VISA as a means of preventing fraud from occurring during electronic payment . X.Stream cipher is most suited to hardware implementations . dictated) by the analyst. syntax checks and check digits are common program controls .Simple Security property in Biba = no read down .

the blue box is an electronic device that simulates a telephone operator's dialing console. the box fooled the phone company into thinking no one had answered at the receiving end. . and audio-recording greeting cards. sometimes called an Agnew (see Spiro (device) for the origin of the nickname). When the black box was switched into the telephone line. the Black Box enabled one to receive calls which were free to the caller. thus fooling the system into completing free calls. Commonly used devices include modified Radio Shack tone dialers. and therefore billing was never started on the call. The blue box no longer works in most western nations.Phreaking: RED BOX A red box is a phreaking device that generates tones to simulate inserting coins in pay phones. In other words. the handset could be picked up without the telephone system knowing and starting the billing process. and a quarter by a set of 5 tones. was a device built by phone phreaks during the 1960s and 1970s in order to defeat long distance phone call toll charges. WHITE BOX The white box is simply a portable Touch-Tone Keypad.. so that the DC voltage on the line drops below the approximately 45 volts present when the phone is disconnected. The act of picking up the handset of a telephone causes a load to be put on the telephone line. Instead.ISO has defined five basic tasks related to network management : . and specifically to block the supervision signal sent by the receiving telephone handset when the call was answered at the receiving end of the call. The most typical use of a blue box was to place free telephone calls . It functions by replicating the tones used to switch long-distance calls and using them to route the user's own call. bypassing the normal switching mechanism. signaling occurs on an out-of-band channel which cannot be accessed from the line the caller is using (called Common Channel Interoffice Signaling (CCIS)).inversely. The black box consisted of a large capacitor which was inserted in series with the telephone. ringing signal and also audio signal) to pass. thereby blocking DC current but allowing AC current (i. Any device capable of playing back recorded sounds can potentially be used as a red box. a nickel by one. a dime is represented by two tones. In the US. as modern switching systems are now digital and no longer use the in-band signaling which the blue box emulates. personal MP3 players..e. BLUE BOX An early phreaking tool. BLACK BOX The black box (as distinguished from blue boxes and red boxes).

* Configuration management: Allows users to know.Edit controls are considered to be preventive controls since they are used in a program before data is processed. define and change remotely the configuration of any device. * Security management: Detects suspicious traffic or users and generates alarms accordingly. Buffer overflows can be eliminated through the use of proper edit controls. It is only required for B2.The following measures are used to compensate for both internal and external access violations: * Backups * RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) technology * Fault tolerance * Business Continuity Planning * Insurance .L2TP = L2F + PPTP .System configuration management is geared towards providing system stability . * Accounting resources: Holds the records of the resource usage in the WAN.D – Minimal protection C – Discretionary protection C1 – Discretionary Security Protection C2 – Controlled Access Protection vs object reuse (object isolation) B – Mandatory Protection B1 – Labeled Security B2 – Structured Protection B3 – Security Domains A – Verified Protection A1 – Verified Design .How hardware / software should be used : standards not policy .Application firewall = Circuit Level firewall .Configuration management is the process of tracking and approving changes to a system. modified version of GRE) * can tunnel non-IP traffic * does not provide token based authentication * does not provide strong encryption . . B3 and A1 level system .When an intrusion has been detected and confirmed. . if you wish to prosecute the . * Performance management: Monitors usage levels and sets alarms when a threshold has been surpassed.* Fault management: Detects the devices that present some kind of fault.PPTP (works at L2.

Isolate the compromised systems. .Full interrution test is the most complete DRP test (but it does stop business) . Examine logs in order to gather more information and better identify other systems to which the intruder might have gained access. the following actions should be performed in the following order: 1.BCP exersizes include (should always identify BCP strengths and weaknesses): * table-top exercise (theoretical exercise “how do we react if such happens?”) * call exersize (if the emergence personnel are reachable) .BCP usually fails due to lack of management support . 4. Start with the most volative memory areas first. using hardware-write-protectable or write-once media. Capture and record system information and evidence that may be lost.Worm .Ciphers should be * functionally complex * statistically unbiased * long periods of non-repetition . Search for signs of intrusions on other systems. for example by analyzing various log files.BCP is a corporate issue and should include all parts and functions of a company . 3.Elements of risk: * threats * assets * mitigating controls .Named perils is the burden of proof that particular loss is covered on insured .audit logs are a form of detective logs . 5.SP-network is used to increase the strength of block ciphers (Substitution Permutation) .BIA establishes effect of disruptions on the organization . A first backup may be used to re-install the compromised system for further analysis and the second one should be preserved in a secure location to preserve the chain of custody of evidence.Two co-operating processes that simultaneously compete for a shared resource in defiance of security policy create a covert channel . 7. comparing checksums of known. modified. Search through logs of compromised systems for information that would reveal the kind of attacks used to gain access. Make at least two full backups of the compromised systems.attacker in court. trusted files to those on the compromised machine and by using other intrusion analysis tools.no human interaction. 2. 6. Identify what the intruder did. Symptoms : high network / CPU utilization . or not captured during the execution of a backup procedure.

RSA allows for the mutual identification of parties. estimate the financial and operational impacts of a disruption.Concealment cipher. use polyalphabetic ciphers . . so enable write access to only one subject .During BIA. Does not provide good host / server authentication .no inherent difference in memory between data and programming (instructions) representations in memory . rather it is based on difficulty of factorisation into the original prime numbers . every X number of words within a text.Disaster recovery typically refers to the recovery of the technology enviornment .SSH 2 is a strong method of performing client authentication.symmetric and asymmetric are two methods of encrypting data .best way to prevent MITM is to use random and unique identification .asynchronous time-division multiplexing: dynamically assigned time slots as needed .ANSI X9.Data warehouse : consolidate / manage data in central location .Expert system gather knowledge from human SMEs and this knowledge is programmed in.deadlocking = stalemate.Email source verification : client should add signature block and digital signature to the email . use of session keys .Primary key must contain a non-null value to uniquely identify the tuple . is a part of the real message.Von neumann .cleanroom methodology = prevent rather than remove software defects .DSS : digital signature standard : allows for digital signing (asymmetric) .Full backup is the most efficient recovery .RTO = recovery time objective aka MTD = maximum tolerable downtime .CA validates that a particular public key is associated with the correct user . . identify regulatory/compliance exposure and determine the impact upon the organization's market share and corporate image.In order to defeat frequency analysis.vs brute force.* simulated exersize (simulated) .First step for CIRT: determine to what extent systems and data are compromised . usually in conjunction with an inference engine . and problem analysis using algorithms is done to suggest solutions. RTO is not performed.one-time pad : unbreakable by brute force . In BIA.The read privilege is the most problematic privilege regarding information flows.17 is concerned primarily with the protection and secrecy of keys .integrity issues. is not based on discrete algorithms.bytecode is faster than interpreted languages (it is already “compiled”) . two subjects try to modify the same object. The privilege essentially allows the subject to create a copy of the object in memory .

Organge book objectives: Policy The security policy must be explicit. this level enables operators the right to modify data directly in its original location. * A deals with verified protection.Orange book does not cover integrity (TCSEC) . well-defined and enforced by the computer system.. There are two basic security policies: Mandatory Security Policy .The presentation layer contains no protocols only services. . in addition to data copied from the original location.Prudent man rule == due care .Least Privilege has three basic levels of privilege.Orange book based on Bell LaPadula model .most effective defence vs buffer overflow = bounds checking . * D deals with minimal security. ○ Marking . read only. general policies and other relevant guidance from which the rules are derived.Orange Book divisions: * C deals with discretionary protection.DBMS consistency ensures databases leaves one valid state to enter another valid state . actions considered . . . This policy must also accurately reflect the laws.Eg of application protocols: SMTP . Other indirect factors are physical and environmental. authorization for the information and the confidentiality level of the information being sought. read/write and access change.Constrained user interface offers limited functionality depending on the user accessing .Systems designed to enforce a mandatory security policy must store and preserve the integrity of access control labels and . * B deals with mandatory protection.Enforces access control rules based ● directly on an individual's clearance.Diffie Hellman = most common form of asymmetric key cyrpto . Access Change is the highest level.certification is the technical evaluation of a program to ensure that security requirements have been met .noninterference model strictly separates differing security levels to assure that higher-level actions do not determine what lower-level users can see (no data flow considered.Recovery strategies are concerned with meeting the pre-determined time frames for recovery .

Discretionary Security Policy . ● Authentication .The trusted mechanisms that ● enforce these basic requirements must be continuously protected against tampering and/or unauthorized changes. ● Auditing .The process used to recognize an individual user. assurance must include a guarantee that the trusted portion of the system works only as intended. There are three requirements under the accountability objective: ● Identification . System Integrity. Configuration Management and Trusted System Distribution Continuous Protection Assurance .The verification of an individual user's authorization to specific categories of information.Enforces a consistent set of rules for controlling and limiting access based on identified individuals who have been determined to have a need-to-know for the information. deployment and management of the system rather than its capabilities. A secure means must exist to ensure the access of an authorized and competent agent which can then evaluate the accountability information within a reasonable amount of time and without undue difficulty. two types of assurance are needed with their respective elements: ● Assurance Mechanisms ○ Operational Assurance: System Architecture. Design Specification and Verification.● retain the labels if the object is exported. Covert Channel Analysis. To accomplish these objectives.Audit information must be selectively kept and protected so that actions affecting security can be traced to the authenticated individual. Accountability Individual accountability regardless of policy must be enforced. Trusted Facility Management and Trusted Recovery ○ Life-cycle Assurance : Security Testing. This documentation includes: . Assurance The computer system must contain hardware/software mechanisms that can be independently evaluated to provide sufficient assurance that the system enforces the above requirements. By extension. Documentation Within each class there is additional documentation set which addresses the development.

con of Kerberos server : single point of failure .Aggregation and inference are the two most common forms of attack vs DBs .Ethernet cabling uses 4-pairs (8 strands) .Pattern matching IDS is best vs frequently morphing malware. defined as an Internet. key-establishment protocol (partly based on OAKLEY) that is intended for putting in place authenticated keying material for use with ISAKMP and for other security associations.Symmetric stream cipher is most effective to implement in hardware . Triple DES uses 48 rounds .Least significant issue for biometrics is technology type . vulnerabilities} . One example of the ISAKMP implementation is the Internet Key Exchange (IKE). threats.Common-mode noise is electrical noise between the hot and ground wire and between the neutral and ground wire. Malware that frequently morphs will evade statistical IDS that collects info over time .Access controls help protects vs threats and vulnerabilities by reducing exposure to unauthorized activities and providing access to information and systems to only those that have been approved .Controls and safeguards reduce the impact of a threat .Operation security trple : {assets. IPsec. modify and delete security associations.Key encapsulation is one class of key recovery techniques and is defined as a key recovery technique for storing knowledge of a cryptographic key by encrypting it with another key and ensuring that that only certain third parties called "recovery agents" can perform the decryption operation to retrieve the stored key. .Should move least critical systems from backup to primary site first .In MAC.● Security Features User's Guide. Trusted Facility Manual.Least effective dept to report to is the IS operations since they usually do not rank high enough .HIDS can usually detect encrypted traffic because host will decrypt it . However. system controls and data owner determine the need to know . it does not define the actual protocols to be used (such as key exchange protocols and hash functions).ISAKMP defines procedures and packet formats to establish.critical-path analysis is the process of determining the value of company assets .Access control dominate means a subject with equal or higher access class .A cryptovariable or key controls the operation of the cryptographic algorithm . .A1 level requires trusted distribution . such as in AH and ESP . these are implementation specific. Test Documentation and Design Documentation . negotiate.DES uses 16 rounds of transposition and substitution functions.Kerberos Auth Server grants a service ticket once it validates the timestamp from the client (can decrypt timestamp because it stores the client’s key) .

Primary purpose of honeypots is to observer the behaviour of attackers to fortify the network .IKE = IPSec not PKI! . (normalise = reduce duplicates) .The domain of a relation is the set of allowable values that an attribute can take.teardrop attack consists of modifying the length and fragmentation offset fields in sequential IP packets.Data centre should be located in the middle of a building . controls advance.A database system would be denormalised to increase processing efficiency.The program evaluation review technique (PERT) defines activities.Seven main categories of access control: *Directive *Deterrent *Preventative *Detective *Corrective *Compensating *Recovery . .it is important for an identity management system is that it must support high volumes of data and peak transaction rates .PKI provides authentication. integrity and access control. . not reliability. technical. Denormalization is usually introduced for performance purposes. capability tables related to subjects . not when it is normalized.clipper chip uses 80-bit key size.Access control systems do not specify how a user can access a resource .Hand geometry uses the smallest file size . network and relational .All internal walls must have 1 hour min fire rating. but also have greater false positives .Common database models : hierarchical. used as Project Management . works on the principle of key escrow .Rate of rise sensors provide earlier warning than fixed temperature thresholds.smart cards have processing power.TGS principal = resource or server . assigned resources. memory cards do not . and allows on-time decision making. causing overlap of packets once re-assembled . but reduces integrity and storage. ..Reciprocal agreements are often not legally binding .access control list related to object.Three types of access control : administrative.Justifications should be provided when data is denormalized. unless next to records where 2 hour min fire rating needed . and physical .BIND variables are used as placeholders for literal values in SQL . because it introduces risk of data inconsistency.

Preliminary step sin managing resources is to define who has access to a given resource .civil law is influences by abstract concepts of law (writings of academics). Difference and Product) and the other operations can be defined in terms of those five.abstraction: giving rights to group rather than individual users (abstraction of users into groups) . point to point encryption is more secure . The project operator serves to shrink the table horizontally by removing unwanted columns. .Proxy server is not considered as perimeter defence. collation and analysis in real time.Long-duration security projects increase completion risk . Union.Physical locks are intended as a delay device .security event managment (SEM) is used for log collection.clipping level : only necessary logs are collected for monitoring . rather boundary defence .re databases: Five operations are primitives (Select.qualitative risk assessment is usually earmarked by ease of implementation and can be completed by personnel with limited understanding of the risk assessment process .Auditors help identify control gaps .continuous authentication best defends vs hijacking . and Select The select operator serves to shrink the table vertically by eliminating unwanted rows (tuples). vs log management system that is more used for historical purposes .Computer Game Fallacy : computers will prevent us from doing wrong . . A View is defined from the operations of Join.SLE (single loss expectancy) = asset value x exposure rate . tested and reviewed * EAL 5 : semifomally designed and tested * EAL 6 : semifomally verified design and tested * EAL 7 : fomally verified design and tested. rather than precedent and reasoning as in common law .link encryption is not suitable for high risk environments due to possible loss of privacy at each node (link termination point). and other processes cannot "bust into it".A trusted shell means that someone who is working in that shell cannot "bust out of it"..ISO 15408 = common criteria * EAL 1 : functionally tested * EAL 2 : structurally tested * EAL 3 : methodically tested and checked * EAL 4 : methodically designed. Project.Identity management is a set of technologies and processes intended to offer greater efficiency in the management of a diverse user and technical environment . And the join operator allows the dynamic linking of . Project.

configuration management and trusted distribution.Expert System Operating Modes: Backward-chaining mode . As more information is placed on the blackboard in an iterative process.trusted computing base : totality of protection mechanisms within computer system . . not a life cycle assurance requirement. Backward-chaining is generally used when there are a large number of possible solutions relative to the number of inputs.Common Criteria evaluations are performed on computer security products and systems. . System integrity is also defined in the Orange Book but is an operational assurance requirement.the expert system backtracks to determine if a given hypothesis is valid.The life cycle assurance requirements specified in the Orange Book are: security testing. Incorrect answers are: In a forward-chaining mode. . a solution is generated. Most TN3270 servers today has support for secured connections over SSL or SSH. SSL Version 3 and TLS version 1. It supports SSL Version 2. the expert system acquires information and comes to a conclusion based on that information.two tables that share a common column value . wherein information or potential solutions are placed on the blackboard by a plurality of individuals or expert knowledge sources.configuration management is a requirement for level B2 and above . . B2 vs covert storage attacks .problem management : identify root cause and address underlying issue . TN3270 Plus also supports up to 128-bit encryption.Controlled Access Protection is Level C2 .Bell-laPadula (confidentiality / disclosure) vs biba (integrity / accuracy) . Forward-chaining is the reasoning approach that can be used when there is a small number of solutions relative to the number of inputs.5 rules of evidence: * complete * authentic * accurate * convincing * admissible .due diligence : compliance .SABSA : chain of traceability .PR : not essential in BIA but important in BCP . design specification and testing.Tn3270 is a terminal emulation program for connecting to computers which use IBM 3270 terminals. Blackboard is an expert system-reasoning methodology in which a solution is generated by the use of a virtual ​blackboard.B3 vs covert timing attacks.

The TOE is evaluated against the SFRs (see below) established in its ST. ● Security Target (ST) . To be of practical use. The evaluation serves to validate claims made about the target. It may refer to one or more PPs. typically created by a user or user community. The Common Criteria presents a standard catalogue of such functions. and have their products evaluated against those PPs. This means that a network firewall does not have to meet the same functional requirements as a database management system. which identifies security requirements for a class of security devices (for example. or the authors of the ST will at least ensure that all requirements in relevant PPs also appear in the target's ST document. even if two targets are the same type of product. the evaluation must verify the target's security features. Customers looking for particular types of products can focus on those certified against the PP that meets their requirements. This is done through the following: ● Protection Profile (PP) . The ST is usually published so that potential customers may determine the specific security features that have been certified by the evaluation. For example. or network firewalls) relevant to that user for a particular purpose. This allows vendors to tailor the evaluation to accurately match the intended capabilities of their product. ● Security Functional Requirements (SFRs) . no more and no less. Product vendors can choose to implement products that comply with one or more PPs. smart cards used to provide digital signatures.a document. The list of SFRs can vary from one evaluation to the next. a PP may serve as a template for the product's ST (Security Target. it identifies dependencies where the correct operation of one function (such as the ability to limit access according to roles) is dependent on another (such as the ability to identify individual roles).the document that identifies the security properties of the target of evaluation.descriptions of the measures taken during development and evaluation of the product to assure . as defined below). Although Common Criteria does not prescribe any SFRs to be included in an ST. and that different firewalls may in fact be evaluated against completely different lists of requirements. The evaluation process also tries to establish the level of confidence that may be placed in the product's security features through quality assurance processes: ● Security Assurance Requirements (SARs) . In such a case.● Target Of Evaluation (TOE) . an SFR may state how a user acting a particular role might be authenticated.specify individual security functions which may be provided by a product.the product or system that is the subject of the evaluation.

● Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) . For example. an evaluation may require that all source code is kept in a change management system. Common Criteria lists seven levels. A PP is a combination of threats.the numerical rating describing the depth and rigor of an evaluation.Tactical security plans : mid-term plans. not organisation wide. with EAL 1 being the most basic (and therefore cheapest to implement and evaluate) and EAL 7 being the most stringent (and most expensive). . eg rolling out new security policy . security objectives. or that full functional testing is performed. The requirements for particular targets or types of products are documented in the ST and PP. they only mean that the claimed security assurance of the TOE has been more extensively verified. respectively. assumptions. The package permits the expression of a set of either functional or assurance requirements that meet some particular need. it is typically created by a user or user community and provides an implementation independent specification of information assurance security requirements. Each EAL corresponds to a package of security assurance requirements (SARs. A package may be used in the construction of more complex packages or Protection Profiles and Security Targets . motive . with a given level of strictness. The Common Criteria provides a catalogue of these. possibly 'augmenting' requirements in a few areas with requirements from a higher level. opportunity. security assurance requirements (SARs) and rationales.Packages (Common Criteria) According to the Common Criteria. unpredictable * reproducible: processes characterised for projects. see above) which covers the complete development of a product. As the generic form of a Security Target (ST). security functional requirements (SFRs).MOM = means. expressed as a set of security objectives. poorly controlled. Higher EALs do not necessarily imply "better security".Transport mode usually used when communications terminates at end points. . an intermediate combination of security requirement components is termed a package. Normally.compliance with the claimed security functionality. still reactive * defined : organisation wide characterization. and the requirements may vary from one evaluation to the next. proactive * managed : metrics and measurements of processes * optimization : process improvement . . an ST or PP author will not select assurance requirements individually but choose one of these packages.A Protection Profile (PP) is a document used as part of the certification process according to the Common Criteria (CC).Capability Maturity Model CMM : * initial : processes are reactive.

Common criteria > protection profiles > common set of functional and assurance requirements for a category of vendor products in a particular enviornment . a compiled program is less desirable than an interpreted one because malicious code can be resident somewhere in the compiled code. .The Orange book requires Hardware and/or software features shall be provided that can be used to periodically validate the correct operation of the on-site hardware and firmware elements of the TCB for System Integrity. .L2TP alone does not guarantee encryption . and it is difficult to detect in a very large program.Bell laPadula : * (star) property ensures no write down . loss of trade secrets and so on. It is a best practice to perform testing in a non-production environment . A production environment should never be used to test a product. .From a security standpoint.Database shadowing: copying an entire database or updating records in multiple locations to ensure fault-tolerance .Competitive intelligence attack is a business attack.FIPS 140 is the standard for the security of hardware / software cryptographic modules .CCTV : * visual assessment of incidents * surveillance * deterrence * evidential archives .The invocation property is unique to the BIBA model .Hardware RAID implementation is usually platform independent . complex or computationally demanding as "live" data.Inappropriate disclosure is a confidentiality.Dual control: Both individuals are needed to perform a task (detective or .Biba : * (star) property ensures no write up . as a production environment is one where the application or system is being put to commercial use. . (detective or preventative) . not an integrity goal.Test environment using live workloads The best way to properly verify an application or system during a stress test would be to expose it to "live" data while in a testing environment.Two-man control: Two individuals review and approve the work of each other.The Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organisations require that an organisation provides ethics training . Fabricated test data may not be as varied.Tunnel mode usually used at gateway to give access to internal systems .System high security policy means that all users in that system are cleared to view the most highly classified info on the system .

Elements of a physical protection system: * deter * detect * delay * responsd .preventative). Separation of duties enables dual control . relevant facts . append 3.Hot site is not instantly available .rame relay and X.Graham-Denning : sets of objects. encrypt and send . the referenced relation must have a tuple with the same value for its primary key.Provide message integrity: 1. Rule-based access control is another example. .Circumstantial evidence is defined as inference of information from other.Provide authentication and integrity: as above but encrypt with private key .Note: Mandatory Access Controls use labels. This requires more processing power than block ciphers require. . SDSL also delivers 1. Create checksum 2.An identity-based access control is an example of discretionary access control that is based on an individual's identity. concerned with how subjects are assigned rights. intermediate. If rules exist without labels.Cryptography does not directly support availability. must be NDAC .Symmetric stream lends itself best to implementation in hardware.Brewer-Nash a.Referential Integrity requires that for any foreign key attribute. how objects are created .25 are both examples of packet-switching technologies . Stream ciphers can be designed to be exceptionally fast.Due care is not related to profit . . it cannot be MAC. prevents disclosure to competitors .Business Impact analysis identifies the exposures to loss to the organisation . subjects and rights. which is why stream ciphers are better suited to be implemented at the hardware level. does not directly support authenticity either.544 Mbps of bandwidth each way over two copper twisted pairs.The primary key must contain a non-null value to uniquely identify the tuple .a chinese wall model.Access controls support CIA triad.544 Mbps but over a single copper twisted pair. Task-based and role-based access controls are examples of non-discretionary access controls. . . .Security testing and trusted distribution are needed for Life-Cycle Assurance .k.High-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) delivers 1.

alternative routing : is a method of routing information via an alternate medium such as copper cable or fiber optics..Running key cipher is based on modular arithmetic .UDP has an IP protocol value of 17 . the shorter it’s lifetime should be . With diverse routing. This can be accomplished with different and/or duplicate cable sheaths.TCP has an IP protocol value of 6 .Cable length is the most common failure issue with twisted pair cabling. intended for email.Users can obtain certificates with various levels of assurance.PPP : support of multiple network types over the same serial link .IGMP has a protocol value of 2 .IDEA = 128 bits . circuits or end points should the normal network be unavailable. for which independent verification and checking of identity and authority is done by the issuing certificate authority * Class 4 for online business transactions between companies * Class 5 for private organizations or governmental security .Non repudation is provided by the asymmetric private key since in theory only 1 person should know this . so you can protect against cable failure as your service will be maintained on the alternative route.Kerberos primarily provides authentication (authorization provided by other subsytems) . Alternative routing provides two different cables from the local exchange to your site.Non repudation is considered a preventative control .The more a key is used.ISDN and PPP are examples of circuit-switching technologies . no proof of identity * Class 2/Level 2 is for organizations and companies for which proof of identity is required * Class 3/Level 3 is for servers and software signing. . This involves use of different networks.iris scanners must be positioned so as not to allow sunlight to enter the aperture . you can protect not only against cable failure but also against local exchange failure as there are two separate routes from two exchanges to your site.ICMP has an IP protocol value of 1 .An authentication system should not return information on which part of the auth control failed . Here is a list that describe each of them: * Class 1/Level 1 for individuals. Penetration testing and Violation .diverse routing : routes traffic through split cable facilities or duplicate cable facilities. .Monitoring techniques include Intrusion detection.

prevent or recover from a security attack.Pervasive Security Mechanisms: Trusted functionality Security labels Event detection Security audit trail Security recovery ● Security Services: Security Services is the services to implement security policies and implemented by security mechanism. . . (identifies system state) .Specific Security Mechanisms: Encipherment (encryption) Digital signature mechanisms Access control mechanisms Data integrity mechanisms Authentication exchange mechanism Traffic padding mechanism Routing control mechanism Notarization mechanism (assurance : eg CA) . combines the use of models and analytic techniques with traditional data access and retrieval functions and supports semi-structured decision-making tasks . . And security mechanism is a method which is used to protect your message from unauthorized entity.A memory dump can be admitted as evidence if it acts merely as a statement of fact. Basic security services defined: * authentication * access control * data confidentiality * data integrity .DSS (decision support system) emphasizes flexibility in the decision-making approach of users. It is aimed at solving less structured problems. ● Security Mechanism: A process that is designed to detect.The RAID Advisory Board has defined three classifications of RAID: * Failure Resistant Disk Systems (FRDSs) * Failure Tolerant Disk Systems * Disaster Tolerant Disk Systems.processing using clipping levels.The broad categories for security standards in the OSI architecture are: ● Security Attack: Any action that compromise the security of information owned by an organization.

BCP committee does not need to include HR .Typically estimating the cost of changes requested is not included in change maintenance (change control) phase .open system is not open source. a plenum is a separate space provided for air circulation for heating.Security modes of operation (MAC): .EEPROM : electrically erasable PROM . breathable up to 30% concentration .Hacking is usually classed as a human threat to IT systems .Call-back authentication methods require fixed numbers hence not appropriate for mobile users . and air-conditioning (sometimes referred to as HVAC) and typically provided in the space between the structural ceiling and a drop-down ceiling.ECB is the best encryption mode for databases since data within a file does not need to be encrypted in any certain order (ECB : same plaintext = same ciphertext) . ventilation. open system = built from industry standard parts . special plenum cabling is required in plenum area . Because ordinary cable introduces a toxic hazard in the event of fire. the plenum space is often used to house connecting communication cables.FE-13 considered best alternative the halon. uses UV to erase .Token ring is more fault-tolerant than ethernet . reducing duplicity .498 inches in size.The Digital Linear Tape (DLT) is only 0.PROM : only programmable once .The Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) protocol developed by vias and masterdcar. and requires two pairs of asymmetric keys and two digital certificates .* non-repudation * availability service . uses digital signatures.EPROM : erasable programmable ROM.Wet chemical vs Kitchen/grease fire .In building construction.Normalization is an important part of database design that ensures that attributes in a table depend only on the primary key. A plenum may also be under a raised floor.Hearsay evidence must be generated / collected in the normal.Consulting local fire safety codes is one of the most important fire safety steps . yet the compression techniques and head scanning process make it a large capacity and fast tape .Fraggle vs Smurf = UDP vs ICMP . regular conduct of business . In buildings with computer installations.

To apply this .Signed NDA for Proper clearance for Formal access approval for A valid need to know fo Dedicate d security mode System high security mode Compart mented / partition ed security mode Multileve l security mode ALL informatio n on the system.Non-discretionary access control is lattice-based access control.DAT : digital audio tape : allows for audio + data backup . ALL informatio n on the system ALL informatio n on the system ALL informatio n on the system. SOME informatio n on the system SOME informatio n on the system ALL informatio n on the system SOME informatio n on the system SOME informatio n on the system SOME informatio n on the system Multilevel : highest risk Partitioned : aka controlled security mode .TCB assures that system meets security requirements sufficiently and effectively.The spiral model is actually a meta-model that incorporates a number of the software development models. but not necessarily efficiently .A relational database model has three parts: * Data structures called tables or relations * Integrity rules on allowable values and value combinations in the tables * Operators on the data in the tables . ALL informatio n on the system ALL informatio n on the system ALL informatio n on the system. . ALL informatio n on the system SOME informatio n on the system ALL informatio n on the system.

an encrypted Telnet session from a workstation to a router.lattice based access control is an example of mandatory access control .assurance procedures ensure that technical controls conform to the security policy and that they are correctly implemented .Corrective controls are concerned with remedying circumstances and restoring controls whereas recovery controls are concerned with restoring resources. if the gateway is being treated as a host—for example. Transport mode is used between end-stations or between an end-station and a gateway. capabilities or losses.Incident handling: 1.testing using live data is not recommended since it does not cover the full range of possible inputs . royalty free encryption algorithm . . Compensating controls are alternative controls. raise incident. or at an end-station to a gateway.Tunnel mode is most commonly used between gateways.) .concept to access control.TACACS+ is a total new protocol and incompatible with TACACS.Cross certification : creating trust between PKI . in which the router is the actual destination. the pair of elements is the subject and object. and the subject has to have an upper bound equal or higher than the object being accessed.A chosen-ciphertext attack is one in which cryptanalyst may choose a piece of ciphertext and attempt to obtain the corresponding decrypted plaintext. Analyse information. .ESP authentication capabilities are limited due to non-inclusion of IP header info in authentication process . This type of attack is generally most applicable to public-key cryptosystems. Collect / record info 4. Communicate to parties 3. used to compensate weaknesses in other controls and preventive controls are concerned with avoiding occurrences of risks. determine to what extent systems and data is compromised (identify) 2. Recover .SQL is considered a data definition language .PGP uses symmetric encryption . . the gateway acting as a proxy for the hosts behind it.blowfish is an open. user changing passwords . Basically transport mode should be used for end-to-end sessions and tunnel mode should be used for everything else. (Refer to the figure for the following discussion. Contain 5.Risk is the likelihood of a threat exploiting a vulnerability . Allows the use of two-factor auth.

Host.C2 introduces object reuse protection . no need for passwords .ISO 27002 specs for ISMS ... Remember SSH tunnelling (port based) .. Includes two processes 1.database definitions: Table .after BIA.Chief among the documents is the Trusted Network Interpretation (the Red Book). Primary obj is to determine MTD max tolerable downtime. This is when rto is identified . which covers networks and network components.BIA ..relation Column .equiv unix : authorized / trusted hosts or users. identify the preventative measures.change management : approval (what) . but responsibility of keeping certificates up to date and encrypting/decrypting outgoing/incoming messages is local to each client so it is considered a public hybrid system . Identify critical assets 2.ssh operates at transport layer like SSL. Should be tested at least once a . interpreting Orange Book requirements for DBMS products.cmw : compartmented mode workstation. Another important book is the Trusted Database Management System Interpretation (the Lavender Book). .All recovery plans become obsolete quickly.motion sensor categories : passive infrared. provides a trusted workstation or OS. Other books include the Password Management Guideline (Green Book) .MTD = rto + wrt .no of column . which are similar to sensitivity labels but include controls to run as a trusted computer .attribute Row .ISE 27001 code of practice for operations security. basis for audit and certification .no of rows Degree .transaction oriented processing = atomicity = all or none .tuple Cardinality . uses certificates signed by CAs.Kerberos does not address availability . Depends on information labels.Weakness of callback systems : call forwarding . Information security management System.configuration management : documentation (how) . Perform risk assessment . microwave.only A1 has formal definitions of roles .S/MIME is a public key system .1500v minimum static electricity to cause HDD damage . NOT photoelectric . ultrasonic.

509 certificate specification.year minimum . PKCS #8 Private-Key Information Syntax Standard. and the basic algorithms and encoding/padding schemes for performing RSA encryption. PKCS #7 Cryptographic Message Syntax StandardUsed to sign and/or encrypt messages under a PKI. Obsoleted by v3 of the same.In MAC. Formed the basis for S/MIME.WAP protocol stack: WDP = wireless datagram protocol . PKCS #9 Selected Attribute Types Defines selected attribute types for use in .1-encoded in clear-text). PKCS #6 Extended-Certificate Syntax Standard Defines extensions to the old v1 X. PKCS #5 Password-based Encryption Standard See RFC 2898 and PBKDF2. an updated Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard (CMS). . Often used for single sign-on. and producing and verifying signatures. Used also for certificate dissemination (for instance as a response to a PKCS#10 message). PKCS #3 Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Standard A cryptographic protocol that allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure communications channel.The exclusionary rule mentions that evidence must be gathered legally or it can't be used.Public Key Cyrpto Standards PKCS #1 RSA Cryptography Standard Defines the mathematical properties and format of RSA public and private keys (ASN. the sensitivity label contains the classification and category (need to know) . Used to carry private certificate keypairs (encrypted or unencrypted). decryption. The best evidence rule concerns limiting potential for alteration. which is as of 2010 based on RFC 5652.

such as multiple certificates. Usually protected/encrypted with a password. PKCS #10 Certification Request Standard See RFC 2986."Fourth generation firewall" dynamic packet filtering firewalls . Public-key cryptography and disk encryption[1] systems. protected with a password-based symmetric key. Often used in single sign-on. and PKCS #10 certificate-signing requests.Revision Tables: . PKCS #8 private-key information. PKCS #7 digitally signed messages. PKCS #11 Cryptographic Token Interface (Cryptoki) An API defining a generic interface to cryptographic tokens (see also Hardware Security Module). This container format can contain multiple embedded objects. See certificate signing request. Usable by Tomcat. or application proxy ) ."Second generation firewall" proxy (application layer firewall.CHAP is not used in IKE/IPSEC . PKCS #12 Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard Defines a file format commonly used to store private keys with accompanying public key certificates.PKCS #6 extended certificates. Format of messages sent to a certification authority to request certification of a public key. but not by Apache."First generation firewall" packet filtering firewall . circuit level proxy. PKCS #13 Elliptic Curve Cryptography Standard PKCS #14 Pseudo-random Number Generation PKCS #15 Cryptographic Token Information Format Standard ."Third generation firewall" stateful Firewall . Usable as a format for the Java key store.

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● Avoid conflicts of interest or the appearance thereof. justly. avoid raising unnecessary alarm or giving unwarranted comfort. prefer those who are certified and who adhere to these canons. individuals.ISC code of ethics: Protect society. ● Respect their trust and the privileges that they grant you. ● When resolving differing laws in different jurisdictions. give preference to the laws of the jurisdiction in which you render your service. Avoid professional association with those whose practices or reputation might diminish the profession. the commonwealth. responsibly. and within your competence. ● Promote the understanding and acceptance of prudent information security measures. Advance and protect the profession ● Sponsor for professional advancement those best qualified. Provide diligent and competent service to principals ● Preserve the value of their systems. honestly. ● Render only those services for which you are fully competent and qualified. In resolving conflicts. applications. ● Take care not to injure the reputation of other professionals through malice . cautious. express or implied. ● Give prudent advice. Act honorably.. make all stakeholders aware of your actions on a timely basis. and the infrastructure ● Promote and preserve public trust and confidence in information and systems. and the profession in that order. consider public safety and duties to principals. ● Discourage unsafe practice. All other things equal. ● Observe all contracts and agreements. objective. ● Preserve and strengthen the integrity of the public infrastructure. ● Treat all members fairly. and legally ● Tell the truth. and information. Take care to be truthful.

Give generously of your time and knowledge in training others. ● Maintain your competence. .or indifference. keep your skills and know ledge current.

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