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5/20/2010

Biodiversity of Hot Springs: Zooplankton and Benthos
Ma. Vivian C. Camacho Consuelo Dl. Habito

Why study zooplankton and benthos in thermal pools?

significant biological and ecological roles variations in species diversity indicate changes in the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems in response to changes in abiotic factors

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Why study zooplankton and benthos in thermal pools?

biological indicators of thermallydisturbed freshwater ecosystems conservation strategies no taxonomic work has been done

Objectives

To identify zooplankton and benthic species present in hot springs and , To characterize temporal and spatial variations in the population of zooplankton and benthic animals,

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Objectives
 To

determine the influence of physicochemical parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, nitrates, nitrites on species composition and abundance  To correlate zooplankton and benthic species composition and abundance with human activities occurring in hot springs and vicinities

Study Sites in Cuyab, Pansol, Laguna
Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

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Laguna Hot Spring Resort: A. Inner Pool Area

B. Outer Canal

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Zooplankton sampling

Benthos -sieving and sorting

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Physico-chemical parameters
 temperature  dissolved

oxygen  pH content (acidity/ basicity) of water  Nitrites and nitrates

Year 1- Zooplankton and Benthos in Cuyab Hot Spring Resort

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Zooplankton- taxa composition
Mollusca 13%

23 taxa
Arthropoda 26%

Rotifera

56.5%

Phylum Rotifera
Class Bdelloidea

Class Monogononta

Brachionus urceolaris

Brachionus angularis

Platyias quadricornis

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Class Monogononta

Polyarthra sp.

Lepadella sp.

Dicranophorus sp.

Lecane sp.

Arthropods and Worms

copepod nauplius male Cyclopoidea

Annelida

Nematode rhabditiform larvae

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Zooplankton Taxa
Site 1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Number of Taxa

Rotifera Arthropoda Annelida Mollusca

be r

ry Fe br ua ry

O ct ob er

No ve m

De ce m

Ja nu a

Month

Site 2
4

Number of Taxa

3 2 1 0

M

ar ch

be r

Rotifera Arthropoda Annelida Mollusca

be r

Fe br ua ry

ry

O ct ob er

No ve m

De ce m

Ja nu a

Month

M

ar ch

be r

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Site 3
5

Number of Taxa

4 Rotifera 3 2 1 0 Arthropoda Annelida Mollusca

be r

ry Fe br ua ry

be r

O ct ob er

No ve m

De ce m

Ja nu a

Month

Zooplankton abundances
% 46.2 43.6 5.7 3.2 0.8

Arthropoda Rotifera Nematoda Annelida Mollusca

Arthropoda

M

Rotifera

ar ch

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Relative Mean Abundances of Zooplankton
copepod nauplius Bdelloidea Brachionus angularis

Zooplankton taxa

Lecane NEMATODA- rhabditiform larva Polyarthra unidentified copepod ANNELIDA-Oligochaeta Cyclopoidea copepodite Lepadella 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Relative mean abundace (%)

Mean Density Across Sampling periods
Site 1
Mean density (no. of inds./m3)
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Sampling period (month) ROTIFERA NEMATODA MOLLUSCA ARTHROPODA ANNELIDA

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Site 2
Mean density (no. of inds/m3)
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Oct06 Nov06 Dec06 Jan07 Feb07 Mar07 ROTIFERA NEMATODA MOLLUSCA ARTHROPODA ANNELIDA

Sampling period (month)

Site 3
Mean density (no. of inds./m3)
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Oct06 Nov06 Dec- Jan-07 Feb06 07 Mar07

ROTIFERA NEMATODA MOLLUSCA ARTHROPODA ANNELIDA

Sampling period (months)

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Total Mean Abundances in 3 sites
Total mean density (no. of inds./m3)
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Sampling period (month) Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

Benthos- Taxa Composition

9 taxa belonging to 3 animal groups

11% Bivalvia 11% Oligochaeta 78% Gastropoda

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Gastropods and Bivalves

Family Thiaridae

Melanoides

Viviparus

Family Planorbidae

Corbicula

Relative Abundance of Macrobenthos
10.6%

Pomacea

41.7% 32.9% F. Thiaridae

Melanoides

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Relative Mean Abundances of Macrobenthos
Thiaridae

Melanoides

Macrobenthos taxa

Pomacea
Planorbidae

Corbicula
Oligochaeta

Tarebia
Bellamya

Viviparus
0 10 20 30 40 50

Relative mean abundance (%)

Mean Density of Macrobenthos
Site 1
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March Month

Density (no. of inds./0.01m2)

Gastropoda Bivalvia Oligochaeta

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Site 2
Density (no. of inds./0.01m2)
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March Month Gastropoda Bivalvia Oligochaeta

Temperature ( C)

Physicochemical parameters
a. temperature

34.00 32.00 30.00 28.00 26.00 24.00 22.00 20.00 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Month Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

DO (mg/l)

b. dissolved oxygen

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Month

Site 1 Site 2 Site 3

c. nitrites < 0.3 mg/l d. nitrates 12.5mg/l

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Year 2- Laguna Hot Spring Resort

% Composition of Major Zooplankton Groups
Protozoa Rotifera Gastropoda Nematoda Oligochaeta Arthropoda

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Relative Mean Abundances of Zooplankton Taxa
Ciliate (possibly Tetrahymena) Bdelloidea

Zooplankton taxa

Centropyxis sp. Brachionus angularis oligochaete Euglypha rhabditiform larvae Cyclopoidea- nauplius Lecane sp. Lecane bulla 0 5 10 15 20 25

Relative mean abundance (%)

Mean Abundances of Zooplankton in the Inner and Outer Pool Area
250

Mean abundance (no. of inds./m3)

200 150 100 50 0 8 10 12 Month 14 16 In Out

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Temperature in the Inner and Outer Pool Area
40 38 36 34 32 30 8 10 12 Month 14 16 In Out

Dissolved Oxygen in the Inner and Outer Pool Area
8 7 6

DO (mg/l)

5 4 3 2 1 0 8 10 12 Month 14 16

Temperature (C)

In Out

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Major Findings (Year 1)

23 and 9 zooplankton and benthic taxa, respectively were identified in canals near Cuyab hot spring Zooplankton was dominated by arthropods particularly copepod nauplius, while benthos by F. Thiaridae Variations in mean density and taxa composition of zooplankton and benthos among sites and across sampling periods were observed Temperature 25°C to 32.4 °C; DO 4.8 mg/l to 9.1 mg/l; nitrites less than 0.3 mg/l; nitrates 12.5mg/l

Major Findings (Year 2)
-17 zooplankton taxa belonging to six animal phyla -Protozoa was the most important group comprising 41% of the total zooplankton identified, followed by Rotifera with 34%, and Arthropoda with 10% -ciliates was the most abundant, followed by Bdelloidea, Centropyxis sp., and Brachionus angularis

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Conclusions
1. Number of taxa: 23 zooplankton and 9 macrobenthos in Cuyab Hot Spring and 17 zooplankton in Laguna Hot Spring 2. Abundance : a. Rotifera dominated; Copepod nauplius, Bdelloidea and Brachionus angularis ; Thiaridae, Melanoides and Pomacea (Cuyab Hot Spring) b. Protozoa dominated, Ciliates, Bdelloids, Centropyxis, and Brachionus angularis (Laguna Hot Spring )

3. the presence of Brachionus angularis in both resorts and Centropyxis in Laguna Hot Spring may indicate some degree eutrophication in these areas 4. Temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton may be attributed to differences in physico-chemical factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen and nutrient content

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5. It was difficult to assess the effects of the resort activity on zooplankton community considering that human factors, which may have contributed to the observed differences, cannot be clearly delineated from physicochemical factors

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