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Development of Postproduction Machinery for Jatropha curcas seeds

Arnold R. Elepaño
Institute of Agricultural Engineering CEAT, UP Los Baños

2010 Completed Projects Output 22 February 2011 OVCRE Bldg. Conference Hall

Project 6 Components (DOST 2007-2009)
• Development of a Mechanical Harvester for Jatropha Seeds Dr. Ronel S. Pangan, Study Leader • Development of Machinery and Equipment for Husking, Shelling and Cleaning of Jatropha Seeds Engr. Jose D. de Ramos, Study Leader • Design and Development of a System for the Drying and Storage Jatropha Seeds Dr. Arnold R. Elepaño, Project Leader

Objectives
Develop postproduction machinery for Jatropha seed production • Develop a set of machinery for the following operations: (i) harvesting, (ii) husking, (iii) shelling, and (iv) cleaning • Design and develop a system for the proper (i) drying and (ii) storage of Jatropha seeds • Test and evaluate the developed technologies

Definitions
Kernel

shelling
Seed

dehusking
Fruit
Shell

Husk

Undergraduate Thesis
• De Vela, R. 2008. Thermo-Physical Properties of Jatropha curcas Seeds • Laguerta, I. 2009. Moisture Isotherms of Jatropha curcas Seeds and Kernels

Dimensions
0.5 0.45 0.4
Length (in)

unshelled shelled

0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 5 10 15

Length vs. MC
20 25 30 35 Moisture Content (% wet basis)

0.7 0.6 0.5
Width (in)

Width vs. MC
Thickness

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Thickness vs. MC

0.4 0.3

unshelled shelled

unshelled shelled

0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Moisture Content (% wet basis)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Moisture Content (% wet basis)

Bulk Density

True density (g/cm3)
seeds: 0.767 kernel: 0.756

Angle of Repose

Specific Heat

Thermal Conductivity
1.2 1
ln (TR)

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 50 100 time,s 150 200 250

0.18
Thermal conductivity (W/m-K)

0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0

k = 0.04 + 0.4 MCw

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Moisture Content (% wet basis)

Thermal Diffusivity

  k / Cp

α = 1.97 x 10-6 + 2.17 x 10 -8 MCw

Jatropha Oil Content
• Soxhlet method
Green Fruit = 64.4% oil Yellow Fruit = 62.9%

• Jatropha fruits, either green or yellow do not have significant differences in oil content. Fruits can be harvested all at the same time, 5-day harvest window.

Oil Content of Jatropha (AMDP/Biotech)
Component
Husk

Oil Content, %
Nil

Remarks

Shell
Kernel

Nil
12.5 – 57.8% Depends on the variety

Harvesting Shear
Harvesting is accomplished by inserting the fruits on the slots and by pulling or shearing action.

The harvesting shear comes with a harvesting bucket slung to the operator. The two will be connected by a flexible hose so that harvested fruits will be conveyed directly to the basket.

Harvesting basket

10-15 kg capacity

Harvesting Rod

Rotating Head

Made of lightweight material. Collection net should be laid on the ground prior to harvesting.

DC Motor

Jatropha Fruit Dehusker
Power requirement: 5 – 7 hp gasoline or diesel engine  Requires one to two operators  1 – 2 tons per hour design capacity  Includes a separation unit to separate the seeds from the pods  Can dehusk yellow to black fruits

AMDP 19mar2009

Manual Jatropha Fruit Dehusker
Manually-operated using a crank  Requires one to two operators  A sieve separates the seeds from the pods  Can dehusk mature green to black fruits  50 to 80 kg per hour capacity

AMDP 19mar2009

Jatropha Seed Sheller
Power requirement: 1 hp electric motor  Requires one operator  200 – 300 kg per hour design capacity

Whole

Unshelle

AMDP 19mar2009

Broke n

Flatbed Drying System for Jatropha
Main components: Drying bin made of GI sheet Blower Biomass furnace w/ Jatropha shell as feed supplemented by other biomass materials Capacity: 4 t/h Drying air temperature: 60°C Drying time: 6-8 h

Temperature Effect
20 18 16 14 12 10 8

30ºC

42ºC 63ºC

6 4 2 0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

• At constant RH, EMC decreases with increasing temperature • The vapor pressure on the seed is higher at higher temperature

EMC, % db

Relative humidity, decimal

Seed vs Kernel
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.3

seeds kernels

• Seed = Kernel + Shell • Greater volume of the seed enables it to hold more moisture than kernel • Fresh shell contains 49% moisture wb
0.7 0.8 0.9

EMC, %db

0.4

0.5

0.6

Relative humidity, decimal

Seed Conditioner

• Continuous flow • Rotary drum • Biomass furnace

Oil Expeller
• • • • Adapted from the coconut oil expeller design 100 kg seed/hr 85 -90 % extraction efficiency 4 KW motor

• Performance affected by:  MC  Temperature of seed  Size reduction  Shaft RPM  Percent hull removed

1,000 li/day capacity PPT Requirement
Equipment 1. Harvester 2. Husker 3. Sheller 4. Dryer 5. Storage 6. Extractor 7. Others Specifications 9 units 50-100 kg/h 1 unit 1 ton/h 3 units 200 kg/h 1 unit 4 ton/h 500 bags cap 2 units 300 kg/h Building, 180 m2 Ancillary Equipment Total Investment Cost Total Cost PhP 540,000 120,000 180,000 660,000 255,000 1,800,000 1,400,000 PhP 4,955,000

arnold_elepano@yahoo.com