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Unit 5: Bioengineering techniques
Gandhiv Kafle Lecturer, IOF, Hetauda www.gandhiv.co.cc

WME 508: Soil and water conservation  engineering ‐ by Gandhiv Kafle 

Palisade
Woody cuttings across the slope along contour to treat small and narrow gullies Assuro, bainsh, dabdabe, phaledo, kavro, khirro, saruwa, simali Reinforces the slope, increases infiltration, catches debris Nov.-Jan. if the stie is moist; MayJune if the site is dry

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Grass planting
Planting of grass (seed, clump, rhizome, cuttings)
Contour, Vertical, Diagonal (best)

Amliso, babiyo, kans, katara khar, narkat, napier, phurke, sito, vetiver, dubo Armour (protects surface from raindrops by providing ground cover); improves infiltration thus reducing runoff; catches soil materials and reinforce slopes

Grass spacing: 30-50 cm Row spacing: 30-100 cm (depends largely on the steepness of slope) Planting period: Just before monsoon (May-June)

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Wattling
Rows of fence of live cuttings across the slope Catches debris, slope modification Phaledo, bains, dabdabe, kavro, khirro – as stakes

Design
Long stakes: 100cm long, 4-6 cm diameter Short stakes: 50cm long, 3-4 cm diameter Insert100 cm long stakes at intervals of about 1m; Insert two 50 cm long stakes in between the long stakes Place the vegetative cuttings between the stakes as live fence (asuro, nilkanda, sajiwan, simali) Wattling spacing: 100-200 cm on steep slopes

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Conservation plantation

Planting of tree and shrub species with due consideration of soil and moisture conservation to protect land from degradation and improve the water resources Contour bunds in waterlogging areas Horizontal platform in loose materials and moisture stress Plantation on basin pit in dry and harsh soil conditions Contour trenches at moisture and nutrient constraint sites

Hedgerow on sloping land
Planting of trees, shrubs or grasses (preferably nitrogen fixing) closely in paired rows along the contour Alleys between the paired hedges is used for growing food or cash crops. Epil epil, kimbu, tanki Napier, femingia, molasses

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Brush layering
A layer of woody cuttings planted in line across the slope, along the contour Reinforces the slope, catches debris, bio-terracing Make 50-100cm wide terraces with an inclination of at least 10-20% inward 1-5 to 3m spacing between layers Plant just before monsoon

10 

Rip rap
Stone pitching with vegetation inter-planted between the stones Usually constructed on the gully floor Reinforces the slope, good drainage Asuro, nilkanda, sajiwan, simali Riprap stone wall can be built at any time, but planting should be done before monsoon.

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Grass waterways
Earth waterway planted with grasses Drains runoff, reduce its velocity, protect top soil Dubo, centipede grass Length of waterway: <30m; provide drop structures if longer waterways Drop structures not more than 50cm high; 3% slope between the two drop structures

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Fascine
Bundles of live branches lay in shallow trenches along contour Catch debris, reinforce the slope, increase infiltration and drainage Suitable for small gullies and dry slopes Fascine spacing: 4m for <30 degree slope; 2m for 30-45 degree slope Trench: 10-20cm deep, 20cm wide (may vary acc. to site conditions) For each fascine, there should be at least 4 but not more than 8 cuttings)

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Jute netting
Jute nets or (bora) are used Placed on slope or degraded land with the help of the stakes Seeds or cuttings can be placed inside Natural regeneration takes place on time.

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Crib wall

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