This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

LIBRARY OF WELLESLEY COLLEGE

PURCHASED FROM

Molly Sanderson Campbell

Book Fund

.

The digital data were used to create Cornell's replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard Z39. The production of this volume was supported in part by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Xerox Corporation. 48-1984. Digital file copyright by Cornell University Library 1991. It was scanned using Xerox software and equipment at 600 dots per inch resolution and compressed prior to storage using CCITT Group 4 compression.Production Note Cornell University Library produced this volume to replace the irreparably deteriorated original. .

.

(5ort«U Hitioeraity Hibrary Jt^aca. SAGE 1891 1UTHBMATXC3 . S^etD fork BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND THE GIFT OF HENRY W.

.

.

MATHEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS .

DAVID EUGENE Professor of Mathematics in . NEW YORK: JOHN WILEY & SONS. London: CHAPMAN & HALL. FIRST THOUSAND. Teachers College^ Colombia Univershv. Limited. . 1906.SMITH. HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. FOURTH EDITION. ENLARGED. WOODWARD.MATHEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS. 1. EDITED BY MANSFIELD MERRIMAN and ROBERT S. No.

Second Edition. Third Edition. August. 1906. WOODWARD HIGHER MATHEMATICS. January. . KOBnrr nmTMMOiro. 1900. 1898.Copyright. fiuhtkk. First Edition. January. September. k«w tow. 1896. Fourth Edition. BY MANSFIELD MERRIMAN and ROBERT UNDER THB TITLE S. 1896.

the theory of num- group theory. field than that which the December. each chapter being independent least a mathematical but all supposing the reader to have at and engineering training equivalent to that given in classical of that volume is now discontinued The publication colleges. the first edition contained eleven chapters by of which was published in 1896. and mathematical physics It is the variations. possibly also astronomy. mechanics. 1905. The of the others. but it is special lines of in that it may prove advantageous to readers mathematical literature. eleven authors. publication may . may be included. It is the intention of the publishers and editors to if add other monographs to the series to from time to time. the warrant it. and nonmonographs on branches of hope of the editors that this form of over a wider tend to promote mathematical study and research former volume has occupied. the call for the same seems bers. In these are enlarged that the monographs it will generally be found amplify the additional articles or appendices which either by presentation or record recent advances. Among the topics which are under consideration are those of elliptic functions.EDITORS' PREFACE. volume called Higher Mathematics. This plan of former publication has been arranged in order to meet the demand of also thought teachers and the convenience of classes. the calculus of Euclidean geometry. reissues and the chapters are issued in separate form.

The book but stands simply as attention to It work remains substantially as it first makes no claim to being history. The conditions under which it it was published limited it to such a small compass that hst of the could do no more than present a most prominent names in connection with a few important topics. The bibliography in the foot-notes and in Articles 19 and 2p will serve at least to open the door. an outline of the prominent movements in therefore mathematics. and this in itself is a sufficient excuse for a work of this nature.AUTHOR'S PREFACE. save as it can now call attention to of science in the past these later contributions. it is hoped that these pages will serve a good purpose by ofifering a point of departure to students desiring to investigate the movements of the past hundred years. 1905. Since it is necessary to use the same plates in this edition. This It little work was published about ten years ago as a chapter in Merriman and Woodward's Higher Mathematics. was written before the numerous surveys of the development hundred years. thus making the judgment of contemporaries often quite worthless. Columbia UNiVEBsrry. simply adding a few new pages. need hardly be said that the field of mathematics is now so extensive that no one can longer pretend to cover it. the body of the appeared. which appeared at the close of the nineteenth century. Teachers College. . In spite of these facts. and calling some of the bibliography of the subject. and it therefore had more reason for being then than now. however. Furthermore it takes a century or more to weigh men and their discoveries. presenting a few of the leading names. least of aU the specialist in any one department. December.

Complex Numbers Quaternions and Ausdehnungslehre 6. 13 15 17 19 4. Theory of Numbers Irrational and Transcendent Numbers 3. Art. 13. 12. General Tendencies Index . 10. 19. 15. 16.CONTENTS. 5. 29 ^. 17. 9. I. 14. Introduction Page 7 11 2. 7. Calculus Differential Equations Infinite Series 11. Theory of Functions Probabilities and Least Squares Analytic Geometry Modern Geometry Trigonometry and Elementary Geometry Non-Euclidean Geometry Bibliography 50 52 rg 63 65 68 j^ -o ao. 18. Theory of Equations Substitutions and Groups Determinants Quantics 24 26 28 31 35 ' 8.

.

to transcendent the men who have placed the study of irrational and numbers upon a scientific foundation.HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. how shall Modern Mathematics will be defined ? In these pages the term Mathematics be Hmited to the domain of pure science. Introduction. Questions of the appUcations of the be considered only incidentally. and of Poisson. This followed by the theor>^ of forms. together with a brief suhs which they secured. and to those who have theory of complex numbers and its elaboraquaternions and Ausdehnungslehre. Art. of Lagrange matical physics. Fourier. in the wave theory. In the tion in the field of investigatheory of equations the names of some of the leading developed the modem statement of the retors will be mentioned. and of appliBessel in the theory of heat. Such of mathegreat contributions as those of Newton in the realm Laplace in celestial mechanics. belong rather to the field In particular. or of higher algebra will be . two quesIn considering the history of modern mathematics limitations shaU be placed upon tions at once arise: (i) what assigned to the the term Mathematics. (2) what force shall be word Modern? In other words. of various branches will and Cauchy cations. in the domain of numbers reference will be made to certain of the contributions to the general theory. The impossibility of solving the quintic will lead to a consideration of the names of the founders of the phase group theory and of the doctrine of determinants. 1.

which now devotes over a thousand pages a year to a record of the progress of the science. of Had the author's space not been so strictly limited he would have given Usts of those who have worked in other important hnes. to the later In the domain of geometry some of the contributors analytic- development of the and synthetic fields will results be mentioned. together with the most noteworthy their labors. 1893). Algebra cannot be called modern. but the topics considered have been thought to have the best right to prominent place under any reasonable is definition of Mathematics. the necessary condensation of these extracts making any other iorm of acknowledgment impossible. or from a consideration of the twenty-six volumes of the Jahrbuch iiber die Fortschritte der Mathematik. . leading to and the theory of functions. The later differential equations development of the calculus. whose seventy-one jiages contain the mere enumeration of subjects in large part modern.8 quantics. the labors of Lobachevsky and Bolyai during the second quarter of the light upon the whole subject. is a recent Similarly with elementary geometry. * The foot-notes give only a few of the authorities which might easily be They are thought to include those from which considerable extracts have been made. will complete the algebraic side. save for a brief reference to the theory of probabiHties. and more recently the study of the triangle has added another chapter to the theory. HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Thus the history of modern mathematics must also be the modern history of ancient branches.* How unsatisfactory The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries laid the founda- •cited. while subjects which seem the product of late generations have root in other century threw a new centuries than the present. must be so brief a sketch may be inferred from a glance at the Index du Repertoire Bibliographique des Sciences Math^matiques (Paris. and yet the theory of equations has received some of its most important additions during the nineteenth century. while the theory of forms creation. Modern Mathematics a term by no means well defined.

INTRODUCTION. Prague (1806). About the exert a still a greater dle of the century these schools began to mathematiinfluence through the custom of calling to them making Zurich. the contributions to the of the analytic geometry by algebra by Harriot. ct appliqu^es. lar. Lagrange. and extended both its popularized Newton's great this theory and its applications. little The great renaissance of geometry tion of the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris (i794-5). Karlsruhe. and Laplace in Paris. and other cities well first known number as mathematical centers. The eighteenth century was naturally one Switzerland. Euler and the Bernoulli family in Lambert in Germany. The discovery Descartes. how- ing generation. all contributed to make of great activity. Munich. and the geometry and to mathematical physics by Newton and Leibniz. Dublin Mathematical . of the recognition of mathematical knowlof various branches. of the Journal In 1796 appeared the de I'Ecole Crelle's Journal fur die reine appeared in 1826. of high repute. and discovery. midKarisruhe (1825). BerHn (1820). was a too implicit faith which left the foundations herited principles of mathematics. Accompanying in the calculus and in the inever. und angewandte The Cambridge Mathematical Journal was and merged into the Cambridge and established in 1839. to by Pascal. and ten years later Liouville Mathematik pures began the pubhcation of the Journal de Math^matiques by Resal and Jordan. and of the opening of extensive fields for establishment of Especially influential has been the matics. discovery of the differential calculus the seventeenth century memorable. by the succeedinsecure and necessitated their strengthening activity. thus schools in cians due to the foundaand the simiVienna (1815). d'Alembert. not a Dresden. tions of ^ much of the subject as known to^ay. to theory of numbers by Fermat. of a great spread of applied matheedge. The of first study nineteenth century has been a period of intense necessary limitations principles. scientific schools and journals and is university chairs. which has been continued Polytechnique. and numerous other cities.

843 Macka3'. Association fran9aise pour I'Avancement des Sciences. p. Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United States. A small but convenient list of standard periodicals is . History of Ameri. namely. already mentioned. Vol. only a few can be mentioned the Nouvelles Annales de Math^matiques (1842).10 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Grunert's Archiv der Mathematik (1843). F. L'lnter- mediaire des Mathematicians (1894). in the fundamental principles of number. Journal Of the other : periodicals which have contrib- uted to the spread of mathematical knowledge. The study principles. . J. in 1846. was a nat- ural consequence of the reckless application of the new cal- culus and the Cartesian geometry during the eighteenth century.* To this list should be added a recent venture. * For a schritte der list of current mathematical journals see the Jahrbuch iiber die Fort- Mathematik. can Mathematical Periodicals. Battaglini's Giornale di Matematiche (1863). the Jahrbuch already mentioned (1868). 277 Hart. Notice sur le journalisme mathfematique en Angleterre. pp. 131. . S. The Analyst. the American Jour- nal of Mathematics (1878).. and the Jahresbericht der deutschen Mathematiker-Vereini- gung (1892).. This development is seen in theorems relating to infinite series. together with the increasing in such societies the preparation of complete works of a monumental of first character. 94. rational. the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics (1857). 41. the Mathematische Annalen (1869). and two annual publications of great value. the Acta Mathematica (1882). Tortolini's Annali di Scienze Matematiche e Fisiche (1850). Einleitang zu dem fUr den mathematischen Teil der deutschen UniversitStsausstellang ausgegebenen Specialkatalog. given in Carr's Synopsis of Pure Mathematics. Mathematical Papers Chicago Congress (New York. 1893. II. S. Schlomilch's Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik (1856). D. p. To the influence of the schools and the journals must be of the various learned societies f added that proceedings are widely liberality of whose published known. 1896). consult any recent number of the Philosophical f For a list of such societies Transactions of Royal Society of London. and the Annals of Mathematics (1884).. II. the Bulletin des Sciences Math^matiques (1870). 303 Cajori. unique in its aims. p. Dyck. W..

as did Lagrange. With the latter's Disquisipecially tiones Arithmeticae (1801) may be said to begin the modern theory of numbers. Geschichte der Mathematik.. and Weierstrass. Theory of Numbers. Mathematical Papers 1S96). Vol. p. p.. and Jacobi. I.. 133. had its of Numbers. forms. The nineteenth century has naturally been one of specialization. Vol. contiinfinitesimal. S. f Cantor. H. 2. In the eighteenth century Euler and Lagrange contributed to the theory. . and Gauss. and Gauss (1801). irrational. Foremost among these branches stands the theory of functions founded by of Cauchy. and of determinants. Abel. Riemann. this. itself the one dealing with integers. Gros- . favorite The Theory Greeks. function.! a study among the renaissance in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the labors of Vi^te. J. the and the But the nineteenth century has done more than It has created new and extensive branches of an importance which promises much for pure and applied mathematics. followed by the descriptive and projective geometries. This theory separates into two branches. and infinite. In this respect recent years have seen a reaction.* Art. F. Chicago Congress (New York. 1S91. especially of The Present State of Mathematics. and es- Fermat. Stolz. But the advent of the new Carnot. At its opening one might have hoped to fairly compass the mathematical. 11 and complex. Bachet de M^ziriac. sen und Zahien. M. Leipzig. O. and concerning * Klein. and astronomical sciences. unity. tended to mathematics into branches between which the relations were long to remain obscure.. physical. Collected Papers. in the concepts of limit. Ill. and the theories of groups. Poncelet and split Monge and Steiner. generation. and at its close the subject began to take scientific form through the great labors of Legendre (1798). with Galois. 94 Smith.THEORY OF NUMBERS. Laplace. the again unifying tendency becoming prominent through the theories of functions and groups. Report on the theory of numbers.

to Legendre theorem which bears ratic Residues. Zeller. to reach any valuable conclusions in the way of ascertaining the number of primes between two given limits. the Law of Reciprocity of Quad- This law. To the subject have also contributed Cauchy.13 with (i) in HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. also gave a well-known formula for the limit of the Riemann (1859) number of primes not exceeding a given number. who first proved the law of cubic reciprocity. and (2) the theory of forms. and in France Serret has done much to make the theory known. by Jacobi. Independently of Euler and Legendre. and was the first to give a general proof. was first proved by Legendre in his Th^orie des Nombres (1798) for special cases. * Brocard. discovered by induction and enunciated by Euler. The theory has been extended to include cubic and biquadratic reciprocity. Tch6bichef published in 1847 ^ work in Russian upon the subject. of Congruences may be said to start with He introduced the symbolism a=b and explored most of the field. Eisenstein. perhaps the most versatile of French mathematicians of the century. Kummer. Besides summarizing the labors of his predecessors in the theory of numbers. Gauss discovered the law about 1795. Vols. . H. of The Theory tailed rather Primes* has attracted many investigators Tch6bichef (1850) was the first during the nineteenth century. Sur velle 1 la frequence et la totality des nombres premiers. the study of primes. and of residues^ and particular with the law of reciprocity. Gauss's Disquisitiones. notably by Gauss. and adding contributions. Nou- Correspondence de Maih^matiques. Jacobi. and Kronecker. . and by Kummer. Vand VI. his many original and noteworthy may be assigned the fundamental name. whose Vorlesungen iiber Zahlentheorie. edited by Dedekind.. but the results have been dethan general. is a classic . of congruences. who introduced the generalized symbol which bears his name Liouville. and the other dealing with complex numbers. The Theory (mod c). Dirichlet. gives recent history to 970.

1892) are among the most scholarly of general works. S. In Germany.tr" his contributions is the extension of Fermat's theorem on 4-^" = -s^. Dirichlet was one of the most zealous workers in the theory of numbers. and (Part I. Poincar^. and Dedekind. whose memoirs are numerous and valuable Tannery. L. and extended Gauss's researches concerning real quadratic forms to complex To Gauss is also binary quadratic forms. to prove the existence of transcendent numbers. 7. and J.IRRATIONAL AND TRANSCENDENT NUMBERS. Sylvester. integral and fractional. and Stieltjes. 6. mained to complete the theory of complex numbers. first to lecture upon the subject in a German Among . in Schering. 5. forms. 1868). and to make a scientific study . J. The sixteenth century saw the final acceptance of negative numbers. Kummer. which Euler Borel and Legendre had proved x^ -\- for « = 3. the leading contributors in Germany are Kronecker'. Smith is also due a noteworthy advance in the theory of forms in general. 3. 8 squares were advanced by Eisenstein and the theory was completed by Smith. The seventeenth century saw decimal fractions with the modern notation quite generally used by mathematicians. 13 due the representation of numbers by Cauchy. Art. Among Among the later French writers are . Gejiocchi. Glaisher have also added to the theory. Bachmann. Poinsot (1845). For the nineteenth century it reand especially of Euler. Dirichlet showing that y" :f^ az^ . The investigations concerning the representation of numbers by the sum of 4. Irrational and Transcendent Numbers. 4. Lebesque and notably Hermite have added to the subject (1859. Smith gave a complete classification of ternary quadratic forms. and was the university. to separate irrationals into algebraic and transcendent. W. The next hundred years saw the imaginary become a powerful tool in the hands of De Moivre. In the theory of ternary forms Eisenstein has been a leader^ and to him and H. iiber In Austria Stolz's Vorlesungen allgemeine Arithmetik England Mathews' Theory of Numbers (1885-86).

of a subject which had remained almost dormant since Euclid. but the theory is generally referred to the year 1872. * But see Favaro. 5). Ramus (1855) first connected the subject the theory of v/ith determinants.. A. Other noteworthy contributions have been madfc by Druckenmuller (1837). al decimosettimo. VorirSge tiber ausgewShlte ^S95> P 1892. and at the opening of the nineteenth century were brought into prominence through the writings of Lagrange. however. while Dedekind founds his on the idea set forth in of a cut (Schnitt) rational the system of real numbers. Notizie storiche sulle frazioni continue dal secolo deci- moterzo 533. Natur der Irrationalzahlen. and M^ray. The year 1872 saw the publication of the theories of Weierstrass (by his pupil Kossak). Bachmann.* received attention at the hands of Euler.. and Dedekind. pp. Weierstrass. 74). with the subsequent contributions of Heine. Continued Fractions.14c HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. G. which left much to be desired. 1874. 451. and Heine base their theories on infinite series. Kunze (1857). Fragen der Elementargeometrie. Transcendent Numbers f were first distinguished from algeLambert proved (1761) that braic irrationals by Kronecker. hands of Weierstrass. and Gunther (1872). <?" (« being a rational number) is •7C cannot be rational. the theory of irrationals. Dirichlet also in Kettenbruchdeterminanten. and Dedekind's has received additional prominence through the author's later work (1888) and the recent indorsement by Tannery (1894). Weierstrass's method has been completely by Pincherle (1880). 161 3). Vorlesungen liber die .. VII. The subject has received later contributions at the (Crelle. Vol. a proof. and Gunther. Boncompagni's Bulletino. separating all numbers into two groups having Kronecker certain characteristic properties. Cantor. 38. 101). Heine M^ray had taken in 1869 the same point of departure as Heine. Mobius. and that irrational. as added to the general theory. closely related to irrational numbers (and due to Cataldi. (Crelle. Lemke (1870). have numerous contributors to the applications of the subject. P. resulting. Cantor (Annalen. f Klein. F.

COMPLEX NUMBERS. R. of Algebra. Leipzig. Lindemann's proof was much simpHfied by Weierstrass (1885). and Lindemann (1882). finally been made elementary by Art. Theorie derkomplexen Zahlensysteme. H. of have attracted attention as early as the sixteenth century in the by the In imaginary or impos- roots. still further equation. 15 Legendre (1794) completed Lambert's proof. 1882 Sloiz. The geometric expansion. starting from Hermite's conclusions. in Wallis's numbers had. The Imaginary . Holzmiiller. 1856. 1867 der isogonalen Verwandtschaften. F. l836. sible of Complex Numbers^ may be Italian algebraists. and to Euler (1748) the + + formula cos -f" ^ sin = d^'. Proceedings of American Association 1892. 1882. (cos 2 sin 0)" = cos «0 ? sin «0.. however.. G. 161 . Cantor's (1873). 2. 1851). appeared. and has Hurwitz and Gordan. as early as De Algebra tractatus. and the eighteenth saw the labors of De Moivre and Euler. ings of the Wessel's memoir appeared in the ProceedCopenhagen Academy for 1799. 33 Baitzer. Hermite (1873) first proved e transcendent. Liouville (1840) showed that neither e nor e* can be a root of an integral quadratic But the existence of transcendent numbers was first established by Liouville (1844. Complex Numbers. and is exceedingly p. the proof being subsequently displaced by G. the seventeenth century Descartes distin- guished between real and imaginary roots.. In the eighteenth century Kiihn (1750) and Wessel (about 1795) made decided advances towards the present theory. Theil.. iiber Einfilhrung der komplexen Zahlen. . To De Moivre is due (1730) the well-known formula which bears h is name. notion of complex quantity as a result the theory of The idea of now arose. Vorlesungen allgemeine Arithraetik. Crelie. said to The Theory recognition. 4. *Riecke. 21. A.. and complex numbers received a notable the graphic representation of complex 1685. Die Rechnung mit Richtungszahlen. O. . and showed that n is not the square root of a rational number. . p.. showed the same for n. Hankel. p. Theorie Macfarlane. Leipzig. by Hilbert (1893).

the " direction and r 2 = cos + i sin Cauchy (1828) called Vo' -fthe " reduced. and for his De Morgan (1849). factor". form"(rexpression r^duite). is The general accept- due to the labors of Cauchy especially the latter. and complete." is Kollowing Cauchy and Gauss have come a number of conwhom the following may be especially mentioned: 1851. thus bringing prominently before the mathematical world. Mobius must also be mentioned erous memoirs on the geometric applications of numcomplex in- numbers. tributors of high rank." due to Weierstrass. often used to Hankel (1867).bi. in which year Argand also issued a pamphlet on the same subject. 1880). Bute's paper was not published until 1806. It is to Argand's essay that the "scientific foundation for the graphic representation of complex numbers is now generally referred. Men- tion should also be made of an excellent little treatise by Mourey (1828). and Dirichlet for the expansion of the theory to . in the theory are chiefly due to <p Argand called cos <p-\-i sin " b'' the " modulus . even in comparison with modern works. and its negative." for cos number " for The expression -f-^ sin 0. and "absolute value. who was the first to boldly and Abel. perpendicular to the real axis. and gives a quaternion theory from which he develops a complete spherical trigonometry. SchefHer (1845. used for V— introduced the term " complex a^ a -[. Nevertheless. Kronecker(i845). in which the foundations for the theory of di- rectional numbers are scientifically laid. Kummer (1844). Bellavitis (1835. ance of the theory not a little The common terms used the founders. that ± |/_ i should repre- He also considers the sphere. Gauss \. Peacock (1845). In 1804 the Abb6 Bu6e independently came upon the same idea which Wallis had suggested. and use complex numbers with a success that is well known. 1852). and in 1832 it published his chief memoir on the subject. sent a unit line. is "direction coefficient ". of for due "modulus. and called + b^ the " norm.16 clear HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. in 1 831 Gauss found the theory quite unknown.

on Evanston Lectures. XLI. and Macfarlane. Art. the root of .i:' studied the type a i x'' O Similarly.. l"? as in the case of numbers.jr' Other types* have been studied. thus extending the Argand idea to three-dimensional space. 150. Quaternions and Ausdehnungslehre. p. Poincar6. congruences. Mathematical Papers Chicago Congress.. E. X Tait.f which has is also due the theory of Ideal in which i is = + . This step neces- * Chapman.' Study. H. The late writers (from 1884) on the general theory include Weierstrass. Numbers.. complex types have been derived from generalization is largely due to Kummer. Thus Eisenstein has o. C. I.= — = whom recently been simplified of geometry. Dedekind. to This {k prime). Die Grassmann'sche Ausdehnungslehre. reciprocity.. and the latter to complex number. p. VIII.QUATERNIONS AND AUSDEHNUNGSLEHRE. the irreducible congruence. Quaternions. real etc. that the brief sketch of their development is introduced at this Caspar Wessel's contributions to the theory of complex quantity and quaternions remained unnoticed in the proceedings of the Copenhagen Academy. in Bulletin New York Mathematical Society. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Quaternions and Ausdehnungslehre:}: are so closely related to complex quantity. two dimensions failed. -f i i O. Weierstrass and Dedekind on General Complex Numbers. A by Klein (1893) from the point of view further complex theory is due to Galois. . SchlOmilch's Zeitschrift. G. Berloty. 367. Schwarz. however. field. almost trespassed on the quaternion Nevertheless there were fewer traces of the theory anterior to the labors of Hamilton than is usual in the case of great discoveries. F. Study. bibliography. basis being the imaginary roots of an F{x) = o (mod/.. elude primes. and the next year his first contribution to the theory appeared. V. bj. Vol. Holder. P. 5. Lect. 381. Vol. Aeltere und neuere Untersuchungen ilber Systeme ccmplexer Zahlen. Schlegel. Argand's attempts point. p. f Klein.j being a complex root of . a prime).. Hamilton dis- covered the principle of quaternions in 1843. besides the familiar aA^bi. to extend his of method of complex numbers beyond the space Servois (18 13).

.18 sitated HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Vol. and Laisant (1877. In attempting to improve this symbolism Macfar- lane has aimed at showing how a space analysis can be de- veloped embracing algebra. elliptic logarithmic. 79. Grassmann's method. trigonometry. followed (1866) by Quaternions. . and has considered the general principles of vector and versor analysis. W. Schlomilch's Zeitschrift. in from Hamilton's Quaternions several essential principles held in many features. the adherence to which obstructed until 1853 that his earlier dis- covery. For bibliography see Schlegel. that while r should be a real number or k should be any directed unit line such that z ' =j"^ = ^^ = — i. there have appeared Great Britain numerous papers and works by Tait (1873). or hyperbolic. The difficulties have been largely the notation. complex numbers. and Hardy (1881) Hathaway (1896) have tributed to the subject. It also necessitated a withdrawal of the commutative law of jnultiplication. Benjamin Macfarlane. and quaternions. /.* Following Hamilton. /. although he seems to have Differing possession of the theory as early as 1840. It was not Hamilton's Lectures on Quarternions appeared. p. (1867). 1881) have theory. On the Continent Hankel Hoiiel (1874). XLIV. In the Elements of same year in which Hamilton published his discovery (1844). the versor being circular. and (1867). Die Grassmann'sche Ausdehnungslehre. Grassmann gave to the world his famous work. V. XLI. Nature. and (1870) has been conin especially prominent in developing the quaternion theory. but it written on the attention. Vol. Other recent contributors to the algebra of vectors are Gibbs (from 1881) and Heaviside (from 1885). The followers of Grassmann f have not been much more * These are set forth \ in a paper by J. -{-/sin <p) such an expansion of the idea of r(cos and a real angle. has attracted relatively Peirce little In America. Kelland and Tait McAulay (1893). Die been lineale in Ausdehnungslehre. Sylvester. Gibbs. there are common which each writer in discovered independently of the other.

and then with their approximation.* of Hamilton and Grassmann have been the contributions of Scheffler. made by several processes.THEORY OF EQUATIONS. gave a method which Fourier perfected. however. exceedingly cumbersome until Sturm (1829) contribution to the communicated to the French Academy the famous theorem which bears his name and which constitutes one of the most brilliant discoveries of algebraic analysis.. Neither problem is new. 19 numerous than those of Hamilton. 1890) has made a plea for the Grassmann theory. Schefifler (1846. p. A. and Peano in Italy. It * For Macfarlane's Digest of views of English and American writers. Hyde (Directional Calculus. Ill. 1878. Theory of Equations.. Vol. but the first noteworthy former in the nineteenth century was Budan's (1807). Boole. Notizie storico-critiche sulla costruzione delle equazioni Modena. in Encyclopaedia BriFavaro.. Newton (171 1). Fourier's work was undertaken at about the same time.. and Kelland. This sacrifice of fundamental laws has led to an investigation of the field in which these laws are valid. a process which Vincent (1836) elaborated.. for example. and Lagrange (1767) discovered an ingenious way of expressing the root as a continued fraction. along similar lines is Another great contribution of Cayley 's Art. 6. While the two former sacrificed the commutative law. The Theory of Numerical Equations f concerns itself first with the location of the roots. . 375. and Kraft the theory of matrices (1858). tannica. All processes were. Equations. Ellis. A. see Proceedings American Association for Advancement of Science. In America. but appeared posthumously in 1831. Algebra. M. Cantor. 1851. Schlegel has been one of the chief contributors in Germany. Geschichte der Mathematilc. P. once they are located. Along Hnes analogous to those 1880) sacrificed the distributive. an investigation to which Grassmann (1872). 1891. can be The Approximation of the Roots. (1893) have contributed. t Cayley. Schroder (1890-91). Cayley..

Laplace (1795). The transformation of the general quintic -\- into the trinomial form -^ ax and cube roots only. di alcune ricerche concernenti I'esistenza di radici nelle equazioni algebriche. and many others. Bulletin of II.20 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. due to Abel. however. Clifford (1876). The calculation of the imaginary roots by approximation is still an was. J. whose early death cut short his labors in fields. 200. p. D'Alembert (1746) gave a demonstration. was square x'' b =i o first by the extraction of shown to be possible by * Loria. and other The Quintic Equation has special study. Gauss (1799) and Argand The general theorem that every algebraic equation of (1806). Mathematica. but Kronecker (1858) Harley (1858-59) was the first to establish a resolvent by which a real simplifiresolvent sextic cation was effected. Malet (1878). The Fundamental Theorem* that every numerical equation has a root was generally assumed until the latter part of the eighteenth century. Esame on Pierpont. the «th degree has exactly n roots and no more follows as a special case of Cauchy's proposition (1831) as to the number of Proofs are also due to Gauss. 107. naturally its been an object of solution depends on Lagrange showed that that of a sextic. Bibliotheca p. Serret. and the belief in the fact became strengthened by the failure of Lagrange's proof this is But the first strict methods for these cases. Gino. With Horner and Sturm this branch practically closes. . Horner (1819) to suggest the most practical method yet known. " Lagrange's resolvent sextic. roots within a given contour. the one now commonly used. 1891." and Malfatti and Vandermonde investigated the construction of resolvents. as did Lagrange (1772). American Mathematical Society. The was somewhat simplified by Cockle and and by Cayley (1861). p. The Impossibility of Expressing the Roots of an equation as algebraic functions of the coefficients when the degree ex- ceeds 4 was anticipated by Gauss and announced by Ruffini. reserved for open field.. bibliography On the RuflBni-Abelian theorem. Vol. 99.

.THEORY OF EQUATIONS. Vol. p.. X Klein. R. From cals. the point of view of the group the solution by radi- formerly the goal of the algebraist.:}: He and Gordan (from 1879) have attacked those equations of *Harley.. f See Art. of the general equation of the fifth degree. general quintic equation its cannot be expressed terms of coefficients by means finite He then investigated special forms of quintic equations the extraction of a ter.. now appears as a single link in a long chain of questions relative to the transfor- mation of irrationals and to their classification.f Galois's untimely death left without suffi- several important propositions. VI. a gap which Betti (1852) has filled. placed to The Modern Theory of Equations may be said Galois. fifteen years after his death. which admit of solution by number of roots. that tial characteristics. Sylves- and Brioschi have applied the invariant theory of binary forms to the same subject. and Kronecker were also among the earlier ones to add to the theory. A contribution of the history . showed of radicals. Bring (1786) and independently by Jerrard * (1834). Jordan. Klein (1884) has handled the whole subject of the quintic equation in a simple manner by introducing the icosahedron equation as the normal form. (1858) actually effected this reduction. Hermite. 21 Hermite by means of Tschirn- hausen's theorem. Vorlesungen Uber das Ikosaeder. 1884. Hermite. not published until 1846. F. 38. fact that a rational function of five letters proceeding from the having less than five that the roots of a in values cannot have more than two. and has shown that the method can be generalized so as to embrace the whole theory of higher equations. . Just cient demonstration prior to Galois's researches Abel (1824). in connection with his solution functions. 7. by elliptic Abel and the subject. Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. The latter's special memoir on to date from To him is due the discovery each equation corresponds a group of substitutions (the "group of the equation ") in which are reflected its essenthe theory on a definite base.

Hermite (1858) has shown the possibility of the solution. have contributed to the same subject. is considered by Abel. and Burkhardt (1893) has performed the reduction. and its application to geometry is (1808) one of the leading additions of the century. Gordan performing the reduction of the equation of the seventh degree to the ternary problem. Abel. (1888) Klein has shown that the equation of the twenty-seventh in degree occurring the theory of cubic surfaces can be re- duced to a normal problem in four variables. 1850). ZkTt . ( i8oi> algebraic solution is possible. contributed the important theorem that if two roots tion of an irreducible equation are so connected that the one can be expressed rationally yields to radicals if terms of the other. and hence of any fifth equation of the degree. The binomial equation has been treated notably by Richelot (1832). but it was reserved . the equathe degree is prime and otherwise in depends on the solution of lower equations. by the use of elliptic functions.Ji2 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Kronecker (1858). Jacobi (1837). reducible to the form x" i = o. of hyperelliptic Binomial Equations. the quaternary groups involved having been discussed by Maschke (from 1887). generaliz- show that an ing Gauss's results. Kiepert. admit of ready solution by the familiar trigonometric formula — X to = 2k7t cos + . of any Bring quintic. and hence called (by Kronecker) Abelian Equations. the sixth and seventh degrees which have a Galois group of i68 substitutions. or rather the equation 2 x"^ =0. has reached the same results. and Klein. — . working from and his a different standpoint. More recently Kronecker. Cay- . for Gauss ^ . Eisenstein(i844. . n-i The binomial one of this class equation. . 1 sm . method has since been simplified by Brioschi. Lagrange extended the theory. Thus the attempt to solve the quintic equation by means of radicals has given place to their treatment by transcendents. Gordan. and the sextic equation has been attacked by Maschke and Brioschi through the medium functions.

ley (1851). Steiner. 23" treatise and Kronecker by Bachmann (1872). Certain special equations of importance in geometry have been the subject of study by Hesse. Jacobi. and Kummer. prominent among them being Euler (1748). since the discoveries by Galois that the subject has be- come one of great importance. 1857). are subjects of great importance in the present theory. reaching to the tenth degree. in the numerous and valuable contributions to the theory. It is. whose method. although Girard (1629) had given. was improved by Cramer (1750) and Bezout (1764). ple rules for the degree Cayley (1857) has given simand weight of symmetric functions. The first formulas for the computation of the symmetric functions of the roots of an equation seem to have been worked out by Newton. but appeared in 1809 Meyer-Hirsch Aufgabensammlung. method appeared in 1841. Bruno (1859). however. a formula for the power sum. Cayley (1848. 1782) contributed to the theory. Hesse (1843. based on symmetric functions. In the eighteenth century Lagrange (1768) and Waring (1770. In Cauchy's celebrated memoir on determinants (18 12) the subject began to assume new prominence.. and he and Brioschi have simplified the computation of tables. Sylvester's dialytic 1859). Methods of Elimination and of finding the resultant Morgan) occupied a number of eighteenth-century algebraists. steps in the development are represented by Lagrange (1770-71). and Katter (1876). Salmon. is (1854). Symiiietric Functions of the coeflficients. Clebsch.THEORY OF EQUATIONS. Cayley. and to him is also due (1851) the (Bezout) or ehminant (De . The leading. without proof. Sylvester (1840). and both he and Gauss (1816) made first the tables. Such are equations of the ninth degree gree. and is the subject of a Among the most recent writers- on Abelian equations Pellet (1891). in determining the points of inflection of a curve of the third deand of the twenty-seventh degree determining the points which a curve of the third degree can have contact of the order with a conic. and those which re- fifth main unchanged through some or all of the permutations of the roots.

Vol. tn his investigation he discovered the important fact that the roots of duites) which he examined are all resolvents (r^solvantes. The first recognition of the imthe problem of portance of the combinatory analysis occurs forming an wth-degree equation having for roots m of the roots For simple cases of a given «th-degree equation {m < n). and Groups* are among the field. 7.. Leipzig. Cayley. translated by Cole. and to show a priori why these succeeded below the quintic. The Theories most important tion of of Substitutions in the whole mathematical the study of the atten- groups and the search for invariants now occupying in many mathematicians. .24 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Art. Theory of Substitutions. GrundzUge der antilcen und modemen Algebra der littera' len Gleichungen. Equations. 1771) a common foundation was discovered.. Lagrange's Place in the Theory of Substitutions. To study the properties of these functions he invented a " Calcul des Combinaisons. the problem goes back to Hudde (1659). and on this was built the theory of substituHe undertook to examine the methods then known.. p. L. name and side Among recent writers on the geijeral theory may be mentioned Burn- and Pellet (from 1887)." the first * Netto. Encyclopaedia Britannica. A. I. r^- rational functions of the roots of the respective equations. Bulletin of American Mathematical Society. Substitutions and Groups. E. I Pierpont. but otherwise failed. gth edition. 196. tions. 1878. Prior to his time the various methods of solving lower equations had existed rather as isolated artifices than as a unified theory4 Through the great power of analy- sis possessed by Lagrange (1770. and Le Sceur (1748) and Waring (1762 to 1782) still further elabo- rated the idea. James. ^Matthiessen. a portion of the theory of the discriminant. Lagrangef first undertook a scientific treatment of the the- ory of substitutions. Saunderson (1740) bi- noted that the determination of the quadratic factors of a quadratic expression necessarily leads to a sextic equation.

Pas- Annali di Matematica. great step was taken by Ruffini* (1799). there is always a group of permutarationally tions of the r's such that (i) every function of the roots invari- able by the substitutions is of the group is known. first publication on the group theory was made attracted at the little age of eighteen (1829). r„ are . in which the group idea is prominent. r. To groups Galois. who has devoted section IV of p. transitive and imprimitive.SUBSTITUTIONS AND GROUPS. and Galois (2). Brioschi's Italian by E. however." He also publishes a letter from Abbati to himself. the n roots of an equation.. honor of establishing the theory of He found that if r. . also contributed to the theory of modular equations and to that of elliptic functions. he attempted the proof of the impossibility of solving the quintic and higher equations. cal. VI. and transitive and primitive groups. and (tSoi) freely uses the group of an equation under the name "I'assieme della permutazioni. reciprocally. Mention should also be made of the contemporary labors of Vandermonde (1770) as foreshadowing the coming theory. Die Anfilnge der Gruppentheorie und Paolo Ruffini." and Galois calls a " group of substitutions.. and to the latter especially are due a his number ject is of important theorems.. using the word to mean what Cauchy calls a *'syst^me des substitutions The next like ning conjugu^es. XI)." Ruffini distinguishes what are now called intransitive. 25 important step towards a theory of substitutions. 119. 1892. Abliandlungen zurGesciiiciite der Mathematik. While the attempt failed. but his contributions attention until the publication of his collected papers in 1846 (Liouville. The popularizing of the sub- largely due to Serret. . it is noteworthy in that it opens with the classification of the various "permutations" of the coefficients. Cayley and Cauchy were among the first to appreciate the importance of the theory. 1894. *Burkhardt. the is generally awarded. every rationally determinable function of the roots invariable by the His substitutions of the group. H. . BeginLagrange with a discussion of the methods of solving lower equations. Vol." or simply a " syst^me conjugu6.

Herinto English by Cole (1892). who contributes Chap. Theory of Determinants ment. is especially important class which. current law was first announced by Bezout (1764). wholly in relation to sets of equations. Immediately following. It is this Lie (from 1884) has studied. as did his predecessor. Besides these discontinuous groups there are other classes. Baltzer. R. for valuable assistance in compiling this article. and Picard. one of which. the theory of trans- formation groups. But overshadowing all others in recent years in carrying on the labors of Galois and his followers in the study of discontinuous groups stand Klein. Determinants. tion of the theory. Lie. The writer under obligations to Professor Weld. Frobenius. in the Historical Order of its Develop- i8go. and Mathieu have added to the The general problem to determine the number of theory. II. creating the most important of the recent departments of mathematics. But The reit wa& Vandermonde (1771) pendent functions. whose Traits des Netto (1882). whose work has Bertrand. . I. have been the labors of Killing on the structure of groups. been translated mite. Kronecker. Lagrange (1773) treated determinants of the second * Muir. too. although Vandermonde had already given a special case. Study's application of the group theory to complex numbers. treating the subject.. Part i88r. and the work of Scliur and Mauren Art. Theorie und is Anwendung der Determinanten. a classic and to groups of n given letters still awaits solution. . who first recognized determinants as indeTo him is due the first connected exposiand he may be called its formal founder^ Laplace (1772) gave the general method of expanding a determinant in terms of its complementary minors. The Theory origin with of Determinants * may be said to take its Leibniz (1693). Of value. Poincard..26 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. that of in the finite continuous groups. theory of differential equations. following whom Cramer (1750) added slightly to the theory. 8. algebra to the theory Substitutions is to Camille Jordan. . T.

was Jacobi (from final With him the word "determinant" He early used the functional determinant which Sylvester has called the " Jacobian. before him there were determiits him begins their theory in generality. as well as that class of alternating functions which Sylvester has called "Alternants. During the next quarter of a century little of importance was done. cuius indole proprietates formae {a." and in acceptance. possibly stopping here because the idea of hyperspace was not then in vogue. who formally stated the theorem relating to the product m columns and n rows. 1827). in the present signification. He was the first to grasp the subject as a whole nants. improved the notation. he made much use of de- He introduced the word ^'determinants" (Laplace had used "resultant "). 1 81 2). Like Lagrange." . Gauss also arrived at the notion of reciprocal determinants. In this he used the word "determinant" in its present sense. and came very near the multiplication theorem. with . and the greatest save Cauchy. The next contributor of importance is Binet (181 1. c) imprimis pend«re in sequentibus docebimus. and to him are due many special identities which have since been brought under well-known theorems. and gave the multiplication theorem with a proof more satisfactory than Binet's. Lagrange was the first to apply determinants to questions foreign to eliminations. b. summarized and simplified what was then known on the subject.DETERMINANTS. Although contributing nothing to the general theory. 1812) that Binet presented his paper to the of two matrices of case oi m= Academy. Hindenburg (1784) and Rothe (1800) kept the subject open. but Gauss (1801) made the next advance. determinantem huius uocabimus. On the same day (Nov. though not terminants in the theory of numbers. Cauchy also presented one on the subject. The next received its great contributor. his famous memoirs in Crelle for 1841 he specially treats this subject. which for the special n reduces to the multiplication theorem.* but rather as applied to the dis- criminant of a quantic. 37 and third order. 30." But about the time of Jacobi's closing memorrs. Sylvester (1839) and Cayley began * " Numerum bb-ac.

Vol.. Bericht Uber den gegenwSrtigen Stand der Invarianten* Jahresbericht der deutschen Matheraatiker-Vereinigung. Glaisher. The Theory of Quantics or Forms * appeared in embryo in the Berlin memoirs of Lagrange (1773. Lipschitz. I. ix. and established . and Sylvester per-symmetric determinants by Sylvester and Hankel circulants by Catalan. and Caylej'. in Bulletin New Vork Mathematical Society. Reiss. p. theorie. Scott. Hesse. In America.bxy -\. 1775). J. 1895. who considered binary quadratic forms of the type ax" -\. Papers. The study of special forms of determinants has been the Axi- natural result of the completion of the general theory. Biography of Cayley. Collected and Proceedings of Royal Society.28 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. their great work. but which represents the development of the theory the present time. and introduced the ideas of formation and equivalence. Galois also entered the field. . p. a work which it is impossible to briefly sumto- marize. by Cayley (so called continuants Christoffel by Sylvester. Hanus (1886) and Weld (1893) have published treatises. a subject elaborated by H. Gauss f {1801) next took up the subject. f p. symmetric determinants have been studied by Lebesgue. Berlin 1892. See also the review by Franklin Ill. Wronskians and Frobenius compound determinants by Sylvester. See Art. W. . Vol. in his theory of groups (1829). Poincare. F. 187 . Dirichlet. Eisenstein. 2. proved the invariance of the discriminants of binary and ternary quadratic forms. Smith.cy".^ _[_ the invariance of the discriminant of that type is when trans- Ay put for x. . and * Meyer. 97. . . and Picquet Jacobians and Hessians by Sylvester and symOf the text-books on metric gauche determinants by Trudi. by Muir) by Art. in connection with the . Spottiswoode. and systematized the theory of binary quadratic forms. theory of orthogonal transformation. 9. and . skew determinants and Pfaffians. Quantics. the subject Spottiswoode's was the first. 1S90-91. b" He classified forms of that type accord- ing to the sign of — 4ac. S. VIII.

which was followed (1846) by investigations concerning covariants and by the discovery of the symbolic method of findconcerning he called " hyperdeterminants ") he is regarded as the founder of what is. which Lagrange and Gauss had found for special forms. in lines quite different from those of the English school. and the Theory of Invariants and Covariants. . He first showed the generality of the invariant property of the discriminant. Meanwhile in Germany of the simplest invariants In France Hermite early took up the work (185 1). and rank among the greatest invariants and covariants (which at first ing invariants.QUANTICS. the plane curve of the third order. and more recently by Study (1889) and Stroh (1890). and. with Cayley and Sylvester. discovered the invariants of a ternary cubic and their relations to the discriminant. By reason of these discoveries which have ever been produced upon a single theory. Gordan. Theory of Forms. Eisenstein (1843) had become aware and covariants of a cubic and biquadratic form. as well as most of the terminology of the subject. studied those differential equations which are satisfied by invariants and covariants of binary His symbolic method has been carried on by quantics. But it was Aronhold (1849) who first made the new theory known. vester soon joined Cayley in this work. Theory of Quantics. however. upon which later writers have largely built. Clebsch. To him are due (1851-54) the foundations of the general theory. and his originality Syl- and vigor in discovery soon made both himself and the subject prominent. to Boole (1841) that the real foundation of is the theory of invariants generally ascribed.variously called Modern Algebra. He . Inspired by Boole's discovery Cayley took up the study in a memoir "On the Theory of Linear Transformations " (1845). and Hesse and Grassmann had both (1844) touched upon the subject. His ten memoirs on the subject began in 1854. the is 29 first step towards the establishment of the distinct theory in his investigations of sometimes attributed to Hesse It is. He devised the symbolic method now common in Germany.

I. order corresponds also a covariant or invariant of degree m and of order (1854) r of a Brioschi joined the form of the pth order. Gordan entered the field. Lect. Michael and Ralph Roberts. Hilbert. Burnside. who wrote the latter part of Burnside of contributors. and Mertens (1886). the proof for which has since been simplified. * Klein's Evanston Lectures. Hamilton. Burkhardt. has set forth a method of transformation which is fertile in geometric interpretation and binds together binary and certain ternary forms. Especially since the publication of his tracted work on forms (1871) the subject has at- such scholars as Weierstrass. De Toledo (1889) and Elliott (1895) have published treatises on the subject. Kronecker. . Study's (1889) on ternary forms. He added greatly to the theory. extended by Hilbert (1890) succeeded in showing the finiteness of the complete systems for forms in n variables. and Burnside may be especially mentioned. Dublin University has also furnished a considerable corps among whom MacCullagh. interpreting the pro- jective geometry by their theory of invariants. Hilbert (1884). Salmon. Salmon's Higher Plane Curves (1852) and Higher Algebra (1859) should also be mentioned as marking an epoch in the theory. Noether. and others. of invariants This theory of the finiteness of the number and covariants of a binary form has since been Peano (1882). especially by his theorem on the Endlichkeit des Formensystems. as is many On binary forms Fak di Bruno's work is well known. and his contributions have been among the most valuable.30 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. At the same time movement. Klein. Lie.. Mansion. and Panton's Theory of Equations. many it the work of Cayley and Sylvester. and correlating with Riemann's theory of functions. in 1868. Beltrami. as a critic of Cayley. a proof which Story has Clebsch * did more than any other to introduce into Ger- simplified. discovered (1854) the law of reciprocity that to every covariant or invariant of degree p and order r of a form of the tnXh.

B. Brioschi (1877). Brill (1882).CALCULUS. Geschichte der •Williamson. The equivalence problem of non-quadratic forms has been studied by Christoffel. The names of Klein and Hurwitz are prominent this connection. Cayley (especially from have worked out the methods of denumeration by means of generating functions. On the method of nets (reseaux). Esquisse I'histoire du calcul infinitesimal. and Hermite (to the term " canonical form " is due). I'histoire Note sur Mansion. 1894. modular func(Crelle.. in and dates from Dedekind's Borchardt 1877). and Poincar6 (1880) have written. and more recently (1873). MacMahon. and more recently of (1889). Ghent. Leudesdorf. by Rosanes bert (1886).. Klein (1877. Rosenow (Crelle. Le .* dating from Newits ton and Leibniz. and Halphen have contributed. 1884). G. io8). Dirichlet (1850).> Infinitesimal Calculus. Sylvester (1885) has which Cayley has termed the Schwarzian founded the theory of recipro- cants.. Differential invariants have been studied by Sylvester. derivative. pp. Cantor. Canonical forms have Forsyth. Vivanti. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Fuchs (1875-76). Elliott. The Differential and Integral Calculus. of quadratic and bilinear forms has attracted the attention of Weierstrass. Gundelfinger (1883). and Schwarz (1872). whom been studied by Sylvester (185 1). another geometric treatment of binary quadratic forms Gauss (1831). 31 The equivalence problem toffel. 150-316. 9th ediMathematik. de Tinfiniment de petit. and Hammond. Kronecker. was quite complete in general range at tion. i . Vol. M. to which MacMahon. Maschke (1887) have contributed 1870) and Sylvester (1877) to the theory of forms with linear transformations into themselves. Bibliotheca Mathematica. Hammond. Cayley. Werner and Scheffers (1891). 1887.- P. Art. Lie. p. Starting from the differential invariant. Calculus. of Binary Forms may be traced But the modern treatment has letter to origin in connection with the theory of elliptic tions. Killing (1890). Chris- Frobenius. 10. and Hilto its The Geometric Theory Poncelet and his followers. Ill.

32

HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.

Aside from the study of Cauchy, Jordan, Picard, M6ray, first principles, to which Gauss, and those whose names are mentioned in connection with the theory of functions, have contributed, there must be menthe close of the eighteenth century.

**tioned the development of symbolic methods, the theory of
**

definite integrals, the calculus of variations, the theory of dif-

equations, and the numerous applications of the Newtonian calculus to physical problems. Among those who have prepared noteworthy general treatises are Cauchy (1821), Raabe (1839-47), Duhamel (1856), Sturm (1857-59), Bertrand (1864), Serret(i868), Jordan (2d ed., 1893), and Picard (1891-93). A recent contribution to analysis which promises to be valuferential

able

is

Oltramare's Calcul de Generalization (1893).

way

Abel seems to have been the first to consider in a general the question as to what differential expressions can be integrated in a finite form by the aid of ordinary functions, an Cauchy early undertook investigation extended by Liouville.

the general theory of determining definite integrals, and the

Frullani's has been prominent during the century. theorem (1821), Bierens de Haan's work on the theory (1862) and his elaborate tables (1867), Dirichlet's lectures (1858) embodied in Meyer's treatise (1871), and numerous memoirs of Legendre, Poisson, Plana, Raabe, Sohncke, Schlomilch, Elliott, Leudesdorf, and Kronecker are among the noteworthy con-

subject

tributions.

Eulerian Integrals were

first

studied by Euler and after-

wards investigated by Legendre, by whom they were classed as Eulerian integrals of the first and second species, as follows

/

;ir"~'(i

— xf'^dx,

=

«

it

!,

J

<?"*;ir''"V4r,

**although these were not the
**

n

is

exact forms of Euler's study.

If

integral,

it is

it

follows that

/ e~*x^~^dx

function.

but

if

n

is

fractional

a transcendent

it

To

**Legendre assigned the symbol F, and
**

calcul

diff6rentiel

;

is

**deux centi&me anniversaire de I'invention du
**

Vol. IV, p. 163.

Mathesis,

CALCULUS.

33

now

called the

gamma

function.

To

the subject Dirichlet has

contributed an important theorem (Liouville, 1839), which has. been elaborated by Liouville, Catalan,. Leslie Ellis, and others.

( 1 843-44), Bauer ^"^ Gudermann (1845) have written. Legendre's great table appeared in 18 16. Symbolic Methods may be traced back to Taylor, and the

On

the evaluation of

Fx and

log

/> Raabe

(1859),

analogy between successive differentiation and ordinary exponentials had been observed by numerous writers before the

nineteenth century.

Arbogast (1800) was the

first,

however,

**to separate the symbol of operation from that of quantity in a
**

differential equation.

**Francois (1812) and Servois (1814) seem
**

to give correct rules

to have been the

first

on the subject.

Hargreave (1848) applied these methods in his memoir on differential equations, and Boole freely employed them. Grass-

mann and

bers.

PJankel

made

**great use of the theory, the former in
**

in

studying equations, the latter

his theory of

complex num-

The Calculus of Variations * may be said to begin with a problem of Johann Bernoulli's (1696). It immediately occupied the attention of Jakob Bernoulli and the Marquis de I'Hopital, but Euler first elaborated the subject. His contributions began in 1733, and his Elementa Calculi Variationum

gave to the science its name.

to the theory,

**Lagrange contributed extensively
**

laid

and

Legendre (1786)

for

down

a method,

of

not

entirely

satisfactory,

the

discrimination

max-

ima and minima. To this discrimination Brunacci (1810), Gauss (1829). Poisson (183 1), Ostrogradsky (1834), and Jacobi An important gen(1837) have been among the contributors. eral work is that of Sarrus (1842) which was condensed and improved by Cauchy (1844). Other valuable treatises and memoirs have been written by Strauch (1849), Jellett (1850), Hesse (1857), Clebsch (1858), and Caril (1885), but perhaps the most

* Carll, L. B., Calculus of Variations,

hunter,

1861

;

New

York, 1885. Chap. V; Tod-

I.,

**History of the Progress of the Calculus of Variations, London,
**

R., Die

Reifif,

Anfgnpe dcr Variationsrechnung, Mathematiscb-naturp. 90.

wissenschaftlicbe Mittheilungen, Tubingen, 1887,

34

**HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
**

is is

**important work of the century
**

celebrated course on the theory

that of Weierstrass.

His

**epoch-making, and
**

to place

it

it

may

**be asserted that he was the
**

questionable foundation.

first

on a firm and un-

The

Application of the Infinitesimal Calculus to problems

in physics

and astronomy was contemporary with the ofigin of the science. All through the eighteenth century these applications were multiplied, until at its close Laplace and Lagrange

had brought the whole range of the study of forces into the realm of analysis. To Lagrange (1773) we owe the introduction of the theory of the

potential* into dynamics, although

the

name

" potential function "

and the fundamental memoir

of the subject are due to Green (1827, printed in 1828).

The

name "potential"

is

due to Gauss

(1840),

and the distinction

between potential and potential function to Clausius. With its development are connected the names of Dirichlet, Rie-

mann, Neumann, Heine, Kronecker, Lipschitz, ChristofTel, Kirchhoff, Beltrami, and many of the leading physicists of the

century.

It is

impossible

in this

place to enter into the great variety

of other applications of analysis to physical problems.

Among

them are the investigations of Euler on vibrating chords; Sophie Germain on elastic membranes; Poisson, Lam6, SaintVenant, and Clebsch on the

ies;

elasticity of three-dimensional bod-

Fourier on heat diffusion; Fresnel on light; Maxwell. Helm-

and Hertz on electricity; Hansen, Hill, and Gyld^n on astronomy; Maxwell on spherical harmonics; Lord Rayleigh on acoustics; and the contributions of Dirichlet, Weber, Kirchhoff, F. Neumann, Lord Kelvin, Clausius, Bjerknes, MacCullagh, and Fuhrmann to physics in general. The labors of Helmholtz should be especially mentioned, since he contributed to the theories of dynamics, electricity, etc., and brought his great analytical powers to bear on the fundamental axioms of meholtz,

**chanics as well as on those of pure mathematics.
**

* Bacharach, M., Abriss der Geschichle der Potentiakheorie, 1883.

contains an extensive bibliography.

This

2. . * Cantor. 1891. Vol. p. uniting the theory to geometry.-j-^M = O. in which ^^ takes the = o.. and astronomy. and further manifested through the Bernoullis. Berichte iiber . may be Lagrange (1779 to 1785). p. and especially on the theory of linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients. 35 Art. L. Equations. excellent on history in the Craig. Mansion. S.. de- pend on that F{d) -r-k of the algebraic equation of the wth degree." the curve represented by F{z) = o. Vol. man by letin Maser. d*'y -\- A^ d"''y . die Verhandiungen der P. Vol.^""'-!-. physics. Ill. 313. T. is place of {k n). Leipzig. an excellent historical view review by Mathews in Nature. 1892. = ^"-j-^. but chiefly through d'Alembert and Euler. H. .. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Geschichte der Mathematik. who made . 96. L. . Zur allgemeinen Theorie der paniellen Differentialgleichungen. " In der ganzen modernen Mathematik " ist die Theorie der Differential- gleichungen die wichtigste Discipiin . Schlesinger. 119 Goursat. The first method of integrating linear ordinary differential coefificients is equations with constant due to Euler. and introThe theory of linear partial differential equations said to begin with ducing the notion of the " characteristic... . I'int^gration des Equations partielles du premier Burkhardt. Legonsstir ordre. been called by The Theory of Differential Equations * has of Lief the most important modern mathematics. 429 . LII. 11. Lie.. . Paris.. in Mathematical Papers of Chicago Congress. which has recently been investigated by Darboux. p. I. 1895. Differential Equations. 13 f and p. and Clairaut. „_.. 1S95. apd Heffier. This equation F{2) the "char- acteristic " equation considered later by Monge and Cauchy. starting with Newton and Leibniz. Riccati. Vol. Monge (1809) treated ordinary and partial differential equations of the first and second order. Theorie dei^ partiellen Differentialgleichungen ler Ordnung. New York Mathematical Society. . Bul. -\- -\- A„ y = o. 1878-1893. Handbuch der Theorie der linearen Differentialgleichungen. -~. The influ- ence of geometry. H. Some of the De- velopments Theory of Ordinary aux d6riv6es Differential p. E. the solution of his type.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. M. = 1. Ger. has been very marked. .

The next great improvement in the theory of partial differential equations of the first order is due to Lie (1872). but using the Monge characteristic. The or integration of partial differential equations with three variables more was the object is still of elaborate investigations by to Lagrange. and also by Picard (1891). The theory of partial differential equations of the second and 1870. Jacobi (1827) also gave an analysis of Pfaff's method. Imschenetsky * has summarized the contributions to 1873. . Clebsch (1861. Clebsch's own method appeared' 1866. fiir * Gruneri's Archiv Mathematik. Morera. LIV. of which Gauss (1815) at once recognized the value and of which he gave an analysis. besides developing an original one (1836) which in Clebsch published (1862). 18 15) gave the first general method order. by whom the whole subject has been placed on a rigid foundation. 1862). Vol. beginning with Laplace and Monge. Korkine (1869). a method which now' name. Since about Darboux. Mayer (1872). Baltzer. and Lie. connected with certain subsidto To him and is Charpit. and A. a of integrating partial differential equations of the first Levy. Graindorge. corresponding every differential equation defines a theorem of algebra. M^ray. DuBois-Reymond (1869). was notably advanced by Ampere (1840). Cauchy (1819) gave a simpler method. Kovalevsky. and Imschenetsky have been prominent in this line. To him to the fundamental is also due the theorem. and others are due to Boole (1859). Pfaff (1814. but the theory remains in an imperfect state. and with it are connected the names of Natani (1859). Frobenius. vbears Charpit's due one of the methods for integrating the general equation with two variables. and Lie. a proposition more simply proved by Briot and Bouquet. and his name iary equations. higher orders. that function expressible by means of a convergent series. Pfaff's problem has been a prominent subject of investigation. attacking the subject from the analyt- method ical standpoint.36 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Cayley. Darboux. who did much develop the theory. Mansion. Soon after.

tile field. As it had been the hope method for solving the general equation of the wth degree. Hence analysts began to new and ferCauchy was the first to appreciate the importance of this view. notably Casorati and Cayley. the theory of partial differential equations remainto be perfected. 37 The theory of singular solutions of ordinary and partial has been a subject of research from the time of Leibniz. To the latter is due (1872) the theory of of known work on the subject is that boux (from 1873) has been a leader singular solutions of differential equations of the at present accepted. so it was the hope of analysts to find a general method for integrating any differenof eighteenth-century algebraists to find a tial equation. Darin the theory. what are the characteristic properties of this function. and in the geometric interpretation of these solutions he has opened a field which has been worked by various writers. however. first order as The had in primitive attempt in dealing with differential equations view a reduction to quadratures. that the difits limitations very soon unless complex numbers are introduced. not whether a solution is possible by means of known functions or their insubstitute the study of functions. valuable but littledifferential equations A Houtain (1854). thus opening a tegrals. but only since the middle of the present century has it received especial attention. The difficulties of the general problem of integration are so manifest that all classes of investigators have confined themselves to the properties of the integrals in the neighborhood of certain given points. Thereafter the real question was to be. and if so. and the modern theory may be said to begin with him. ferential equation meets Gauss (1799) showed. but whether a given differential equation suffices for the definition of a function of the independent variable or variables.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. its The new departure took greatest inspiration from two memoirs by . equations has ing as one Within a half-century the theory of ordinary differential come to be one of the most important branches still of analysis.

1866. Lect. of The work which Weierstrass. a Fuchs work elaborated by Thom6 and contributor since Frobenius. Collet has been a prominent 1869. Klein. and Halphen. the one inclining to use the geometric diagram. and that ordinary trans- which admit the same infinitesimal formations present like difficulties of integration. f Klein's Evanston Lectures. which had been looked upon as isolated. Cockle. the other adhering to pure analysis. can by the introduction of the concept of continuous groups of transfor- mations be referred to a differential equations common source. Poincare's * Klein's Evanston Lectures. f=o under rational one-to-one Since 1870 Lie's f labors have put the entire theory of difHe has ferential equations on a more satisfactory foundation. one of fundamental im- portance and one which Lie has Forsyth. so Clebsch proposed to classify the transcendent functions defined by the differential equations according to the invariant properties of the corresponding surfaces transformations. the tendency to separate into two schools. The modern school has also turned its attention to the theory of differential invariants. Laguerre. made prominent. Lect. Recent writers have shown the same tendency noticeable in the work of Monge and Cauchy. shown that the integration theories of the older mathematicians. II. Clebsch * (1873) at- tacked the theory along lines parallel to those followed in his theory of Abelian integrals. As the latter can be classified according to the properties of the fundamental curve which remains unchanged under a rational transformation. and represented by Schwarz. . (Crelle. Sylvester.38 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. I. Fuchs. and Goursat. although his method for integrating a non-linear in system was communicated to Bertrand 1868. III. He has also emphasized the subject of transformations of contact (Beriihrungstransformationen) which underlies so much of the recent theory. of Fuchs and the theory of elementary divisors have late formed the basis of a work by Sauvage (1895). 1868). and Frobenius are types. With this theory are associated the names of Cayley.

in 184. 12.7' : Reiff. ject into close relations He has also brought the whole sub- with the theory of functions. its The Theory of Infinite Series f in historical develop- ment has been divided by Reiff into three periods: (i) the period of Newton and Leibniz. Appell has recently contributed to the theory of linear differential equations transformable into themselves by change of the function and the variable. Vol. a period beginning with Gauss. (2) that of Euler.. Vol. Glaisher. Fabry. that of its introduction. the formal period . This critical period begins with the publication of Gauss's celebrated memoir on the i„ series g^ * Riquier. No. Riquier has treated the questiorj of the existence of integrals in any differential system and given a brief summary of the history to 1895. Lom- mel. p. Hamburger. Peano.en.. . 53.3. M. 361." and wliich Picard has recently studied. that of the scientific investigation of the validity of infinite series. 39 recent contributions are also very notable.^.INFINITE SERIES. Geschichte der unendlichen 1889 . t Cantor. C. Picard has un- dertaken the generalization of the work of Fuchs and Poincard in the case of differential equations of the second order. Bulletin New York Mathematical Society. Graf.(.l. Infinite Series. F. Geschichte der Mathennauk. R. Konigsberger. etc. Ill. (3) the modern. which Poincar^ has called " integrales anormales.+ i). and includes. Helge von Koch has written on infinite determinants and linear differential equations. the names of Brioschi. E.* is The number of contributors in recent times very great. History of Teaching of Mathe- matics United States. Reihen. Gilbert. XXXII. Craig. Vol.. I. pp. ferentiel quelconque. Mfemoire sur I'existence des int6e:rales dans un systdme difMfemoires des Savants ^tran^^ers. besides those already mentioned. .8. Cajori. Schlafli. 3. Art.(^+i)^. and Autonne. . His theory of is Fuchsian equations (also investigated by Klein) connected with the general theory. Graindorge. Fabry integrals (1885) has generalized the normal integrals of Thom6. Tiil>mfi.. p..

The partic- the standard of criticism which Gauss set up. Gauss's contributions were not at once appreciated. said of Raabe (1832). is still one of the most satisfactory when the integration involved is possible. + . Goursat. . and numerous ular series is is Kummer. embodying the simpler criteria of convergence and the questions of remainders and the range of convergence. to Pfaff) it has since occupied the attention of Jacobi.. one of the first if to on strict tests of convergence product he showed that series are convergent their is two not necessarily so. elaborate investigation of the subject. and the same may be 1842). He was emphatic against the reckless use of and showed the necessity of considering the subject of continuity in questions of convergence. he . that these terms had been introduced long before by Gregory (1668). that Euler and Gauss had given various criteria. Cauchy advanced the theory of power series by his expansion His test for convergence of a complex function in such a form. tific summation of the series for and gave a completely sciencomplex values of in and x. corrected certain of Cauchy's conclusions. Abel was the next important contributor. Cauchy's methods led to special rather than general criteria. He was .40 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. of who made the first De Morgan (from whose logarithmic test DuBois-Reymond (1873) and Pringsheira (1889) have shown to fail within a certain region: . and under the name " hypergeometric series" (due others.had already considered this series. It should be mentioned. series. + —x m . and the next to call attention to the subject was Cauchy (1821). but Gauss was the first to master it.. who may be insist considered the founder of the theory of con- vergence and divergence of series.. and that Maclaurin had anticipated a few of Cauchy's discoveries. and with him begins the discovery of effective criteria of convergence and divergence. vtim -| ——^ — i) x" . however. Cayley. not so important as Schwarz. (1826) on the series i In his . memoir .

of The Theory Cauchy (1821). + — (-^ i)"* Genocchi (1852) has further Wronski. but the first to attack it successfully were Stokes and Seidel (1847-48). Stokes (1847).and showed the relation between the remainder and Bernoulli's function F[x) = I" -f- 2* + . in spite of the demands of the theory of functions. and another one given. also gave a general form for the remainder of the Maclaurin formula. p. DuBois-Reymond (1873). and Arndt 1853). 41 of Bertrand (1842). others. and reaching the same conclusions Thome used the doctrine •which Stokes had already found. 1856) also improved Jacobi'sremainder. Tchebichef (1852). Weierstrass in his various contributions to the theory of functions. Among the early writers was (181 5) loi supreme " was hardly recognized until Cayley (1873) brought it Transon (1874). whose " contributed to the theory. Malmsten (1846. historical. the latter without integration). and many Pringsheim's (from 1889) memoirs present the most complete general theory. Uniform Convergence was treated by by Abel. Echols. General criteria began with Kummer (1835). Bonnet (1843). 1847. and Dickstein * have published of late various memoirs on the subject. Interpolation Formulas have been given by various writers into prominence. and have been studied by Eisenstein {1847). The most important solution of the problem is due.INFINITE SERIES. . Dini (1867). Lagrange (1884). Vol. This expression was ' also worked out. I. Cauchy took up the problem again (1853). Schlomilch (Zeitschrif t. who attacked the question of differ- the remainder from a different standpoint and reached a ent formula. by Malmsten (i 847). acknowledging Abel's criticism. to Jacobi (1834). of distinguishing between uniform and non-uniform convergence. 1892-94. his limitations being pointed out who Semi-Convergent Series were studied by Poisson (1823). . . however. but there was great delay in recognizing the importance (1866). • Bibliotheca Mathematica. Ch. 192. Paucker (1852).

Dirichlet's treatment (Crelle. Boston. more recently. however. Hermite. Jacobi (1845).. Fourier (1807) set for himself a different problem. Christoffel (1858). Glaisher. Bulletin 1880. while bringing the theory of trigonometric series to a temporary conclusion. par une I. as are also Olivier's formula (1827). Part Sachse. for Fourier did not. has been the subject of criticism and improvement by Riemann (1854). . pp. Cauchy (1837). to expand a given function of x in terms of the sines or cosines of multiples of x. trigonom6trique. Fourier's Series* were being investigated as the result of physical considerations at the same time that Gauss. Halphen. a problem which he embodied in his Theorie analytique de given the series. Lagrange's theorem is welL known. Among other prominent contributors to the theory of trigonometric and Fourier series have been Dini. although Euler had already given an analogous form. Poinsot. 1829). IX of Byerly's Fourier's Series . Chap. Heine. and Mehler (1864).. i8q3 des Sciences math6matiques. and DuBois-Reymond. of multiple arcs in powers of the sine and cosine of the arc had been treated by Jakob Bernoulli (1702) and his brother Johann (1701) and Euler and Lagrange had simplified the still earlier by Vi^te. A.. attacked the problem a matter from a different standpoint. settle series..i'Z HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.. but Fourier and Lagrange had passed over them without recogwas the first to assert and atPoisson (1820-23) also tempt to prove the general theorem. subject. and Cauchy were working out the theory of infinite series. Schroter. as have. Essai histoiique sur la s6rie representation d'une fonction . Krause. from Newton to the present time. * Historical Summary by Bocher. 1853). Byerly and Appell. Abel. 43. Lipschitz. Series for the expansion of sines and cosines. and Kummer. 83. Euler had already coefficients in the formulas for determining the nizing their value. la Chaleur (1822). left the question of convergence of his Cauchy (1826) to attempt and for Dirichlet (1829) to handle in a thoroughly scientific manner. and those of Minding(1830). Grunert (1850. and Spherical Harmonics. Schlafli.

A. 'pp. but in connection with the Cartesian geometry. KOnigsberger. Schlesinger. Vol. although algebraists had already become familiar with irrational functions in considering cubic and quartic equations. . the applica- tion of the infinitesimal calculus to the theory of * Brill. Teorica delle funzioni di variablli complesse." the " orthorriorphosis " of Cayley. see Harkness and Morley's Theory of Functions. Bibliotheca Mathematica. and cover subjects like those of integrals with imaginary limits. Vol. F'. the symbol a broader meaning. The word was employed by Leibniz (1694). For bibliography and historical notes. Ax. 1891. 1894. He function symbol 0.. I. Casorati.(f). to the Making Lagrange's work a point greatly developed the theory that he of its of is departure. L.F... . I. one His memoirs extend over the period 1814justly considered r85i. infinite series and questions of convergence. L. The Theory of Functions * may be said to have its first development in Newton's works. f. Leipzig. Clairaut (1734) used IIx. In its modern sense it seems to have been first used by Johann Bernoulli. 13. giving to Lagrange (1772... and to the symbols f.. . Die Entwickelung der Theorie der algebraiin alterer und neuerer Zeit.. for va- rious functions of x. . F. Zur Geschichte der Theorie der elliptischen Transcendenten in den Jahren 1826-29. p £9. 1879. especially in his proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Infinitesimal Calculus. Williamson. Enestrom. Differentialgleichungen. . . Theory of Functions. Bericht erstattet der Deutschen Maihematiker-Vereinigung. M. Encyclopaedia Britannica. who distinguished between also used (1718) the algebraic and transcendent functions. 1868.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. and Forsyth's Theory of Functions. their modern signification. complex schen Functionen and Noether. 43 Art. Jahresbericht. 1893. 0x. Klein's Evanston Lectures. 1806) laid the foundations for the general theory. 1797.. 0'. 107-566. a symbolism substantially followed by d'Alembert (1747) and Euler (1753). B .. Gauss contributed theory. Note historique sur Ics symboles. II. 1895. Cauchy so founders.. Berlin. 1893. . Newton seems first to have grasped the idea of such expressions in his consideration of symmetric functions of the roots of an equation. and discussed and gave name to the theory of "conforme Abbildung. Vol. G.

however. depends. showing the necessity for a convenient notation for elliptic arcs. For forty and on earlier years he had the theory in hand. Euler was probably never aware of Landen's discovery. and prophesying (1766) that "such signs will afford a new sort of calculus of first which I have here at- tempted the exposition of the elements. he is Originally opposed by Gauss. A. elliptiscfaen Konigsberger. like Abel. and notably the and Abelian. and Johann had followed up the investigation. Halle. numbers. . His stitutes a strict it his fame to a considerable degree treatment (1786) almost entirely subanalytic for the geometric method. the investigation of the fundamental laws of mathematics. distinguishing between classes of functions. to the movement finally started numbers. 1879. Fagnano (1716) had made similar studies." Ruler's inves- tigations continued until about the time of his death (1783). Elliptische 1890. Zur Geschichte der Theorie der Tran- scendenten den Jahren 1826-29. Funktionen. Euler (from 1761) had summarized and extended the rudimentary theory. and numerous other lines which appear in the general theory of functions as considered to-day. its advocate. and placing the whole subject upom a rigid foundation. and to him Legendre attributes the foundation of the theory. in L.. two d'Alembert (1746) had come upon the borderland of elliptic functions. that economy of space requires their treatment together. his labor culminating in his * Enneper. The historical development of the genlargely eral theory now becomes so interwoven with that of special elliptic classes of functions. To him due the present orientation of mathematical research^ making prominent the theory of functions.. and both Maclaurin (1742) and elliptic arcs for origin to Landen's (1775) substitution of single hyperbolic arc.44 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Theorie und Geschichte. the free use of complex became. The Theory of Elliptic Functions* is usually referred for its a But Jakob Bernoulli (1691) had suggested the idea of comparing non-congruent arcs of the same curve. that the theory of elliptic func- tions is largely due. It is to Legendre. Leipzig. and hence a digression at this point.

165 . Riemann's * (1857) celebrated memoir in Crelie prein sented the subject such a novel form that his treatment was slow of acceptance. H. although the theorem was sent to Crelie Abel discovered the (1829) just before Abel's early death. translated by Ziwet. He based the theory of Abelian integrals his and face their inverse." its highest Abel began his contributions to the theory in 1825. He calls aere a "monumentum Theorem " perennius. as also praise of the delayed it Legendre and Gauss.. Vol. GOttingen. and Briot and Bouquet in their two treatises have greatly elaborated the theory. on the idea of the sur- now so well known by ing fundamental existence theorems. i8q2. starting from Riemann and Modern Mathematics.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. MM. Comptes Rendus. when I learned with equal surprise and satisfaction that two young mathematicians. Abel's work was early proved and eluciSerret and Chasles in the dated by Liouville and Hermite. — ing considerably the theory of elliptic functions in parts. Clebsch and Gordan in Functionen (1866). p. p. and with him began the treatment of the elliptic integral as a function of the amplitude. double periodicity of elliptic functions. was especially cordial in theorem of the youthful Abel. * Klein. Bulletin of Burkhardt. Vortrag ilber American Mathematical Society. 4& Traits des Fonctions elliptiques et des Int^gralcb Eul6riennes A surprise now awaiting him is best told in his own words: "Hardly had my work seen the light its name could scarcely have become known to scientific foreigners. Jacobi of Konigsberg and Abel of Christiania. I. This communication being so poorly transcribed was not published in full until 1841. Evanston Lectures. Weierstrass their Theorie der Abel'schen (1853). the Abelian functions. name. Jacobi. 3 . and even then was in possession of his fundamental theorem which he communicated to the Paris Academy in 1826. his Abel'sche of has since attached to it name "das The functions multiple periodicity to which refers have been called Abelian Functions. and on the correspondClebsch. had succeeded by their own studies in perfect(1825-28)." and it. Riemann.

Fricke. in- Among the leading contributors to the theory 1) are Rosenhain (1846. Riemann has completed the . including those of Schottky. Cayley. and Rosenhain. He created a new notation and gave name to the " modular equations " of which he made use. Hermite. Brioschi. and generalized the theory of Abelian integrals to a theory of algebraic functions with several variables. The introduction of the theory of in- variants elliptic and projective geometry into the domain of hyperand Abelian functions is an extension of Clebsch's In this extension. besides others already mentioned. Jacobi (1827) began by adding greatly to Legendre's work. C. Halphen. have tended to popularize the theory in England.46 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Dur^ge. Gauss's notes show that he was aware of the properties of the theta The Theory of functions twenty years earlier. Weierstrass has also developed the theory of theta functions independently of the form of their space boundaries. Schwarz. Laurent. With is the development of list the theory of Abelian functions connected a long of names. thus creating a branch which has been developed by Noether. and the fact that Cayley 's only book was devoted to it. researches elaborated by Konigsberger (1865) to give the addition theorem. as in the general theory of Abelian scheme. and Poincar^. Humbert. made the subject more accessible. Prym. who connected the double theta functions with the theory of Abelian functions of two variables and established the theory of hyperelliptic functions in a elliptic manner corresponding to the Jacobian theory of functions. Among those who have written treatises upon the elliptic-function theory are Briot and Bouquet. but he never published his vestigations. Picard. Returning to the theory of elliptic functions. Neumann. Forsyth. and Cayley. Hurwitz. Klein has been a leader. Borchardt. Konigsberger. Theta Functions was the simultaneous and independent creation of Jacobi and Abel (1828). published in 185 and Gopel (1847). Painlev^. The introduction of the subject into the Cambridge Tripos (1873). Konigsberger. an algebraic curve defined by its equation. functions.

Clebsch. giving a discussion from the standpoint of pure analysis. The General Theory of Functions has received its present form largely from the works of Cauchy. by Ziwet.ir. and frequent memoirs) who has materially extended the theory of Riemann's surfaces. en X. of To Riemann* all is due the idea making certain partial differential equations. and his labors. have based on this theory their researches on translated * Klein. proceeded from the purely analytic point of view. Among the recent contributors are Krazer and (1895). Euler had given singly infinite products for sin . are classic. on the other hand. of a general doubly infinite product.r. 165. Vol. Endeavoring to subject all natural laws to interpretaby mathematical formulas. and of seeking criteria for the determination of an analytic function by its discontinuities and boundary conditions. 4? investigation of the relation between the theory of the theta and the Abelian functions. American Mathematical Society. S. which express the fundamental properties of functions. . and has raised theta functions to their present position theory of Abelian integrals. and Weierstrass. p. Smith has included theory of among Prym his contributions to this subject the omega functions. cos . Riemann. Bulletin of Riemann and Modern Mathematics. and later writers F. I. dn x. and Wirtinger Cayley was a prominent contributor to the theory of periodic functions. Liiroth. Weierstrass. laid a Starting from these expressions of Abel's Cayley for his complete foundation theory of elhptic functions. and Abel had generalized these.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. J. by making them an essential part of his H. (1892). Eisenstein (1847) followed. His theory has been elaborated by Klein (1882. His memoir (1845) on doubly periodic functions extended Abel's investigations on doubly infinite products. the foundation of a general analytical theory. obtaining for the elementary doubly periodic functions expressions for sn x.. and found his inspiration in the' contemplation of mathematics from the standpoint of the tion concrete. Riemann borrowed his methods from the theory of the potential. as supplemented by Weierstrass.

48 loops. to the theory of elliptic of the function ^(«). researches. a subject to . He developed the theory of functions of complex variables from its foundations. and Fricke. Laguerre (from 1882) was the first to the discuss the " class " of transcendent functions. in particular (1872) on the general form of a function with essential singularities. This theory Klein has generalized in his Theorie der elliptischen Modulfunctionen. and many theorems. Neumann. In particular. atic elliptic and other i. HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. His early lectures on functions are justly considered a landmark in modern mathematical development. and from the analytic standpoint by Schwarz. his researches on Abelian transcendents are perhaps the most His contributions His conof the functions. He introduced the systembring- consideration of algebraic curves of deficiency ing to bear on the theory of elliptic functions the ideas of modern projective geometry. Clebsch was prominent. Following Riemann came the equally fundamental and original and more rigorously worked out theory of Weierstrass. Riemann's speculations were not without weak points^ and these have been fortified in connection with the theory of the potential by C. and his contributions to the theory of functions of real variables were no less marked. Klein. In both the theory of general and of functions. including the introduction important since those of Abel and Jacobi. are also of great importance. Fuchs has been a prominent contributor. Cantor have contributed same result. and has extended the method to the theory of hyperelliptic and Abelian functions. a 'subject further investigated by Schwarz. He first announced (1866) the existence of natural limits for analytic functions. On the classification of singularities of functions Guichard (1883) has summarized and extended the to and Mittag-Leffler and G. tributions to the general function theory include much symbolism and nomenclature. On functions with an infinite number of essential singularities Mittag-LefBer (from 1882) has written and contributed a fundamental theorem.

and Poincar^ (from 1881) have been among the most prominent. who has established their general classification. Krause. Hermite. Burkhardt. to Bessel (1816-17). including among others Jordan. M. and Burnside. 49 which Poincar^. Reichardt. Weber. however. has of late assumed prominence through the Schlafli (1870). Klein (1878). and Hermite have also contributed. A bit of mathematical history. Bessel's funcof Daniel Ber- tions * of the zero order are found in noulli (1732) memoirs and Euler all (1764). p. Lomfunctions were first prominently used. and to improve this method Bessel's Hankel (1869). Cesaro.THEORY OF FUNCTIONS. with extension (1777). Heine. Vivanti. Neumann. For the names of the leading contributors to the general and special theories. is Their prominence as special functions in their due. Fuchs.that bearing Bessel's name. and sungen iiber Hurwitz. as named by Klein. Bulletin of New York Mathe- matical Society. in 1824. Dyck. mel (from 1868). The Theory Eisenstein's of Elliptic Modular Functions. Of the various tion of but men- one class. Pellet. influence of the Klein school.. Gierster. II. Automorphic functions. proceeding from memoir (1847) ^^^^ the lectures of Weierstrass on elliptic functions. Biermann. had been regarded as the best Laplace's method of solving Kepler's problem (to express the variable present form quantities in undisturbed planetary motion in terms of the time or mean anomaly). Darboux. Gray and * Bocher. have worked out the theory in which Klein and Fricke have embodied die the recent Vorle- Theorie der elliptischen Modulfunctionen (1890-92). and later Klein. Graf (1893). The contributors to the theory include Schwarz. In this theory the memoirs of Dedekind (1877). Schlesinger. who put them Lagrange's series (1770). Holder. and Humbert. reference must be had to the special algebraic functions space allows Brill-Noether Bericht. Cayley. Vol. have been investigated chiefly by Poincar^. Picard. F. 107. and before the end of the eighfirst teenth century integral the Bessel functions of the kind and order had been used. .

. Ill. Review of Cantor. but they are nevertheless looked upon Tables of Bessel's funcas a distinct system of transcendents. Biblioiheca Mathematica. by Hansen (1843). and Jakob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi (posthumous. Bessel's Mathews (1895). 1877. 1-4. tions were prepared by Bessel (1824). a formula 182 . IV. of Probabilities The Theory and Errors* is. (2) the . tinuous errors are discussed and a probability curve is given. but a first Miscellanea (posthumous. History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability. limits within which all and that there are certain assignable errors may be supposed to fall con. theory.50 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.r-axis 00 an asymptote. as far back as Fermat and Pascal (1654).. I. 1884. Todhunter. Probabilities and Least Squares. 316. errors by a curve x being any y its probais and symmetric bilit\'. M. 20. . Vol. * Merriman. Art. it laid down three properties of this curve: (i) It is as to the j-axis. actions of Connecticut New Trans- Academy. 1713) and De Moivre's Doctrine of Chances (17 1 8)traised the subject to the plane of a branch of mathematics. Laplace (1774) made the of probabilities. and by Meissel (1888). first attempt to deduce a rule for the the law of probability of error and combination of observations from the principles of the theory He y= represented <t>{x). p. memoir prepared by reprint (1757) of this 1755 (printed 1756) applied the theory to the discussion of errors of observation. with complete bibliog- raphy. the is I. He deduced York.. as applied to observations. Geschichte der Mathematik. Method of Least Squares. 1896. Huygens (1657) gave the first scientific treatment of the subject. 151. Vol. f EnestrOm. G. J865. (3) the area enclosed being certain that an error exists. largely a nineteenth-century development. p. The memoir lays down the axioms that positive and negative errors are equally probable. The doctrine of probabilities dates. and others have contributed to the Lord Rayleigh (1878) has shown the relation between and Laplace's functions. however.. probability of the error being o. p. Cantor. M. p. The theory Simpson in of errors may be traced back to Cotes's Opera 1722).

In ignorance of Legendre's contribution. but term due to Lagrange. an Irish-American writer. The Method of Least Squares is due to Legendre (1805). 181 2). Hel- mert De Laurent (1873). 1826). II. and Artemas Martin. Liagre. Wolstenholme. and in his translation (1879) of Meyer. 51 mean of three observations. Watson. both as to the theory and its applications. and Crofton (1870). To him is due much of the honor of placing the subject before the mathematical world. Daniel the Bernoulli (1778) introduced the principle of maximum product of the probabilities of a system of concurrent errors. 1891). Ivory (1825. McColI. Didion. the second being essentially the same as Herschcl's (1850). Other contributors have Glaisher (1872). Littrow (1833). and Pearson. editor of "The pre- Analyst" (1808). p. as also that of such contributors to this journal as Crofton. He after Adrain's) in 1809. Lacroix (1816). but added little (1872).PROBABILITIES for the AND LEAST SQUARES. De Morgan (1864). c and being constants depending on gave two proofs. Hagen (1837). been Ellis (1844). one which led to unmanageable equations. = tv"''''*'. Gauss gave the first proof which seems to have been known in Europe (the tliird cision of observation. (p{x) first deduced the law /z of facility of error.* Among the contributors to the general theory of probabil- ities in the nineteenth century have been Laplace. who ifitroduced it in his Nouvelles inethodes pour la determi- nation des orbites des com^tes. 1856). On the geometric side the influence of Miller and The Educational Times has been marked. ' well known. Gauss Donkin (1844. Bessel (1838). . ro. Further proofs were given by Laplace (18 (1823). * Bulletin of New York Mathematical Society. Adrain. that was fundamentally new. Dedekind (i860). Czuber has done much both in his own contributions (1884. Peters's (1856) formula is the probable error of a single observation. Vol. 57. Morgan and Boole improved the theory. Quetelet (1853). facility of error (a He also gave (1781) a formula for the law of 1774). aparelli (1875). and Schifor r.

Schutte Die hauptsSchlichsten Theorien der Geometric in ihrer friiheren und heutigen Entwickelung. W. 15 and 16 should be read to- gether. 1892. Transactions of London Mathematical Society. 1891. Rapport sur les Progr^s de la G6om6trie. R.. German by F. historical in their development. and the various important common to all algebraic curves were soon discovered^ To the theory Newton contributed three celebrated theorems on the Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis f (1706). the nonEuclidean hypothesis of Lobachevsky and Bolyai. II passato e il presente delle principali teorie geometriche. DeKepler. Art. V. characterized by the descriptive geometry of Monge. and including the names of Newton.. Chasles. the modern analytic founded by Plucker. translated into Memorie Accademia Torino.. Steiner. . 15. the renaissance of pure geometry. p. t Ball. and Lagrange. Leibnitz. practically closing with Archimedes (2) The birth of analytic The History of . Leipzig. (4) The nineteenth century. and Waring (1762. each an analyst rather than a geometer. geometry.. Curves. 1870. New York. Evanston Lectures on Mathematics. A. M. W. 1888. characterized in .. under the title 1887. Historische Studie iiber die organische Erzeugung ebener Curven. etry of Descartes and Fermat (3) 1650 to 1800. Klein. The Analytic Geometry which properties Descartes gave to the world in 1637 was confined to plane curves. 1772. von Staudt. Dyck's Katalog mathematischer Modelle. . A. G. the modern synthetic of Poncelet. M. which the synthetic geometry of Guldin. Analytic Geometry. and the more elementary geometry of the triangle founded by Lemoine.52 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Braunmilhl. the Bernoullis. Paris. and Cremona. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Euler. while others are due to Cotes (1722).and Roberval merged into the coordinate geomsargues. 1894. On Newton's classification of cubic curves. and Arts. Cayley. F. 1889 Chasles. * Loria. Clairaut. It is quite impossible to draw the line between the analytic and the synthetic geometry of the nineteenth century. Maclaurin. Aper^u historique sur I'origine et le d6veloppement des mfethodes en G6om6trie. by the application of the calculus to geometry. Maclaurin. Geometry^ may be roughly divided into the four periods: (i) The synthetic geometry of the Greeks. 104..

and other members of the that school entered into the study of surfaces with great zeal. first although in treated by a modern geometric sense the theory was Poncelet. Monge. to Euler (1748) and Cramer (1750). and Parent (1700) had referred a surface to three coordinate planes. etc. Euler (1760) laid the foundations for the analytic theory of of those curvature of surfaces. an obstacle which Lam^ (1818) finally removed from the theory. Hachette. including most of the geometers whose names are mentioned Mobius began great in the present article. and four years later published his Barycentrische Calciil. and dis- covered the relation between the theory of surfaces and the integration of partial differential equations. attempting the classification of second degree as the ancients had classified curves of the second order.* his contributions to geometry in 1823.). 53 may The scientific foundations of the theory of plane curves be ascribed. Meanwhile the study of surfaces was becoming prominent. etc. in a memoir of Clairaut's (173 1). enabling each to be advantageously viewed from the standpoint of the other.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. at the age of sixteen. however. Monge introduced the notion of families of surfaces. classification of the former. . In this work he introduced homogeneous coordinates with the * For details see Loria. II passato e il presente. in which. and attempted a Cramer is well which bears his name. he solved with rare elegance many of the problems relating to curves of double curvature. Descartes had suggested that his geometry could be extended Wren (1669) had discovered the two systems of generating lines on the hyperboloid of one sheet. The theory of surfaces has attracted a long list of contributors in the nineteenth century. The geometry of three dimensions began to assume definite shape. To Cramer is also due an attempt to put the theory of singularities of algebraic curves known for the " paradox " on a scientific foundation. to three-dimensional space. Euler distinguished between algebraicand transcendent curves. however.

and the the establishment of the principle of geometric correspondence simple and multiple. opened by Monge. congruences. In the second volume (1831) he sets forth the present analytic form of the principle of duality. infirst Possibly the greatest service rendered by Plucker was the troduction of the straight line as a space element. a system of tangential coordi- nates. and ruled surfaces. number of double tangents. elaborated Salmon (1858). was extended by him. To the period of Mobius also belong Bobillier (1827). He also curves of the fourth order. Ger- gonne's labors are mentioned the next article. number of double points. and an investigation a question further (1847). in the scientific the principle of signs geometry. Pliicker first Of all modern contributors stands foremost. The theory of also ruled surfaces. due (1833) the general treatment of foci and the complete classification of gave (1839) ^" enumeration of plane plane cubic curves (1835) whicl: had been so frequently tried before him. by Cayley (1847. To him is for curves of higher degree. a service rendered by Zeuthen (1874) for quartics. number of cusps. and which marks the beginnin'g new era for analytic geometry. by which he showed that the class. To him is also due the first scienof the question of double tangents. attendant exposition symmetry of of geometric formulas. who first used trilinear coordinates. in v/hich appeared the of a modern abridged notation. his contribution (1865) being followed by his well-known treatise on the subject (1868-69). 1858). as well as special properties of linear complexes and congruen- . which Bragelogne and Euler had attempted. and Bellavitis. whose analytic contributions to geometry were in extensive. In 1828 he published the volume of his Analytisch-geometrische Entvvickelungen.54 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Hesse and Dersch (1874). to analytic geometry. He also (1852) summed up classifi- cation of cubic curves. dual definition of a curve. three are and when any tific number of inflections) are known given. In 1842 he gave his celebrated " six equations" characteristics of a curve (order. In this work he treats certain general properties of complexes.

The general theory of correspondence starts with Geometry. Hoppe. 1879).and hence ^-dimensional space. method Bibliochsca Mathematica. Kronecker. a subject carried forward by Reye (1869). He also contributed to the theory of curves of the third order. . Lindemann. ^"^ ^° which Clebsch. Lipschitz. and Stringham. 39. Helmholtz. 67 . In the of characteristics * Loria. Cayley. 1888. numerous and valuable. ces. and Schubert (1876. p. Klein. Halphen (1875). 23. It is little and by Klein and due to Plucker that the concept of 4.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. Veronese. pp. Riemann. Chasles added to the theory of curves of the third and fourth which he worked out maybe found the first trace of the Abzahlende Geometrie* which has been developed by Jonqui^res. and generalized the Pascal and Brianchon theorems on a Hesse's methods have recently been elabo- rated by Gundelfinger (1894). spherical surface. G. became the subject of research. Besides contributing extensively to synthetic geometry. Lie. gave the complete theory of and introduced the so-called Hessian first curve as the instance of a covariant of a ternary form.. The Rudel. d'Ovidio. Schlegel. a treatment completed by Schering (1858). Among Jacobi's contributions is the consideration (1836) of curves and groups of points resulting from the intersection of algebraic surfaces. and Chasles (1864) undertook degrees. Notizie storiche sulla Geometria numerativa. subjects also 55 considered by Kummer not a others of the modern school. whose contributions to geometry in general are both inflections of a curve. elaborated the theory. To Jacobi ellipsoid due the conformal representation of the on a plane. already later suggested by Lagrange and Gauss. and many others have regular hypersolids in 4-dimensional space have been the subject of special study by Scheffler. 1889. and Hurwitz have also contributed. of The number faces on planes or In 1844 Hesse. is also examples of conformal representation of suron spheres has been increased by Schwarz (1869) and Amstein (1872).

and H. however. S. are all noteworthy.66 the first HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. 1866) that every singularity and showed sidered as may be con- compounded of ordinary singularities so that the " six equations " apply to a curve with soever. Cayley's * influence on geometry was very great. and Brill (from 1873) completed the theory. rational transformation Brill. Smith. limiting his investigations. Vol. and Noether have also con- Cayley added much to the theories of and correspondence. carried on He early Plucker's consideration of singularities of a curve. any singularities what- He thus opened a field for the later investigations of Cayley's Noether. Cayley ( 1 866) carried this theory to curves of higher deficiency. the first to reach (1845) -erties of a figure are considered. etc. he extended Salmon's theory of reciprocal surfaces.showing the distinction between the theory of transformation of spaces and that of correspondence of loci. . Halphen. His investigations on the bitangents of on the twenty-eight bitangents of a non-singular quartic. and in particular the sextactic points on a plane curve. a theory in which the next great advance was made (1882) by Halphen and Noether. (1864. and treated (1869) the classification of cubic surfaces. a subject already discussed by Schlafli.. J. subjects to which Bacharach. theorems on the intersection of curves (1843) ^"<^ the deter- mination of self-corresponding points for algebraic correspondences of a simple kind are fundamental in the present theory. special researches on the correspondence of algebraic curves. tributed extensively. his discussion of the osculating conies of curves and of plane curves. lines He was lie the first to announce (1849) ^^^ twenty-seven which on a cubic surface. to curves of defi- ciency zero. Zeuthen. VIII. He also con- tributed to the theory of scrolls (skew-ruled surfaces). orthog- wave surface. and was the any very general results in the theory of curves of double curvature. a figure in connection with which all metrical proponal systems of surfaces. Among Cayley's other contributions to geometry is his theory of the Absolute. in * Biographical Notice Cayley's Collected papers. the geometric theory of the invariants and covariants of plane curves. his developments of Plucker's conception of foci.

studied by Rohn (1887) but without a complete enumeration. 57 Clebsch* was also prominent surfaces. mathematiscn-physikalischer Modelle. but no genQuartic surfaces have been eral classification has been made. Universitatsausstellung. Surfaces has been developed along I. as distinguished from the elementary sphere geometry with but five and characterized by the conformal group. a notion which dates back to Abel. O. Schonflies. using it Clebsch (1872) investigated the shapes Following him. Klein. * Klein. and his work on minimum surfaces are all from the higher standpoint of prominent. of continuity all and established the forms of fact that by the principle real surfaces of the third order can be derived from the particular surface having four real conical points. Deutsche p. Mathematical Papers of Chicago Congress. Lie has adopted Plucker's generalized space element and ex- tended the theory. his line and sphere complexes. the problem of determining all possible forms of such surfaces. Kummer.f The Theory of Minimum f Dyck. Zeuthen (1874) has discussed the various forms of plane curves of the between his results and Attempts have been made to extend the subject to curves of the nth order. and applied the and Abelian functions to geometry. His sphere geometry treats the subject six homogeneous coordinates. 49. for the study of curves. .ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. in the study of curves and surfaces and of the theory of functions are the models prepared by Dyck. Lect. Klein attacked of surfaces of the third order. Evanston Lectures. and the same writer has contributed (1881) to the theory of fourth order.. Of great help Brill. Kummer surfaces. Schwarz. Katalog mathematischer und Miinchen. a geometry studied by Darboux. theory of He first applied the algebra of linear transformation to He emphasized the idea of deficiency (Geschlecht) elliptic of a curve. 1892 . Lie's theory of contact transformations. W. and others. Henrici. in the study of curves and geometry. showing the relation those of Klein on cubic surfaces. with its application to differential equations.

with the analytic geometry in general. . published in 1785) also studied the question. results. connected the study of surfaces with that of differential equations.* Projective. Monge (1784) and Legendre (1787) but this did not immediately affect this question. . and Meusnier (1776. Scherk applied (1835) added a number of important and first the labors of Monge and Legendre the to the theory. Lagrange (1760-61) gave the equation of the minimum surface through a given contour. Geschichte der darslellend'jn Geometric. a delay due to the jealous desire of the military authorities to keep the valuable secret. Modern Geometry. Leipzig.58 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. 1884. 1884-S7. Catalan (1842). Weierstrass (1866) has coatributed several fundamental theo- shown how to find all of the real algebraic minimum and has shown the connection between the theory of functions of an imaginary variable and the theory of surfaces. subject. Monge had been in possession of his theory for over thirty years before the publication of his G^om^trie Descriptive (1800). Chr. and are so interwoven in their historic development that event more difficult to separate them from one another than from the analytic geometry just mentioned. It is true that certain of its features can be traced back to Desargues. save by Poisson (18 13) as to cerimaginary surfaces. Schwarz. that tain is But from this time on for half a century little noteworthy was done. but it was Monge who worked * Wiener. Modern Synthetic Geometryit is Descriptive. 16. and Weierstrass. and completely solved the problem But of determining the minimum surface through any curve and admitting rems. minimum Art. although Lehrbuch der darstellenden Geometric. has surfaces. Lambert. in each point of this curve a given tangent plane. it out in detail as a science. Bonnet (from 1853) has set forth a new system of formulas relative to the general theory of surfaces. and Dini (1865) have added to the most prominent contributors have been Bonnet. Taylor. Bjorling (1844). and Fr^zier. Darboux.

published the At this period Monge by no means confined himself to the dehis labors in the analytic scriptive geometry. the general quadrilateral and quadrangle. and others. Mathematical Papers of Chicago Congress (New York. Inspired by the general activity of the period. subsequent French contributors being Leroy (1842). de Fourcy.* concerned themselves especially with the relations of form. p . Olivier (from 1845). and extended the theory of polars to also set forth the He quadrics. 1896). Lacroix (1795).MODERN GEOMETRY. a theory whose tions of figures. fundamental property of a four-rayed pencil goes back to Pappos. inspired 59 by Monge's lectures in the Ecole first work on the subject. de la Gournerie (from i860). and which. The present Geometry of Position (Geometrie der Lage) has little in common with Carnot's G^om^trie de Position. many details are now commonplace. and versales (1806). and supplemented in his Th^orie des Trans- magnumerous other generalizations of value to the elementary geometry But although Carnot's work was important and of to-day. In these works he introduced negative *On upon recent development of graphic methods and the influence of Monge 58. After Monge's work appeared. and particularly with those of surfaces his school Monge and and curves in a space of three dimensions. though revived by Desargues. H. though not in modern language. Modern Graphical Develop- ments. So marked were geometry that he has been theory. T. Carnot treated chiefly the metrical relaIn particular he investigated these relations as connected with the theory of transversals. 1883-88) and Wiener (1884-87). neither the name of the theory nor the method employed have endured. 1821) added iTiaterially to its symmetry. Polytechnique. this branch of mathematics. gave some treatment of ruled surfaces. see Eddy. called the father of the modern fundamental theorem of reciprocal polars. 1818. but following rather the steps of Desargues and Pascal. Anger (1858). Vallee.. Hachette (1812. was set forth for the first time in its general form in Carnot's Geometrie de Position (1803). In Germany leading contributors have been Ziegler (1843). Adhemar. nitudes. and especially Fiedler (3d edn.

" the perspective axis and perspective center (called by Chasles the axis and center of homology)." he to conceive the great used. an extension of Carnot's theory of transversals. which dates back to Pappos and which Desargues (1639) had also miens propres. *'priv6. He also discovered what Salmon has called "the circular points at infinity. somewhat later than Newton had discovered But in curves of the third order can be derived by central spite of this projection from five fundamental types. but harmonic the under name " Doppelschnitt-Verhaltniss" (ratio bisectionalis). Brianchon (1806). surtout distrait still les malheurs de ma patrie et les had the vigor of spirit and the leisure work which he published (1822) eight years later. A prisoner the Russian campaign. Steiner. a concept. due to Chasles. through the principle of continuity. " de toute espece de livres et de secours. . Chasles." as he says. Geometry had its origin the period of that all Monge and Carnot. confined at Saratoff on the Volga par (1812-14). his application of Desargues's theory of polars. made much use of the anratio in his Barycentrische Calciil (1827). In this work was first made prominent the power of central projection in demonstration and the power of the His leading idea was the principle of continuity in research.60 Projective HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. study of projective properties. a term now in common use under Steiner's abbreviated form " Doppelverhaltniss. Mobius. and as a foundation principle he introduced the anharmonic ratio. point and line properties of conies have been further elaborated by Brianchon. and " cross-ratio " was coined by Clifford. or fonction anharmonique) is The anharmonic Staudt. and the "cordes ideales " of To Poncelet is also conies which Pliicker applied to curves of all orders." thus completing and establishing the first great principle of modern geometry. fact the theory attracted so little attention for over a century that in its origin is generally ascribed to Poncelet. however. and von due the theory of " figures homologiques. following Poncelet." The name "anharmonic ratio" or " function " (rapport anharmonique.

Steiner (1832) gave the jective relations first complete discussion of the propencils. the discovery of which was also claimed its by Poncelet. Hesse. and Cayley. although Servois (181 1) He was also the first (1825- 26) to grasp the idea that the parallelism which Maurolycus. explicitly and degree (order) and showing the duality between the two. This he gave the name which it now bears. Among Poncelet was Gergonne. sense. the most prominent geometers contemporary with who with more propriety might be ranked as an analytic geometer. principle he stated and to it ric reciprocation. has been greatly elaborated and has found into way modern algebra and elementary geometry. and hence with him opens the period of special study of curves and surfaces of higher order. and has recently been extended to mechanics by Genese. between rows. of the corre- sponding figures in three-dimensional space and of surfaces of the second order. This principle of geometis and Viete had noticed a fundamental principle. His masterpieces. This whole subject has been extended by Grassmann. He and Chasles were among the first to study scientifically surfaces of higher order.. the Principle of Duality. Chasles. and introduced those noteworthy curves covariant to a given curve which now bear the names of himself. Gergonne was the first to use the class defining word "class" in describing a curve. after that of continuity. the most important. 61 let's completed the foundation which Monge had begun for Ponce(1829) theory of reciprocal polars. He practically closed the theory of conic sections. etc. but Steiner (1848) showed that this theory can serve as the foundation for the study of plane curves independently of the use of coordinates." Snell. He first (1813) used the term "polar" in its modern geometric had used the expression " pole. . treat- ment of duality and his application of the theory of projective pencils to the generation of conies are The theory of polars of a point in regard to a curve had been studied by Bobillier and by Grassmann. in modern geometry.MODERN GEOMETRY. and laid the foun- dation for the subsequent development of pure geometry.

and Chasles had made their greatest contributions. Townsend. J. . Chasles was closing the geometric era opened in France by Monge. A projective based on the group containing istic all the real geometry projective knd dual- transformations. PlUcker. Erlangen Programme of 1872. Cremona. Steiner. Mobius. and imaginary elements being systematically introduced from the geometric side. and did for France what Salmon's works did for algebra and geometry in England. He in set forth (1847. geometry of the sphere were also noteworthy. popularizing the researches of earlier writers and contributing both to the theory and the nomenclature of the subject. Bulletin II. Since his time the distinction between the metrical and projective theories has been to a great extent obliterated. New York Mathematical Society.* the metrical properties * Klein. S. Projective proper- ties foreign to measurements are established independently of number of relations. Haskell's translation. and His contributions. is developed. p. as opposed to that of Plucker. and Jonquieres.Q'Z HlbTOKY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. 1856-60) a complete. were at While Mobius. Steiner was the first to make prominent (1832) an example of correspondence of a more complicated nature than that of Poncelet. he became the greatest exponent of pure synthetic geometry of modern times. to the Chasles. a subject which has received attention in England at the hands of Salmon. but in spite of Joining the this seeming disadvantage he surpassed them all. Steiner school. Vol. Magnus. number being drawn from geometry instead conversely. and H. the To him is due the name "homo- graphic" and complete exposition of the principle as applied to plane and solid figures. and those of Gudermann. imaginary transformations being also introduced. and Steiner work in Germany. Smith.. of ¥. His Aper^u Historique (1837) is a classic. Largely through his influence pure geometry again became a fruitful field. 215. pure geometric system which metrical geometry finds no place. Von Staudt began his labors after Plucker.

but especially Hirst. Hyperbelfunktionen. p. I. Cremona began his publications work on projective geometry (1875) is 1862. Algebra. and certain formulas have been improved and others added. His elementary Leudesdorf's translation familiar to English readers. founded by Mayer and Lambert. Elementary Geometry.f already (1833)... affected Trigonometry and Elementary Geometry have also been by the general mathematical spirit of the century.ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY. Chrystal. and Laisant (1871). and to Reye is due much of the popularity which now attends the in ^" subject. 63 being considered as projective relations to a fundamental configuration. Clifford did much modern make known the German of theories. as also his works on plane curves. Art. Un- fortunately von Staudt wrote in an unattractive style. * Todhunter. Townsend (1863). GUnther. and opened the subject to geometry. the circle at infinity common for all spheres. a pupil of Steiner's. f S. In England Mulcahy. 17. G. besides himself contributing to the study of polars and the general theory of curves. surfaces. 1873. . and projective formulas and generalized figures have definition of the sine The by series. Die Lehre von den gewShnlichen und verallgemeinerten II. and cosine and the systematic development of the theory on this basis. 1881. Halle.* The convergence the Fourier of trigonometric series. has been popularized and further developed by Gudermann (1830).. etc. In trigonometry the general substitution of ratios for lines in the definitions of functions has simplified the treatment. the introduction of series. History of certain formulas of spherical trigonometry. His contributions to the theory of geometric transformations are valuable. Hoiiel. have been set forth by Cauchy (1821). Vol. 288. and others. Lobachevsky The hyperbolic trigonometry. and the free use of the imaginary have already been mentioned. Philosophical Magazine.

To angle. p. Ill. E.64 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Bertrand. a property discovered by the Arabs. du Articles in recent numbers of Journal de Matbematiques spfeciales. Chasles. Mathesis. the theory of transversals worked out by Monge. Brianchon. various years. Mackay. Jacobi.. . Recently Study has investigated the formulas of spherical trigonometry from the standpoint of the modern theory of functions and theory of groups. These and many other improvements now find more or less place in the text-books . and Macfarlane has generalized the fundamental theorem of trigonometry for three-dimensional space. Feuerbach (1822) soon after discovered the properties of the Nine-Point Circle. but introduced as a definite concept by Gaultier (1813) and used by Steiner under the name of " Hne the researches of Gauss concerning inscripof equal power " tible polygons. Vigarife. and others.. Lemoine * (1873) was the first to take up the subject in a sys* Smith. Hess. Carnot. Among the many contributions to the theory may be men- tioned the following That of Mobius on the opposite senses of lines. Biography of Lemoine. surfaces. J.and 257-gon to the list below the the theory of stellar polyhedra as worked out by looo-gon .. Vol. and solids the principle of duality as given by Gergonne and Poncelet the contributions of De . Servois. 6. Cayley. and Steiner also came across some of the properties of the triangle. these must be added the recent Geometry of the Tri- now a prominent chapter in elementary mathematics. and Proceedings of the Association fran9aise poar I'avancement des . . Mobius. adding the 17. Mobius. D. G6om6trie triangle. and Steiner. Cauchy. American Mathematical Monthly. various articles on modern geometry in Proceed- ings Edinburgh Mathematical Society. Elementary Geometry has been : even more affected. 29. but none of these followed up the investigation. . angles. Morgan as to the logic of the subject . Wiener. notably by Gudermann. of the day. Hersel. S. been introduced. and others the theory of the radical axis. so that a whole series of bodies have been added to the four Kepler-Poinsot regular solids and the researches of Muir on stellar polygons. Poncelet. Crelle (18 16) made some investigations in this line.

Rudio. 9th edition. B. 1893. G. lunge n zur Geschicbte der Maibematik.Euclidean Geometry. 92. who gave the first theoretically exact method for drawing a theory is also greatly indebted to Miller's tional Times. Vasiliev's address on try. 45:404. p. and squaring the circle have all been settled by the proof and straight of their insolubility through the use of edge. Neuberg. tematic way. Vortrage iiber ausgewShlten Fragen. Kempe and Sylvester have elaborated the In recent years the ancient problems of trisecting an angle. American Journal of Mathematics. Non-Euclidean and Hyperspaces. I. E. f Siackel and Engel. Loria. Non-Euclidean Geom. The tributions work in The Educaand to Hoffmann's Zeitschrift. Saccheri's GeomeBolyai's chevsky's Geometry. Vasiliev's address (German by Engcl) also appears in the Abhand- matical Society.. . line. and sometimes the * Klein. Legendre (Leipzig. Emmerich. Longchamps. F.. G. Articles on Parallels and Meastirement in Encyclopaedia Britaneica.. Halsted. Bulletin of New York Mathe bis zur vom Alterthum II. M. Karagiannides. 18. 1895. 106 . Vol. and H. Das Problem von der Quadratur des schrift. Non. I. Lambert. 1890. various contributions: Bibliography of Vols. p. M'Cay.. Naturforschende Gesellschaft Vierteljahr- Archimedes. The study of linkages was opened by Peaucellier (1864). straight subject. Nature.'* compasses Art. McClintock.. II.NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY. Die Nichteuklidische Geometric On Gegenwart. Huygens. Brocard's con- His theory of " transformation to the geometry of the triangle began in 1877. Leipzig. Die hauptsachlichsten Theorien der Geometric.. Other prominent writers have been Tucker. Die Theorie der Parallellinien von Euklid bis auf Gauss. Hyperspace and Non-Euclidean Geometry. Zirkels. doubling the cube. Mathe- matical Papers of Chicago Congress. translations of LobaLobachevsky. 1892). futile The Non-Euclidean Geometry t is a natural result of the attempts which had been made from the time of Proklos the opening of the nineteenth century to prove the fifth to postulate (also called the twelfth axiom. work and his life. p. The American Mathematical Monthly. Berlin. A. " continue" and his g^om^trographie " should also be mentioned. 144: Poincar6. Taylor. Vigarie. the early history of Non-Euclidean Geometry. and he has contributed extensively to its 65 de- velopment. 1895. F. Vol.

Bartels pupil. however. and his assertion of the necessary postulates of geometry. so that his investigations. The theory was published in full in 1829-30. and must have had in its effect. ond he contributed to the subject. Early in 1826 he sent forth the principles of his famous doctrine of parallels. based on the assumption that through a given point more than one line can be drawn which shall never meet a given line coplanar with it. the most important of the subject between those of Lobachevsky and Bolyai. were the object of much scrutiny and At the same time Gauss was giving attention to the attack. many treatises on the publication of Saccheri's Legendre also work and worked in the field. went to Kasan 1807. but failed to bring himself to view the matter outside the Euclidean limitations. although the influence of himself of Kant. in a general way. Lambert was the next to question the validity of Euclid's postulate. who was a fellow student of But it is now certain that Gauss can lay no claim to Gauss's. a work which was not looked upon as a precursor of Lobachevsky. eleventh or thirteenth) of Eudid. his influence being exerted on Loba- chevsky through his friend Bartels. as well as to other branches of mathematics. 1786).66 HISTORY OF MODERN MA1HEMATICS. though on the side of proving it. begun even before 1823.. Kant als Mathematiker. During the closing years of the eighteenth century Kant's* doctrine of absolute space. It was at postulate. E. until his death. and on Johann Bolyai through the father Wolfgang. The first scientific investi- gation of this part of the foundation of geometry was made by Saccheri (1733). * Fink. . until Beltrami (1889) called attention to the fact. priority of discovery. and Lobachevsky was his The latter's lecture notes show that Bartels never mentioned the subject of the fifth postulate to him. in his Theorie der Parallellinien (posthumous. Leipzig. 1889. were made on his own motion and his results were wholly original. fifth one time surmised that Gauss was the real founder of the nonEuclidean geometry.

67 Johann Bolyai received through 9f his father. i. but he never published anything on the subject. Riemann (1868)." thus leaving Euclid's his geometry on a surface of zero curvature midway between own and Lobachevsky 's. like that of his nephew Taurinus (1825). and refers to them in a letter of NovemThey were committed to writing in 1825 and ber. showing no trace of the Lobachevsky-Bolyai The world. of the of the hypothesis. Clifford in England. and suggested a surface of negative curvature. see an by McClintock. * For an article He thus set forth three kinds of results excellent summary II. Bulletin of New York Mathematical Society. but the publication of their works seems to have put an end to his investigations.* Of all these contributions the most noteworthy from the scientific standpoint is that of Riemann. Frischauf (1872). the principles of nonEuclidean geometry. . his work on the theory idea. have been among the most active in making the subject popular. of (1807). Hoiiel that it began (1866) and Flye St. de Tilly (1879) ^^ Belgium. Wolfgang. Helmholtz (1868). Gauss asserts in his correspondence with Schumacher (1831-32) that he had brought out a theory along the same lines as Lobachevsky and Bolyai. and Baltzer (1877) in Germany. Marie (187 1) in France. at about the same time as Lobachevsky. as parallels his non-Euclidean recently recovered letters show. When only twenty-one he discovered. hypothesis was slowly accepted by the mathematical was about forty years after its publication any considerable attention. some the inspiration to original research which the latter had received from Gauss. 1823. the schrift (1854) which Beltrami calls "pseudo-spherical. Vol. Beltrami (1872) in Italy.NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY. The Non-Euclidian Gecmetry. Schweikart was also an independent discoverer of the geometry. Indeed it to attract Since 1880 the theory may be said to have become generally understood and accepted as legitimate. and Halsted (1878) in America. In his Habilitations- he applied the methods of analytic geometry to theory. p. published in 1832.

W. Fiedler. including. Primer of the history of mathematics (London. Newcomb. having noted only two. Cayley 's contribu- tion of his " metrical gaometry " was not at once seen to be identical with that of Lobachevsky and Bolyai. . W. Ball. These Klein (1871) has called the elliptic (Riemann's). 1895).. Killing. The tioned following are a few of the general works on the history of mathematics in the nineteenth century. Lect. Evanstcn Lectures. parabolic (Euclid's). R. History of the study of mathematics at CamBall. Bibliography. is real. mentioned below. bridge (London. W. jective Art.6b HISTORV OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. and McClintock. Mansion. W. S. 1893). not already men- For a complete bibliography of recent in the foot-notes. 1889). Ball. thus simplifying Cayley's treatment and adding one of the most important results of the theory. identical with those of the hyperbolic elliptic . and hyperbolic (Lobachevsky's). W. besides those already named. it entire Cayley's metrical formulas are. Cayley. question raised by Cayley's memoir as to how far pro- geometry can be defined in terms of space without the introduction of distance had already been discussed by von Staudt (1857) and has since been treated by Klein (1873) and by Lindemann (1876). It remained for Klein (1871) to show this. v/hen the Absolute try . C. with the the limiting case The between the two gives the parabolic (Euclidean) geometry. works the reader should consult the Jahrbuch iiber die Fortschritte der Mathematik. of the leading mathematicians of Peirce. the Bibliotheca Mathematica. IX. geome- when is imaginary. A short account of the history of mathematics (London.. 19. * Klein. or the Revue Semestrielle. W.geometry.. the last quarter of a century. Bolyai . Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik (Leipzig). Starting from this broader point of view* there have contributed to the subject many Klein. R. R. Pasch. Lie.

1890 (History of nineteenth-century mathematics in France... C.. 491. XLI. 1830-35. Bulletin des Sciences Cajori. H. Bibliography on p. Hermite. graphical articles. Ch. Isely. annu- 1868 to date). Discours prononce devant le president de la republique le 5 aout 1889 a I'inauguration de la nouvelle Sorbonne. Chrystal. L. also Nature. Stockholm.. Dictionary of National Biography. Graf. 1878). Coup d'oeil sur quelques progres des Sciences mathematiques. Synopsis der hoheren Mathematik. Essai sur I'histoire des mathematiques dans la Suisse . XI. F. 1877). 69 Bibliotheca Mathematica. L. Hankel. Bulletin des Sciences mathematiques. Ch. Should be consulted for bibliography of current articles and works on history of mathematics. 1876). 1891-93). G. Histoire des mathematiques (Paris. Grundziige der antiken und modernen Algebra der litteralen Gleichungen (Leipzig. Geschichte der Mathematik (Tubingen. G. Valuable on biographies of British mathematicians. p. not completed.... 1894).. Cayley. 1883. XXVIII. en France. 255. XII (Paris. 1889). 1884). DOvidio. Jahrbuch iiber die Fortschritte der ally. A. Enestrom... Dupin. F. Gunther. 1879).. Hoefer.. M. S. H. Cayley. J. Marie. Quarterly.. Matthiessen. Ziele und Resultate der neueren mathematischhistorischen Forschung (Erlangen. II*^""® Partie). Clerke. Vol. Comptes Rendus. 597. Vermischte Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften (Leipzig. Vols.) p. Gerhardt.. Nature. J. 1876). 1890). X. Uno sguardo alle origini ed alio sviluppo della Matematica Pura (Torino. and others. Vol. Inaugural address before the British Association. Geschichte der Mathematik und der NaturwissenAlso numerous bioschaften in bernischen Landen (Bern. Two volumes (Berlin. Die Entwickelung der Mathematik in dem letzten Jahrhundert (Tubingen. 1890). 1887-88). Mathematik (Berlin. Fink. 1835. J. Valuable biographical articles by Encyclopaedia Britannica.BIBLIOGRAPHY. History of Mathematiques (Paris. Gunther. Geschichte der Mathematik in Deutschland (Munich. Hagen. fran9aise (Neuchatel. K. 1884). Histoire des sciences mathematiques et physiques.. Mathematics (New York. S. . London. Enrico.

Pierpont.. 237. With in all its termination there w^ould naturally be expected a of a tation series of retrospective hundred years hnes of human This expec- and numerous addresses and memoirs Among interest recently awakened in the subject. .70 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.. 261. century has closed. 1876.. Bulletin New S. Vol. XLIX. H. 1872). S. J. (Current periodical literature. R. Proceedings of London Mathematical Society. Modern mathematics. Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch Two volumes (Leipzig^ zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften. published at Strassburg. Academy. St. Bulletin of the American Louis address. J. A.. p. Vol. Ill. Abtheilung. Address before the British Association.) Proceedings of the Irish Roberts. p. 95. Historisch-literarische The Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik are supplements. R. Mathematical Society (N. p. Mathematical Society. Wolf. Nature.. 240. Vol. Zeitschrift fiir Two volumes (Zurich. C. On the branches of pure mathematics. Revue semestrielle des publications mathematiques redigee sous auspices de la Societe mathematique d'Amsterdam. 1866). Since the above bibhography was prepared the nineteenth views of the development progress. pp. of the century's progress in pure mathematics. 1888. may be cited the following: J. 1893 to date. p. 136. An excellent survey S. Smith. IX.). Nature. Sciences mathematiques et physiques chez les Beiges au les commencement du XIX^ siecle (Brussels. York Newcomb. J. I. 79. Modern mathematical thought. Vol. Mathematik und Physik. and two later supplementary volumes.. Vol. present state and prospects of some J. P' 325- Poggendorff. Leipzig.. A. Handbuch der Mathematik. XV. 1863). 1904. testify to the history of modem mathematics the contributions to the general was duly fulfilled. Quetelet. of living mathematicians see the Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt. For a biographical table of mathematicians see Fink's GeFor the names and positions schichte der Mathematik. Nature^ Sylvester.

H. p. in the United States. Mangoldt. . Nature. Vol. Rvmdschau. Vol. p.. 227. Vol. p. XV. Bulletin of the 238. 177 Picard. Naturwiss.) This considers the century's progress applied mathematics. mann's Zeitschrift. J.. S. L'oeuvre mathematique du XIX« (2). Vol. American Mathematical American Mathematical This traces the development of mathematics Purser. 1900). Polish. Jahrhundert. depuis xan si^cle. XXXII. in the Naturwiss. Sur le ddveloppement. Die reine Mathematik in den Jahren 1884-1899 (Berlin. si^cle. Lampe. Vol. T. The countries following should be mentioned as among the latest contributions to the history of modern mathematics in particular Fiske. t' Van 1900. Rimdschau. Vol. theories faite fondamentales dans I'analyse mathematique. 1904. Die 71 Hoff- Mathematik im neunzehnten Jahrhundert.. Hoff. Les mathdmatiques en Portugal au XIX« siecle. R. 1899. be mentioned the following: American MatheAmerican Mathe- Woodward. (Coimbre. 1900).). d'. Conferences a Clark University (Paris.. Festrede (Aachen. Adhemar. VI. E. 557 (1900). H. LXVT. Presidential address before the BiUletin of the matical Society in December. p. S. 1900). in the (German. de quelques XX p. 1900).BIBLIOGRAPHY. Society (N. 133. IX. Vol. p.. Ueber die Entwickelung der exakten Natur- wissenschaften im 19. XV. Vortrag gehalten in Aachen. matical Society (N. R.. in Warsaw. J. S. Wiadomosci Matematyczne. Irish school of mathematicians The and physicists from 478 the beginning of the nineteenth century. Giinther. Presidential address before the Society in December. V (1901). Revue des questions scientifiques. E. Among the contributions to the history of applied mathe- matics in general may S.. . Bilder aus der Entwickelung der reinen und angewandten Mathematik wahrend des netmzehnten Jahrhunderts mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung des Einflusses von Carl Friedrich Gauss. (1902). Louvain Vol. S.). R. von. (1901). Guimaraes.

. A.. 133 (1897). Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edin93 (1899). a Steinitz and Easton have also contributed to this Hancock. calculus. the following Miller. Historia del problema de matematico. P. Brocard. p. Th. 181. Geschichte der darsteUenden und projektiven ihrer Begriindung in Geometrie Frankreich und Deutschland vmd ihrer wissenschaftlichen Pflege in mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung Oesterreich (Briinn. S... H. Bibliography of surfaces and twisted curves. is L.. A. p. VI. G. Essai historique. E. lb. Vol. p. E. Vol.. Vol. (2). II (3).. to 1841. las tangentes.. Papperwitz. XXIII The theory of screw determinants and PfaflSans lb. G. itself. F.. Supplemental report by Dickson. On the history of the extensions of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (N. VI.. J. H. la Societe d. not to mention the cusof inserting historical notes in the recent treatises upon the subjects themselves. El Progress© 129. hthog.ni. IX. Reports on the progress in the theory of groups of Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (N. Bar-le-Duc. C. Notes de bibliographie des courbes geometriques. Vol. Vol. 227. Sciences. p. 2 vols. 106. Liege.'72 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. British Association Report for 1897. Memoires de Stackel. I (2). 381.Begriindung durch Gaspard Monge. 1899. E. p. Hagen. p. whose treatise on Linear Groups (1901) history in subject. A large number of articles upon tom the history of special branches of mathematics have recently appeared. . V./S. 13. J... 1897).. p. Jahrhvmdert. The theory of alternants in the historical order of its development up burgh. Ueber die wissenschaftliche Bedeutung der darstel- lenden Geome^ie und ihre Entwickelung bis zur systematischen '. On the historical development of the Abelian func- tions to the time of Riemann. pp. Muir. Ill (1901). Obenrauch. may be mentioned as types: a finite order.). Of the contributions to the history of par- ticular branches. J. p. Aubry. I (3). 128 (1899). Vol.). Vol. 164. Mathematica. Le probleme des brachistochrones. . Vol. Vol. Rede (Freiberg i. Hill. in the historical order of its development up to 1857. 1897.. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Funktionentheorie im Bibliotheca achtzehnten p. 1901).. S.. Compere.

Leipzig. III. although written from the mathematical standpoint. Repertorium der hoheren Mathematik. and Vienna. with a complete current bibhography of historical this field. several important works have recently appeared which are historical in the best sense. Munich. 1900.BIBLIOGRAPHY. ork was Anwendungen. 1900). The mathematics. this volume covering A new biographical table has to the English translation of Fink's History of been added Mathe- matics (Chicago. a journal devoted the history of the mathein began its third series 1900. Besides direct contributions to the history of the subject. Enestrom. Synopsis der hoheren some years in course of publication. and is itself a history of modem begun taneously. 1903). Poggendorff's Biographisch-Hterarisches worterbuch zur reached its Handhas Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften the period from 1883 to 1902. and and bibUographical notes. 1902). E. Pascal. It new series contains numerous articles on the history of modern mathematics. in its It remains under the able editorship of G. with of pubhshed works. 73 Mention should matical sciences. A French translation. . G. in 1898. is in progress. and the several volumes are being carried on simulfirst volume (Arithmetik and Algebra) was completed This publication is under the patronage of the academies in 1904. and it appears in much enlarged form. It contains an excellent bibliography. Schepp. also be made of the fact that the Bibhotheca to Mathematica. with numerous additions. translated from the Italian by A. fourth volume (Leipzig. lists In the line of biography of mathematicians. Two volumes (Leipzig. Of these there are three that deserve special mention ihrer Encyklopadie der mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluss The pubUcation of this monumental v. Hagen. Mathematik. of sciences of Gottingen. for J. This has been and has now completed Vol...

213. tion. Art. The mathematical world its sought to orientate itself.. p. recklessly than before. p. In Italy. Hilbert has prob- ably given the most attention to the foimdation principles of geometry (1899). 1900. at Paris in This address reviews the time. the noteworthy address of Hilbert nently. Archiv der Mathematik und Physik. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. and to It critically ex- amine every step in still its several theories. Poincare has considered the role of intuition and of logic in mathematics. as we have seen. renewed study of foundation principles. less then took up the Hne of discovery once more. and In Germany. 115. . t Compte rendu du deuxifeme congrfes international des mathematiciens tenu a Paris. ^the leaders in this and one of the recent tendencies is towards a In England one of movement is Russell. compatibihty of the and more recently he has investigated the In France. 253. General Tendencies. 115. 44. but with thoughts directed primarily in the direction of inven- At the close of the century there came again a period of introspection. p. 1902. Padoa and Bureli-Forti have studied the fundamental postulates of algebra. Louis address in 1904. Paris. Fieri those of geometry.74 history of modern mathematics. arithmetical axioms (1900). who has studied the foundations of geometry (1897) and of mathematics in general (1903). % Gottinger Nachrichten. 2o. As an instance of the orientation already mentioned. XI. field of 1900 J stands out promipure mathematics and sets forth several of the greatest questions demanding investigation at the present In the particular line of geometry the * Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (N. Vol. 1900. p. 1901^ pp. S.* and the question of a series of irreducible postulates has been studied by Huntington. t and in every country the foundation principles have been made the object of careful investigation. The opening what of the nineteenth century was. to examine the foundations of knowledge. 437. a period of profound introspection following a period of somecareless use of the material accumulated in the seventeenth century. In America the fundamental conceptions and methods of mathematics have been considered by B6cher in his St.). 1902.

founded in 1894. six years earlier. The activity of its members and In order that the quality of papers prepared has led to the publication of the Transactions. 75 -memoir which Segr^ wrote in 1891. was founded is as the New York Mathematical Society Vol. on the tendencies in geometric investigation. the third section being devoted to logic and the history of the sciences (on this occasion chiefly mathematics). the society publishes in •courses in universities Bulletin the advanced mathematics offered of the world. in 1905. the second one at Paris in 1900. It one has also established two sections. in J It now.GENERAL TENDENCIES. The first international congress of mathematicians was held at Zurich in 1897. S. The American Mathematical Society. X. ings has been dency In the United States there has been shown a similar tento exchange opinions and to impart verbal information as to recent discoveries.). and first the third at Heidelberg in 1904. 443. gress of philosophy The international con- was held at Paris in 1900. There was also held an international congress of historic sciences at Rome in 1903. to exchange views. one at Chicago (1897) and at San Francisco (1902). a remarkable change is at * Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society (N. . who have t It 1888. as never before. an international committee on the organization of a congress on the history of sciences being at that time formed. a tendency to cooperate. in many of the leading Partly as a result of this activity. approximately 500. supplementing in an inspiring way the older form of international communication through published papers. and the second congress was held at Geneva in 1904. f has doubled its membership in the past decade. beginning with 1900. and partly because of the large number of American students recently studied abroad. The result of such gather- an exchange of views in a manner never before possible. its members may be conversant with the lines of investigation in the various its mathematical centers.! and has increased its average of annual papers from 30 to 150. p.* There is also seen at the present time. has recently been revised and brought up to date. and to internationalize mathematics.

Russia. Tait. for not only is works draw upon. Paris. Hesse. The interest at present manifested by American is by the fact that only four countries (Germany. Laguerre. Kronecker. Weierstrass. and they are awakening a great interest in the modem field. among the 336 regular members at the third international mathematical congress at Heidelberg in 1904. etry. and various other leaders in mathematics. A similar change Italy.76 HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Stokes. Descartes. Laplace. It is lication the last decade. or other leading universities abroad. A recent investigation (1903) showed that 67 students in ten American institutions were taking courses in the theory of functions. and France) had more representatives scholars illustrated than the United States. 26 in the theory of invariants. Pliicker. Gauss. seen in the number in of collected works published or in course of pub- These works have usually been published under governmental patronage. Fuchs. Courses that a short ago- were offered in only a few of our leading universities are now uncommon in institutions of college given by men who have taken advanced not rank. The work large activity displayed at the present time in putting the of the masters into usable form. notably in England offered only and where courses that a few years ago were in Paris or in Germany are now within the reach of university students at home. II in the theory of elliptic functions. only natural to expect a number of other sets of collected there the remote past to in the near future. and 46 in the modem advanced theory of equations. courses which only a few years ago were rarely given in this country. Austria. list The following is only a partial of eminent mathematicians . Dirichlet. Grassmann. Huygens. so as to define clear points is of departure along the several hnes of research. present passing over the mathematical sities work done in the univertiirie and colleges of this country. is seen in other countries. Cauchy. Fermat. Berlin. and always under the editorship of some recognized authority. They include the works of Galileo. but the death roll of the last decade has been a large one. 94 in projective geom45 in the theory of groups. often by some learned society. Galois. They are often degrees in mathematics at Gottingen.

Tisserand (1896). The profound study of applied mathematics in France and England.* (1900). p. Craig (1900). are all destined to affect the tharacter of the international future. and whose collected works have been or are in the course of being pubUshed. Fuchs (1902). and nature of the published papers and works of the it is past few years. Hermite (1901). Hoppe on the side of and Paul Tannery. however. besides such writers as Frost (1898). France. . by the number all lines. reasonable to expect a great development in especially in such modem branches as the theory of groups. and Italy. higher geometry. including those that relate to the latest discoveries. and to assimilate the best that each of these coimtries has to offer to the world. Brioschi (1897). mathematics of the immediate in the intemationalizing process Probably no single influence will be more prominent than the tendency of the younger generation of American mathematicians to study in England. of course. Schlomilch (1901). Judging. arid the search for the logical bases for the science that has dis- tinguished Italy as well as Germany. Neumann (1895). Germany. 77 who have recently died. the best of mathematical physics (1904). 326 (1901). Lie (1899). II (3). Cremona (1903). and differential equations. Weierstrass (1897). Tait (1901).GENERAL TENDENCIES. impossible to detect with any certainty the present tendencies in mathematics. will be found valuable. * For in the last students wishing to investigate the work of mathematicians who died two decades of the nineteenth century. If we may judge from the works in appUed mathematics which have recently appeared. Enestrom's " Bio-bibliographie 1881-igoo verstorbenen Mathematiker. Sylvester (1897)." in the Bibliotheca Mathematica der Vol. Gibbs (1903). Bertrand (1900). Beltrami (1900). we are entering upon an era similar to that in which Laplace labored. theory of functions. the advanced work in discovery in pure mathematics in Germany and France. or of publication in the future: may be deemed worthy Cayley (1895). an era in which all these modem theories of mathematics shall find application in the study of physical problems. the modem French historians of mathematics (1904). theory of invariants. and Salmon (1904). Everett It is.

INDEX.

Abelian functions, 45.

Abel's quintic, 20.

Differential invariants, 31.

Discontinuous groups, 26.

Duality, principle of, 54.

Absolute, the, 56.

Alternants, 27.

Analytic geometry, 52.

Elementary geometry,

Elimination, 23.

64.

Anharmonic

ratio, 60.

Approxiniation of roots, 19.

Elliptic functions, 22, 44.

Ausdehnungslehre,

17.

modular functions,

Equations, binomial, 22.

differential, 35.

49.

Automorphic functions, 49.

Bibliography,

8, 68, 70.

Binary forms,

13, 31.

**fundamental theorem, modular, 25, 46.
**

Pliicker's, 56.

20.

Binomial equations,

22.

Bessel's functions, 49.

quintic, 20, 25.

Canonical forms, 31.

Calculus, 31.

of variations, 33.

theory

of, 19.

Errors, theory of, 50.

Eulerian integrals, 32.

Complex numbers,

Congruences, 12.

Conies, 61.

15.

Forms,

28.

Fourier's series, 42.

fractions, 14.

Continued

Fractions, continued, 14.

**Convergence, of series, 40. uniform, 41.
**

Covariants, 29.

Functions, Abelian, 45.

Bernoulli's, 41.

Bessel's, 49.

Cubic

surfaces, 56.

canonical, 31.

elliptic, 22, 44.

Curves, 52.

Deficiency curves, 48.

Definite integrals, 32.

elliptic

modular, 49.

33.

gamma,

hyperelliptic, 46.

De

Moivre's formula, 15.

Laplace's, 50.

Descriptive geometry, 58.

omega,

47.

Determinants, 26.

Differential calculus, 31.

periodic, 47.

symbols

for, 43.

equations, 35.

symmetric, 23.

80

Galois's group theory, 25.

INDEX.

Mittag-LeflBer's theorem, 48.

Gamma

functions,

^;^.

General tendencies,

74.

Geometr)', analytic, 52.

descriptive, 58.

Models, 57. Modem geometry, 58. mathematics,

7.

elementar}', 64.

modem,

Non-Euchdean geometry,

65.

58.

non-Euclidean, 65.

projective, 60.

**Notations for functions, 43. Numbers, complex, 15.
**

prime, 12.

Groups,

24.

theory

of equations, 21.

of, 11, 13.

Numerical equations,

19.

Hessian curve, 55.

Histories of

modem

mathematics, 68.

Observations, errors

of, 50.

Homer's method,

19.

Omega

functions, 47.

Hyperdeterminants, 25.

Hyperelliptic functions, 46.

Parallels, 66.

Hypergeometric

series, 40.

**Partial differential equations, 35.
**

Periodicals, 9.

Icosahedron equation, 21.

Imaginaries, 16.

Infinitesimal calculus, 34.

Infinite series, 39.

Periodic functions, 47.

Physics, 34.

Pliicker's equations, 54, 56.

convergence

Integral calculus, 31.

of, 40.

**Pole and polar, 59, 61. Polygons, 64.
**

Polyhedra, 64.

Potential, 34.

**Abelian, 45. International congresses, 75. Interpolation formulas, 41.
**

Invariants, 29, 46.

Irrational numbers, 13.

Prime numbers,

Probabilities, 50.

12.

Projective geometry, 6o.

Journals, mathematical, 9.

Quadratic forms,

Quantics, 28.

13.

residues, 12.

Lagrange's resolvent, 20.

series, 49.

Quantity, complex, 15.

Laplace's functions, 50.

Quaternions, 17.

Law

of reciprocity, 12.

Quintic equations, 20, 25.

Least squares, 50.

Reciprocity, 12.

Mathematical bibliography, 68.

p)eriodicals, 9.

Removal

of terms, 20.

Residues, 12.

Resolvents, 20.

works, 76.

Mathematicians, recent,

70, 77.

Resultants, 23.

Mathematics, modem,

Matrices, 19.

7.

Roots of equations, 19.

Metrical geometry, 68.

Schools of mathematics, 9.

Minimvun

surfaces, 57.

Semiconvergent

series, 34.

56. Solution of equations. Substitutions. 19. Sturm's theorem. 46. 34. geometry of. convergence of. 42. United States. Variations. the. sine. 53. ^^. 41. 57. 20. 57. 28. 40. Transcendent functions. Weierstrass's function. Theta functions. outlook in Surfaces. 38. 43. infinite. of numbers. hypergeometric. Lagrange's. 24.INDEX. cubic. Ternary forms. collected. 18. 42. 37. 19. Works of mathematicians. 52. Symbolic methods. Sextic resolvent. . functions. 54. trigonometric. 48. 11. Series. 81 Synthetic geometry. 64. 75. 39. semiconvergent. 33. 42. Singular solutions. 13. Fourier's. minimum. calculus of. Trigonometry. 49. Trilinear coordinates. Uniform convergence. numbers. 59. 40. Triangle. Symmetric determinants. 23. Theory of functions. Vector analysis. 42. Sine series. 9. 76b.

.

.

.

I860 History of modern mathematics . S64 1906a David Eugene. .WELLESLEY COLLEGE LIBRARY 3 5002 03238 3510 Science OA 26 Smith. 1944.

- [MTK] History of Modern Math
- Dissertation
- Hellenistic Mathematics
- Puzzles for Pleasure.pdf
- Symbols&Abbreviations
- Additional Mathematics - Chapter 2
- Ferreiros, Dogmas and the Changing Images of Foundations
- 3rd QUARTER EXAM MATH 4
- 7th Grade Top 10.pdf
- MathPower 10 Practise Masters
- History of Mathematics
- 160180511-How-to-Beat-the-Board-Exam-Using-Es991-Plus.pdf
- History of Mathematics
- Part of Chapter 3 the Magic & Psychology of Numbers viki©
- Methodology in Indian Mathematics
- [Arpad Szabo] the Beginnings of Greek Mathematics (BookFi.org)
- 2009 RIJC H2 Prelim Qns Paper 1
- 15 in 2.1
- admath azmil
- MATH GRADE 7 LEARNING COMPETENCY K-12
- [Arpad Szabo] the Beginnings of Greek Mathematics (BookFi.org)
- The Thomas Algorithm for Tridiagonal Matrix Equations.pdf
- Minutes of the Meeting - April 6, 2013
- Operator Methods
- Add Maths Paper 1
- WMA02_01_qure_20150126
- 4043_2013
- Informal Derivation of Ito Lemma
- h 02402058066
- Does the use of Basic Facts games on the computer Improve Students’ Basic Facts recall?
- historyofmodernm00smit

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd