ifera-Research Proposal-2009.

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DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Owen G Glenn Building 12 Grafton Road Auckland, New Zealand Telephone 64 9 373 7599 Facsimile 64 9 373 7477 The University of Auckland Private Bag 92019 Auckland, New Zealand

PhD Research Proposal
Entrepreneurial Succession: Intergenerational Entrepreneurship in Family Business
Paul J. Woodfield, PhD Candidate The University of Auckland Business School 12 Grafton Road Auckland New Zealand Ph: +6421809894 Email: p.woodfield@auckland.ac.nz
ifera-Research Proposal-2009.doc 2

RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................... 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................... 4
Background .................................................................................................................. .......................... 4 Rationale ........................................................................................... ..................................................... 5 Questions ............................................................................................................................. ................... 8

METHOD ......................................................................................................... 9
Philosophical Context Domain ................................................................................................ ............ 11 Methodical Content Domain........................................................................................................... ..... 13 Methodical Clusters (Research Strategy) .................................................................................. ......... 13 Data Collection Techniques .................................................................................................. ............. 17 Data Analysis Techniques ............................................................................ ..................................... 20 Research Contribution ....................................................................................................... .................. 21

ETHICAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................... .......................... 22 TIMELINE ...................................................................................................... 23 REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 24
ifera-Research Proposal-2009.doc 3

The aim of the proposed research is to examine how family businesses ensure that entrepreneurial activity continues across generations. The intergenerational transfer of the vision and purpose of a family business and the extent this translates into entrepreneurship in subsequent generations will be critically examined. Figure 1 will guide the research in terms of the overlapping constructs and the nexus culminated in the intersection of entrepreneurship, family business, and succession. Figure 1: Family business, entrepreneurship and succession nexus (Woodfield, 2008)

Background The accepted influences of entrepreneurial businesses involve the initiative of an individual(s) or a family that have a common goal and usually possess similar values. some rationale to the gaps being investigated. and succession). Ownership statistics of family businesses from generation to generation also identifies threats. siblings and other family members. there is evidence of threats to the model. are disproportionate. Although there are many positives in having a family business. second. However. This can lead to intense feelings that can bubble to the surface and present as resentment. a brief background of family business research. LITERATURE REVIEW The review will be in three parts.doc 4 entrepreneurship/succession overlap (6) is not spoken for to any large extent. First. 1993). bickering and deep ifera-Research Proposal-2009. the influence of the founder or pioneer may determine how much they will allow µoutsiders¶ to be involved in the business (Kets de Vries. but the Entrepreneurship (1) Family Business (2) Succession (3) E/FB overlap (4) FB/S overlap (5) E/FB/S nexus (7) E/S overlap (6) ifera-Research Proposal-2009. The overlaps. The following table gives examples of reports that suggest there is a decline in family involvement from generation to generation. questions that will be explored. The literature review will provide more background to these constructs and overlaps. but the combination is virgin. Table 1: Family involvement Source Finding Smyrnios & Dana (2007) 70% of businesses surveyed are family businesses with the larger proportion being first generation (57%). family business. and in essence disappointing given that the main threat to the business may be the family members. Lansberg (1999) identifies a common theme to be dreams not being congruent between spouses. there is relatively extensive literature.doc 5 regrets. The entrepreneurship/family business overlap (4) and the family business/succession overlap (5) have been gaining ground in the literature. however. In the case of a family business the literature indicates that values are inherently similar and can be less of a stumbling block than building a team out of individuals with different ideals. subsequently halving in the second .In each of the primary areas of interest (entrepreneurship. and the entrepreneurship/family business/succession nexus (7) is representative of significant literature in the primary areas of interest. This poor scorecard for family businesses is a concern. while Westhead and Cowling (1998) state that family businesses can become retarded if the family¶s management is reluctant to raise external funds because it fears it will result in a loss of family control. third.

216) Approximately one-third of post-start-up family businesses survive and reach the second generation of ownership. . entrepreneurship and succession that brings us to the nexus of this study The intersection between entrepreneurship and family business becomes interesting when viewed in the context of a succession process.generation (30%) and halving again to the third generation (13%). but sees that the newly formed organization is operating successfully where the management function can be ³transmitted ´ to others. One of the key concerns for family businesses is to retain the entrepreneurial spirit across generations. p. 2007b). and the strategic planning and management of the process.doc 7 needs to be developed and implemented and potentially altogether changed by successive generations to provide growth and give a sense of ownership to the business (Schwass. with 3% of all family businesses operating at the fourth-generation level and beyond Kets de Vries (1993) About 3 out of 10 family businesses make it past the first generation and only 1 in 10 make it through the third generation. The business vision ifera-Research Proposal-2009. 12% will still be viable into the third generation. 1987.´ These insights were reflected upon by Fletcher (2004. Entrepreneurship and vision become synonymous based on the creative and imaginative aspects of each. Brockhaus (1994) clarified the need for further research into succession issues. Entrepreneurial succession has been interpreted as the continuation of innovation and entrepreneurial behaviour from one generation to the next (Woodfield. yet underdeveloped.´ Davis takes the entrepreneur as an important person who not only has an ability to take risks and innovate.19) who further emphasised the need for further research into the transfer of the ³founder¶s vision to other family members. This can be manifested in a founder translating their vision through the succession process to the next generation. p. 2005).36) who observed that the ³relationship. Davis (1968) can be credited as being the first to bring into light ³entrepreneurial succession.doc 6 respect to the successors own vision for the future of the business. It is no wonder Davis honed in on family businesses to study the problem of entrepreneurial succession as he viewed the extended family as ³the most basic and stable unit of social organization in traditional society. as cited in Astrachan & Shanker (2003. ´ It is this combination of family business. According to Schwass (2005). Several articles have identified issues that arise when a business is transferred from a family business founder to the next generation. particularly entrepreneurial succession. Brockhaus was echoed by Hoy & Verser (1994. the grooming of next generation leaders needs to be adopted as both a mindset and an objective that is implemented over time. p. area of research´ . The rationale is that families grow over time increasing the number of stakeholders/owners and changing market conditions require continual adaptation and renewal. with ifera-Research Proposal-2009. Ward. intercept or overlap of entrepreneurial and family domains in the context of small and/or family businesses is an important. One of the many challenges of any business is recreating its competitive advantage to overcome retardation or demise. Rationale The research will explore the body of emerging family research and extrapolate findings in succession research.

and as a really powerful engine for business growth in the family business.´ Entrepreneurship literature tends to focus on business start-up and neglects the proposition that the entrepreneur inevitably faces retirement and needs to transfer the business to a successor. p. how so and why? Have alternative exit strategies taken precedence over maintaining a family legacy? How? Why? Have family members neglected to capture the founder¶s vision? Why? Is the founders¶ vision and purpose important to next generation successors? . the family and the business itself over time (Handler. Equally there is a need to understand the changes in the founder. First. Questions The proposed research will contribute at both the theoretical and empirical levels to the enhanced understanding of the linkages between family businesses and the entrepreneurial activity across generations. Schwass describes the entrepreneurial family business archetype as ³[an] answer to those critics who see no future for family businesses.´ (Schwass. Second. value-based vision. that there can be a problem when ³social function´ takes over from ³economic profit. Third. the entrepreneurial family business has more complexity due to an underlying vision that family members benefit from keeping the business together. 1998).´ or. or indeed no growth. Unlike the aforementioned family businesses.³The next generation leaders need to be seen and rec ognized as entrepreneurs. putting it differently ³enterprise stability´ and ³perpetuity´ which can lead to conflict with ³new economic goals of sustained investment and expansion.doc 8 2007a). however.´ Family business research will be strengthened by further analysis and discussion. as outlined earlier. The questions in Table 2 have been raised as a result of notable gaps in the literature relating to family business. the ³ephemeral family business´ is a single-generation business of a business that fails early in the second generation. An example would be a business that is centred on the entrepreneur and lacks a transition from an ³individualistic´ business to a ³collective´ family business . there is the ³preserving family business´ which lasts several generations but suffers from retarded. how and why? If no. There is a need in the literature for an understanding of the complex and dynamic nature of an active ³entrepreneurial family business succession´ (Woodfield. ifera-Research Proposal-2009. there is a lack of integration of family business and entrepreneurial endeavour in the research literature. 2005.30) Schwass (2005) broke down the family business into three archetypes. From Davis¶ studies we learn that family businesses have a ³positive impetus to entrepreneurial activity.´ Davis does point out. While there is a body of literature on succession issues. and possess unique succession processes. The main reason for choosing aspects of family businesses to observe is that a majority of independent businesses are family owned (Westhead & Cowling. family businesses are unique. 1994).in other words. Table 2: Research questions versus form of questioning Question Form of questioning Are business founders finding a suitable successor(s) from within their family? If yes. There are many examples of this phenomenon in farms and vineyards. In summary. in their own right. is the ³entrepreneurial family business´ . at times idiosyncratic. and most relevant to this research. a business that lacks sustainable.

how and why? If no.590) states ³has centrality and primacy and is the heart of the matter ´. A review of the literature emphasises problems. the focus of the questions is on vision. will be framed using the canonical development approach presented by Hindle (2004). p. In Figure 2 the µresearch question domain¶ is central to the framework ± or as Hindle (2004. When compared. This is due to the relationship the research question has with µestablished research¶ and µnew perspectives¶. why? Are there potential threats to the current leaders if incumbent generations are more entrepreneurial? If yes. why? How do family businesses ensure entrepreneurial How? ifera-Research Proposal-2009. The final question emphasises the approach one may take in learning about the succession process. First of all.doc 10 framework for discussing the chosen area of research. conflict and issues in family businesses. This approach is compared with the research process presented by Denzin and Lincoln (2005a). Hindles¶ µdomains¶ (research question. and methodical content domains) provide a ifera-Research Proposal-2009. Apart from the final question. how and why? If no. why? How can we learn from the positive experiences of existing family businesses that have gone through the succession process? How? These questions all possess a lean toward a family business succession inquiry. This contrasts with Hindle¶s approach whose framework is broken down into µdomains¶. Hindle¶s model fits with the Denzin and Lincoln model only in that the ifera-Research Proposal-2009. how and why? If no. rarely reviewing the appreciative and positive aspects of family business.doc 9 activity continues across generations? How does entrepreneurship succeed from one generation to the next? How? Do the second and third generations have more entrepreneurial vision than the founding generation? If yes. In a less diagrammatic way. Denzin and Lincoln (2005a) use µphases¶ to define the process of qualitative research. purpose and entrepreneurship and the importance of each. Table 3: Denzin and Lincolns phases versus Hindle¶s domains Phase Denzin and Lincoln Hindle . 2004) Table 3 compares the two processes (or frameworks) using Denzin and Lincoln as the control process. the relevance of qualitative research. METHOD The research process. Figure 2: A canonical development framework for choosing qualitative research methods (Source: Hindle.If yes.doc 11 µresearch question domain¶ is identified in the first and fifth phases. philosophical context. Figure 2 illustrates Hindles¶ framework for selecting qualitative methods specifically in the entrepreneurship field. and the chosen research methodology. which is well known in qualitative research and provides a good foundation to measure the sustainability of developmental canonical research approaches.

This sentiment can also be related to family business research. Other analogies given to the qualitative researcher are that they are a µmaker of quilts¶. a priori hypotheses. practices. Low and MacMillan suggested that the ³model research and future challenges ´ of entrepreneurship research would be methodology which is ³theory driven. providing a lack of objectivity. there are overlapping intersections to be explored that borrow from other disciplines including entrepreneurship/family business.doc 12 explanatory ´. that is. data analysis techniques) 5 The art. figures and measurements and is objective rather than subjective in approach. Entrepreneurial succession is a dynamic process and requires an interpretive inquiry to reveal the depth in such a process. A qualitative approach is well suited to family business and entrepreneurship research at a paradigmatic and methodological level. perhaps reflecting the elusiveness of the entrepreneurial phenomenon ´. It is fair to add that some objectivity may be presumed in qualitative research. and politics of interpretation and evaluation The research question domain (research new perspectives ) Philosophical Context Domain Philosophically the research will be interpretivist. Hindle¶s approach is an answer to the urgent need for a greater use of qualitative methods in entrepreneurship research. In contrast. Hindle (2004) suggests that there has been an explosion of qualitative research in the social sciences but ³demonstrably underrepresented ´ in entrepreneurship research. The lack of qualitative methods in entrepreneurship research is demonstrated by a review carried out by Low and MacMillan (1988). cross sectional surveys. and . single method. multiple methods and ifera-Research Proposal-2009. Qualitative research emphasises interpretive perspectives where the research is described as being bricoleur. although there is a propensity for the researcher to be more involved with the subject. Conversely they suggested that methodology in past research has been ³case studies. family business/succession. 2005b). learning how to borrow from different disciplines.1 The researcher as a multicultural subject The research question domain (the established research canon) 2 Theoretical paradigms and perspectives The philosophical context domain 3 Research strategies The methodical content domain (methodical clusters) 4 Methods of collection and analysis The methodical content domain (data collection. As outlined in Figure 1. descriptive ´. quantitative research holds the positivist worldview of facts. a µfilmmaker or person assembles images into µmontages¶ (Denzin & Lincoln. where they stated that ³there has been disappointingly slow progress in research that addresses issues of causality.

Yin (1994. This reflexivity will be clearly outlined to provide an understanding of the researchers¶ personal background. Case Study Eisenhardt (1989. Testing theory is another option. conflicts and issues in family businesses being researched as opposed to inquiries into what is going well. may be reduced with the researcher having a background in family business and entrepreneurship research and experience.doc 14 research strategy can be in part reflective of historic events while predominantly concentrating on contemporary events.case studies provide description whilst testing and/or generating theory. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a forward-thinking process for the evaluation of organisations.534) defined case study ³as a research strategy that focuses on the dynamics present within a single setting ´. A major part of the inquiry is the manner in which the research will be conducted. Any attempt to build a theory from a clean slate would be tainted by this knowledge and bias. Yin (2003) provides a table of relevant situations for the various research strategies available. Case studies as a ifera-Research Proposal-2009. These questions beg answers to the µhow. the literature and tradition suggests problems. At this point. They are experiment. only two of the strategies are options for qualitative research and require no control of behavioural events .8) suggests that ³each case study relies on many of the same techniques as history. but it adds two sources of evidence not usually included in the historians repertoire: direct observation and systematic interviewing ´. and that positive change can be created in an organisation through this form of inquiry (Cooperrider. Whitney.5) However. & Stavros. According to Eisenhardt there are three ways case studies could be used to accomplish the researcher¶s aims . however. history and case study (Table 4). 2003. p. the chosen strategies for researching ³Entrepreneurial Succession: Intergenerational Entrepreneurship in Family Business ´ are both the case study approach and historical approach. Merriam (1998) suggests that the elements of historical research and case study often merge. however. 2003). the working title ³ Entrepreneurial Succession: Intergenerational Entrepreneurship in Family Business ´ is not in the form of a question. As mentioned earlier. values and beliefs that may influence the research conclusions. however. It is logical that history does not concentrate on contemporary events. The questions outlined earlier do.history and case study. Table 4: Relevant situations for different research strategies (Source: Yin. The assumption is made that every organisation has strengths and areas that work well. why¶ form of questioning.entrepreneurship/succession. it would be difficult to test a theory with the constructs being used. In summary. The proposed research using case studies will provide description and potentially generate specific theory. There are three prominent strategies that answer µhow and why¶ questions. In the ³methodical content domain ´ the strategies to be used in the inquiry will be discussed. The other important factor is that history and case study have differing foci when it comes to contemporary events. ifera-Research Proposal-2009. This is mainly because the research that brings family business and entrepreneurship together is relatively immature .doc 13 Methodical Content Domain Methodical Clusters (Research Strategy) The choice of research strategy has been centered on the form of the research question. p. recognize what is being investigated and provide enough information to identify an applicable strategy. This has led to the chosen mode of inquiry being an ³appreciative inquiry ´. Objectivity. p.

especially those in the horticultural (including viticulture) and agricultural industries. whether for building theory. p. whether through observation. fabrication. When this is considered with succession and the intergenerational transfer of a business.´ (Dyer & Wilkins.615). History was defined by Collingwood (1976) to be an attempt to reconstruct rationality through a narrative based on identified primary documentary sources. and make sense of these.doc 16 In summary. In addition to the µnumber of cases¶ debate. Merriam goes on to add that there would need to be a limit to the number of people involved. On the other hand.doc 17 The proposed study will consist of three site case studies from which the researcher gathers qualitative data for interpretation and analysis. The argument carried on with an answer by Eisenhardt (1991) who conceded some of Dyer and Wilkin¶s critique but equally took resolve in her original stance that multiple case studies provided a good theoretical base for research. there is need for further description of this scenario rather than applying a theory which would demonstrate putting a square peg in a round hole. The essential argument is that Eisenhardt¶s method focuses on ³surface data rather than deeper social dynamics . to crystallize what issues. 2004). Hindle (2004) recognized historical research as providing good illumination and understanding of phenomena within the field of entrepreneurship. Merriam (1998) suggests that boundedness can be assessed by establishing how finite the data collection would be. Historical In support of the case study strategy. dilemmas or crisis occurred. The rationale being that good depth can be accomplished with a smaller concentration of cases without relying on one case to provide all of the insights (see Research Design). testing theory or providing description. distribution). in a time-construed environment such as a generation. The limitation or boundedness of the proposed research would be confined to the chosen family business.and lacking. Eisenhardt (1989) took the stance that ³while there is no ideal number of cases. Another consideration is the industry in which the research will be situated. On one side. alongside the circumstantial complexities as a result of needing to find an appropriate successor(s). service. The current research will concentrate on the wine industry because of its diversity and its natural cross over into so many industries (manufacturing. The research issues will emerge . For research into ³Entrepreneurial Succession: Intergenerational Entrepreneurship in Family Business ´. interview or focus groups. there needs to be a determination of whether the phenomenon being studied is sufficiently bounded.doc 15 There are contrasting views regarding the approach for case study research. a number between 4 and 10 usually works well ´. this is challenged with a critique by Dyer and Wilkins (1991) who had a view that single in-depth case studies can have more validity than multiple case studies. the psychological complexities will be the founder¶s vision and entrepreneurial fervour. Family businesses are prevalent in most industries. Historical research was observed with respect to both the psychological complexities and the circumstantial complexities of the range of time-construed environments (Hindle. It is necessary to explore the history of the family and the previous relationships and intergenerational transfers (if any). 1991. ifera-Research Proposal-2009. When this is applied to the questions presented. ifera-Research Proposal-2009. three case sites will be chosen in the wine industry. There is argument about whether multiple or single case studies are appropriate for creating good theory. it has been resolved that history plays an important role in supporting the contemporary focus that case studies represent. ifera-Research Proposal-2009. there are some issues surrounding case study research and emphasise the importance of a good research design to validate the data.

The clash of different values often . Conflicting interpretations between founder. as data collection proceeds. change. second. p. There will be continual interaction between the literature and field work. political. why. alter. such as economic. political/emotional clashes Without objective criteria. Changing Situations (Source: An abbreviated version of McCaskey (1982). As cited in Weick (1995a. With recognition of this perspective ³sensemaking ´ will be employed as a perspective or focus of inquiry. other cases through which the case is recognized. particularly its activity and functioning.16). conflicting interpretations For those data that do exist. Because the social unit being studied is a family business. is ³making something sensible ´ (Weick. An analogy that best encapsulates the richness of qualitative research data collection is the term crystallization. next generation. fifth. Sensemaking. Stake (1995) identified six sources from which qualitative research data are collected for case studies. p. Table 5: Characteristics of ambiguous. and employees. interviews and focus groups. The Executive Challenge: Managing change and ambiguity. Weick (1995a) described sensemaking as a concept as opposed to a theory and identified the ifera-Research Proposal-2009. its physical setting. and sometimes conflicting interpretations. transmutations. In the present study the methods of extracting data from these sources will comprise of in-depth interviews.from the literature and will be interpreted through a sensemaking focus of inquiry (elaborated on under µData Collection Techniques¶) during observation. and angles of approach. its historical background. Richardson (1998.93)) Characteristic Description and Comments Current research Multiple. players develop multiple. and sixth. players rely more on personal and/or professional values to make sense of the situation. Data Collection Techniques Case study data can come from a variety of sources. focus groups and observation. sub stances. third. legal. The facts and their significance can be read several different ways. Table 5 presents some of the characteristics that will assist with the focus of inquiry. but are not amorphous ´ (lacking definite form). First. it is considered that there is sufficient evidence to assume the study will be sufficiently bounded. those informants through whom the case can be known. 1995a. and aesthetic. the nature of the case.358) explained that the crystal ³combines symmetry and substance with the infinite variety of shapes. Crystals grow. as outlined earlier. multidimensionalities. other contexts. and with what effects ´. Different value orientations.doc 18 central questions of a person interested in sensemaking as being ³how they [people] construct what they [people] construct. p. fourth.

The interviews are carried out with key people in the business such as the founder or potential successors. the downside is that. the locus of decision making and other responsibilities is vague or in dispute. The questions in the interviews will be open-ended and encourage unsolicited discussion. Observation Sensemaking. there could be ifera-Research Proposal-2009. During the succession process there will be a shift in influence. or inaccuracies due to poor recall. particularly for finding out the founder(s) and business(es) history. p. Family and business roles cross over and can be a source of conflict.doc 19 bias. second. Focus groups Focus groups are an efficient way of gathering information in a short amount of time because of their synergistic nature and the fact that they capitalize on group dynamics (Kamberelis & Dimitriadis. The questions proposed in a focus group are important in acquiring feedback about the business being studied and involve those in lower positions in the organisation. The strengths of data collection through interviews is that it focuses directly on the case study topic and is insightful. allowing examination and . 1995b) provides distinctive interpretation. p. On important issues. Participation in decision-making fluid Who the key decision makers and influence holders are changes as players enter and leave the decision arena.politically and emotionally changes the situation. Yin (2003) identifies two jobs that need to be carried out in the interview process. (Weick. The interviews will make the main contribution to the study. there is a need to follow a line of inquiry ± in this case an ³appreciative inquiry ´. 2001. 2005). responsibilities are unclear Players do not have a clearly defined set of activities they are expected to perform. unless the questions are well constructed.86). however. Manion. ask the actual questions in an unbiased manner serving the needs of the line of inquiry. Differing values between founder and successive generations.271. or simply the interviewee gives the interviewer what he/she wants to hear (Cohen. Interviews Interviews are an important source of case study information. The focus groups will provide an objective non-family view of the business and will be used to correlate data provided through the interviews. Roles are vague. First. 2003. Yin. & Morrison. Historical data will also be gathered through the interview process.

594) identifies data analysis techniques as ³methods for analyzing data irrespective of either the methodical cluster within which the technique is applied or the methods used to collect the data ´. documentation such as annual reports will provide secondary data on the growth of the business and its fiscal standing. This means writing down whatever impressions occur. whilst identifying underlying structures and mechanisms.131-132). and either manual or computer assisted codification (for example NVivo). There will be less emphasis on observation as a strategy. Field notes will be important to capture the essence of what is being observed. There is data reduction (selecting. data will follow a process of transcription. p. patterns. Documentation and archival evidence Documentation can span a long span of time and is useful for obtaining historical data that may not be otherwise accessible through observation or interviews. interviews. Data Analysis Techniques Qualitative data analysis follows three steps once the data is gathered. which is more reactive. however. 1994). explanations. analysis and presentation of results. propositions) (Miles & Huberman. transforming) data display (organized.doc 21 and concepts (patterns). 2003. The relationship between the themes will be identified and collated into a thematic conceptual matrix (Miles & Huberman. compressed). drawing out themes ifera-Research Proposal-2009. ifera-Research Proposal-2009. One weakness of documentation and archival evidence is that there tends to be a bias towards that of the author and access can sometimes be a problem due to privacy reasons. Table 6: Construct establishment in literature Entrepreneurship Family business Succession Entrepreneurship (E) Family business (F) 3 Succession (S) 2 4 Wine industry (W) 2 3 3 . the downside is that observation is time consuming and events may proceed differently because it is being observed (Yin.interpretation beyond empirical data. possible configurations. 1994. The process will include collecting data (observation. Each data collection method can benefit from content analysis. p. it will play a role in the study. With this in mind. Hindle (2004. focusing. etc. and conclusion drawing/verification (noting irregularities. 1989). The strengths of data collection through observation is that it covers events in real time which captures the context of an event. abstracting. coding. Archival evidence such as history books and newspaper articles can provide a significant part of the study storyline from the perspective on an ³outsider´. It can be difficult to know whether what is being observed is useful or not in the future (Eisenhardt.) which will be coded (reduced) and then presented as an integrative diagram (organized).doc 20 p. However. however. simplifying. as opposed to sifting through what may seem to be important.86). Research Contribution The foreseeable contributions of this research are: Academic The overlap of the constructs is demonstrated as an indicitive estimate of how established the overlaps are in the literature (Table 6).

There are some industry related journals such as the International Journal of Wine Business Research that will also be targeted. p. a basic moral principle is that deception and misrepresentation are no longer credible means to extract information from participants. ifera-Research Proposal-2009. fourth. fraudulent materials and omissions. privacy protection can be meaningless if ³there is no consensus or unanimity on what is public and private ´. third. however. The consent will be formalized through a written agreement identifying the boundaries and extent of the permission to interview people. An example for documentation and archival evidence would be the need to adhere to copyright and issues to do with µwhat is public and what is private¶. However. Academy of Management Journal. The output of this research will be targeting the Family Business Review.000 6 months Methodology 15. The minutiae of ethical requirements including consent forms. The research into family businesses will be carried out based on four guidelines (Christians. (Punch. 2005). Journal of Small Business Management. Journal of Business Venturing. participant information sheets. As it stands. and schedule of questions will be addressed in the ethics proposal. 1994. second. TIMELINE Activity Words Duration (Months) Full proposal 7000 3 Months Literature review 20. informed consent from subjects who must voluntarily agree to participate based on full and open information. privacy and confidentiality needs to be respected. For example. there needs to be an assurance that data is accurate without fabrications. on site observation tends to be more interpretive with no script.000 6 months Data gathering 12 months (overlapping with methodology) Data analysis 20. 2005). and relies on data captured by way of field notes and regular diary notes.doc 22 Practical The practical contributions include: ‡ Providing a framework for sustainable family business ‡ Further research into the area of family businesses and the entrepreneurship and succession overlaps ‡ Recommendations into succession and estate planning ‡ Understanding the dynamics of an entrepreneurial family business ETHICAL REQUIREMENTS Interviews are insightful for the data collection process. although there is a different dynamic when the process is facilitated. Interviews and focus groups have a similar process of consent. I would also get consent for audio and/or video recording of participants. these four ifera-Research Proposal-2009.94 as cited in Christians. This is where accuracy can be an issue especially as real time events are not noted immediately.doc 23 guidelines are just as applicable to observation techniques and the collection of data via documentation and archival evidence.000 8 months Conclusion and . Theory and Practice. there is a downside when it comes to researcher bias and inaccuracies due to poor recall.1 = Less established in literature 5 = More established in literature (Combination EFSW = 1) It is clear that there is a contribution to be made when researching entrepreneurship with family business and succession. First. Entrepreneurship.

Academy of Management Review.. 34-48. Emerging business.. 7 (2). Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. (1989). 14 (4). H.000 2 months Amendments and revisions 2 months Total (excl. R. economy: A closer look. Collingwood. K. Academy of Management Review. Denzin. (1976).). S. & Morrison. Eisenhardt. The dynamics of family controlled firms: The good and the bad news. 887-907).). K. emerging field: entrepreneurship and the family firm. 14. (1994). Succession in Family Business: A Review of the Research Family Business Review. K. 16 (3). Y. C. M. T. M. Better stories and better constructs: The case for rigor and comparative logic. (Eds.. (1991).. (2004). 13 (3). The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed. D. G. Lincoln (Ed s. R.. 613. 28 (6). proposal) 75. F.implications 15. Cooperrider.. Davis. Whitney. S. L. & Lincoln. In N. S. L. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research. Organisational (re)emergance and entrepreneurial development in a second-generation family firm. 575607. Lincoln (Eds. Better stories. N. L. & Lincoln. Appreciative Inquiry Handbook: The first in a series of AI workbooks for leaders of change . (2001). C.S. & Dimitriadis. H. In N. Handler. K.. A. M. pp. Family businesses' contribution to the U. 25. Denzin. Eisenhardt. K. Administrative Science Quarterly. 21 (3).. Kamberelis. Austin: University of Texas Press. Fletcher. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Brockhaus. Bedford Heights: Lakeshore Publishers. Christians. (2005b). N. 16 (3). critique. The Sage handbook of qualitative research. to generate better theory: A rejoiner to Eisenhardt. S. D. F. Denzin & Y. The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed.). Research methods in education (5th ed. Denzin & Y. Hoy. K. 211. G. M. Essays in the philosophy of essays .). G. D. p. 59-71. S. 19 (1). W. (2003). G. 1-32). K. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 131-164). New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Academy of Management Review. Choosing qualitative methods for entrepreneurial cognition research: A canonical development approach. Denzin & Y. Family Business Review.). C. Thousand Oaks: Sage. pp.. M. 19 (1). Introduction. Ethics and politics in qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage. (1994). Kets de Vries. Manion. 15. G. S. K. (3rd ed. (2005a). 190 pages) 36 months (3 years) ifera-Research Proposal-2009. 532-550.. Building theories from case study research.000 (approx. (1993). (2004). Entrepreneurial succession.. W. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Lincoln (Eds. & Verser. (1994). and lessons. M. 10 (1/2). & Wilkins. & Stavros. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.. 620. (1968). J. J. (2005). Hindle. Cohen. Y.. & Shanker. Organizational Dynamics. Dyer.doc 24 REFERENCES Astrachan. K. not better constructs. L.000 4 months Introduction 5. G. 15. The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed. Entrepreneurship and family business research: Comparisons. (2003). (2005). pp. . In N.). (1991). R.

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