Structural Intervention

Structural interventions also called techno structural intervention is a term for broad class of interventions or change efforts aimed at improving organizational effectiveness through changes in the task, structural, technological, and goal processes in the organization. Structural interventions include changes like:       How the overall work of the organization is divided into units Who reports to whom Methods of control The spatial arrangements of equipments and people Work flow arrangements Changes in communications and technology

Types of Structural Interventions
 Socio technical systems (STS).

It is largely associated with experiments that emerged under the auspices of the Travistock Institute in Great Britain. These efforts generally attempted to create a better “fit” among the technology, structure, and social interaction of a particular production unit in a mine, factory or office. STS has two basic premises:  Effective work systems must jointly optimize the relationship between their social and technical parts.
 Such systems must effectively manage the boundary separating and relating them to the

environment. In such a way that effective exchanges occur with the environment along with protection from external disruption. The implementation of STS is seen as highly participative involving all of the relevant stakeholders like employees engineers staff experts and managers.

 Self-managed teams.

task significance. Pepsi. Self-managed teams:     Are more independent than other types of team. use of diagnosis. Model suggested that organizations analyze jobs using the five core job characteristics. planning. autonomy and feedback from the job. It is measured by its results. skills to have participative meetings. expediting. and their roles will change to emphasize planning.Several problems are typically encountered in moving towards the use of self managed teams.i. Favors natural leaders. and feedback. Organizations where self managed teams have been followed extensively are Digital. quality control. Help to flatten organizational structure. budgeting. feedback from job. Problems are like:  What to do with the first-line supervisors who are no longer needed as supervisors. task significance. A self-managed team is not just a group of people working together but also a genuine collaboration.e. and coordinating.cola and many smaller organizations  Work redesign. task identity. task identity. These managers need considerable training to acquire skills in group leadership and ability to delegate. then redesign of group work: skill variety. etc. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham provided an OD approach to work redesign based on a theoretical model of what job characteristics lead to the psychological states that produce what they call ‘high internal work motivation. Frito-lay general electric. not the performance of its individual member. According Hackman and Oldham organization analyses jobs using the five core job characteristics .’ Their approach has the characteristics of OD. Eliminate intermediate levels of responsibility and removes the requirement for middle management.  Managers that are now one level above the teams will likely oversee the activities of several teams. autonomy. skill variety. participation. Skill variety Task identity Task significance Job autonomy Related to experienced meaningfulness of the work Related to experienced responsibility for the outcome of the work .

autocratic mechanisms designed to force compliance with a superior’s directives and reinforce a one-on-one leadership mode. Morale and job satisfaction among participants were reported to have increased. Quality circles consist of a group of 7 – 10 employees from a unit who have volunteered to meet together regularly to analyze and make proposals about product quality and other problems.  Management by objectives (MBO) and appraisal. support. Giving an example of research at General Electric found that criticism by the supervisor tended to produce defensive and impaired performance. Quality circles contribute toward total quality management. .Feedback - Related to psychological state of knowledge of the result of the work activities. openness. It has been extensively used in Japan.  Quality of work life projects (QWL). The concept is a form of group problem solving and goal setting with a primary focus on maintaining and enhancing product quality. MBO programs are unilateral. Management by objective (MBO) programs evolve from a collaborative organization diagnosis and are systems of joint target setting and performance review designed to increase a focus on objectives and to increase frequency of problem solving discussions between supervisors and subordinates and within work teams. and that needed to be a day to day activity. A follow up study at general electric found that appraisals went better in a climate promoting trust.  Quality circles. and development. The outcome of these job characteristics is:    High work motivation High satisfaction High work effectiveness. that goal settings and mutual goal settings between superior and subordinate were associated with improved performance.

 Physical settings and OD Physical settings are an important part of organization culture that work groups should learn to diagnose and manage. quality and safety problems. physical setting were found to interfere with effective group and organizational functioning. Make recommendations for improvement. work planning Regular plant and team meetings. and about which top management needs input in designing plants and buildings. and Then monitor the resulting change efforts. Assurance of no loss of job Training for team problem solving Use of quality circles Participation in forecasting. Sometime. which introduces and sustains changes over time. It is consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that:    Study what changes are needed in the organization.  Parallel learning structures (or collateral organizations). . QWL Features=          Voluntary involvement on the part of employees Union agreement with process and participation. These features include union involvement .a focus on work teams. problem solving session by the work teams in which the agenda may include productivity. autonomy in planning work the availability of skill training and increased responsiveness to employees by supervision. Encouragement for skill development.An attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organisation and to institute a mechanism. Job rotations.

Features that characterize TQM:    Primary emphasis on customers. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches.  Total quality management (TQM). thus adversely affect the productivity of the director. . Participative management.  Reengineering. Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. self-managed teams and task forces.       Competitive benchmarking.statistical quality control. An emphasis on teams and teamwork. Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.Examples: A personnel director having a secretary share the same office. An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. resulting lack of privacy and typewriter noise. yet providing no space for more than 6 people to meet at one time. It is also called continuous quality improvement. statistical process control. Top management support on an ongoing basis. and extensive use of employee participation. A factory Management encouraged group decision making. A major emphasis on continuous learning. including the use of quality circles.

The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. Reengineering is a top-down process. Diagnosis of the current state of the organization using the values as template. visits to other companies.  Self-Design Strategy It is a “learning model” to help organization develop “the build-in capacity to transform themselves to achieve high performance in today’s competitive and changing environment. Reengineering seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. the number of organizational subsystems altered.    Clarification of the values that will guide the design process. and/or the depth of the cultural change involved. extensive use of self-managed teams. and extensive training. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. contemporary measures of performance. High involvement organizations feature decision making moved downward as far as possible. mean organizational change that is massive in terms of the number of organizational units involved. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures.  Large-Scale Systems Change and Organizational Transformation Large-scale systems change. and attendance at conferences. but may not occur if environmental conditions are unfavorable or if the high-involvement design is poorly implemented. eliminating. presentations. quality. participative and shared leadership.  High-Involvement and High-Performance Work Systems High-performance and high involvement are possible outcomes in organizations that are designed for high involvement. widely shared information. . such as cost. and speed. Changes are then designed and implemented in an interactive manner. the number of people affected. service. Basic components:  An educational component consisting of readings. compensation systems that link rewards to individual and team performance. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization.

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