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Tell-el-Maskhutah 1

The Names of the Ancient City 5

The Desckiption of Pithou 9

The History op Pithom 11

The Monuments Discoveeed 13

Geographical Remarks 20

The Route of the Exodus 23

Ptolemy Philadelphos 26

Appendix 1 29

Appendix II 32

The Memoir which I herewith have the honour of submitting to the pubHc
represents the first-fruits of the first excavations carried out by The Egypt
Exploration Fund, under the gracious authorization of His Highness the
Khedive, during the spring-time of the year 1883.

I shall readily be believed Avhcn I assert that the life of the Egyptologist

knows no keener delight than that of searching out the manifold secrets which
yet lie hidden beneath the sands and mounds of Egypt. Of all pursuits

which the hunting-grounds of his science have to offer him, this is not only the
most attractive and the most exciting, but it is that Avhich makes the largest

demand upon our patience, and which frequently rewards us in the most un-

expected manner. In publishing, therefore, the residts of this first expedition,

I hasten to seize the opportunity of paying a just tribute of gratitude to those

founders and promoters of The Egypt Exploration Fund to whom I am
indebted for my initiatory experience as an explorer in the Eastern Delta of

the Nile. The first name which presents itself to my pen —the name of Sir

Erasmus Wilson, the enlightened patron of Egyptology in England, and first

President of The Egypt Exploration Fund — recalls the heavy bereavement

Avhich the Society has recently sustained in the loss of that eminent man
whose commanding intellect ranged over the Avidest domains of knowledge, and
Avhose nobleness of character and inexhaustible liberality have graven an
ineff'aceable record upon the age in which he lived. I also tender my
acknowledgements to the members of the Committee, and especially to the two
Honorary Secretaries, Miss J^melia B. Edwards and Mr. Reginald Stuart Poole,
to whose indefatigable zeal the foundation and popularization of the Society
are due, and to both of whom I am much indebted for their constant support.

and also for their valuable assistance in the revision of this ]\Iemoir for the

press. To my illustrious friend M. Maspero, Director-General of the Museums

of Egypt, I offer my warm thanks for the cordiality with which he welcomed
me as a fellow- worker on Egyptian soil, and for the invaluable way in which he
furthered the objects of my mission by instructions to the local authorities.

Nor must I omit the names of either M. Jaillon, the distinguished French
engineer, or of my learned compatriot, Professor Paul Chaix ; the first of whom
not only furnished me with the necessary labourers, but himself shared in the
daily toils and anxieties of the work, while the second has kindly taken upon
himself to prepare the Map by which this Memoir is illustrated.

In the deductions which I have drawn from the inscriptions discovered

at Pithom, I well know liow much is conjectural ; but I venture never-
theless to hoiie that this brief essay may at all events incline the jmblic to

appreciate the important ends to be attained by the exploration of Lower

Egypt. Not mere antiquities for exhibition in the galleries of museums, not
even works of art, no matter how great their artistic value, are the main
objects of our quest ; but rather the solution of important historical and
geographical problems, and the discovery of names, of facts, and, if possible,

of dates.

My reward Avill be great should the perusal of these pages awaken a more
general interest in Egyptology, which, as a field of study, embraces a period of

more than forty centuries, and as a field of exploration is of vast extent, of

unexampled wealth, and in many parts comparatively unknown.

The plates and maps have been executed by the Typographic Etching


Malagny, near Geneva.

August, 1884.



TELL EL MASK H UTAH. belonging to the priestly order, as one may judge
from their costume and the caps they wear. The
On the south side of the sweet water canal monument is still standing upright, and the
wliich runs from Cairo to Suez through the Wadi figures are turned towards the east. They were
Tumilat, about twelve miles from IsmaiHah, are buried up to the waist ; but having dug down
the ruins of European houses now abandoned, to the feet, we have been able to see the whole
l)ut wliere a few years ago was a flourishing of them and to measure them. The back of the
village. This was one of the chief settlements of arm-chair is entirely covered with hieroglyphics,
the engineers and workmen who dug the IsmaiHah which have the appearance of a regular and com-
canal, and there was at that time a railway station plete picture. Among the ruins are many blocks
at this point. The Arabic name of the place is of sandstone and granite inscribed with hierogly-
Tell cl Maskltiitah, "the mound of the statue." phics, and all such remains as mark the sites of

The French have called it Bamses. destroyed cities in Lower Egypt."

None of these names are ancient. The Arabic Since the above description was written, the
TcU cl Maskhutah is derived from a monolithic aspect of the place has changed, the numerous
group in red granite,- representing a king sitting blocks of which the Frenchman speaks have been
between two gods. This monolith has been removed, or covered by the sand ; and till a few
described by the French engineers who surveyed years ago, the site of the old city was indicated
Egypt at the end of the last century. The place only by a hardly discernible mound, or i-ather an
was then called Ahou Kachah or Abou Keycheyd. undulation of the ground on the top of which
We know, from the valuable memoir of the stood the monolith, the size and execution of
engineer Le Pere, that " these ruins bore all the which showed that it must have belonged to a

characteristics of an Eg^'jitian city," among them temple of some importance.

being a very remarkable monument, of which he The inscriptions have been published^ and
speaks as follows :^ " It consists of a monolith of deciphered. They show that the three figures
granite, cut in the form of an arm-chair, on which represent Barneses II. between two solar gods, Ba
are seated three Egyptian figures, apparently and Tttm. The circumstance that the king has

"Description de I'Egj'pte," Ed. Panckoueke, vol. xi. ' Wilkinson, " Materia Hieroglypliii.-a,"' App. 4. Piissc
p. 295. Mon. de I'Egypte, PL XIX.



placed himself among the divinities led M. Lepsius' to trace the direction of the eastern side, and to

to considei- him as the local god to whom the city reconstruct the plan of the whole enclosure ; but

was consecrate, and therefore to identify Tell el on that side, owing to the vicinity of the old canal,

Maskhutah with the city of " Eaamses" bnilt by the wall has very likely been destroyed to make
the Israelites dnriug the Oppression. When, v/ay for the houses of the inhabitants. At the
therefore, a party of French engineers settled time when the villa was constructed, nothing

there in 18G0, and gathered a great nnmber of except the monolith and the northern side of the

workmen aronnd them, the name of Eamses was enclosure could be seen above the sand. One
adopted for the locality, and has remained in use day, however, in digging for the garden, the work-

np to the present time. For several years men came across another monolith of the same
Ramses was a place of some importance — size as the first, the pair having once stood
European and Arab village, distinguished by the symmetrically at the entrance of some edifice.

elegant villa of M. Paponot. But since the canal Concluding that these monuments flanked each
was finished, all the inhabitants have left the side of an avenue, M. Paponot continued the
place, which is once again a desert, the ruins of excavations in the same direction. The result

houses and of a mosk, and the wasted gardens was the discovery of two sphinxes in black
being the only witnesses of its former prosperity. granite, placed also on each side of the avenue or
The mound or lc6m of Maskhutah is situate on dromos ;
then, farther on, a shrine or iiaos in red

the southern side of the present canal, the high sandstone, very well executed, and a large stele in

banks of which are crowned by the earth-works red granite which was lying flat, and had been
thrown up by Arabi's soldiers. Before the making used as the foundation of a Roman wall of baked

of the Ismailiah canal this place was watered by bricks.

an older work, called the canal of the Wadi, which The discovery of these monuments, which all

is now only a marsh full of reeds. Moreover, belong to the reign of Rameses II., seemed to offer

it is still possible to trace the bed and part of the additional evidence in favour of M. Lepsius's
banks of a much older channel, the canal of the theory that this was the site of Raamses. M.
Pharaohs, re-established by Ptolemy Philadelphos Maspero, who published some of them,' came also
and again by the Emperor Trajan. It skirted the to the conclusion that it was a city of Raamses,
south-eastern side of the city. perhaps that of the Israelites, the starting point
Standing on the bank of the canal, and looking of the nation going to conquer the land of Canaan.
from Arabi's redoubt towards the desert,- we first This, however, was not yet a well established fact.

note two sides of a very thick wall meeting at The geography of the eastern part of the Delta is

right angles, and constructed of very large bricks. not nearly so well known as that of Upper Egypt.
The northern side rises above the sand to a We are acquainted only by name with a great
height (jf some two or three yards. On the number of its cities, canals, and lakes. Not only
western side it used to be entirely covered by in the hieroglyphical lists of nomes which are
sand ; but it was laid bare a few years ago, and inscribed in several temples, but in the writings of
its great width (eight yards) gives it the ap- the Greeks and Romans, we have a great deal of
pearance of a causeway. The angle of the information regarding the Delta, which was visited
southern side is still discernible ; but that part is by several invading armies and by a considerable
entirely covered by the villa Paponot. It is easy number of traders and travellers. But most of the

' Lcpsius " Chroiiologie," p. 348 ;

" Zeitsclir. fiir JE'^. ^ " Kevue Archeologiquu," Nouv. St'i-ie, vol. xx.xiv..
Sprncho," ISGG, p. .32. =
Cf. Pl.ite 1. p. 320.

sites have not yet been identified ; and except a opinion, and adhered to M. Lepsius's view, so

few famous places like Heliopolis, Tanis, Mendes, placing Eaamses at Maskhutah, and Pithom at

and Bubastis, the reconstruction of the geography Abu Sulcyman, near the railway station of Aim
is still a guess-work, in which conjecture occupies Hammed.
a large place. The only means of bringing some The question re-opened by those papers, and
light to bear on these obscure questions is to the desire to come nearer if possible, to the

make excavations. At this present time fresh and solution of the Exodus problem, induced the

decisive information is to be expected not so much society to choose Maskhutah from among the

from the study of written texts, as from the pick various localities where the kindness and the
and spade. liberality of M. ]\Iaspero allowed excavations to

Owing to the uncertainty in the determination be made. And thus the great task of the explo-

of localities, two very different theories have been ration of the Eastern Delta was begun.
started as to the route of the Exodus and the Before attempting to excavate, it was necessary
sea which the Israelites had to cross. The old to study the monuments formerly discovered near

theory makes them start from Wadi Tumilat and M. Paponot's villa by the French engineer
cross the sea somewhere in the neighbourhood M. Jaillon, and now deposited in one of the squares
of Suez. The new theory originated by Dr. of Ismailiah. They consist, as has been said
Schleiden and M. Brugsch supposes them to before, of a monolith of red granite ; a great tablet

have departed from the country round Tanis, and of the same stone ; two sphinxes in black granite ;

maintains that the crossing of the sea must be and a broken naos of red sandstone of the same
understood as meaning that the Israelites followed style and material as those which may be seen at

a narrow causeway between the Mediterranean and San. The naos is also a monolith, but the inner

the Serbonian bog. That dangerous track still part is not empty. It contains a recumbent

exists at present, and is subject to be wholly sphinx with a human head, not detached, rising

washed over when there is a heavy sea. from the floor.

This last theory, which has been advocated with One sees at first sight that all these monu-
a great deal of learning and supported by very ments have been dedicated to the god Turn, of
ingenious arguments, has occasioned much dis- whom the other form is Hovemhlm, Harmacliis,
cussion, not only Egyptologists, but also the same who was worshipped at HehopoHs. It

among those who take interest in biblical geo- is he who is represented on both sides of the

graphy. On which side lay the truth '? Would tablet, once as Tum, with a human head bearing

it ever be possible to arrive at any certain con- the double diadem, and once as Harmachis with

clusion, or at least to find one or two definite a hawk's head surmounted by a solar disk. Another

points of that famous route ? This very im- emblem of Harmachis is the sphinx with a human
portant and obscure question has been brought head, of which a gigantic example is seen in the

before the English public in the most complete sphinx near the Great Pyramid. Each time
and scientific way, in a series of papers^ by the Barneses II. is mentioned he is spoken of as the

distinguished secretary of our society. Miss Amelia friend of Tum or Harmachis. It is clear there-

B. Edwards, who, after having gathered and sifted fore that Tum was the god of the city. It is

the evidence on both sides, discarded M. Brugsch's true that the name of I'i Turn, the abode of Tum,
is not to be found on the monuments of
Ismailiah; but it may have been carved on the
"Was Eamses II. the Pliaracih of tlie Oppression f by
some of the lines which
top of the tablet, or in
Amelia B. Edwards. A series of Papers in " Knowledge,"
years 1682 and 1883. are now obliterated; besides, I subsequently found
B 2


one of the lost fragments of the naos, containing which had been used as mortars, and a great
not only the cartouche of Ramses II., hut also quantity of broken pottery of the coarsest de-

the name of the region in wliieh Pi Tum was con- scription, cups, jugs, and large amphorjT?, some
from of which were perfect, and are now in the
structed, Thulit,
^^ P I
, also knoAvn to us
Museum of Boolak.
other monuments discovered, as well as from the
Within the area of what I regard as the sacred
lists of nomes, and the papyri of the British
enclosure, the excavations were carried northward,
in the line of the dromos of the temple ; and then
The result of this preliminary study was there-
beyond that area we laid open a large space of
fore to show that according to all probability the
perfectly level ground, which concealed the thick
city which would be discovered at Maskhutah was
walls of the store-chambers. Shafts were also
not Raamses, but I'ltlmiii, tJic citij or the uhodc of
sunk in various places, which brought to light
Turn.. This conjecture has been entirely borne out
everywhere brick walls of different periods, which
by the results of the excavations.
illustrate the history of the city of Pithom.
began working on the 5th of February, with

the most obliging and effective help of M. Jaillon

The chief monuments discovered, which, —
according to the contract made with the Egyptian
who bi'ought with him a gang of about one hundred
Government, through the courteous Director-
workmen a considerable tacility in a place ab-

General of the Museums M. Maspero,

of Egypt,
solutely desert, and where it was necessary to
are the property of the Boolak Museum, and were
remove a great quantity of sand for, as the
monuments were neither very numerous nor very

transported thither — are the following, according

large, it is likely that nothing at all would have

to chronological order : —
been found, had we only set a few labourers to
A hawk of black granite, an emblem of
Harmachis, bearing the oval of Barneses 11.^
dig here and there.
(Plate XII.)
We excavated first the south-eastern angle of
the enclosure,^ not far from the place where the
A fragment of red sandstone, belonging to
the naos at Ismailiah, of the same prince,
former monuments had been discovered, between
the monolith and the enclosure.
and bearing the geographical name of
There the liim
Thuku. (Plate III. a.)
or mound rose to its greatest height ; and there also
it seemed Hkely that we should find the remains of
A fragment of a tablet of black granite, used

the old temple. We also worked much as a moi'tar, and bearing the name of
nearer the
Sheshonk I. (Plate III. b.)
bank of the canal, on a large undulating space
separated from the enclosure by a sort of valley.
A statue of a squatting man, in red granite,

the lieutenant of King Osorkon II., "Ankh

Not far from there some rude stone coffins had
renp nefer, the good Recorder of Pithom."
been found while the canal was being made, and
(Frontispiece and Plate IV.)
it might have been thought that it was a necropolis.
But this proved not to be the case. Although we
A statue of a squatting man, in black granite,

a priest of Succoth called Aak. (Plate V.)

went to a great depth under several of the mounds
we f(Jiiii(l nothing but crude l»rick, of small size,
A large statue in black granite, broken to
pieces, of a sitting king, probably of the
clearly belonging to the Roman period. Those
were the house-walls of the ancient inhabitants. twenty-second dynasty, perhaps Osorkon II.

No monument of any importance was found there

- Presented by 11. II. the Kliedivc to the Egypt
but only copper coins, fragments of hard stone
Fund, and by the Fund to the Priti.sli Museum.
" Presented by 11. 11. tlie Khedive to the Egypt Exploration
Cf. Plate I. Fund, and liy the Fund to tlic British Museum.


Fragments of a very fine pillar, of which A variant, which occurs often, especially in
a whole side was gilt, with the name of inscriptions of later times, is Ha Turn or Ha neter
Nekhthorheh, Nectanebus I. Tuin.^ It is the same with the names of many
Fragment of the statue of a priest. This other cities, chiefly when they are derived from a
was the first monument on which I read god who is considered as having there his residence
the name of the city, the Abode of Turn. or his abode. Thus we have Pi Bast and Ha
(Plate VII. A.) BaM, Bubastis, in Hebrew J^DTE); Pi Ainon
Base of the statue of a princess, bearing the and Ha Amoii, Thebes; Pi Ptah and Ha Ptah,
two ovals of the queen Arsinoe II. Phila- Memphis. Though the site had not yet been
delphos. (Plate VII. c.) determined, we knew the name Pi Turn or Ha
The great tablet of Ptolemy Philadelphos, Tum through the lists of nomes, which indicate
the largest and most important monument that this city was the capital of the eighth nome of
discovered by me at Tell el Maskhutah. Lower Egypt ; and also by various mentions in the
(Plates VIII. to X.) papyri, where it is generally associated with another
Two Roman inscriptions, giving the name of name also found very often on the monuments of
Ero, or Heroopolis. (Plate XL) Maskliutah, i.e. the name of Thuhu or Thulct,
Also several others of minor importance. "" '^^^
; also written
^^ %. and

Let us now examine the principal results derived .

Thuku, or Thuket, on the fragment
from the study of the inscriptions engraved on of Eameses II., " is the name of a district inhabited
these monuments. by foreigners, or of a borderland, to judge by the
determinative ] which follows the group. It is

written in the same way in the Papyri Anastasi,

which belong to the following reign. Thuku was
Tell elMaskhutah was not Eaamses, as M. first a region, a district, then it became the name
Lepsius endeavoured to prove; it was I'ithom, the of the chief city or the capital of the district. This is

City or theAbode of Turn, one of the cities of the sense which it bears in most of our inscriptions
which Exodus tells that they were constructed by as in the great tablet, and the other Ptolemaic

the Israelites by the command of the Oppressor. texts, and even in the titles of the priest Aak/
The hieroglyphical name is Fi Turn u) or
which are of an older epoch. The lists of nomes
give either Pithom or Thuku as the capital of the
^1^^.' It occurs first on the statue of the
eighth nome of Lower Egypt.
Lieutenant of Osoi'kon II., AiikJi renp ncfcr, of
We have in the Papyri Anastasi * a good deal
whom it is said that he was the good Recorder of
of information concerning the region of Thuku.
Pi f horn. '^
It is mentioned three times in the We hear that it was a borderland, near the foreign
texts of the statue, and it occurs also twice in the
region of Atiima, which was occupied by nomads ;

great tablet of Philadelphos. It corresponds to

that the entrance was guarded by the stronghold of
the Hebrew Dhp,^ to the Coptic IIeecx)JU, to King Menephtah, and also by another fortification

UlOw^i and neiOw of the Septuagint, and to shur

called [l o"^. ][',^ also that it contained
ndTovfjio<; of Herodotus.*

riiite IV. line 3, and Plate IX. line 13. ' Plates V. and VII. Brugscli, " Diet. Geog." p.
' Plate IV. c and D. 6 Plate III. A. '
Plate V.
' Exodus i. 11. ' " Pap. Anastasi," vi., 4, line 13.
* L. ii. 158. ' Brugsch, " Diet. Geog." p. 50.

the city of Pithom, near which were hxkes and above the sand, was the defence of the city, which
large j^astures. The governor bore the title of was both a storehouse and a fortress.
Atcnnu,^ as we see it inscribed on the statue of Pithom changed its name at the time of the
Aii!c]i rcnp nefcr. Greek d}"nasty. It became HcyoiipoUx, which the
M. Brugsch, in his extensive researches on the Piomans abridged into Ero. This is most deci-
Geograi^hy of Egypt, first drew the attention of sively proved by one of the Latin inscriptions
Egyptologists to the Hebrew word corresponding found upon the spot. The stone on which it is

to Thiiku or Thnkot. The letter £= which was engraved formed part of a wall in white calcareous
pronounced th, is often transcril)ed in Greek and stone, situate not very far from the entrance, in the
Coptic by o- ; and in Hebrew by D.' The name of line of the dromos, and near some Eoman brick-

^(.IBa'vvTo<;, Sebennytus, Theh iictcr T s=5 ® is

work, which very likely was a gate. The inscription
a striking proof of the truth of this assertion, which
was engraved by two different hands. ^ It seems to
me very clear that after the letters LO, of which
is corroborated by the spelling of many common
names. I do not know the meaning, the writer intended
I need not dwell on this philological de-
to engrave EPiOPOLIS, but stopped short after
monstration, which seems to me quite conclusive.
The the letter P, the remainder being finished by ano-
transcription of TliulrA would be the Hebrew
ni3D Succoth.^ ther hand. Whatever doubt may remain on the
It is not at all surprising that the
first two lines of the inscription, the last two are
Hebrew word should mean tents. We have here
an example of a philological accident which con-
perfectly clear, EKO CASTRA, the camp of Ero.
'Hpco, Hero, says Stephanus Byzantinus, is an
mythology and geography. A
stantly occurs in
Egyptian city, which Strabo 'Hpwwv tj-oXiu,
name passing from a language to another keeps
Heroiipolis. The second inscription'^ is more in-
nearly the same sound and the same appearance,
but it undergoes a change just
teresting, because it gives the distance from EEO to
sufficient to give
a sense in the language of the peojJe
CLVSMA. If I had not found the other, it might
it who have
have been doubtful whether we were at the start-
adopted the word. The new sense may be totally
different from the
ing-point ERO, especially as the distance given
original.^ It is the same with
entirely disagrees with the numbers of the Itinerary
the name of Moses, in Egyptian
p ^ ^
[]] of Antonine. A small fragment with the Greek
the child or tlie hoij, which the Hebrews con- word HPOT is also an evidence of the site of the
verted into rTl}D,Mos}u'h, "dra^ra out of the water,"
city of Heroopolis.
a turn of meaning which of course has nothing to A very interesting confirmation of the identity
do with the Egyptian word. of Pithom and Heroopolis is found in that passage
We know therefore the site of Pithom and the of Genesis (xlvi. 28) which relates that Jacob,
region of Succoth. Pithom must not be looked going to Egypt, " sent Judah before him unto
for near Abu Hammed ; still less in the marshes Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen." Here
of Lake Menzaleh. It lies buried under the brow the Septuagint, who, M. Lepsius rightly
of Maskhutah, and the enclosure, which observes, must have known the geography of
still rises
Egypt, differ from the Hebrew text, and translate,
' "Pap. AnastasiV'v., 25,1.2. Bnigsch, "Rev.
o.;i .,
, instead of Goshen, near Heroopolis in the land of
p. 22 and foil.

= r,nigsf,'h, "Aeg. Zeit.«clir.," 187.5, p. 7. llamses, Ka9^ 'Hpiocov ttoXlv et? yrjv PafjLecrcr^. The
' Rev. H. G. Tomkins lias pointed out tliat we have tlie Coptic version, however, which was translated from
As-syrian transcription of Sueeoth in the Iskhil of Esar-
the Septuagint, keeps the old name of the city, and
haddon. Academy, Marcli .3, 188.3.
* Cf. the very good remarks on this point in Lenorniant,
"Les Origines de rhistoirc," 2nd ed., 171. Plate XI.
ii.. p. ' Plate XI. A. B.

has, ;/('(/)• Pitlinm the citij in the land of Hamscs, mapion, quoted by Ammiauus MarceUinus. Hero-
opohs then would be the city of Turn. But
This striking coincidence shows that at the time
next comes this question : How can 'Hpw be a

when the Coptic version was made the old name

translation of Turn '? What is its derivation ?
Whence comes its etymology ? I believe that
had not yet been obhterated ; Heroopohs was still

for the natives the abode of the god Turn, who

Heroopohs may be quite differently inter-
preted and in a manner corresponding to
vei'y likely was still worshipped there.
Abou Keijchi'ijd, or as it is called now Tdl d
the special character of the city. Among the
titles of one of the Ptolemaic priests, we find
Maskhutah, was the site of Heroopolis. The
famous French geographer d'Anville,^ with his the followino;: ^~~^c-zi'^ Mer ar, "the
admirable acuteness, had already guessed the keeper of the storehouse." Ar written with the
truth. More recently Quatremere, ChampoUion,
initial a would be transcribed in Greek HP; and
Dubois Ayme, Le Pere, and LinantBey,^ adopted
as the storehouse was one of the principal parts
the same view, which has however been opposed
of Pithom which had been constructed as a store-
in the most contemptuous terms by Dr. Schleiden,^
city, it is quite possible that it may have given its
the originator of the theory of the Mediterranean
name to the place.
Exodus. M. Lepsius* places Heroopolis at Magfar,
The discovery of the site of Heroopolis Pithom
three miles from Maskhutah. M. Brugsch in his
is of great importance for the reconstruction of
earlier works supported the identity of Heroopolis
the geography of the eastern part of the Delta.
and Pithom, which he translated "fortress;" but
It is difficult not to admit that at the time of
in his memoir on the Exodus, following Schleiden's
Barneses II. Ked
the Sea, or rather the Arabian
system, he placed Pithom near lake Menzaleh, and
Gulf, extended much further north than at pre-
Heroopohs near Suez, but on the other side of the
sent, and comprehended not only the Bitter
gulf.^ This great discrepancy of opinion among
Lakes but also Lake Timsah. Even supposing
such numerous and high authorities shows how
Heroopolis to have been the most important city
difficult it is to reconstruct the ancient geography
near the sea before the foundation of Arsinoe, it
of Egypt upon the scanty information given by
would be strange that the Arabian Gulf should
Greek and Roman authors, and how absolutely
also have been called Heroopolitan, and that
necessary it is to make excavations, in order to
Strabo should say that Heroopolis was built at the
come to some definite results.
end of the Arabian Gulf, eV fivx^ ''°" ^Apa^iov
Several intei-pretations have been proposed for
Kokij-ov, if it had been about seventy Roman miles
the name of Heroopolis. M. Lepsius derives it
away from the sea.
from the god 'Hpco or 'Hpwv, who, as ChampoUion
We may say, with M. Lepsius, that the ancients
and Wilkinson rightly observe, is the equivalent
considered as a gulf the two large inner basins
of Turn in the inscription of the obelisk of Her-
now called the Bitter Lakes and Lake Timsah,
when they had been united by means of a wide
Memoires sur I'E'^ypte," p. 121
et seq. canal, such as the work of Philadelphos ; but at
'Memoires sur les principaux travaux executes en
the time of the Exodus the natural communica-
Egypte," p. 158.
' "Die Landenge von Sues," p. 120 et seq. tion must have existed. Dr. Schleiden himself,
* " Clu'onologie," p. 34.5. who opposes this opinion from distances taken
'Since this was written a very interesting article by M.
from Herodotus and Strabo, agrees that the
Brugsch, in the "Deutsche Eevuc," has brought forward
German public the discovery
geological facts establish without any doubt a great
before the of Pithom-Hero-
iipolis. extension of the Red Sea towards the north ; but

lie maintains that we must go back to prehistoric possibly inhabited by a population of the same
times iu order to fiml such a hydrographic race. The Greeks speak of a nome of Arabia, just

state of the Delta. We shall revert to this as on the western side there was a nome of Libya.

subject when dealing with the geography of this The Arabian nome derived its name fi'om its

district ; but for the present we may say that, on vicinity to Arabia. I believe that the name of

the contrary, all the authors, even of later times, the Egyptian region, called Arabia, exists in

speaking of Heroopolis, seem to point to the the hieroglyphics, and that it has been tran-
vicinity of the sea. Agathemeros' says that the scribed in Egyptian by two words which have a

Arabian Gulf began at Heroopolis ; and Artemi- certain likeness in sound to the Semitic word.
doros^ states that from there the ships started Arabia would be tJie eastern, door t^
which went to the land of the Troglodytes : hence
ro ab.' Osiris, who on the tablet of Philadelphos
we may safely conclude that not only at the time
immediately follows the god Turn, is called the
of the Exodus, but even under the Romans, the
lord of Arabia, or rather of the Arabian city
physical condition of that part of the Delta was
In two texts of Denderah,'
very diilerent from what it is now. This change, I I
c^ ©
the consequences of which have been so consider- he is addressed in these words Thoii art in

— '
'^ => .6. ^ri iii
able, may even then have begun very gradually, rithom of Arabia

very slowly to take place. It is not necessary to iv FlaToviMoj Trj ^Apa^ir) ; and again, Tliou art
travel very long in the Delta in order to see that in I'itiioin of Artd)ia, liriiif] IH'e ilie lirini] God.
there has been much movement iu the soil. In
some parts it must have sunk considerably; as I 1 ^TT-ITQ I I r-^M \ ^ 111
Lastly, we meet with another name which seems
around Tanis or in Lake Menzaleh, where impor-
to be very ancient, and which belongs to a large
tant ruins are several feet under water. In
region, the boundaries of which are not well
other places, which were certainly under water,
it has risen. Heights have been upheaved, marked ; it is the region of An c^s . Some-
like the banks of Chalouf; the Bitter Lakes times, as on the statue of Ankh renp nefer, it is

and Lake Timsah have become isolated ; and 7"h/;i who is lord of An ;
generally it is Hathor
the Red Sea has shrunk back as far as who is the goddess of the country. This name is

Suez. found in the lists as referring to the territory of

Let us consider two other names, referring not the eighth nome, the nome of Pithom, and
to Heroopolis itself, but to the region in which it ]\I.Brugsch has recognized in it the JdCrtH^ quoted
was situate. The Septuagint, mentioning the by Phny.'' The learned Roman says that the
land of Goshen, call it Goshen of Arabia,'* recrefji Arabs call Aacant the gulf of the Red Sea on
'Apal3ia<;. Herodotus* quotes Patumos as a city of which Heroopolis is built — another proof that
Arabia, UdTovixo'; -fj 'Apa/Sir). Strabo speaks of the sea extended very near Pithom.
Arabia as the land extending between the gulf There are many more geographical names in
and the Nile. This name, which was evidently the great tablet ; but several are difficult to identify

imported from abroad, means first a vague region orang to the bad state of the sculptured text. Of
which was contiguous to Arabia proper ; through the others we shall speak in dealing with the
which lay the way to it ; and which was very geography and route of the Exodus.

' "Gcogr. gracci miu. Ed. MiiUcr," ii., p. i75. ' "Diimichen. Geogr. Inschr.," ii., pi. 29, 3; i., pi.
' Strabo, xvi., ji. 709. xcviii., 12.
' Gl-u x.xxvi., 3i. •
Herod, 1.58. " " Hist. Nat.," vi., 29,
ii., I'liii. § 1G5.

as early as the time of Piameses II., the founder


The temple was enclosed on both sides by walls,
The square area enclosed by enormous brick or square masses of bricks. It was a rectangular

walls, the chrection of which is visible in Plate I., space, divided from the rest of the building. Very
contained a space of about 55,000 square yards. likely bricks were the materials of which the greatest
Before the excavations were begun, the ground part of it was built. The monuments which
was nearly flat, sloping gently towards the have been preserved are either of red or black
marshes. The traces of the former excavations granite, or a kind of red sandstone. The inner
were still visible. The highest part was be- walls were made of white limestone of Toora, which,
tween the enclosure and the monolith. Here in spite of its Egyptian name, "the good stone
only there was a kind of mound, or bJiii. Except of An," has no durability, is broken with the
the walls and the monolith, no ruins appeared greatest facility, and does not resist the action of
anywhere ; not even such heaps of bricks and the air. Everywhere in the course of our excava-
tumbled-down houses as usually mark the sites tions, pieces of that stone have turned up ; some-
of ancient Egyptian cities. times a block from the foundation of a wall ;

Judging from the aspect of the place, and the sometimes a fragment with one or two hiero-
ordinary construction of Egyptian temples, it glyphic signs, showing that it was part of some
might have been thought that the enclosure was sculpture ; sometimes also I found several feet deep
the tciiicnos, the area belonging to the sacred of white gravel entirely composed of that stone,
building, which sometimes, as at Sdn, or still which had crumbled to pieces. Evidently a con-
more at Thebes, covered a very extensive surface. siderable number of inscriptions have been thus
The monolith would then have been at the en- destroyed, and this explains why I found so
trance of a long dromos leading to the temple. few. It was in limestone that the buildings of

The result of my excavations has been to show the twenty-second dynasty, and of the Ptolemies
that it was not so. The temple occupied only were made. When the Komans levelled the
a small space in the south-western angle in the ground, in order to establish their camp, they
neighbourhood of the monohth ; or rather of the destroyed without mercy an immense number of

monoliths, for we know there was one on each inscriptions which would have been most precious
side of the entrance. The naos of Ismailiah was to us. Many fragments of porphyry and granite
found at a distance of less than thirty-two yards were scattered among the ruins of houses,
from the monolith, and it certainly could not have having been used as mortars, mill- stones, or

stood at the entrance of the temple, but at the thresholds.

farther end. Near the iiaos was found the great Outside of the space which I consider as the

tablet of Philadelphos, of which it is said in the temple, and excavating farther towards the north-
inscription that the king ordered it to be erected east, we reached some very strange buildings,

hefuvc his father Turn, the great god of Sueeoth. no indications of which appeared above the sand,
The whole temple extended only a little farther but which, however, were of considerable extent.
than the naos. It had not been finished, to judge We came upon thick walls built of crude bricks,

from the big stones roughly hewn which were left joined by thin layers of mortar. These walls are
there. One of them was cut in the form of a remarkably well built, and have a thickness of
tablet ; another, a fine piece of black granite, from two to three yards ; the surface being per-

had been cut in the form of a sitting statue, but fectly smooth, and as well polished as possible with
was left unfinished, and abandoned, I should think such a material as mere Nile mud. Everything

indicates a very good epoch, when the Pharaohs Ptolemies used them as warehouses in the trade
built with the intention of making a lasting work. with Africa, which took place through the Hero-
These are the walls of a great number of rect- opolitan Gulf. We know in fact, from the great
angular chambers of various sizes, none of which tablet, that Pithom was one of the places to which
had any communication with each other. In the the African vassals brought their tribute. For
first we reached,^ at about two yards from the a border-furt, which was also a store-place, means
surface, we found pieces of a very fine statue, of defence were necessary, and therefore it was
in black granite, representing a sitting king, but surrounded by the very thick walls, part of which
without the urteus. It had been thrown from are yet preserved. These facts explain the slight

the top, and had been broken into quite small difference which we find between the Septua-
pieces, showing that it must have fiillen from gint and the Hebrew text in speaking of Raamses
a good height. The head only and the upper part and Pithom. The Hebrew calls them ni3D0, which,
of the bust had not suffered much ; and these according to Gesenius, means 'storehouses,' while
have been removed to the Museum of Boolak. the Septuagint translate TidXeis oxvpa.';, '

Lower still were bricks thrown without order, cities.' Both expressions are equally true. Hero-
sand, earth, and limestone chips. It is evident opolis at the entrance of the Gulf, the place from
that the intention had been to fill up the which fleets sailed to the Pied Sea, must have been
chamber to a certain height after the top had a strong place with a garrison. Such certainly
fallen in. About four yards from the soil the was the case under the Romans, who called it

walls stand on natural sand, showing that it is the the '

Camp of Ero.'
basis of the building. At the height of two yards I laid bare the upper part of the walls of
from the bottom there are regular holes at corre- several of these store-chambers, which I do not
sponding distances on each side, where timber doubt extended over the greater part of the space
beams had been driven in. About one yard surrounded by the enclosure. In order to make
higher there is a recess in the wall at the same an exact plan, it would be necessary to dig the
level in all the chambers which I excavated whole surface to a depth of three feet. Wherever
to that depth. The wall above had been covered shafts were sunk, I came across brick walls more
with a kind of stucco, or white plaster. I or less decayed, and belonging to different ages. It
excavated to the bottom of chambers 1 and 2 ; but would be impossible now to reconstruct the plan
seeing that they had been intentionally tilled up, of these chambers in the eastern part, where the
it seemed useless to go on emptying them, so I enclosure has disappeared. This part, being
confined the work to digging deep enough to nearest the canal, was evidently encroached upon
trace the direction of the walls, without attempting at an early period by the houses of the inhabitants,
to go to the bottom. and the old constructions have suffered. There
What was the object of those chambers ? I the excavator finds a compact mass of bricks of
believe them to have been built for no other pur- all ages, in which it is hopeless to trace any kind
pose than that of storehouses, or granaries, into of plan ; but the part near the temple is in a
which the Pharaohs gathered the provisions much better condition.
necessary for armies al)out to cross the desert, or The chambers had no communication with
even for caravans and travellers which were on each other the access to them was only from the

the road to Syria. It is also very likely that the top. It is possible that the recess which exists
in the wall was employed for an awning, or for
supporting some kind of ceiling. If the chambers
No. 1 of the :*Iap. Cr. Pl:itii II. were filled with corn, it must have been thrown


down from above and drawn up afterwards in the

same way.
The area thns occ-upied was of course not a The founder of the city, the king who gave to
convenient ground for a camp therefore the ;
Pithom the extent and the importance we recog-
Romans filled up most of the chambers ; and they nize, is certainly Rameses II. I did not find any-
used for that purpose whatever came first to thing more ancient than his monuments. It is

hand. Thus they have thrown down the fine possible that before his time there may have been
black statue of the unknown king, and, what here a shrine consecrated to the worship of

was still more precious, a beautiful pillar of Turn, but it is he who built the enclosure

Nectanebo I., which was entirely gilt on one side. and the storehouses ; he is the only king whose
This must have been a very fine monument. The name appears on the naos and on the monuments
fragments have been removed to Boolak. If all of Ismaihah. Nowhere is it said, as on the
these cellars were excavated, it is quite possible monoHth of Abou Seyfeh,^ that he restored con-

that many other monuments, more or less broken, structions of former kings. Very likely he found
would be found in them, having been cast in to it necessary for his campaigns in Asia to have
level the ground. If excavations are ever re- storehouses for provisioning his armies ; and also
sumed at Pithom, the remaining store-chambers means of defence against invaders from the East.

will have to be cleared out. We find here confirmation of the evidence derived
The civil city of Thiihi extended all round the from other monuments that he is the Pharaoh of

sacred buildings of Pithom, the Abode of Turn. the Oppression, as he built Pithom and Raamses,
There are traces of habitations on all sides the site of which last is still uncertain. Rameses 11.

and nearly all are of the time of the Romans. For built much in the Eastern Delta ; it is clear that

a long time I entertained hopes of finding the ne- he attached great importance to that part of the
cropolis of Pithom. At the time when the canal country. There are ruins likewise at Tell Rotab,

was being dug, the workmen came across a great near Kassassin, which may possibly be also attri-

number of coffins in white calcareous stone, some buted to his reign. If there were cities like

of which were roughly carved in the shape of Pithom in the Wady Tumilat, there must have

mummies. In other places, at a small depth in been a canal to supply them with the necessary
the sand, they found mummies enclosed in large water. We know, in fact, from Strabo ^ that

earthen pots. The shafts which I sank led to according to tradition, it was Sesostris who first

no result. During several days my labourers attempted to dig a canal from the Nile to the
were engaged in excavating a singular structure Red Sea.

near the canal. It consisted of two masses of After Rameses, Menephtah, who built much at

bricks, sloping gablewise, and resting on the sand. Tanis, (San) did not neglect Succoth. We know
Instead of joining together at the top, however, from the papyri that there was a fortress here
they are separated by a kind of gutter about bearing his name ; but I did not find his oval

a yard wide. It might have been thought that anywhere, not even on the bricks. It is extra-

underneath them could be found one, if not several ordinary that among the hundreds of bricks which

coffins. We did not find anything, except at I examined at Pithom, I never found one bearing

one end a pit in which bones of men, of dogs, and a royal &-tamp.
even of fishes, were intermingled with a few It does not appear that the kings of the

small amulets.

' Prisse, " Mon. Eg pi. xix. L. i., p. 3i


twentieth dynasty tlitl anything for Pithom. It had been brought under Rameses II. It was in-

is possible, however, that to the reign of one tended to be one of a pair, for, as already noticed,

of those sovereigns we may attribute a calcareous there was at the end of the temple a large block
stoue with three faces,^ on which there is repre- of the same stone roughly carved in the form of a
sented a king worshipping Horus. This king had sitting statue of the same size, which had been left

evidently returned from a successful campaign, unfinished. The two portions of another statue,

for on one side he is seen bearing his mace and unfinished and very roughly hewn, were found
his bow, while, on the other, he holds by tlie hair a walled in a door-post of Roman time. On the

prisoner with his hands tied behind his back. back I could decipher the name of one of the

The two broken cartouches, traces of which are Tah'Ioth.><.

still visible, are impossible to decipher. If he The Pharaoh who fought the Persians, Kfklit-

was a king of the twentieth dynasty he would not horhel) or Xcetanclio I., also built at Pithom, and,
be the only one of this family who is met with in strange to say, with a richness which would not be
the Delta ; for independently of Rameses III., who expected in a city of that kind. At the northern
built much at Tell el Yahoudeh, the name of end of the excavations, between the enclosure and
Seti II. is found at Tanis. the outer wall of the chambers, I found, together
After Rameses II., the kings who seem to have with many pieces of granite, some fragments
done most for Pithom are those of the twenty- of a pillar of calcareous stone of a bluish colour.
second dynasty, the kings of Bubastis — Sheshonk I. The sculptures are of the best workmanship.
(Shishak),^ of whom we have a fragment in black They represent scenes of offerings to the god
granite, and especially Osorkon II., who very likely Tum ; and one of the sides is entirely covered
enlarged the temple of Tum. On several occasions with very thin gold, remarkably well preserved.
I found fragments of calcareous stone, generally I suppose it is to the Romans that we must attri-

cornices, on which the name of Osorkon II. was bute the destruction of this beautiful monument.
painted in red, in order to be sculptured after- It was not possible to make out anything from
wards : the red colour disappeared when exposed the inscriptions, except one of the ovals of the
to the sun, but I could distinctly read the name. king, and the name of Succoth.*
Besides, to his time belongs one of the most By far the most important monument dis-

attractive monuments found during the excava- covered at Pithom is the great tablet of Philadel-
tions, namely, the statue of the Ateiinu, tlie plios, which was near the naos. It records what
lieutenant of the king, AiiUi renp nefer,^ who speaks was done for Pithom by the king and his queen
of Pithom as a place where Osorkon celebrated and sister Arsinoii II. The day before it was
festivals. For kings like Shishak and Osorkon, found, the workmen laid bare the base of a statue
who had repeatedly to fight the nations of Asia, of which the feet only were left, and on which were
it was very important to hold the cities com- sculptured two royal ovals. ^ One contained the
manding the roads leading to the desert ; and the name of Arsinoe ; the other was unknown.
therefore we find them building on the northern Next day, when the great tablet was discovered, I
route at San and on the southern at Pithom. saw that Arsinoe had adopted two ovals, one of
I attribute also to Osorkon II. the sitting which is a kind of coronation name, Nuni ah Shu
statue which had been thrown in the chamber mcr netcru. The tablet, which unfortunately is

No. 1. I should think the stone for tliis statue very hard to read, is a very interesting document

' Plate YI. ' riatf III. u. ' Frontispiece and Date IV. * Plate III. c. • Plate YII. c.

not only as regards the history of Pithom, but also which it was made, and the style of the engraving,

as regards that of Ptolemy Philadelphos. We was certainly very fine. Two goddesses, repre-
learn from it that Pithom and the neighbouring senting Upper and Lower Egypt, promise a long
city of Arsinoe, which the king founded in honour of and prosperous reign to a king who makes
his sister, were the starting points of commercial an offering to them. This king is Sheshonk I.

expeditions to the Red Sea ; and that from thence (Shishak), whose name is still legible. The
one of Ptolemy's generals went to the land of the Bubastite kings, and particularly Shishak, must
Troglodytes and founded the city of Ptolemais have used the storehouses of Pithom for pro-
G-qpwv, for the special purpose of facilitating the visioning their armies going to Syria.
chase of elephants. And it was to Heroopolis that Frontispiece and Plate IV. — One of the most
the ships brought those animals, which played such elegant monuments found at Pithom belongs to the
an important part in the warfare of the successors twenty-second dynasty. It is the statue of Aukh
of Alexander. For a general of that time it was as
renp ncfer T" ^I now at the British Museum, and
important to have an elephant force, as in our days
of which we here print the inscriptions. This
it is essential to have a strong body of artillery.
statue is of red granite, and represents a squatting
We learn also that close to Pithom there was a
man with his hands crossed on his knees. Before
city called Pikerehet, or Pikelwrct, which must have
him is a small naos containing a figure of Osiris.
been an important place, judging from the amount
On the knees are engraved the two ovals of Osor-
of taxes which the king attributes as revenue to
kon II. (F), of whom he was an officer, and
its temple.
between the hands is the monogram of Ankh renp
nefer (E). At each side, sculptured on the legs,

are representations of gods who promise their

protection to the deceased. The inscriptions con-
We will now study more closely the principal cerning them are engraved on the sides of the

monuments discovered during the excavations. naos (C and D). Even on both sides of the head
Plate III. A. — The large monuments of Rameses, Osiris and Sokaris are engraved.
have been known ra
now at Ismailiah, for several Ankh renp nefer was "1^^ ^~w«

" VJ ,^ first
years. Besides the name of the royal founder,
very hke
lieutenant of the hing. This title is
which we learn from them, we see also that Tum belonging same locality the
another to the ;

Harmachis was the divinity of the place. To

lieutenant or wakcel of the territory of Sueeoth
him was dedicated the naos in red sandstone, in

the base of which a sphinx is sculptured. The

naos is not perfect. The fore-part has been ^ /www H ^ tJu' fjreat inspector of the palaee ; the

broken ; but I found part of it, bearing the upper good recorder of Tnni or of Pithom, """^^
1 Qi) I l^
portion of the name of Rameses and the words
or AWVAA^ '"^l^ ; lastly, a title of which I do not
^^37* ^
Q.\, the lord of Thchu, of Succoth. It is

possible that underneath there was the sign t^^

Here, as well as in the Ptolemaic inscription, Plate A^II. a.
which has been broken away. This small frag-
1. 2, the sign cn has the form FlI . It is a variant, which
ment shows that the name of Succoth was already
<:z=> instead of
in use in the time of Rameses II. and that it was ,

<z=> and instead of

considered as a border land. 1 j\ ra


n© i i i .

Plate III. b.^ — I found only a small fragment '

"Pap. Anastasi," V. Brugsch, "Eev. Egyp.," i., p. 22
of this tablet, which, judging fi'om the stone of et seq.
— — — —


know the meaning,

p |
, which I believe to be Pl.\te V. — To the period of the last Pharaohs,

seem to indicate some but prol.)ably later than the preceding monument,
read l-elnvi. These titles

civil or judicial ofSce.

we must refer another statue, also of a squatting
Ankh renp uefer recites his own praises in the man, in black granite, with inscriptions engraved

three lines of text engraved on the back of the

on both front and back. It was made for a priest

statue (A) :
of the name of Aalc.

Line 1. The first lieutenant of tlie king, tlie first inspector The inscription on the back reads thus :

of the palace, Ankh renp nefer speaks thus :

" I liaJ the right Let a Royal ottering bo maile to Seb, let all the funeral
of entering the palace, I was honoured by my lord who gave and oxen, be given to the Prince, the head of
offerings, geese

me his praise, I entered before him at the head of his in- the prophets, Aak, the justified, the beloved. Thy spirit is
timates . .
." in heaven among the stars, thou art one of the gods. Prince

Litie 2. I inquired for the royal will,' and I went out Aak.
bearing his order, banishing misery and softening quarrelsome
talk. ..
The inscription in front is much more difficult.

Litie 3. His obedient son has dedicated to his fatlier It gives us the titles of Aak in full :

Pithom the abode of the festivals of the king," the divine

The first Erpa (Prince) of Sept, the lord of the East, the
oflspring of Ea, Osorkon, beloved of Amon, son of Bast. I
head of the prophets of Tum, the great god of Sucooth, Aak,
found the way . . .

the son of Atsheb, speaks thus: " I am he in whom

On the sides of the naos are the following in- tlie great Sahu appears. He is not driven back, the judges

scriptions on the right side (D) : have not found anything hateful. All that appears on the

altar of Tum is for thy Ka, Aak ; we give (?) thee every day
Anion Ka !Mut and Khonsu, grant tliat may last the name the things .
. . .

of the good recorder of Turn, the god of the region of An,

Ankh renp nefer, the kebaa of the abode of Tum (Pithom) The god A v^ , Sept or Sopt, is often desig-
the god of An.
nated by this title lord of the East, or even lord
And on the left (C) :— of Asia.^ He is also the god of the twentieth
Horemkhu Shu and Tufuut, grant that may last the name nome of Lower Egypt, the nome of Phacusa.
of the first inspector of tlie palace, the good recorder of the
In the middle of the inscription, the deceased
abode of Tum, the god of An.
addresses the priests of the locality. The first of
On the top of the naos is an inscription which
" Ji^^c
repeats the title of tirst inspector of the palace, them has a curious name, fZ^
^ . ft
u , Julian

and adds the title of Kchua, with the name of a viiti.^ This title is found again in a Ptolemaic
city, which may be Bubastis, although the sign text from Pithom (Plate VII. b), with the variant
rj ;iiniiii

which reads Bast is different from that which ,

He seems to have been one special

occurs in the cartouches of Osorkon.
priest chosen among the class of the ijS , Atdiau.^

This last name reminds us of the "^^fg^ of the

This sentence is difficult
nome of Sai's. It is very likely that this title
because of the group ^^^ In the tablet of Ptolemy
| .

6\ occurred on a list of priests at Denderah,''

Philadclphos the king is called U V^^ in the dates, whic
Avhere the texts concerning Pithom are destroyed.
seem to indicate tliat Vx^ means 'royal :'
the roijdl sonnd nf Aiihau means properly iritli Iniuj limlis. It is one
irorJs moans very likely the Royal will or the Eoyal

' !^!|..iii)M I consider those words as a variant of '

lU-ugsch, " YOlkertafcl," p. 30.
AAA/V*A adopted the new reading a for the sign
According to il. J'.riigsch, "Diet.,"
en cf. ISrugsch, "Diet. Hier.," vol. vii., p. 500.
vol. viii., p. 8U.5, this group means an ahode in the form of ' Cf. Plate VII. A and a
a tent or tabernade. * Brugscli, "Diet. Geog.," p. 137G.
: : .


symbohc sense, of
of those titles which have a Plate VII. a, b. — Following the chronological
which we do not understand the meaning or the order, we now come to two monuments of which
origin, and it was pecuhar to the locahty of we have only small fragments, but which are both
Succoth. A man might he an auhaa, and at the important. These fragments belonged to two

same time an ] v > « prophet ; a usual title, found statues of white limestone which had been erected
in symmetrical relation to each other. One of
in all the temples of Egypt. The deceased ad-
them is the statue of a man of which we have
dresses the priests who are entering the temple :

about two-thirds, while the shoulder only of the

Au Itau unti, and all the priests icho go into the
statue of the woman has been preserved. The size
sacred abode ofTiun, the great god of Succoth, let
and the style of the inscription, and all else, indi-
them saji that a roij(d offering he made to the Ka of
cate that these monuments were erected together.
the beloved of the great god . . . that the ceremonies he
The statue of the man, discovered on the 10th
made to the Ka of him whose name is not destroyed^
of February, was the first thing which confirmed
in the temple before " &c. This inscription
the opinion I had formed at Ismailiah, that
alone would be sufficient to prove that it was the
Maskhutah was the site of Pithom and not of
Abode of Turn, Ha Tum, or Pitliom of Succoth,
Raamses. There are three lines of text at the
which lay buried under Tell el Maskhutah.
back of the statue : unfortunately they are broken
No oval of any king gives us the reign to
at the top and at the end
which this monument belongs. It is very likely,
however, that it is earlier than the Ptolemies.
Line 1. — I go into his abode with joy, and I go out with
praise. My lord Tum and my lady Hathor give me food
I should not be surprised if it dated from a and provisions in abundance, all good things, and children
dynasty later than the twenty-second, for example, in great number.

from the time of Nectanebo I., who, as we have The next line gives us the titles of the priest
seen, enlarged the temple of Pithom. Line 2. — the metal vase ;2 the Auhau, the chief

Plate VI. —Before going on to the Ptolemaic of

temple of

the head of the storehouse, the
of Succoth, the prophet of Hathor

of the
An, the
monuments, I must mention a three-sided calcare-
prophet Pames * Isis, the son of the Auhau, the official the
ous stone, on each face of which is an engraved prophet
subject. In the middle we see a king with his thou art pure in tlie presence of all ; thou pleasest
thy lady Hathor, who is in perpetual joy she grants that ;
hands raised, in the act of worshipping the
thy name may remain with this statue,^ in the abode of
god Horus. The lower part of his cartouche is still
Tum the great living god of Succoth. It wiU not be
extant ; but, despite the most careful inspection, destroyed.

I could not succeed in deciphering these signs, and The few signs which are still extant of the
therefore in determining the king whose name they inscription of the other statue are interesting,
contain. The same king appears on the two other
faces ; on one he holds his bow and his mace and
^ Brugsch, " Diet. Hier.," vol. vii. p. 1261.
seems about to start for a military expedition ;

' f^ ^3" , a 116'^^ word, of which I do not know

on the other, on the contrary, he holds by the hair 111 (^ /wvwv
the sense.
a prisoner with his elbows tied behind his back,
On the reading mes of the lock of hair '^ , cf. Bergmann,
which indicates that the campaign must have been
"Hier. Inschr.," p. IG.
successful, and that the king had been victorious.
(1i <:i P [1 . The papyrus Ebers contains a word
This stone was found among remains of the cal-

careous wall at the foot of the monolith.

jTi I [1 Q P which M. Brugsch compares to the Coptic

JU16CICX)T which would have no sense here. I trans-

lated conjecturally statue. M. Brugsch, in a private letter,

The nefrative has been omitted. writes that in this instance it is the only meaning acceptable

because they give us twice the special name of the the original. The plates are engraved from my
priests of Succoth. own paper casts, and from ^photographs made by
The first line contained the names and titles Mr. Emile Brugsch. These plates will have to
of the priestess :
be completed ; they cannot be considered as

The beloved of Iht lord, the Auhnu uiit Men more than the first sight of the document. I

. . . of ILir iSain Tmii in all seasons. must appeal to my learned colleagues who may
thy name, like thy father the Auhau of the great Tsis.
. . .
study the tablet at Boolak, in order to assist me
Plates VIII. to X. —We have now to study the in the reconstruction of this text, the importance

most important monument discovered —the great and interest of which are particularly striking.

inscription of Ptolemy Philadelphos ; or, as it may The tablet reads from right to left, and begins
well be called, the Stone of Pithom. The tablet with three scenes of adoration. In the first, the

has a height of four feet three inches, and a king Ptolemy Philadelphos offers tlie image of Ma
width of three feet two inches. It is now pre- to several standing divinities. The first is Turn,

served in the Museum of Boolak. the great god of Succoth, the hehn-ed etenntUij for

This tablet, judging from its context, was in- ever, the lord of heaven, tlie Ibig of tlte gods. Behind
tended to be an important historical record of him comes Osiris, the lord of Eo Ah (tlie Arabian
certain acts of the second Ptolemy. It is to be eitg), rclio resides at Pilehereth. Behind him comes
regretted that it is engraved so carelessly that Harmachis, whose name has been forgotten, as
the interpretation of it is very difficult, and that well as that of Hathor. Lastly, the queen
merely to get a quite correct copy of it, it will be Arsinoe II., dressed as a goddess, with her two
necessary to collate it several times witJi the cartouches, the royal irife, the raged sister, the

original. The scenes of adoration with which princess queen of tlte tn-o lands, Kuiti ah en Siiu

it begins are sculptured very fairly, although the iner neteru, Arsinoe, the iniglttg Isis, the great Hathor.

inscriptions are not finished. The first line of This scene is accompanied by the following
the text is quite legible ; but after this the texts : The offering of Ma to his father, who gives

engraver becomes more and more careless. He him life. As usual, the gift is followed by a promise
does not seem to have even calculated the length or a recompense on the part of the god who is

of the signs which he had to put in ; in the thus worshipped.

middle lines we see large signs badly drawn, Tum says : I give thee an eternal duration, and
irregular, and sometimes separated by blanks. a reign n'ilhont end.
Suddenly, at line twenty-four, the style changes, Osiris: I give thee the crown of La in heaven.
the engraver being perhaps replaced by one more Harmachis : I give thee dominion and victorg over

skilful ; and we have hieroglyphics of the Ptole- all h(nils.

maic style, much smaller, but well engraved and Hathor : / give thee the offering of all lands as
easy to read. to Ha.
In such conditions, it is impossible to give a Arsinoe: J give thee paneggnes in great ntindier

complete translation of the tablet, which contains before the gods.

many new words and geographical names, which Near this scene are two other ones, but facing
add to the difficulty of decipherment. It is the oi)posite side, so that the two representations
therefore only a first attempt, a rough sketcli, of Arsinoe are back to back. The divinities are
which I now venture to offer, liotli as regards also less numerous. First, Tnin the great living

the transcription and translation of tlie text. god of . . . — the inscription is not finished ; then
There arc many blanks in the inscription which Hathor, and then again Arsinoe. This time the
might be tilled up by a careful comparison with offering consists of two vases of milk.
— ;


Turn says : I give tlicc those . . . 7citli joy as allusions to what the king has done. It is said
to Ea. that he fights for EgvjJt and protects its children
Hathor : I give thee as an offering all the countries then, that he collects horses, and ships on the sea,
which are under thy feet. that he averts the Tesheru, the nomads of the
Arsinoe : I give thee to live near thy father Turn, Arabian desert. After some very obscure expres-
xcho gives, thee 'pancgyries. sions mention is again made of his great military
A tliirtl scene shows- Ptolemy before a kiug deeds, of the gathering of horses, and of some-
who is certainly his father Ptolemy Soter. His thing which takes place on the sea. The narrative
son presents him with a symbolic eye, and the begins at the end of the sixth line. The sixth
father answers : / give thee all the countries and all year,
the lands as to Ra eternally. Line 7. — under the reign of His Divine Majesty ; when
I will endeavour now to give the sense of part it was reported to him that the abode had been finished for his

of the tablet premising that this is only a first

father Tum, the great god of Succoth the third day of the ;
month of Athj'r, His Majesty went himself to Heroopolis, in
attempt, which will have to be revised and com-
the presence of his father Tum. Lower Egypt was in rejoicing
pleted both as to the text and the translation :
the festival of his birth. "When His Majesty pro-
Line 1. — The living Horus, the victorious child, the lord
ceeded to the temple of Pikerehet, he dedicated^ this temple

of Upper and LoTver Egypt, the very valiant, the golden to his father Tum the great living god of Succotli, in the
festival of the god.
Horus who has been crowned by his father, the king of
Upper and Lower Egypt, the lord of the two lands, Userkara Line 8 commences with something relating to
mer Anion, the son of Ea, the lord of diadems, Ptolemy, the revenues of the temple. Next follows :

living like lia eternally ; Turn the great living god of

His Majesty made this fine abode, which was
Succoth, the living Turn, the first of the living on earth, like
erected by the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ptolemy, to
Ra eternally ; all life is derived from him ; he loves the gods
his father Tum. There was no fine abode like this in the time
and goddesses of the Heroopolitan nome,' and lives eternally;
of the kings of Upper and Lower Egypt. He who built it

Line 2. the living and beautiful god, the child of Tum,
to his venerable father, it is the golden Horus, Userkara mer
who united both thrones . . . the illustrious issue of Unnofris,
Amon, the son of Ea, the lord of thrones, Ptolemy, who
who lasts like Turn for ever, the living image of Tum the
lives eternally. Again His Majesty proceeded to ... m order
great god of Succoth, the admirable likeness of Harmachis,
to do the business of his father
the divine blood of Tum the lord of the two On, the glorious
descendant of Khepra ; he has been suckled by Hathor the
Line 9. — Tum . . .

lady of Ant. "When he was bom, the atef crown was on The text becomes again very indistinct. It
his head that the king has done,
; refers evidently to all
Line 3. —the two snakes are on his brow, when he receives
in order to enlarge and adorn the before-
it (the atef crown), for he has been nursed to be the lord
of her who brought liim forth . . . standing in his place like mentioned temple of Pikeheret, of which it has
a king, like a prince in his palace, like his son Hor Sam just spoken. It is remarkable that the text
Toui the great god who resides at Succoth. It is he who
speaks of horses which are brought from the
joined the thrones of the two gods, who honoured his father
Tum who land of To-neter for the inhabitants of To-neter
above millions, he has averted the enemy from ;

this land honour the king and bring him their tributes. At
the following line (1. 11) we come across several
The following lines are so uncertain that it is

impossible to give a translation. The eulogy of geographical names, such as Pithom,

the king seems to continue ; but instead of the

commonplace formulas which we found in the
I read tlie first word sarA; lit. he
first three lines, we have here some direct
ii.nished. I suppose it to be a kind of dedication or con-

We do not know the reading of the compound sign
secration. Cf. 1. 21 : \\

^ ^ "^
I 'V'
"^^ ^''«

he dedicated

which represents the name of the eighth nome. I call it

monies of dedieaiion; I. _ ,

by the Greek name, Heroopolis. the temple there (at Succoth).

) ;

18 stoi;e-city of pitiiom axd the eoute of the exodus.

ami other places which I could not make out line there is another date, but it is uncertain.

completely. Here, I believe, occurs the first Here the king seems to have fixed the amount
mention of the canal, in a very obscure sentence of revenue which was to be brought to the

which speaks o^ joiniiuj the sands (?) of the canal (? gods. This revenue is given in kind and in

which is cast of Kharma, on its eastcni side, to the money. We find catalogues of the offerings of

lake of the scorpion. We know, in fact, from the cattle, wood, hins of oil and honey, and besides
lists, that Kharma was a landing-place on a canal, utens of silver. We have here also many geo-

and that the lake of the scorpion 3^ I^^ was graphicalnames which occurred before, and of
which some are new, as well as several of the
the lake of the eighth nome. The above sentence
common names.
must be compared to that which is found in line 12,
Though still very badly engraved, the text is

more readable, from the middle of line 20 :

, translated literally : He made a lake of . . . After these things, His Majesty went to Kemuerma (the
shore of Kemuer) ; he founded there a large city to his sister,
their sands, which became the great eastern canal of
Line 21. — with the illustrious name of the daughter of
Egypt, as far as Eonif; all Egypt icas in joy. It
king Ptolemy ; a sanctuary was built there to the princess
is clear that this work must have been of high who loves her brother ; the statues of the gods Philadelphi

importance, since it was celebrated as a great were erected, and the ceremonies of dedication were made by
the prophets and priests of his father Tum, the great living
benefit in the whole country. It appears that
god of Succoth, as it is usual in the temples of Upper and
this great enterprise was undertaken in connec- Lower Egypt. At the first month His Majesty called for

tion with a journey performed by the king, in transports,

which he found the gods of Egypt, which he Line 22. — ships laden with all the good things
of Egypt to the first general of His Majesty . . .
brought back (lines 11 and 12), and which, as
they sailed to Kemuerma he navigated in the Red
far as I can judge, he placed at Pithom (line 13). Sea ; he arrived at Khatit.
The ccmal of the East is mentioned also in an Line 23. — He reached the land of the negroes he
inscription of Edfoo which gives a measurement brought provisions to the king he sailed in the

of the land of Egypt sea in the lake of the scorpion. He brought all the things
;^ there was also a canal of
which are agreeable to the king and to his sister his royal
the West. I suppose the place called "^I^© wife ; and he built a great city to the king with the illustrious

Bonif, literally, the gate of the wind, must have name of the king, the lord of Egypt, Ptolemy.

been somewhere near the end of the canal, at

Line 24. —And ho took possession of it with the soldiers
of His "Majesty and Egypt and the land
all the workmen of
the place where the ships ceased to row and of Punt (?) he made there fields and cultivated them

began to sail ; it must be in the region called with ploughs and cattle he did not come back before it was;

inrther Kemuerma. All these lines, as well as the done. He caught elephants in great number for the king
and he brought them on his ships to the king, on his trans-
following, are very obscure this being perhaps
ports on the sea. He brought them
on the Eastern Canal also
the one part of the wliole tablet which it is most no such thing had ever been seen by any of the kings of the
desirable to collate thoroughly, in order that the land. There came ships and ships to Kemuerma ....
there was abundance after scarcity.
large gaps may be filled up, and the real sense,
Line. 25 they know in their hearts the admirable
which I give here conjecturally, may be ascer- qualities of the king. When he arrives, the chiefs bring Iiim
tained. their tributes, for they honour the king in their hearts ; they
gather their taxes in his storehouse of this harbour where the
I am obliged to pass on to line 15. king has done all these things, the harbour of his father Tum
In his twelfth year Philadelphos comes with the groat living god of Succoth. It is Ra who made it, Ra who
his sister Arsinoe to Herotipolis. In
has done all that he desired. He has done it for his son who
the next
loves him, the son of Ra, the lord of thrones, Ptolemy. After
these things, the king lionoured Apis and Mnevis,
' Koug6, "Inscriptions d'Edfou," Plate CXVI., 10. Line 2G. — and ho caused them to lie put together, until
; —

storp:-city op pithom and the route of the exodus. 19

they entered again their abodes. His Jfajesty and his Royal We have here therefore the ERO of the
Consort Iionoured them as it had never been done beftire by
Itinerary of Antoninus, the Greek 'HPfl, 'Hpaxov
any of the foregoing kings. The account of all the taxes
which His Majesty has given as revenues to the two divisions TToXts which we know from the passage of Ste-
of Egypt, on the income of each year of gold. His phanus Byzantinus quoted before.
Majesty gave 1.50,000 argentei. The account of all the
The other inscription is more important, because
taxes which His Majesty has given as revenues to Pikerehet,
taxes due by the houses of the city and taxes due by the
it bears a date. It must be referred to 300 or
inhabitants. 307 A.D. It reads thus :

Line 27. — as income of each year 9.50 argentei. His "Dominis nostris victoribus, Maximiano et Severo im-
Majesty has given them in his first panegyry to his fatlier peratoribus, et Maximino et Constantino nobilissimis
Tum, of whom arc born all his limbs, and who gave him life.
Caesaril)us, ab Ero in Clusma, M. Villi. — 0.
It has been provided for his needs by the hands of Isis and " Under our victorious lords, the emperors Maximianus and
Neplithys, the thirtieth day of the month of Athyr. The Severus, and the most illustrious Caesars Maximinus and
twenty-first year, the firstday of the month of Pharmuti, under Constantine, from Ero to Clusma there are nine miles. — Nine."
the reign of His Majesty, account of all the taxes which His
Majesty has given as income to the temples of Upper andLower Thus, if we consult this inscription, the reading
Egypt taxes due by
; the houses of Egypt 90,000 uten of silver of which is absolutely certain, there are only nine
taxes due by the inhabitants as taxation of each year 660,000
miles from Ero to Clusma. Turning to the
argentei. These revenues which have been given to his
father Tum and to the gods of Egypt, have been inscribed Itinerary of Antoninus^ we read that there are
Line 28. — on this tablet before his fatlier Tum the great eighteen miles from Ero to Scrapiu, and fifty

living god of iSuccoth, on the day of the coronation of the which makes a sum of
from Scrapiu to Clusma,
king, when he dedicated the temple which is there; this day has
become the day of festival of the city. The gods and men of
sixty-eight. We are therefore compelled to admit

the city are in joy and celebrate him because of those great that one of the documents is wrong, either the
deeds, in all times, in order that may last the illustrious name Itinerary or the milestone, in which the engraver
of His Majesty in this land for ever. He shines like Horns
would thus have made a double mistake. For,
the creator of the living ; he is his son who abides on the
throne of Egypt during his time ; all the lands bow down as it was usual in the provinces where Greek was
before his will, and all strange nations are united under his spoken, the distance is given both in Latin and
feet as to Ea, for ever, eternally.
Greek. The sign which is at the end of the last
Plate XI. —Besides the hieroglyphic monu- line is a 6, which means ninc.^ Besides, unlike
ments, I have found also two Latin inscriptions, the other one, this inscription is complete ; there
of which I here give facsimiles. The first was is no gap. no unfinished character, all the letters
found near the entrance, only a few feet distant have been engraved with the same care. It would,
from the monolith, in a calcareous wall, which indeed, be extraordinary that the engraver should
very likely belonged to a gate. It is easy to have made a mistake precisely in the numbers
see that the inscription was cut by two different which gives the distance to the next station. He
hands. The first hand stopped in the middle of would thus have done just the reverse of what the
the P of the second line. These characters were stone was intended for. The stone does not seem
engraved deeply and with a certain care ; but to have had any other purpose than to mark a
then the engraver left off; or perhaps the same station for soldiers and travellers, and to indicate
man, a soldier, who did it with some rough the length of the road to the next city or camp.
instrument, found the method slow, and wished We may reasonably admit that this distance was
to finish quickly. However, it seems cer-

tain that he wished to write EROPOLIS after

LO, "Itinerarium Antonini," 170, ed Wesseling.

the two letters of which I do not know the 1 p.

I indebted for this valuable information to a kind
meaning. POLIS is quite distinct, as well as the
letter from Prof. Th. Mommsen. The eminent Latin scholar
following words ERO CASTRA, as to which says there can be no doubt as to the correctness of the

there is no possible doubt. inscription.


given correctly, aud that it was not stated at more belongs to the region of Succoth. I believe there-

than fifty miles shorter than its actual length. fore that Heroopolis, or rather the capital of the

Therefore, in examining the evidence in favour of region of Succoth, contained two sanctuaries, very

the written text and the engraved inscription, I near to each other. Pi Tum and Pikerehet ; the

cannot help thinldng that the stone is right ; and last one being nearer the sea than Pi Tum, which
it agrees with a fact on which I shall have to dwell travellers coming from Heliopolis first reached.

later, the vicinity of Pithom to the head of the If now we remember that we have given to the
Arabian Gulf. milestone the preference over the text of the

Itinerary, and that we have thus reduced the sixty-

eight miles from Ero to Clusma to nine, the

GEOGEAPHICAL EEMAEKS. result is that all distances are considerably

shortened and that the eighteen miles which the
We have now again to consider the inscriptions

Itinerary puts between Ero and Serapiu must

which have been translated, and to draw from
have been only a very short interval. And this
them some information regarding the geography
of the Eastern region of the Delta ; and particu-
leads me to the conclusion that Serapiu is nothing

else than the Latin name of Pilercliet. This place

larly what is now called the Wadi TumiLit. It
is the only Serapewn, the only sanctuary of Osiris
will chiefly be the tablet of Philadelphos on which
The of which we know the existence in that part of
our argument will be based. tablet, as we
the country.
have seen,^ begins with three scenes of offering,
Another proof in favour of this idea is the fact
which differ in the names and number of the gods
that the Itinerary describes a road sixty miles
to whom the sacred gifts are brought. We see
long, which goes from Serapiu to Pelusium, and
first Tum of Succoth, Osiris of I'ikelicret, Har-
of which the stations are indicated. The
macliis, Hathor, The next scene
and Arsinoe.
description of that road follows immediately
shows us Tum, Hathor, and Arsinoe, who are
that of the road from Heliopolis to Clusma, of
turned to the left; this circumstance indicating
which Serapiu was the last station but one. Se-
that the second scene does not refer to the same
rapiu was therefore a branch station from which
historical fact as the first. We have seen in the
two roads started, one of which led to Clusma, the
inscription, at first, a narrative of what Philadel-
phos has done at Pikerehet, or Pikcherct, the city
other to Pelusium. Now, supposing Serapiu to be

eighteen miles south of Heroiipolis, as most of

of Osiris, in which, nevertheless, there was also an
abode of Tum.
the maps indicate it, near the present Bitter
Lakes, or even flirther towards Suez, there is no
Pikerehet plays an important part in the tablet

of Philadelphos, the last lines of which give the

reason why it should have been a starting-point,

amount of taxes which were granted as income to

or a junction, or why the road of Pelusium should

the temple of the city. According to the different

have branched off at that point. If such had been
the case, the traveller going from HeUopolis to
lists of nomes, we see that the capital of the eighth
Pelusium would have had to pass through Ero,
nome of Lower Egypt is either Pi Tum or Pike-
sometimes written Sc Kerehet f but, which- and thence to go on to Serapiu ; then from Se-

ever name is mentioned, it is always added that it

rapiu he must have retraced his steps, if not
through Ero, at least close to it, through a line
parallel to that which he had just followed. But
Plate VIII.
if Serapiu Pikerehet is close to Mv Pi Turn
msL Eouu
'itl "Iiiscr. d' Edfou," PI. the difficulty is easily solved. The traveller
CXLV. coming from Heliopolis went through Ero and

reached the neighbouring sanctuary of Serapin. It must have been at the head of the gulf

If he wished to go to the sea, he followed the canal, near Heroopolis that the upheaval of the soil, and
and arrived at Clusma nine miles distant ; if lie the retreat of the sea were first felt. Gradually
wanted to go to Pelusium, he left the canal at the water sank, the communication with the gulf
Serapiu and turned to the north. was partly cut off, and there remained salt

The authors who speak of Heroopolis are unani- marshes such as are seen at present in several

mous in declaring that the city was near the sea, parts of the Delta, and which were called by
at the head of the Arabian Gulf, which was also Strabo and Pliny the Bitter Lakes. Linant Bey^
called HeroopoHtan. Strabo and Pliny declare it very justly observes that the Bitter Lakes of

in the most distinct way. The geogi'apher Ptolemy the ancients cannot be identical with those of

places Heroopolis and Arsinoe at the head of the to-day, the extent of which is so considerable that

Arabian Gulf, in the same degree of latitude. it is quite impossible that they should have be-

The consequence of this agreement in the testi- come sweet after the water of the Nile had been
mony of the Greeks and the Romans is that, as admitted into them, as we learn from Strabo. At
we said before, we must admit that formerly, the time of the Pharaohs there were some Bitter

under the dominion of the Ptomans, the Red Sea Lakes at the head of the gulf near Heroopolis.
extended much farther north than it does now ;
Linant Bey's statement is confirmed by Pliny,^ who
but that then the retreat of the sea, and the says that the length of the canal is thirty-seven

changes in the surface of the soil had already miles as far as the Bitter Lakes. Taking the be-
begun to be felt. ginning of the canal near Bubastis, as we know
Not only were the Bitter Lakes under water, from Herodotus, thirty-seven miles would carry
but I believe we are compelled to admit with us only a little further than Pithom. It was
Linant Bey,' who derives his arguments from through those lakes, or rather through those
geology, Lake Timsah, and the valleys
that marshes, that Philadelphos cut his canal, on the
of Saba Biar and Abu Balah were, under the banks of which he built Arsinoe, the city which
Pharaohs, part of the sea. Some traces of this according to the hieroglyphic text was situate at
may be seen on the map of the French engineers Kcnmcrma.
dra'ftTi at the end of last century. Contiguous I consider the word Kemuerma as meaning
to Lake Timsah there is a narrow extension the shore or the landing-place of Kemuer.* And
towards the west which has the appearance of this name reminds me of one of the oldest

the head of a gulf. Thus the sea would have papyri which have come down to us, the papyrus
extended as far as the place now called Macjfar, of Berlin, N°. I., which relates the travels and the
only three miles from Heroopolis. There the adventurous life of an Egyptian called Saneha.®
canal ended which, before the time of Neko, This fugitive relates that in his vagrant journey he
watered the laud of Goshen and the cities like
arrived at the lake of Kemuer ^fe^ rv/'N^
\> I ^rm
Pithom, which were built in the Wadi Tumilat.
which evidently was a salt lake. Thirst, says he,
It is possible that the canal was traced and dug
overtook me in mij journey, my throat was parched ;
in an imperfect way : at the end there may have
been those marshes and pastures in which the
Bedawccs of Atuma asked the Pharaoh Menephtah ' Id., p. 178.

to allow them to pasture their cattle. '

Dii Bois Ayrce, " Memoire sur les anciennes limites de
la mer Eouge," ed. Panckouke, p. 380.
* Cf. Brugsch, Diet. Hier. vol. vi., p. 5.36.

' " Memoire sur les principaux travaux d'utilite publique 5

Cf. Maspero, " Melanges d'archeologie," 209 et seq. ;

executes en Egypte," p. 195. Goodwin, " Kecords of tlie Past," vol. vi.

I said this is the taste of death. Fortunately for one of the gulfs of the Red Sea. Luciau speaks

him, be saw a Bedawee, a Sati, who brought him of a young man who sailed from Clusma to India.

some water; and be escaped thus from dying of Philostorgos also says that one of the gulfs ends

thirst. It is interesting to know that at that at the Egyptian city of Clusma, from which its

time, long before Eameses II., that part of the name is derived. This shows that the city of

country was inhabited by Sati, Asiatic Bedawees, Arsinoe no longer existed and had been forgotten.

against whom the Pharaohs had to fight ; for If from the Roman inscription we know the
before arriving at Kemuer, Saueba had passed site of Clusma, where now shall we put Arsinoe ?

a fortress which the king had made to keep off According to Strabo it was near Heroijpolis, and
the Sati. It was for the same purpose that close to the end of the canal which went through
Eameses and his son Menepbtab built the for- the Bitter Lakes. Pliny says that Pbiladelphos

tresses of the Wadi Tumilat. stopped at the Bitter Lakes, fearing lest the

I believe the lake of Kemuer to be the present country might be overflowed if he carried his
lake Timsah, but very probably to have had a canal farther. He calls the canal Ptolemaeus

different form from what it has now ; I think also aiintis, the Ptolemean river, and he says that it

that the gulf which Pliny calls Charandra must be fiuws ahiiifj Arsinoe (prtefluit Arsinoen). From
understood as meaning the lake Timsah. There, this I should conclude that Arsinoe was situate

at the head of the gulf, Pbiladelphos built the city where in the time of the Pharaohs there were
oi Arsinoe, which he dedicated to his second wife, marshes ; which marshes were made navigable by
his sister, the princess to whom he granted divine Pbiladelphos ; and I should place Arsinoe at the

honours. This city does not seem to have lasted village of Maijfar. At that spot the French
very long. Ptolemy built it in order to facilitate engineers of the last century saw some ruins
the trade with the Red Sea.' In proportion as which were still visible when Linant Bey made his
the sea retreated it became necessary to carry the first journey. Those ruins were situate on the
canal farther; Pitbom Heroopolis was too far north side of the old canal, hke Pithom. This
back. Agatharcbides says that it was from Arsinoe would agree with Ptolemy, who says that Clusma
that the ships sailed to the Pied Sea ; and PHny was south of Ai'sinoe; and to a certain degree
mentions this city as the place where the three with the Tabula Peutingeriana, in which the two
roads met which led from the Mediterranean to cities are separated by the sea.
the Red Sea. Pliny, speaking of the canal, says that it unites
At the beginning of the fourth century, when the harbour of Daneon with the Nile. The name
Constantino was not yet emperor, Arsinoe was no of Daneon has not been identified ; it looks
more, and had been superseded by the canij} or like a genitive plural, and seems to indicate a tribe.

fort of Clmma,^ which is mentioned on the mile- I believe this name exists in hieroglyphic text,

stone, and which the geographer Ptolemy places in the papyrus of Saneha before quoted. After
very near Arsinoe.^ From the inscription, which be lias been rescued by the Sati near the lake of
gives the distance of nine miles from Ero, we may Kemuer, Saneha goes with him to the region of

conclude that Clusma was at the place where is Atima* which is under the dominion of the prince
now the station of Nefichc, close to Lake Timsah. of Tennu ^^^/i This seems to be
St. Epiphanius says that Clusma was at the head of the word which Pliny has transcribed Daneon. It

Liimnt, 1.1., p. IGG. =Linant, 1.1., p. 158. '
^Tk^ " Pup. ae Bed.,":., 1.29. (jc^^^
' Quatremoi-e, " Memoircs geographiques et historiques sur III, 1. 182. Cf. Chabas, "Pap. de Berlin," jip. -10 and 75,
Egypte," i., pp. 151 et soq. Maspero, "Mel. d'arclieologic, No. 9, p. 155.


•would thus refer to some nomad tribe living near route. The Israehtes had only to go along the

lake Timsah. canal as far as its opening into the Arabian Gulf
at a short distance from Succoth ; then pushing
straight forward, they would skirt the northern

THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. shore of the gulf, and reach the desert and the
Palestine way without having any sea to cross.
Among the historical events upon wliich the dis-
"The children of Israel journeyed from Piameses
covery of Pithom contributes to throw light, one
to Succoth." It is useless now to discuss the
of the most important is certainly the Exodus,
site of the city of Rameses, which will only be
and the route which the Israelites followed
ascertained by farther excavations. It is quite
in going out of Egypt. On this point, although
possible that we must understand the as re-
many conclusions are still conjectural, we have
ferring to the land of Rameses, rather than to the
at all events gained some fixed data which must
city ; the land must have been either west or north
now be brought forward.
of Pithom. The first station is Succoth, Thuket,
Goshen, in

a region
were settled in the Land of
which perhaps extended
or Thuhu \
^ or ^\
that the
[Xi .

Here it

of the place
is im-

poi-tant to observe
further northward, but which certainly compre-
where the Israelites first encamped is not the
hended the Wadi Tumilat, wherein was situate
name of a city, but the name of a district, of the
the city of Pithom, where, according to the Sep-
region of Thuket, in which, at the time of the
tuagint, Jacob and Joseph met when the Patriarch
Bound two Exodus, there existed not only Pithom, but the
came to Egypt. for Palestine, dif-
fortifications which Rameses II. and his successor
ferent routes lay before them. The northern
had erected to keep off the invading Asiatics. It
route had been followed by the great conquerors.
is quite natural that the camping ground of such
It went from Tanis to the Syrian coast ; it was
a large multitude must have had a great extent.
the shortest way, but it went through several for-
It was not at Pithom that the Israelites halted
tresses, particularly the great stronghold of Zar.
the gates of the fortified city were not opened to
Besides, the first part of it crossed a well-culti-
them, nor were the storehouses. Besides, the
vated and irrigated land occupied by an agri-
area of the enclosure would have been quite in-
cultural population, which was not a land of
sufficient to contam such a vast crowd. They
pasture necessary for a people of shepherds.
pitched their tents in the land of Succoth where
This northern route is called in the Bible the way
Pithom was built, very likely near those lakes and
of the land of the Philistmes; and, from the first,
those good pastures where the nomads of Atuma
before any other indication as to the direction
asked to be admitted with their cattle.
they followed, it is said that the Israelites did not

take that road. The other was the southern There has been much discussion about the site
of the next station, Etham, which has always been
route, which their ancestor Jacob had taken before
considered as a city, and even as a fortress, and
them, and which, according to Linant Bey,^ was
the name of which has been derived from the
still followed by the Bedawees of our days before
O is n ^ which means a
the opening of the canal. They went straight Egyptian Mctem, ^^^ ^ ^_^
from El Arish to the valley of Saba Biar while the
stronghold. The name of Succoth, of a region,
traders, travelling through Kantarah, Salihieh and shows that we are not to look for a city of Etham,
Korein followed very nearly the old northern name. And here
but for a district, a region of that
we must again refer to the text of the papyrus of

' Linant, 1.1., p. 159. Saneha. He says that, leaving the Lake of

Kemuer, lie arrived with his companion at a place much too far distant, especially in the case of the

called Atiina, which could not be very far distant. Shasu. On the contrary, it is quite natural

Let US now consult a document of the time of the to suppose that Atuma was a region near lake

Exodus, the papyrus Anatasi VI.' We find there Timsah, then called Kemuer. The Shasu, or

the passage which has already been alluded to the Sati as they are called in the papyrus of

several times. We follow M. Brugsch's transla- Saneha, who are wandering about at the edge of
tion: — " Wc have allotcecl the tribes of the Shasu of the desert, finding no food for their flocks, ask
the land of Atuina to juiss the stronghold of Kiiuj the agent of the royal estate to be allowed to

Menephtah of the land of Siiccoth, towards the lakes feed their cattle in the pastures which were
ofPithon of King Mcncfhtah of the land of Saceoth ; watered l)y the canal of Pithom.

in order to feed theviselres and to feed their cattle in Another reason which induces me to think that

the great estate cf Pharaoh. . . .

." That is what I Etham is a region, and not a eitg, is that in the

consider as the region of Etltaiii, the land which Book of Numbers* we read of the wilderness of

Etham, in which the Israelites march three days
the papyri call Atiina, Atina, AtiDiia, (|
w after having crossed the sea. This desert, then,
(X) . It was inhabited by Shasu would have extended very
Q. far south of the city

nomads, and as it was insufficient to nourish their from which it derived its name; and one does not
cattle, they were obliged to ask to share the see how Etham, an Egyptian city, would have
good pastures which had been assigned to the given its name to a desert inhabited by a Semitic
Israelites. The determinative indicates that ^ population, and the greatest part of which w^as on
it was a borderland. Both the nature of the the opposite side of the sea.
land and its name seem to agree very well with I beheve, therefore, Etham to be the region of
what is said of Etham, that it was /« tlie edge of Atuma ; the desert which began at Lake Timsah
the wilderness. and extended west and south of it, near the
Piouge, Chabas and Brugsch have transcribed Arabian Gulf. As this desert was occupied by
the name of Atuma as Edovi, considering that the Shasu and Satiu, Asiatic nomads of Semitic race,
Egyptian c=^:p generally transcribes the Hebrew ^. they may have had, somewhere on the shore
It is certainly rare to find a Jl corresponding to opposite to Egypt, a sanctuary dedicated to their
a c^ ; however, these transcriptions from the god Baal Zephon ; and this was not necessarily a
Semitic languages do not follow an invariable large place. It may have been a small monu-
rule.^ Jl very often transcribes ^ , for instance ment, a place of worship or of pilgrimage, like

in the name of Pithom, and c=^>i and ^ are equi- those numberless shekhs' tombs which are found
valent to each other in a considerable number of on the hills and mountains of Egypt.
Egj'ptian words.^ Moreover, it is an anachronism The Israelites leaving Succoth, a region which
to admit the existence of a land of Edom at the we now know well, the neighbourhood of Tell el

time when the papyrus of Saneha was written, Maskhutah, push forward towards the desert,
under the twelfth dynasty. It would have been skirting the northern shore of the gulf, and thus
reach the wilderness of Etham ; but there, because
of the pursuit of Pharaoh, tliey have to change
'"Pap. Ana.stasi," VI., p. 4. Enigsch, "Diet. Gcog.,"
their course, they are told to retrace their
p. 642. Clialias, " Keclierches pour servir a rinstoire du la

xix. dynastie," p. 107.

steps, so as to put the sea between them and the
IlicT. vol.vii.,p. laco.

f]-\r\ npn * XXXllL, 9.

— "


The next indications of Holy Writ can only of Succoth. Is it possible to admit that fi"om the
be determined conjecturally. Surveys and exca- shore of the Arabian Gulf, the Israelites turned to
vations are needed to give us definite infor- the north, and marched forty miles through the
mation. However, although it is impossible desert in order to reach the Mediterranean ? The
yet to bring forward positive evidence in favour journey would have lasted several days; they
of this or that theory, I will attempt to trace would have been obliged to pass in front of the
the route followed, relying on what seems most fortresses of the north; they would have fallen in
probable :
the way of the land of the Philistines, which they

" And the Lord .spake unto Moses, sapng :

Speak unto
were told not to take ; and, lastly, the Egyptians,
the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before issuing from Tanis and the northern cities, would
Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal- have easily intercepted them.
zephon ; before it shall ye encamp by the sea.'
Besides, when the text speaks of the sea, it is

We must bear in mind that the sea was only natural to think that it means the sea which is

at a very short distance from Succoth, and close by, of which they ai"e skirting the northern

that it covered the valley of Saba Biar. Judging coast, and not that other sea, which is forty

from the appearance of the ground, such as it is miles distant. All these reasons induce me to

given in the maps, it is clear that the gulf must give up definitively the idea of the passage by

have been very narrow in the space between the north, and to return to the old theory of a

Lake Timsah and the Bitter Lakes. We have passage of the Red Sea, but of the Red Sea as it

left the Israelites in the land of Atuma, on was at that time, extending a great deal farther

the northern shore of the Arabian Gulf, at the northward, and not the Red Sea of to-day, wliich
edge of the wilderness. There they receive the occupies a very different position.

command camp near "^^

to the sea, so as to be The word Migdol, in Egyptian ' ^^3^5 | :!'*',

separated by the gulf from the desert which they

is a common name; it means a fort, a tonrr. It
had to cross. They are obliged therefore to turn
is very likely that in a fortified region there have
back ; to pass between Pithom and the end of the
been several places so called, distinguished from
gulf, somewhere near Magfar, then to march
each other, either by the name of the king who
towards the south to the place which is indicated
built them, or by some local circumstance ;
as their camping ground. The question is now.
as there are in Italy a considerable number of
Where are we to look for Migdol and Fi Hahiroth?
Torre. I should therefore, with M. Ebers,^ place
As for Migdol, the ancient authors, and par-
Migdol at the present station of the Serapeum.
ticularly the Itinerary, mention a Migdol, or Mag-
There the sea was not wide, and the water pro-
dolon, which was twelve Roman miles ..distant
bably very shallow; there also the phenomenon
from Pelusium. It is not possible to admit that
which took place on such a large scale when the
this is the same Migdol which is spoken of in
Israelites went through must have been well known,
Exodus, for then it would not be the Red Sea,
as it is often seen now in other parts of Egypt.
but the Mediterranean, which the Israelites would
As at this point the sea was liable to be driven
have before them, and we should thus have to fall
back under the influence of the east wind, and to
in with MM. Schleiden and Brugsch's theory, that
leave a dry way, the Pharaohs were obliged to
they followed the narrow track which lies between
have there a fort, a Migdol, so as to guard that
the Mediterranean and the Serbonian Bog. How-
part of the sea, and to prevent the Asiatics of the
ever ingenious are the arguments on which this
system is based, I believe it must now be dismissed
altogether, because we know the site of the station ' "Durch Gosen zum Sinai," p. 422.

W 7 r> (; J 2


desert from using this temporary gate to enter it.^ If we look at the passage in Exodus where the
Egypt, to steal cattle and to plunder the fertile route of the Israelites is described, Ave find there that
land which was round Pithom. That there was the Septuagint, who made their translation during

one spot particularly favourable for crossing, be- the reign of Philadelphos, and after them the Coptic
cause of this well-known effect of the wind, is version, instead of mentioning Pi-Hahiroth, have
indicated by the detailed description of the place written dTrevdvTL Trj<; e7rai;X.e«s, before the farm, the
where the Israelites are to camp. There is a exact translation of the Egyptian ca. Thus
striking difference between this description and
while the Hebrew gives the proper name of the
the vague data which we find before and after.
sanctuary, the Greek speaks of the farm, which
It is not only said that they are to camp near the
we know from the papyrus Anastasi was close by
sea, but tlie landmarks are given, Pi-Hahiroth,
in the laud of Succoth, hke Pikerehet.
Migdol, Baal Zephon, so that they could
We have now the landmarks of the camping
not miss the spot, which perhaps was very
ground of the Israelites: on the north-west Pi-
Hahiroth, Pikerehet, not very far from Pithom ; on
Let us now try to identify Pi-Ildliirotli. At
the south-east Migdol, near the present Serapeum ;
first sight I was struck by the likeness in the
in front of them the sea; and opposite, on the
sound of the Hebrew word Pi-Hahiroth with
Asiatic side, on some hill like 57/67.7? Ennedch, Baal
the Pikeherct, or Pikcrchct, which we have found in
Zephon. There, in the space between the Sera-
the tablet of Philadelphos. At present I do not
peum and Lake Timsali, the sea was narrow, the
know of any other Egyptian name which may so
water had not much depth, the east wind opened
be compared to the Hebrew. But we have not yet
the sea, and the Israelites went through.-
found the word Pikerehet on a monument of the
This seems to me at present the most probable
time of Rameses II., and it is possible that this
route of the Exodus. I think it agrees best with
sanctuary of Osiris may have been built by Phila-
what we know of the geographical names, and of the
delphos. However, in general the Ptolemies did
nature of the land. Besides, it does not suppose
not innovate ; they restored the old worships and
very long marches, which would have been quite im-
enlarged the temples ; but they adhered to the local
possible with a large multitude ; the distances are
traditions. It is therefore most probable that
not very great, and on that account the information
from a very high antiquity Osiris had a temple at
which we owe to the Roman milestone is invaluable.
Pikerehet. We have considered Pikerehet as
However, it is most desirable that further excava-
being the second sanctuary of Heroopolis, at a
tions remove the obscurities of the topogi-aphy
short distance from Pi Tum, but nearer the sea

especially let us hope that some day we shall

and there is the following cii'cumstance which
ascertain the site of Migdol of the Pied Sea.
makes me think that it is Pi-Hahiroth. In tlie

tablet of Philadelphos there is ft-equcnt mention

in connection with Pikerehet, of horses which PTOLEMY PHILADELPHOS.
are brought there, and of cattle given to the
sanctuary for its annual income. Now, if we
It is not my intention to write the history of
the second of the Greek kings of Egypt, but only
revert to the papyrus Auastasi
and to the
Shasu of Atuma, we see that they ask to dwell on a few facts connected with the monu-
to drive
their cattle in the pastures which belong to the
estate or to the /arm of Pharaoh. The Egyptian '
Brugsch, "Diet. Hier.," vol. v. p. 122.

word ah means a farm where

I am Ijouiul to say, tliat following a totally different line
(] X tr^ cattle or
of argument, I have come very nearly to the same conclusion
horses are bred ; an estate with live stock upon as Linant Bey, in his admirable work already referred to.


ments of Pithom. Philadelphos was the sou of had been given to Arsinoe. Whatever may have
Ptolemy Soter, the General of Alexander, who had been his motives, his new wife was very different
received Eg3'pt as his share when the huge empire from the portraits which the court poets have left
was divided, and who succeeded in preserving his of her. She was about forty years of age, much
kingdom amid all the wars and intrigues which older than her husband, and in her past life had
followed the death of the Macedonian conqueror. committed some awful crimes. When she was
Philadelphos was the favourite son of his father, wife of Lysimachos, king of Thrace, with the help

who associated him with himself upon the throne of her brother Keraunos, she put to death Aga-

B.C. 285, so giving him the preference over his thocles, the son of another wife of Lysimachos
elder brother, Keraunos, who fled to Lysimachos, and heir to the throne. A few years after, her

king of Thrace. When Keraunos, after having associate Keraunos repaid upon her the death of

treacherously put to death Seleucus Nicator, Agathocles. On the day when, yielding to his en-

claimed the throne of Macedonia, he was supported treaties, she had consented to marry him, and

by Philadelphos, who in that way consolidated his amid the celebration of a great festivity, Keraunos
own crown. One of the first acts of Keraunos, slaughtered her two younger sons on her knees.

when he had succeeded to the throne of Mace- Arsinoe fled to Philadelphos, her second brother,
donia, was to lull the children of his sister Arsinoe, who raised her to the throne of Egypt.

widow of Lysimachos, who fled to Philadelphos. No queen ever had so many honours heaped
The second Ptolemy, as we know from Strabo upon her head as Arsinoe. Philadelphos put her
and Diodorus, had delicate health, and was very among the gods, and was himself her priest. And
fond of novelties, and of everything which came the worship of x^rsinoe seems to have been par-

from distant countries. We hear several times of ticularly solemn, for it lasted under the successors

his taste for the chase of elephants and for strange of Philadelphos. Official records, such as the decree

animals. He paid large sums to the travellers of Canopus, after the name of the king and queen

who brought them, and succeeded in collecting in whose reign the decree is made, mention the
a large number of elephants which he drew from name of the priestess of Arsinoe (Kai/rjc^d/oo?)

Ethiopia. which shows that it was a very high dignity.

A short time after his accession to the throne, Not only did Philadelphos grant divine honours
some palace intrigues, and a real or supposed to his wife, but it is very likely that he gave her an

plot against his life, induced him to repudiate his important position in the government of the
first wife, Ai'sinoe I., the daughter of Lysimachos, country. He must have considered her as having
king of Thrace, by whom he had three children, a right to the throne, because, in opposition to
and to The wife who succeeded
exile her to Coptos. what we see for all other queens consort of Egypt,

her was the king's own sister, Arsinoe IL, who he gave her the right to bear two ovals, like a king.
received the title of Philadelphos. The historian I do not know of any other Egyptian queen who

of the successors of Alexander, Dr. Droysen,^ at- enjoyed this honour, unless by usurpation not ;

tributes to political motives this marriage, which even under the twenty-first dynasty. The first of
was not repugnant to the Egyptians, but which these ovals, Niim ab Situ mer ndcni, has some

must have been most ofiensive to the Greeks and Hkeness to the first cartouche of Amasis, except

Macedonians who surrounded the king. He thinks that it contains the god Shu instead of Ra.

that Philadelphos wished to make a claim to cities A great many cities were named after Arsinoe,

like Ephesus, Heraclea, and Cassandrea, which or founded in her honour. Stephanus Byzan-

tinus mentions ten. There were two in Egypt :

' " Geschiclite des Hellenismus," ii., p. 234 et seq. one in the Fayoom, the other near Heroopolis.
E 2

There was one also in the Troglodytice. Ptolemy is not given. Strabo '^
mentions two Generals of
sent several expeditions to this last land ; this coin- Philadelphos who were ordered to explore the

cided with his taste for what came from far away ;
Troglodytice ; first Satyros, who founded the city

and it encouraged the trade by the Eed Sea, of of Philotera, then Eumedes. In skirting the coast

which he felt the importance for the welfare of the Troglodytice, which our text calls the

of his kingdom. It is one of the merits of land of Khatit, "Eumedes," says Strabo, "after

the first Ptolemies, and particularly of Phila- having passed an island covered with olive-trees,
delj^hos, to have opened new commercial roads came upon a peninsula, where he landed quite

which were previously unlcnown, or at least unawares, and entrenched himself, digging a ditch
unfrequented. and building a wall in order to keep off the natives ;

Diodorus *
says that before Philadelphos no but he dealt with them so skilfully, that he made
Greek had ever reached the extreme boundaries friends of them instead of foes. He founded the city

of Egypt or penetrated into Ethiopia, where he of Ptolemais dr^poiv, ' Ptoiemais of the chase,'
sent a military expedition. It is he who made specially destined for the pursuit of elephants, and
known to his subjects the immense wealth which as a landing place for the travellers who went into

would be derived from those remote countries, the inner part of the country." We have seen in
which, since the Pharaohs of the great dynasties, the lines 22 to 25 of our tablet an account of the
the Egyptian armies had never seen. The ancient foundation of the city, whence the elephants were
authors, Diodorus, Agatharchides, Strabo, and brought by ships on the sea. The text seems even
Pliny, assign as the inducement for those ex- to allude to the skill with which Eumedes succeeded
peditions the fancy of the king for elephants, in making friends with the natives and their chiefs.

which was carried so far, that according to Aga- It speaks of the settlement of the colony which was
tharchides, he tried to persuade the Elephanto- established there, and of the goodwill of the inha-
phagi to give up the habit of eating the flesh of bitants, who brought at once the products of the
that animal. Our tablet says, in fact, that land, and sent a tribute to Philadelphos.
elephants^ were brought to the king from the The site of Ptolemais Theron has been much
coast of Africa. But it would not be fair to discussed. It is generally placed between Souakim
attribute to a mere fancy those naval expeditions, and Massowah, near a promontory which Dr.
of which Philadelphos dispatched several. He Droyseu calls Eas Turhoba, and others Eas el

evidently recognized well the great advantages Debir. It appears that Philadelphos considered
which Egypt would derive from her position the foundation of this city as one of the important
between Europe and the East ; and he added much acts of his reign, for he relates it fully in the tablet
to the prosperity and the wealth of his kingdom, of Pithom, while he does not mention Philotera
by bringing to his harbours the products of Eastern and Berenice, which were also on the Eed Sea.
Africa, and even of India, which was absolutely The last line of the tablet raises some important
unknown to the old Pharaohs. questions as to the coinage in the time of Phila-
The hieroglyphic text relates that a considerable delphos. All the sums of taxes and incomes are
fleet of transports was gathered at Kemuerma, in given in silver ; and this confirms what is known
the present lake Timsah, under the command from Demotic and Greek documents, that under
of the first General of His Majesty, whose name Philadelphos the standard of the coinage was silver.*

DioJori, "I!ibl.," i., .37. ' Stralio, p. 770.
* Cf. tlic interesting researches of M. Eevillout, " Ecvue
nm ' a new word. Egyptologique," iii. annee.

The greater part of this Memoir was already graved on stone and preserved at the very place
wi-itten, when I received an article written by where they were originally erected. Besides, it is

M. Lepsius in the Zeitschrift of Berlin, under the easy to show that the two texts referred to do not
title Uhcr die Lage von Pithoiii (Sulckoth) imd at all overthrow the discovery of Pithom. On the
Raemscs (Heroonpolis). The learned author, start- contrary, there is a remarkable confirmation in
ing from the description of the Sweet Water Canal Herodotus, whom I quote in fulL^ Wajxixiriy^ov

of the Pharaohs, which he gave in his standard Se IVe/cw? TTttts iyeuero koL ij3acrC\evae AlyvnTov,
work on the Chronology of the Egyptians, seeks 09 T7J Siwpv)(i iTre)(eipr](Te TrpuiTO^ rfj e's ttjv

to prove that the identification of Tell el Maskhutah Epvdprji/ ddXaacrau (jtepovcrr], tyjv Aapelo<; 6
with Kaamses, which he advocated in the year 1849, Uepcrr)'; Sei/repa Stwpu^e .... 'H/crat, §e ano tov
holds good as before ; and that Pithom must be NeiXov TO vSwp es avTrjv, ^KTat Se KaTuirepde
looked for at Tell Abu Suleyman, twenty-two miles b\iyov Bov/SacTTio? ttoXios irapa Tldrovixov rrjv
farther back, to the westward between Abu Hammed Apafiirjv ttoXlv. 'Ecre)(eL Se es ttjv 'EpvOprju
and Tell el Kebir. The chief argument upon which dakaaa-av. " Psammitichus left a son called Nekos,
M. Lepsius relies for throwing overboai-d nearly who succeeded him upon the throne. This
the whole results of the excavations at Maskhutah, prince was the first to attempt the construction

is that the site discovered does not agree with the of the canal to the Red Sea— a work completed
passage of Herodotus on Patumos, or with the afterwards by Darius the Persian The
distances given in the Itinerary ; and that those water is derived from the Nile, which the canal
two texts must be considered as the unassailable leaves a little above the city of Bubastis, near
foundation to which we are to adapt our inter- Patumos the Arabian town ; it runs into the
pretations of the hieroglyphic texts. Pied Sea."

My venerable master will allow me to differ en- This is the text which is given in the new
tirely as to this method, and to proceed exactly from editions of Herodotus, and on which M. Lepsius
the opposite end. I really do not think that the facts rehes to prove that Pithom lies under the pre-
related by Herodotus, and still more the numbers of sent mounds of Tell Abu Suleyman, between Abu
the Itinerary, (a document of a very late epoch) can Hammed and Tell el Kebir. Whoever knows the
be more weighty as evidence than dated Egyptian country, or looks at the map, will be struck at

inscriptions found on the spot; and which though once by the fact that, M. Lepsius's identifi-

of various epochs are quite unanimous in the in- cation is right, Herodotus must be wrong for :

formation they give us. I believe that the sound Patumos in such case would be not above, but
method, not only for Egyptology, but for history about fourteen English miles heloio Bubastis.

in general, is to test the later, and especially the Besides, it would be a strange way of indi-

foreign documents, by the Hght of contemporary cating the place where the canal branches off

records ; especially when those records are en- from the Nile, to mention a city which is a great

This was written and printed before the lamented death
of the celebrated Egyptologist. ' Herod, ii., 158, ed. Miiller : Paris, Didot.


deal farther from the beginning of the canal than city must have been at the opening of the Wadi
Bubastis itself. Herodotus would thus say " the Tumilat, at the junction of the roads to Pelu-
water is derived from the Nile, a little above sium and Clusma. I see no reason why Thou
Bubastis which is close by the origin of the canal, should be Pithom, the abode of Tum. On the con-
near the city of Patumos which is fifteen miles trary, if the name is derived from one of the gods,
distant ; and before the water of the canal reaches it cannot be from Tum, whose name in the Itine-
Patumos it has to flow for one-third of the whole rary, like the names of all the great gods of Egypt,
length of the canal." Or again it would be like is not given in its Egyptian form, but translated into
saying in our days : the canal branches off a little Greek. Ra is Helios, and his city is Heliopolis
above Zagazig, near the station of Tell el Kebir. Amon, Zeus, Diospolis ; Thoth, Hermes, Hermo-
Further, if we consider the next sentence, iae)(^eL polis ; Hathor, Aphrodite, Aphroditopolis ; Osiris,
Be, &c., it riDi.s into the Bed Sea, it seems quite an Serapis, Serapiu;Tum, 'Hpm, Hero. I cannot, hke
unnecessary repetition. Herodotus describes the M. Lepsius, consider as a mistake the remarks of
canal to the lied Sea ; it is a matter of course that ChampoUion and Wilkinson,* that on the Pam-

the canal runs into the Pied Sea. He would not philiau obelisk, the translation of which is pre-
have said that, if he had not intended to indicate served by Ammianus Marcellinus, the Egyptian
the part of the Red Sea where the canal joins it.
si Tiiw, tlie son of Turn, is rendered vtos
He gives us here the two ends of the canal, the
starting point near Bubastis, and the point of "Hpo)vo<;, of which the Greeks have made 'Hpcocov

junction with the sea near Patumos. The text

TToXis, slightly changing the word so as to give it

is evidently corrupt, but is easily amended. It is

a sense in their own language. Thou is therefore

only necessary to divide the sentence otherwise, not Tum. It may not even be the name of a divi-

and to displace 8e. Thus we read : — nity.^ Neither can it be an abbreviation of Patumos.
'HKTat Se KaTvnepde oXiyoi' Bov/3do'Ti.o<; ttoXios.
The city was called in Egyptian Pi Tum, or Ha
Tlapa Tla.Tovp.ov Se jrjv 'Apa/3ir)u ttoXlv iae)(eL c?
Tum ; and in the Itinerary we see that the last

TTji/ 'EpvBprjv Oakaa-aav. " The water is derived syllables of Egyptian names are cut off, but not the
from the Nile, a Httle above Bubastis, and it runs beginning. This word would have been shortened
into the Pied Sea near Patumos, the Arabian city."' in a different way from the other names. It is very
The sentence is quite symmetrical ; the descrip- possible that Tell Abu Suleyman may be the site of

tion is quite fluent; and it is exactly what we Thou ; but whatever may be the sense of this
learn from the inscriptions of Maskhutah. name, we must keep the reading Thou or Thohu,
Let us now examine the texts of the Itinerary ^ and not Thoum.
and the ' Notitia Dignitatum,' which mention a M. Lepsius then dwells on the fact that on
cityof r/tOM, Thohu, Tohu, Thoim. Two manu- the monolith Rameses II. is seen sitting between

scripts only of the Itinerary read Thoum, all the

Ra and Tum. It shows, according to his argu-

others read Thou, and all the manuscripts of the ment, that Rameses was the local god, and
'Notitia' Thohu. Judging from the Itinerary, this that the city must have borne his name, as was
the case at Abu Simbel, where Rameses is seated
in the sanctuary in company with the three chief
' I believe this reading is found in the edition of Larcher
which I liave not seen ; Wesscling advocates it in one of tlio
' I iiave seen only the edition of Wesseling of the Itinerary,
' Gramm., p. 361.

which does not mention Thoum. Parthey, the editor of the *

"Manners and Customs," 2nd ed., iii., p. 178.
Itinerary, in his maps made from that text, quotes only Thou ^ I should not wonder if wo found some day that Tliou is

and Tliiihu. (Zur Erdkunde des Alton Aegyptons). the equivalent of Ikihastis.


deities of Egypt. But at Maskhutah the case is opolis; it could not be Tum, because we know the
quite different. The monoHth does not belong to existence of Pi Tum at Tell Abu Suleyman, and
the sanctuary. There were two monohths exactly two cities so very near each other could not have

alike, placed opposite to each other, at the the same name ; — it must therefore be Raamses.
entrance. It is a pure hypothesis to admit that M. Lepsius will allow me to observe that this

there was a third monolith in the sanctuary, con- argument takes for granted, and rests on the very
sidering that the naos has been preserved. Why point which is under discussion. I, for my own
should the third have disappeared ? There is not part, do not admit at all, and far less consider as

the slightest doubt that the naos was dedicated to a well proved fact, that there was a Pithom at Abu
Turn Harmachis, as may be seen from the inscrip- Suleyman. On the contrary, the reader knows what
tions and the sphinx which is cut in the base. I think of the texts of Herodotus and the Itinerary,
Those two monoliths have the same purpose as which alone are cited as supporting this idea. Be-
the inscriptions which we often meet with in sides, the objection of the too great vicinity of two
temples, chiefly near the entrance. The king is cities with the same name would be much stronger

between two gods ; for instance, Tum and Mentu, in the case of the identification of M. Lepsius. If
or Tum and Khonsu, who introduce him, and ever there was a city dedicated to Tum, it was

promise him a long and prosperous reign, and un- Heliopolis, which is sometimes called ^^^ Pi
interrupted happiness, and who record his praises
Tum;^ and HeHopolis is nearer Tell Abu Suley-
in the stereotyped sentences, which are found on
man than Tell Abu Suleyman is to Maskhutah.
the walls of all temples. Here, where there was
no stone wall, the monolith has taken the place Summing up the results of this Paper, I believe
of the engraved picture ; only the king is seen the identification of Pithom with Tell el Mas-
sitting instead of standing. On the monolith khutah to rest on the most satisfactory evidence,
which has been published, it is Tum who speaks, upon that of inscriptions found on the spot, and
addressing the king with the usual promises and dating from the reign of Eameses 11. the founder

eulogies; on the other the formulas are of the of the city, to Ptolemy Philadelphos. We have
same kind. Nowhere, neither at the entrance, found the name of the nome WT- that of the
nor on the naos, nor on the granite tablet, nor district which became afterwards the civil name of
on the sphinxes, is there any mention of a Pi
the capital (2 that of
Barneses, a city of Barneses, which certainly would
not have been omitted if that were the name of the sacred city "1 that of the

the town. Besides, if, as a rule, every place where "^

lake o*o and that of the region
Rameses was worshipped as a god was called t
If we look at all the lists of nomes, these names,
the city of Barneses, we have to give that name
without exception, belong to the eighth nome of
to all the sanctuaries of Nubia, Bet el Wally,
Lower Egypt, the nome of Pithom, which became
Gerf Hussein, Sebua, Derr, Abu Simbel, and
under the Ptolemies Heroopolis, and under the
even to the great temple of Karnak.^
Romans Ero Castra.^
The final argument of M. Lepsius is that the city
which was at Maskliutah must have been named
from one of the gods of the monohth. It could = "loser, of Piankhi," 1. 106.
^ It is useless to insist on a curious consequence of Jl.
not be Ra, because there is already a Pi Ea, Heli-
Lepsius's identification. Admitting that Eaamses is at Mas-
khutah, and Pithom Succoth at Tell Abu Suleyman, the first

march of the Israelites would have been to go twenty-two

' Cf. Leps., "Denkm.," iii., 148, 177, 178, 181, 182, &c. miles towards the west, turning their backs to the Eed Sea.'
: ;;


The former proprietor of the villa at Tell el the valiant Psammetik. We know also another
Maskhutali, Mr. Paponot, had the kindness to man whose surname was the valiant Nefer ab Ra
send me paper-casts of two small monuments he was called Uza hor sunt, and a cup dedicated
which were found at the same time as those which by him was found at Damanhour."
have heen hrought to Ismaihah. They were The style of this inscription is exactly that of

lying heneath the great monolith. the two fragments of Plate VII., which I had at

Both are fragments of statuettes in black first attributed to the early Ptolemies. It gives

granite. One of them consists only of two them a date. It shows that they belong to the

of which we twenty-sixth dynasty.

^ I

of text on the back,
print one here

the second being only
Of the second statuette of Mr. Paponot,
in black granite, two fragments
" The text reads thus : whose remain ; a line of the back and part of
surname is Nefcr ab Fui neb pelui (the most the inscription of the apron. . We print

valiant Nefer ab Ea), the son of Thothna,

(A© here the line of the back. It reads
the issue of Sit pa Hap speaks thus
god of Succoth,

the living the

This fragment is particularly interesting

because it gives the name of a king which Auhau on the horizon of Turn of Snceoth,

had not yet been found at Pithom. the fosterer of Hor Sam. Taui

IM Nefer ab Ba is the first cartouche of We have again here the title of Auhau
Psammetik II., the third king of the which we have found on other statues. As
ca I twenty-sixth dynasty, who reigned six to the temple it is called the horizon of

years between 594 and 589 B.C., and o © Turn, a metaphor which is very natural, as
who was chiefly engaged in wars against he is a solar god. The title of Khenemt,
IT the Ethiopians. fosterer, or nurse when it is a feminine, is

It was usual at that time for priests frequent with gods considered as children
and officers to adopt a surname consisting thus we find it also with Khonsu, the
of the name of the king with an adjective. p^ child.^ From the monuments of the
Thus the son of Thothua, whose real twenty-sixth dynasty we should say that
name we do not know, was called tlie the triad of Pithom consisted of Turn, Hathor
valiant Nefer ab Ea, an epithet of which the king and Hor Saju Taui.
himself was fond, as he once added it to his

second cartouche, making it Fsemtek neb pehti/

" Dcscr. de I'Eg., Ant. v. pi: 74.

Lcps. Denkm., iii., 275. ' Brugsch., Diet. Hier., p. 1102.

London: Printed by Gilbert and Rivington (Limited), St. John's Square, Clerkenwell Road.
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