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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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various amounts of a single homogeneous commodity to various destinations

for a minimum transport cost.

1. Feasible Solution

For a set of non negative values xij that satisfies the constraints are called the

feasible solution of the transportation problem.

A feasible solution that contains not more than m+n-1 non negative allocation

is called BF solution to the TP.

3. Optimal Solution

A feasible solution is said to be optimal if it minimizes the total transportation

cost.

A BF solution to the m × n TP that contains exactly m+n-1 allocation in

independent position is called non degenerate BF solution.

A feasible solution that contains less than m+n-1 non negative allocation is

said to be degenerating.

D1 D2 D3 D4 Capacity

6 4 1 5 14

8 9 2 7 16

4 3 6 2 15

6 10 15 14 Demand

Soln:

1 2 3 4 Cap

1 6 4 1 5 14

6 8 × ×

2 8 9 2 7 16

× 2 14 ×

3 4 3 6 2 15

× × 1 14

Dem 6 10 15 14 45

45

IBFS Cost = (6 × 6) + (8 × 4) + (2 × 9) + (14 × 2) + (1 × 6) +

(14 × 2)

= 148

Ques:

1 2 3 4 Supply

A 21 16 15 3 11

B 17 18 14 23 13

C 32 27 18 41 19

Demand 6 10 12 15

Soln:

21 16 15 3 11

× × × 11

17 18 14 23 13

1 × 12 ×

32 27 18 41 19

5 10 × 4

6 10 12 15 43

43

= m+n-1= 4+3-1 = 6

Number of allocation

IBFS Cost = (11 × 3) + (1 × 17) + (12 × 14) + (5 × 32)

+ (10 × 27) + (4 × 41)

= 812

Ques:

1 2 3 4 Supply

A 21 16 15 3 11

B 17 18 14 23 13

C 32 27 18 41 19

Demand 6 10 12 15

Soln:

21 16 15 3 11

× × × 11 12 |

17 18 14 23 13

6 3 4 3|3|3|4|

×

32 27 18 41 19

7 12 9 | 9 | 9 | 9| 9 | 9 | 18 |

× ×

6 10 12 15 43

43

×

4 2 1 20

15 9 4 18

15 9 4

9 4

27 18

18

= m+n-1 = 4+3-1 = 6

Number of allocation

IBFS Cost = (11 × 3) + (6 × 17) + (3 × 18) + (4 × 23)

+ (7 × 27) + (12 × 18)

= 686

Problems:

1. Find the IBFS whose cost matrix is given below by NWCR, MMM, VAM

E F G H I J Supply

A 14 19 32 9 21 0 200

B 15 10 18 7 11 0 225

C 20 12 13 18 16 0 175

D 11 32 14 14 18 0 350

Demand 130 110 140 260 180 130

Soln:

a. NWCR:

14 19 32 9 21 0 200

130 70 × × × ×

15 10 18 7 11 0 225

× 40 140 45 × ×

20 12 13 18 16 0 175

× × × 175 × ×

11 32 14 14 18 0 350

× × × 40 180 130

130 110 140 260 180 130

IBFS Cost = (130 × 14) + (70 × 19) + (40 × 10) + (140 × 18)

+ (45 × 7) + (175 × 18) + (40 × 14) + (180 × 18)

+ (0 × 130)

= 13335

b. VAM:

14 19 32 9 21 0 200 9 5 5

× × × 35 35 130

15 10 18 7 11 0 225 7 3 3 3

× × 225

× × ×

20 12 13 18 16 0 175 12 1 1 1 1

× 110 65 × × ×

11 32 14 14 18 0 350 11 3 3 3 3 3

130 × 75 × 145 ×

130 110 140 260 180 130 950

3 2 1 2 5 0

3 2 1 2 5 0

3 2 1 2

4 2 1 7

9 20 1 4

11 32 14 14

c. MMM

14 19 32 9 21 0 200

× × × 35 35 130

15 10 18 7 11 0 c.

225

× × × 225 × ×

20 12 13 18 16 0 175

× 110 65 × × ×

11 32 14 14 18 0 350

130 × 75 × 145 ×

130 110 140 260 180 130

+ (110 × 12) + (65 × 13) + (130 × 11) + (75 × 14)

+ (145 × 18)

= 9880

Test for optimality

2. These allocations must be in independent positions

Non independent

Non independent

Independent

method

19 30 50 10 7

70 30 40 60 9

40 8 70 20 18

5 8 7 14

Soln:

IBFS Cost = (19 × 5) + (10 × 2) + (40 × 7) + (2 × 60)

+ (8 × 8) + (65 × 13) + (20 × 10)

= 779

19 30 50 10 7 9 9 40 40

5 × × 2

70 30 40 60 9 10 20 20 20

× × 7 2

40 8 70 20 18 12 20 50

× 8 × 10

54 8 7 14 34

54 8 7 14

21 22 10 10

21 10 10

10 10

10 50

19 30 50 10 u1 = 10

5 + + 2

90 30 40 60 u2 = 60

+ − 7 2 -0

40 8 70 20 u3 = 20

+ 8 + 10 +0

v1 =9 v2= -12 v3= -20 v4= 0

C14 = U1 + V4 U1 = 10

10 = U1 + 0

C24 = U2 + V4 U2 = 10

60 = U2 + 0

C34 = U3 + V4 U3 = 0

20 = U3 + 0

C11 = U1 + V1 V1 = 9

19 = V1 + 10

C23 = U2 + V3 V3 = -20

40 = V3 + 60

C32 = U3 + V2 V2 = -12

8 = V1 + 20

dij = cij – ( uj + vj )

d12 = 30 – (10 – 12 )

d12 = 32

d13 = 50 – (10 – 20 )

d13 = 60

d21 = 21 d22 = -18

d31 = 11 d33 = 70 Ans: 743

Unbalanced Transportation Problem

Prob 1: A company has 4 factories A,B,C,D which supply to

warehouses E,F,G,H,I. Monthly capacities are 200,225,175,350 units.

Monthly ware house requirements are 130,110,140,260 & 180 units

respectively. The shipping cost in Rs is given below. Find the minimum

transportation cost.

E F G H I Cap

A 14 19 32 9 21 200

B 15 10 18 7 11 225

C 26 12 13 18 16 175

D 11 22 14 14 18 350

Dem 130 110 140 260 180 950

820

Soln: Since the capacity is not equal to demand. This is an unbalanced TP.

Balance it by adding a dummy column having a demand of 950 – 820 =

130 units.

The cost values in the dummy column are taken as zeroes.

14 19 32 9 21 0

15 10 18 7 11 0

26 12 13 18 16 0

11 22 14 14 18 0

14 19 32 9 21 0 200

× × × 200 × ×

15 10 18 7 11 0 225

× × × 45 80 ×

26 12 13 18 16 0 175

× 45 × × × 130

11 22 14 14 18 0 350

130 65 140 15 × ×

130 110 140 260 180 130

14 19 32 9 21 0

× × × 200 × ×

15 10 18 11 7 0

× × × 60 165 ×

26 12 13 18 16 0

× 45 × × × 130

11 22 14 14 18 0

130 65 40 × 15 ×

Test for optimality

14 19 32 9 21 u1 = -5

+ + + 200 +

5 30 40

60 11 u2 = -7

+ − 7 2 -0 165

26 8 70 20 16 u3 = -10

+ 8 + 10 +0 +

11 22 14 14 18 u4 = 0

130 65 140 0 100

v1 =11 v2= 22 v3= 14 v4= 14 v5= 18 v6= 10

(45 + 0) Q -Q (130-0)

(65 – 0) –Q Q

130 – Q = 0

And, 65 – 0 =0

Q = 65 & 130

Qmin = 65

Q 65 - Q

15 – Q 65 + Q

Qmin = 15

14 19 32 9 21 0 u1 = -5

0 + + 200 + +

15 10 18 7 11 0 u2 = -7

+ + + 60 165 +

26 12 13 18 16 0 u3 = -10

110 - + + 55

+ 11 + 22 14 14 18 0 u4 = 0

130 65 10 +0 15 65

v1 =11 v2= 12 v3= 14 v4= 14 v5= 18 v6= 0

14 19 32 9 21 0 u1 = -3

0 + + 200 + +

15 10 18 7 11 0 u2 = -5

+ + + 60 165 +

26 12 13 18 16 0 u3 = 0

+ 10 - + 15 50

11 22 14 14 18 0 u4 = 0

130 + 140 + 0 80

v1 =11 v2= 12 v3= 14 v4= 12 v5= 16 v6= 0

Q 5+Q

140 – Q 80 + Q

Qmin = 50

14 19 32 9 21 0 u1 = -4

+ + + 200 + +

15 10 18 7 11 0 u2 = -6

+ + + 60 165 +

26 12 13 18 16 0 u3 = -1

+ 10 50 + 15 +

11 22 14 14 18 0 u4 = 0

130 + 90 + + 130

v1 =11 v2= 13 v3= 14 v4= 13 v5= 17 v6= 0

Min Tc = 8935

Maximisation TP

The firm has to supply to 3 customers C1, C2 & C3. The profits expected

per unit transported from the 3 plants to the 3 customers are given

below. The requirements of the customers are 100, 70, & 120 units

respectively & the capacities of the plants A, B & C are 80,130 & 100

units respectively. Determine the optimum no. of units to be transplanted

from each of the plants to each of the customers. Does this problem have

more than one optimum solution? If yes find another solution for the

problem

C1 C2 C3 Capacity

A 4 1 3 80

B 2 3 2 130

C 3 5 2 100

Demand 100 70 120 130

290

Soln: Since the capacity is not equal to demand. This is an unbalanced

TP. Balance it by adding a dummy column having a demand of 310 –

290 = 20 units.

C1 C2 C3 C4 Capacity

A 4 1 3 0 80

B 2 3 2 0 130

C 3 5 2 0 100

Demand 100 70 120 20

given matrix is converted to solve for maximization.

(1) Select highest element in the matrix and subtract all other

elements from it.

For the revised matrix apply regular procedure

1 4 10 5 80 1 1 1 3

70 × × ×

3 2 3 5 130 1 0 1 2

× 110 × 20

2 0 3 5 100 2 1

30 70 × ×

100 70 120 20

1 2 1 0

1 1 0

2 1 0

1 0

+ (30 × 3) + (70 × 5)

= 970

Test for optimality

1 4 2 5 u1 = - 1

70 + 10 0

3 2 3 5 u2 = - 1

+ + 110 20

2 0 3 5 u3 = 0

30 70 + 0

v1 =2 v2= 0 v3= 3 v4= 6

Since, empty cell evaluations are all non negative the solution is optimal.

Hence, there is zero evaluation for 2 empty cells which suggest this

problem has more than one optimal solution.

10 – Q Q

110+ Q 20 – Q

Q =10

1 4 2 5 u1 = - 1

70 + 10 0

3 2 3 5 u2 = - 1

+ + 120 10

2 0 3 5 u3 = 0

30 70 - -

v1 =2 v2= 0 v3= 4 v4= 6

70 + Q 10 – Q

10 + Q

120 –Q

30 –Q Q Q =10

1 4 2 5 u1 = - 1

80 + 0 0

3 2 3 5 u2 = 0

+ + 110 20

2 0 3 5 u3 = 0

20 70 10 0

v1 =2 v2= 0 v3= 3 v4= 5

Degeneracy in TP

less than m + n – 1. The degeneracy can develop in 2 ways

(1) Basic feasible solution may degenerate from the initial stage

onwards.

(2) They may become degenerate at any inter mediate stage.

Resolution of degeneracy

(usually denoted by ∆ or ε ) to one or more of the empty cells so that the

numbers of occupied cells become equal to m + n – 1. The small

quantity ∆ is introduced on the least cost independent cell.

Test for optimality

Prob 1: The following table given the cost of transporting a certain item

from A, B, C & D to destination E, F, G & H. The demand at E, F, G &

H are 10, 20, 30, & 40 units respectively. The capacities of A, B, C & D

are 10, 30, 20 & 60 units respectively

a. Determine the optimum transportation schedule and minimum total

cost.

b. If the cost from C to G is increased to 12 per unit does the optimal

schedule change if yes find the new optimal solution? Does it have

an alternate solution?

E F G H

A 8 10 12 17 0 10

B 15 13 18 11 0 30

C 14 20 6 10 0 20

D 13 19 7 5 0 60

10 20 30 40 20

Soln: Rs 730

at D, E & F. Monthly capacities are 150,200 & 250 units respectively on

regular production. If are time is utilized factories A & B can produce 50

& 100 units respectively. The expected profits per unit for different

combination of factories to warehouses are given below. If overtime is

utilized, the expected profit/unit decreases by 5% & 4% respectively per

factories A & B. Determine the optimum distribution plan for the

company & the max profit.

D E F

A 11 13 17 150

B 16 18 14 200

C 21 20 13 250

300 200 200

D E F

A 11 13 17 150

B 16 18 14 200

C 21 20 13 250

A0 6 8 12 50

B0 12 14 10 100

& 100 units respectively.

The expected profits per unit for these factories are estimated by

decreasing Rs.5 & 4 from factories A & B without over time.

D E F Gf

A 11 13 17 0 150

B 16 18 14 0 200

C 21 20 13 0 250

A0 6 8 12 0 50

B0 12 14 10 0 100

300 200 200 50

D E F Gf

A 10 8 4 21 150

× × 150 ×

B 5 3 7 21 200

50 150 ∆× ×

C 0 1 8 21 250

250 × × ×

A0 15 13 9 21 50

× × 50 ×

B0 9 7 11 21 100

× 50 × 50

300 200 200 50

This is a case of degeneracy.

Since the empty cell evaluations are non negative the solution is optimal.

+ (250 × 21) + (50 × 12) + (50 × 14)

+ (50 × 0)

= 12600

Max Profit = 12600

13 D 11 E 16 F 23 G u1f = -3

+

A 1 10 + 8 + 4 21 u1 = - 3

11 + 19 + 26 50 16 u+2 = 8

1

B 4 5 + 3 - 7 21 u2 = 0

12 50 11 150 4 ∆ 9 u+3 = 0

+

C 2 0 5 1 3 8 21 u3 = -5

7 250 15 + 9 + 14 + u4 = 4

8

A0 0 15 + 13 + 9 21 u4 = 2

v1 = 3 v+2= 11 v+3= 4 v4= 9

50 +

B0 9 7 11 21 u5 = 4

0 50 + 50

v1 =5 v2= 3 v3= 7 v4= 17

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