Bas Prlncen (Novemoer 2004I

Pnotograons of tne Palestlnlan Arao vlllage of 3µr Banlr, tne Jewlsn lsraell settlement
of |ar |oma and tne sµrroµndlng µroan landscaoe of Fast Jerµsalem.
1LY\ZHSLTHUK[OL7YPUJPWSLZVM*VUMSPJ[<YIHUPZT
,KP[LKI`7OPSPWW4PZZLS^P[aHUK;PT9PLUPL[Z
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9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
7HY[ULYZ
Berlin Universily of lhe ^rls
|nlernalional Peace and Cooperalion Cenler (|PCC)
Bezalel ^cademy of ^rls and Design, 1erusalem

ETH 3wiss Federal |nslilule of Technology Zurich,
|nslilule for Urban Design
4HKLWVZZPISLI`
Poberl Bosch 3liflung
^llianz Cullural Foundalion
Berlin Universily of lhe ^rls
ETH 3wiss Federal |nslilule of Technology Zurich,
|nslilule for Urban Design
^rlhur Coldreich Trusl
Coelhe-|nslilul 1erusalem

ESSAYS
% INTRCDUCTICN
Pre!ace 22
CItIes o! CoIIIsIon P. MIsseIwItz m T. RIenIets 2ç
ConversatIon M. 8envenIstI, S. TamarI wIth M. £Ischer and P. MIsseIwItz ¤a
& ENCIAVES/EXCIAVES
PrIncIpIes o! £rontIer Ceography E. WeIzman 8a
SpacIocIde S. Hana!I ¤¤
WaII and Tower S. Rotbard 1o2
CoIonIzatIon as SuburbanIzatIon D. Newman 11¤
VIIIages under SIege R. KhamaIsI 121
Re!IectIons o! SpatIaI PresentatIon In Sur 8ahIr Y. ShapIra 1¤o
' 8ARRIERS/IINKS
Specters o! Terror S. Craham 1ç6
]erusaIem: !rom SIege to a CIty's CoIIapse? R. KhamaIsI m R. NasraIIah 16¤
8arrIers, WaIIs, and Urban Ethnocracy In ]erusaIem C. YI!tacheI m H. YacobI 1)o
The PoIItIcs o! Roads In ]erusaIem S. Croag 1)6
The H
2
C £actor ]. HIIaI m S. Ashhab 18ç
( MCNUMENTS/NC-MAN'S-IANDS
8arIng II!e D. Cregory 212
CoIonIzatIon by ImagInatIon I. Nassar 222
Common Crounds that ExcIude A. Paz-£uchs m E. Cohen-8ar 22)
The Heart o! the Matter R. ]ones 2¤ç
ImprIsoned by Dreams N. MeIshar m Y. ShapIra 2¤)
) CCN£RCNTATICN/EXCHANCE
CaIIban In CaIandIya T. 8erger 2ço
Cn the Importance o! Thugs R. HammamI 2ç6
C! £ear, Contact, EntangIement I. Rogo!! 281
The So!ter SIde o! CoIIIsIon Y. Carb 286
IntegratIon, SegregatIon, and ControI M. Romann 2¤ç
CIty o! RI!!ra!! S. TamarI ¤o2
Re-ImagInIng ]erusaIem C. Esen ¤12
* INNCVATICN/DESTRUCTICN
The Thorn and the £Iower Z. Mohammed ¤22
Present and Absent T. Abowd ¤28
The IsraeII "PIace" In East ]erusaIem A. NItzan-ShI!tan ¤¤)
The PIannIng DeadIock N. Marom ¤a)
8etween War and Peace S. 8uIIe ¤6¤
To the Suburbs and 8ack R. NasraIIah ¤))
IntervIew ]. PersekIan wIth C. EIIat ¤8¤
AIternatIve NarratIves C. EIIat ¤8¤
3µr Banlr
Vea 3nearlm
Oalandlva Cneckoolnt
|ar |oma
3nµfat
Pefµgee
Camo
Poad 1
Damascµs Gate
|eoron Poad
Park of Ollves
Betnlenem-
Jerµsalem Cneckoolnt
Old Cltv
Walllng Wall
Pamallan
Betnlenem
Kµfr Aqao
Blr Naoala
3eparalion Wall
3eparalion Wall
3eparalion Wall
MAPS
Prc|ect Drenzgecgraf|en
49 CDNFLI C1 AND
UPßAN 1PANS-
FDPMA1I DN
137 HDSH AND
APAP1MEN1
193 MDßI LI 1¥ AND
I MMDßI LI 1¥

265 FEAP AND
ASSEP1I DN
353 DPDw1H AND
DECA¥
P|O1OGPAP|3
B. Prlncen, P. Braden
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In 2oo¤, we Iaunched an open research process IncorporatIng PaIestInIan, IsraeII,
and European partIcIpants. Cur endeavor set out to understand the productIon o!
space In ]erusaIem, In IIght o! the IsraeII-PaIestInIan conHIct, and the cIty Inhab-
Itants' paraIIeI strategIes o! resIstance, adaptatIon, and survIvaI. These InItIaI
goaIs, however, were soon caught up In dramatIc deveIopments around the cIty.
At the tIme o! thIs pubIIcatIon, the constructIon o! the IsraeII SeparatIon WaII In
the ]erusaIem area Is In Its ñnaI stages, wIth grave consequences !or PaIestInIans
InsIde and outsIde the cIty, and despIte an admonItory ruIIng by the InternatIonaI
Court o! ]ustIce In The Hague. IsraeII occupatIon o! the rest o! the West 8ank
contInues through settIement expansIons, permanent restrIctIons on movement,
and checkpoInt regImes. In response, ]ewIsh ]erusaIemItes have been exposed to
a sustaIned serIes o! deadIy suIcIde attacks. Prospects !or a renewed peace process
seem more dIstant than ever.
SImuItaneousIy, recent years have wItnessed an Increase In vIoIent conHIcts
un!oIdIng In urban envIronments. PoIItIcaI, reIIgIous, ethnIc, or cuIturaI conHIcts
have a!!ected 8aghdad, New York, Iondon, ParIs, and IstanbuI and InHuence our
perceptIons about, and use o!, space. DespIte Its pecuIIarItIes, ]erusaIem must be
consIdered agaInst thIs gIobaI horIzon. CItIes are beIng trans!ormed through gov-
ernment measures agaInst the backdrop o! a pervadIng !ear o! terror threats-be
they reaI or ImagIned. In the end, urban dIversIty ItseI! Is perceIved as a poten-
tIaI threat: attacks !rom wIthIn are antIcIpated In the !orm o! dIsguIsed !unda-
mentaIIsts, extremIsts, assassIns, and suIcIde bombers, !ueIIIng suspIcIon o! the
un!amIIIar. SecurIty, controI, and panIc are aII InHuencIng contemporary urban
spatIaI productIon; empty spaces, wasteIands, parks, or roads can become new
!rontIers. Suburbs can be trans!ormed Into gated encIaves, and suburban shoppIng
centers Into !ortresses. ]erusaIem-once perceIved as an IsoIated case, taken
hostage as It were by the IsraeII-PaIestInIan conHIct-seems to have become now
to be an antecedent !or other cItIes' trans!ormatIon. We beIIeve that a study o!
an urbanIsm so extreme, as that o! ]erusaIem, wIII beneñt our common under-
standIng o! the reIatIonshIp between poIItIcaI vIoIence and the productIon o!
urban space. In ]erusaIem, these aspects have IntensIñed over decades and In
extreme ways onIy Iatent or Iess pronounced In other urban contexts.
IG>A6I:G6A>IN
When ¤o PaIestInIan, IsraeII, and European students o! archItecture met In ]eru-
saIem !or the very ñrst tIme, the condItIons surroundIng theIr study appeared
most un!avorabIe. At the heIght o! the Second IntI!ada agaInst the IsraeII occupa-
tIon o! the Caza StrIp, West 8ank, and East ]erusaIem, most PaIestInIan-IsraeII
contacts were !rozen. The cycIes o! successIve retaIIatIon, targeted kIIIIngs, and
suIcIde attacks !ueIed a downward spIraI towards greater poIarIzatIon. TechnI-
caIIy, meetIngs became nearIy ImpossIbIe: IsraeI had Imposed "cIosure" poIIcIes
on the occupIed West 8ank that made PaIestInIan access to ]erusaIem aImost
ImpossIbIe. IsraeII traveI to the West 8ank was made IIIegaI through mIIItary
order, and even IsraeII trIps to the eastern part o! ]erusaIem were commonIy
undertaken under armed guard. DespIte aII odds, partIcIpants resoIved to escape
momentarIIy !rom the bounds o! coIIectIve IdentIty and su!!erIng, rIskIng accusa-
tIons o! "normaIIzatIon" In theIr deaIIngs wIth the "enemy," In order to engage as
IndIvIduaIs In a process o! ]oInt research.
ThIs assembIage was made possIbIe by the pro]ect "Crenzgeograñen - geogra-
phIes o! conHIct," a ]oInt InItIatIve o! the InternatIonaI Peace and CooperatIon
Center In East ]erusaIem, The 8ezaIeI Academy o! Arts and DesIgn In West ]erusaIem
and the UnIversIty o! the Arts In 8erIIn, Iater ]oIned by the £ederaI TechnIcaI
UnIversIty o! ZurIch. Cur trIIateraI pro]ect InvestIgated the productIon and use o!
urban space In the prototypIcaI mIcrocosm o! the PaIestInIan Arab vIIIage o! Sur
8ahIr and the ]ewIsh settIement o! Har Homa, whIch are sItuated as neIghbors
In ]erusaIem's eastern perIphery, next to the newIy-buIIt SeparatIon WaII. Here
competIng Interests and cIaIms coIIIde In !uII !orce, IeavIng deep ImprInts on the
physIcaI Iandscape and !abrIc o! everyday II!e.
The unIque trIIateraI composItIon o! the teams aIIowed them to break every-
day ruIes o! urban segregatIon, movIng transversaIIy through ethnIc barrIers,
bu!!er zones, and InvIsIbIe waIIs. MomentarIIy, partIcIpants were abIe to bend
stereotypIcaI ethnIc roIes, thus gaInIng a new quaIItatIve access to the cIty-
access that has Iong been Iost to ]erusaIem's resIdents, IncIudIng Its pro!essIonaI
and academIc communItIes. IsraeIIs and PaIestInIans entered spaces and were
Introduced to IndIvIduaIs, that were prevIousIy entIreIy InaccessIbIe: IsraeII students
entered PaIestInIan neIghborhoods (many !or the ñrst tIme}, whIIe many o! the
PaIestInIan students receIved !or the ñrst tIme IsraeII access permIts to the cIty
and entered ]ewIsh settIements. DurIng the workshops that !oIIowed between
2oo¤ and 2ooç, partIcIpants gathered unIque materIaI extracted !rom surveys,
conversatIons wIth IocaIs, and observatIons o! everyday sItuatIons. Students
negotIated and concIuded theIr In-depth anaIysIs by creatIng ]oInt mappIng
pro]ects, envIsIonIng urban change under condItIons o! conHIct, and assembIIng
a unIque atIas, whIch has now become part o! thIs pubIIcatIon.
The resuIts o! these workshops encouraged us to open the pro]ect to a wIder
communIty o! researchers and practItIoners In a cIty where the conHIct In aII
Its manI!estatIons has stymIed bIIateraI engagement In pro!essIonaI dIscourse.
RecognIzIng the IImItatIons, not Ieast o! whIch was a Iack o! mandate, we were
convInced o! the productIve possIbIIItIes !or con!rontIng dI!!erence and engagIng
In dIaIogue as pro!essIonaIs (rather than as poIItIcIans}, IncIudIng exposIng and
22
l

IntroductIon
recognIzIng each sIde's bIases, as weII as the power ImbaIance at work. £orty
IocaI and InternatIonaI experts In the ñeIds o! archItecture, urban and cuIturaI
studIes partIcIpated In the con!erence, "CItIes o! CoIIIsIon," heId at the Van Ieer
InstItute ]erusaIem In November 2ooa, creatIng a new pIat!orm !rom whIch to
consIder ]erusaIem In the context o! recent gIobaI processes o! urban trans!ormatIon
and new patterns o! conHIct. TheIr contrIbutIons and dIscussIons resuIted In the
essays pubIIshed In thIs voIume.
G:69>C<?:GJH6A:B
Through thIs anthoIogy o! essays, maps, and photographIc documentary, we
o!!er readers a spatIaI and cuIturaI InsIght Into the dynamIsm, ambIvaIence, and
compIexIty o! II!e In ]erusaIem. The compIex and rapIdIy changIng condItIon o!
]erusaIem does not aIIow !or a comprehensIve overvIew-nor can thIs pubIIcatIon
o!!er proposaIs !or soIvIng the deep-rooted conHIct that has kept the cIty and
Its InhabItants hostage !or aImost eIght decades. Instead, contrIbutIons to thIs
pubIIcatIon wIII open up dI!!erent perspectIves and provIde quaIItatIve InsIghts
Into the poIItIcaI, cuIturaI, and socIoeconomIc !orces operatIng In the cIty. It aIso
reveaIs the InhabItants' strategIes o! everyday survIvaI, whIch can onIy be under-
stood !rom a muItIIateraI perspectIve. StIII other essays wIII consIder ]erusaIem
In reIatIon to gIobaI processes o! urban change, thereby o!!erIng new perspectIves
on a cIty that Is usuaIIy vIewed In IsoIatIon !rom Its hIstory or agaInst the seIec-
tIve backdrop o! the MIddIe East conHIct.
DIvIsIon and segregatIon has become an IncreasIngIy domInant paradIgm,
not ]ust In the MIddIe East. ThIs book Is a pIea !or crossIng boundarIes and !or
preservIng and treasurIng erodIng areas o! HuIdIty-and not onIy In ]erusaIem.
It Is hoped that thIs book wIII equIp us wIth new InsIghts and anaIytIcaI tooIs !or
readIng contested urban spaces In ]erusaIem and eIsewhere.
We wouId IIke to thank the partners and partIcIpants whose unyIeIdIng support
has made thIs pro]ect possIbIe.
The EdItorIaI Team
ZvI E!rat (8ezaIeI Academy o! Arts and DesIgn, ]erusaIem}
Rassem KhamaIsI (IPCC ]erusaIem}
RamI NasraIIah (IPCC ]erusaIem}
PhIIIpp MIsseIwItz (8erIIn UnIversIty o! the Arts}
TIm RIenIets (ETH ZurIch}
X^i^Zhd[Xdaa^h^dc
PhIIIpp MIsseIwItz and TIm RIenIets
]erusaIem Is an ancIent cradIe o! human cuIture and one o! the most Important
IocI o! three worId reIIgIons. 8ut as Iong as the cIty has exIsted, It has been the
cause and breedIng ground o! conHIcts, as weII as the target and sIte o! dIspute
and war. It Is both vIctIm and weapon. DurIng thIs event!uI hIstory, the cIty has
been destroyed severaI tImes, and Its urban !abrIc exposed to ever-shI!tIng own-
ershIp. DI!!erent cuItures and ethnIcItIes raIse cIaIms to the cIty as a symboIIc
cuIturaI center. In more recent hIstory, the cIty has been the stagIng ground !or
8o years o! vIoIent conHIct between ]ews and PaIestInIan Arabs, each nurturIng
a Iong-estabIIshed emotIonaI and cuIturaI attachment to the cIty, each cIaImIng
the cIty to be Its IegItImate capItaI.
DurIng thIs perIod, ]erusaIem has become a Iaboratory !or the productIon o!
extreme spatIaI conñguratIons. The process o! urban trans!ormatIon !rom a Iand-
Iocked provIncIaI town to a modern sprawIIng metropoIIs Is IntertwIned wIth the
IsraeII-PaIestInIan conHIct. Nowhere eIse has conHIct over terrItorIaI and demo-
graphIc controI been so deepIy InscrIbed Into an urban !abrIc. The archItecture o!
the urban Iandscape o! ]erusaIem, as weII as the socIaI and cuIturaI behavIor o!
Its cItIzens, aIIow deep InsIght Into the compIexIty o! thIs conHIct and the contra-
dIctory !orces that Impact the productIon o! ordInary urban space.
£oIIowIng a trIIateraI InItIatIve to research the reIatIon between conHIct and
the cIty, whIch begun In August 2oo¤ wIth a serIes o! student workshops, over
ao PaIestInIan, IsraeII, and InternatIonaI authors contrIbuted essays and photo-
graphs to thIs voIume. In addItIon, IocaI research compIIed by the edItors and
students over the Iast three years was gathered Into a serIes o! cartographIc
maps and has been Inserted Into each chapter o! the book. The contrIbutIons
deIIberateIy !use InternaI and externaI perspectIves, anaIyzIng ]erusaIem as a
mIcrocosm whIch-despIte IsraeII-PaIestInIan specIñcItIes-Is aIso deepIy IInked
to gIobaI processes o! urban trans!ormatIon and has become a burnIng-gIass !or
events that take pIace eIsewhere. In thIs Introductory text, we wIII acquaInt the
reader wIth the themes that tIe together thIs dIverse set o! contrIbutIons. The
ñve maIn chapters o! the book have been devIsed to emphasIze our search !or
types and genres In spatIaI productIon, behavIor patterns, and everyday prac-
tIces, and to consIder ]erusaIem as an extreme modeI o! everyday II!e under
condItIons o! conHIct.
2a
l

IntroductIon
:C8A6K:H$:M8A6K:H
AImost ao years a!ter the 1¤6) SIx Day War and ]erusaIem's mIIItary unIñca-
tIon, the notIon o! the cIty as the "unIñed cIty" remaIns !ragIIe rhetorIcaI
acrobatIcs. In reaIIty, resIdents o! the cIty do not experIence the urban terrI-
tory as a contInuum, but conduct theIr everyday IIves wIthIn aImost compIeteIy
separate socIoeconomIc cuIturaI and spatIaI systems. Every aspect o! the cIty
Is Invested wIth ethnIcIty, and a compIex system o! codes (wrought In archI-
tecture, sIgnage, dress, etc.} heIps resIdents to navIgate through perceIved sa!e
passages and protected envIronments. ThIs extreme IeveI o! segregatIon has
produced a spatIaI Iandscape akIn to an "archIpeIago" o! IsoIated "IsIands" (EyaI
WeIzman, page 86}. As soon as mIIItary vIctory was achIeved, ñghtIng over perma-
nent controI o! the cIty contInued by other means. A war o! XZbZci and stone
radIcaIIy changed the urban !abrIc. In thIs process, the border contours changed
!rom a contInuous IIne (dIvIdIng PaIestInIan East ]erusaIem !rom ]ewIsh West
]erusaIem between 1¤a8 and 1¤6)} to a compIex matrIx o! excIaves (settIements
!or ]ewIsh IsraeIIs buIIt In annexed East ]erusaIem} and PaIestInIan encIaves,
served by segregated road systems and surrounded by bu!!er zones. WhIIe aII
munIcIpaI resources were mobIIIzed so that a redIvIsIon o! the cIty wouId be
ImpossIbIe, East ]erusaIem's PaIestInIans re!used to assImIIate Into the IsraeII
system, nurturIng theIr own paraIIeI vIsIons o! ]erusaIem as the reIIgIous
center and poIItIcaI capItaI o! an Independent PaIestInIan state.
The spatIaI IogIc o! excIaves and encIaves dId not begIn wIth 1¤6), but date
back to the very begInnIngs o! the IsraeII-PaIestInIan conHIct. Sharon Rotbard
ñnds a comparabIe sImuItaneous IogIc o! spatIaI contaInment and terrItorIaI
controI In the pIannIng o! earIy 2oth-century kIbbutzIm, o!ten re!erred to as
"homa umIgdaI" ("waII and tower"}, aIIudIng to theIr perImeter waII and watch-
tower whIch protected them agaInst o!ten hostIIe surroundIngs.
In the post-1¤6) era, the IdeaIIstIc settIements o! the earIy ZIonIst era have
been repIaced by Iarge-scaIe, state-controIIed Investment pro]ects. MotIvated
pIoneers, eager to construct a ]ewIsh homeIand In PaIestIne, have been repIaced
by suburban dweIIers seekIng convenIent, AmerIcan-styIe suburban IIvIng. Most
o! the current aoo,ooo ]ewIsh settIers have been Iured across the Creen IIne by
state-subsIdIzed ñnancIaI IncentIves rather than a Creater IsraeI IdeoIogy. Suc-
cessIve IsraeII governments have "succeeded In trans!ormIng much o! the settIe-
ment enterprIse Into a socIoeconomIc and geographIcaI process o! metropoIItan
suburbanIzatIon" (DavId Newman, page 11¤}.
As a resuIt o! Intense settIement constructIon In East ]erusaIem, PaIestInIan
communItIes are !orced wIthIn the spatIaI contaInment that characterIzes the set-
tIements: they Iost theIr agrIcuIturaI Iand reserves and became encIaves wIthIn a
space o! IsraeII hegemony-remaInIng IargeIy excIuded !rom IsraeII poIItIcaI, socIaI,
and cuIturaI II!e. AnaIyzIng the Impact o! IsraeII settIement poIIcIes on PaIestIn-
Ians, SarI Hanañ argues, "In the PaIestInIan-IsraeII conHIct, the IsraeII target Is the
pIace" (SarI Hanañ, page ¤¤}. Hanañ characterIzes the systematIc IsraeII settIement
pro]ect as "spacIo-cIde." "The weapons are not so much tanks, but buIIdozers that
have destroyed streets, houses, cars, and dunum a!ter dunum (one dunum equaIs
1,ooo square meters} o! oIIve groves. It Is a war In an age o! IIteraI agoraphobIa."
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28
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IntroductIon
8ut despIte the decIared aIm o! maIntaInIng a )o percent ]ewIsh ma]orIty,
whIch Is wrItten Into ]erusaIem's master pIan, IsraeI has been unabIe to stem
PaIestInIan popuIatIon growth, whIch !ar exceeds that o! IsraeIIs.
Endurance and resIIIence have been e!!ectIve tactIcs !or PaIestInIans. ProhIbIt-
ed !rom expandIng beyond estabIIshed buIIt-up areas, vIIIages and neIghborhoods
have become denseIy knIt, crowded, and uncontroIIabIe. £amIIIes Invest cash In
cement and mortar, upgrades and smaII extensIons, ImprovIng daIIy II!e gradu-
aIIy by addIng modern convenIences. The conHIct between modernIzatIon and
mIIItary occupatIon, between stubbornIy preserved tradItIons and new II!estyIes,
between growIng communItIes and Iack o! pubIIc InstItutIons !orces PaIestInIan
neIghborhoods Into "urbanIzatIon wIthout urbanIty" (Rassem KhamaIsI, page 121}.
76GG>:GH$A>C@H
In ]erusaIem, "[tjhe quaIIty, sIze, and nature o! each road, one mIght say, Is a !aIr
IndIcator o! whether PaIestInIans or IsraeIIs move aIong It" (ShmueI Croag, page 1)6}.
A short drIve aIong one o! the convenIent !ast hIghways, wIth breathtakIng
desert vIews, IInks the settIements o! East ]erusaIem to western ]erusaIem-
cuttIng rIght through hostIIe terrItory, bypassIng PaIestInIan neIghborhoods
wIthout dIstractIng theIr IsraeII drIvers.
In contrast, roads In PaIestInIan neIghborhoods and vIIIages su!!er !rom
chronIc underInvestment. ResIdents reIy on oId, evoIved "capIIIary road systems"
(ShmueI Croag, page 1))} whose non-hIerarchIcaI nature requIre !amIIIarIty. The
resuIt Is the paraIIeI and superImposed exIstence o! two aImost compIeteIy sepa-
rate systems. WIth such InequaIIty In spendIng o! munIcIpaI resources, urban
space becomes treacherous and unreIIabIe, !ueIIIng bIases and dIstrust. Indeed,
"the mundane Is a strategIc weapon" (Sharon Rotbard, page 11o}: a hIghway dIrectIy
connectIng settIements wIth IsraeII terrItory Is at the same tIme an InvIncIbIe
barrIer !or PaIestInIans who IIve next door, but have no access to It, and there-
!ore Is a symptom o! IsraeII "ethnocracy" (Cren YI!tacheI and HaIm YacobI, page 1)2}.
The most obvIous and ruthIess exampIe o! the duaI presence o! barrIers and
IInks wIthIn the same In!rastructuraI system Is the constructIon o! more than
6o kIIometers o! SeparatIon WaII In the ]erusaIem area, whIch has radIcaIIy
aItered physIcaI and socIoeconomIc reaIItIes. Its absurdIy meanderIng contours,
combIned wIth new roads and tunneIs, !uIñIs the two (at tImes contradIctory}
prIncIpIes o! securIng a "unIñed cIty" !or a ]ewIsh IsraeII popuIatIon whIIe at the
same tIme excIudIng many thousands o! PaIestInIan ]erusaIemItes (Rassem KhamaIsI
and RamI NasraIIah}.
BDCJB:CIH$CD"B6C¼H"A6C9H
The SeparatIon WaII has become a photogenIc asset !or a gIobaI medIa persIstent-
Iy In search o! new IconIc Images to represent the IsraeII-PaIestInIan conHIct. 8ut
Issam Nassar's research sItuates the SeparatIon WaII wIthIn a Iarger hIstorIcaI
contInuum that denIes Arab PaIestInIan cuIturaI presence In the regIon, detect-
abIe In the works o! European ChrIstIan photographers In the mId-1¤th century.
Then PaIestInIan natIves were "reduced to a backdrop upon whIch the bIbIIcaI
story couId be substantIated, rather than recognIzed as a reaI pIace In the reaI
worId-attestIng to reaI hIstorIes other than the ]udeo-ChrIstIan narratIve" (Issam
Nassar, page 222}. £rom thIs perspectIve, Nassar reconsIders the spatIaI Impact o!
the SeparatIon WaII and "the e!!ect It has on one's ImagInatIon o! the Cther. The
Issue o! seeIng, or, In our case, not seeIng, the Cther may not be o! enormous
consequence In the short run, but.wIII have serIous Iong term e!!ects."
£ear and denIaI o! the Cther Is equaIIy present wherever IsraeII and PaIestIn-
Ian urban !ragments coIIIde and produce a host o! !rontIer spaces: terrItorIes o!
!ear and anxIety, a hostIIe wIIderness, excess space where garbage Is dumped or
!ragments o! ancIent agrIcuIturaI Iandscapes dIsIntegrate.
ContradIctory eIements o! decay are ]uxtaposed wIth areas orchestrated by
IsraeII desIgners, producIng pockets o! a hIghIy-engIneered and aesthetIc (yet
o!ten equaIIy deserted} Iandscape. The ruraI has been repIaced by the suburban,
the agrIcuIturaI by the decoratIve, aII symptomatIc o! a ñght over IdentIty, own-
ershIp, and aesthetIc domInatIon o! the urban Iandscape.
DesIgn Is aIso strategIcaIIy used to create a decoratIve veneer on spatIaI pIan-
nIng that e!!ectIveIy IImIts the expansIon o! PaIestInIan urban space. Vast tracks
o! PaIestInIan prIvate Iand In East ]erusaIem have been IegaIIy exproprIated and
desIgnated as pubIIc green zones bIocked !rom PaIestInIan constructIon, o!ten
Iater to be rezoned !or the constructIon o! ]ewIsh settIements (see AmIr Paz-£uchs
and E!rat Cohen-8ar}. A naIve trust In pro!essIonaI (versus poIItIcaI} pIannIng ethIcs
(see Naama MeIshar and YehotaI ShapIra} or ñnancIaI IncentIves Iures IsraeII pIanners to
accept these commIssIons !or settIements, bIurrIng agendas o! good desIgn and
poIItIcaI pIannIng.
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In ]erusaIem, xenophobIa Is heIghtened and space Is dIvIded Into that o! "us" and
"them," resuItIng In IsIands o! cuIturaI contaInment and socIaI excIusIon. Wher-
ever possIbIe, the crossIng o! ethnIc boundarIes Is avoIded. 8ut a compIete physI-
caI dIsengagement Is equaIIy ImpossIbIe.
Cne o! the most notorIous sItes o! InvoIuntary InteractIon Is CaIandIya check-
poInt, whIch separates the PaIestInIan suburbs o! ]erusaIem and RamaIIah. Tamar
8erger deconstructs the reIatIonshIp between IsraeII soIdIers and PaIestInIans.
DrawIng on MIcheI de Certeau's dIstInctIon between "strategy, whIch Is the
domaIn o! the power!uI who possess a pIace and perspectIve o! theIr own (e.g.
a watchtower} and tactIcs, whIch Is the "art o! the weak," those who are IImIted
by the gIvens o! pIace and tIme." 8erger dIscovers "a degree o! PaIestInIan power
and IsraeII weakness, a pIace o! resIIIence, even deñance. The PaIestInIans de!y
the brutaIIty o! the checkpoInt wIth theIr very presence: passIve In appearance,
pacIñst In practIce, seI!-controIIed and cIvII, as they transverse a threatenIng,
humIIIatIng obstacIe" (Tamar 8erger, page 2ç¤}.
Such patterns yIeId to a muddIIng o! roIes, unveIIIng the schIzophrenIc condI-
tIons o! a cIty that Is poIItIcaIIy "unIñed" but ethnIcaIIy dIvIded. "TeII me, dId
you occupy East ]erusaIem or dId we occupy you?" a PaIestInIan cab drIver !rom
East ]erusaIem asks hIs IsraeII coIIeague !rom West ]erusaIem, cynIcaIIy aIIud-
Ing to hIs own IsraeII IdentIty card, whIch aIIows hIm to pragmatIcaIIy expIoIt
some advantages o! access to the other sIde. "I go wherever I want. I eat In your
¤o
l
¤1
IntroductIon
restaurants, sIeep wIth your women, and take your work. I thInk It was we who
occupIed you In 1¤6)" (Yaakov Carb, page 2¤a}. PaIestInIans o!ten empIoy tactIcs
that undermIne and erode the otherwIse cIear-cut roIes and patterns o! occupIer
and occupIed. In IIght o! the recent housIng crunch, IsraeII newspapers report
an Increase In PaIestInIans consIderIng buyIng apartments even In ]ewIsh set-
tIements, that are generaIIy a no-go zone !or them. ThIs trend couId undermIne
]ewIsh ethnIc hegemony In the settIements, as InvoIuntary PaIestInIan pIoneers
empIoy technIques o! camouHage and assImIIatIon: a potentIaI "Tro]an horse."

Thus socIaI and economIc InnovatIon Is born !rom need, as Rema HammamI
expIores at Surda checkpoInt. WhIIe su!!erIng !rom humIIIatIon, endIess deIays
and obstacIes In arrIvIng at schooI, work, and home, PaIestInIans "estabIIsh the
coIIectIveIy understood, but IndIvIduaIIy achIeved, daIIy resIstance o! sImpIy get-
tIng there." NevertheIess, "the unIIkeIy symboIs o! the new stead!astness are
not 'natIonaI InstItutIons', but rather the subproIetarIat £ord van drIvers, whose
semIcrImInaI bravado Is summed up by ubIquItous NIke 'No £ear' stIckers embIa-
zoned on theIr rear wIndshIeIds" (Rema HammamI, page 2ç)}. These entrepreneurs are
ambIguous ñgures, easIng everyday oppressIon but aIso beneñtIng !rom It.
CpportunIsm aIso !ueIs a !ragIIe web o! economIc reIatIonshIps between
]ews and Arabs In ]erusaIem. The proxImIty o! contrastIng socIaI cuItures and
resources, the asynchronIsm o! Arab and ]ewIsh reIIgIous hoIIdays, as weII as the
saIary gap between the two groups, has created economIc possIbIIItIes !or both.
DespIte the persIstence o! two paraIIeI economIc centers, transport, and educa-
tIon systems, approxImateIy haI! o! East ]erusaIem's work!orce mIgrates Into
West ]erusaIem as day Iaborers, whIIe cheaper goods and servIces In PaIestInIan
communItIes Iure ]ewIsh ]erusaIemItes. AIthough asymmetrIc power reIatIons
domInate these economIc exchanges, they e!!ectIveIy undermIne the notIon o!
cIosed borders and strIct segregatIon (see MIchaeI Romann}.
ServIce economIes In West ]erusaIem accessIbIe to PaIestInIan empIoyees-
heaIth, transportatIon, or constructIon-are the onIy pIaces where reguIar per-
sonaI exchange takes pIace between ]ews and Arabs. DespIte a backdrop o! !ear
and hatred, these casuaI and InconspIcuous work encounters In West ]erusaIem
o!!er the opportunIty to escape "the posturIng and poIItIcaI decIaratIons about
a unIted/occupIed ]erusaIem.[Ejveryday passIons, kIndnesses, mIschIe!, and
creatIvIty weave us together" (Yaakov Carb, page 286}.
>CCDK6I>DC$9:HIGJ8I>DC
"KuIanu yehudIm!" ("We're aII ]ews!"}, Yaakov Carb quotes a PaIestInIan cab
drIver ]okIngIy usIng the phrase ]ews, sometImes use to express brotherIy Iar-
gesse to aIIude to the absurdIty o! hIs sItuatIon "ruIIng," as a PaIestInIan, ]erusa-
Iem's roads wIth a Heet o! yeIIow cabs. The turn o! phrase Is symptomatIc !or the
contradIctory dynamIcs emergIng between the two opposIng groups, each seekIng
!or, and protectIng, Its IdentIty, but aIways In reIatIon to the other.
These encounters are regIstered In Ianguage, !ashIon, II!estyIe, or buIIt envI-
ronment, and reHect the struggIe !or IdentIty and spatIaI beIongIng. Representa-
tIons o! IdentIty In archItecture embody the persIstent tensIon and contradIctIon
between assImIIatIon and re]ectIon. ZIonIst archItects seekIng to create an Inde-
pendent and recognIzabIe IsraeII archItecture InItIaIIy embraced an InternatIonaI
styIe-whIch was eventuaIIy repIaced by a !ascInatIon wIth the !orms o! PaIestIn-
Ian Arab vIIIages: "the uItImate expressIon o! IocaIIty" (AIona NItzan-ShI!tan, page ¤a1}.
The aesthetIc approprIatIon o! the PaIestInIan vernacuIar Into a new styIe o!
IsraeII archItecture was paraIIeIed by the physIcaI and programmatIc approprIa-
tIon o! a vast stock o! buIIdIngs exproprIated !rom PaIestInIan re!ugees. A partIc-
uIarIy poIgnant exampIe o! Is the home o! the 8aramkI !amIIy. 8etween 1¤a8 and
1¤6), the buIIdIng Iay aIong the ]ordan-IsraeI no-man's-Iand dIvIdIng ]erusaIem.
A!ter beIng conñscated, then servIng as an IsraeII mIIItary border post, It was
Iater reopened as the "Museum on the Seam," wIth the munIcIpaIIty re!usIng to
acknowIedge the 8aramkI !amIIy's ownershIp o! the home. Today the 8aramkI
house serves "as a component o! a dI!!erent archItecture o! knowIedge productIon"
(Thomas Abowd, page ¤¤6}.
IsraeII cuIturaI re!erences are aIso !ound on the PaIestInIan sIde. IsraeII
settIements !or exampIe are o!ten vIewed wIth ambIvaIence: symboIs o! the
occupatIon, yet a wIndow on modernIty and Western II!e-styIe at the same
tIme, admIred !or theIr !ormIdabIe organIzatIon and hIgh-quaIIty constructIon.
These cross-cuIturaI InHuences do not necessarIIy traveI a dIrect route !rom
IsraeI to PaIestIne or vIsa versa, however. DIaspora IInks In both communItIes
pIay a roIe In these cuIturaI ImportatIons. In !act, thIs backdoor route Ieads to
the unIntended approxImatIon o! both groups In the re!erences o! InternatIonaI
capItaIIsm. CuIturaI and poIItIcaI eIItes returnIng to PaIestIne durIng the CsIo
perIod (1¤¤a-2ooo} Introduced economIc power and entrepreneurshIp, as weII
as new urban and archItectonIc modeIs (see SyIvaIne 8uIIe}. PaIestInIan "gated
communItIes" !or new eIItes resembIe theIr IsraeII counterparts, and even
appIy settIement securIty strategIes.
As such, beyond the vIsIbIe processes o! negatIon, a thIn and unconscIous cuI-
turaI exchange Is underway. The resuIt Is an unIntentIonaI urban productIvIty-
a common cuIture Iocated between the extremes o! totaI re]ectIon, on one hand,
and subtIe, unconscIous hybrIdIty, on the other.
However, these quIet tones rendered In archItecture, II!estyIe, or Ianguage
are mostIy drowned out by the ongoIng noIse o! the Intense conHIct that has
produced a cIty, whIch aIters Its physIcaI !orm In an acceIerated !ashIon. Urban
change (IsraeII road pIannIng, spatIaI cIosures, constructIon o! waIIs, !ences, but
aIso prIvate PaIestInIan homes} that wouId normaIIy requIre Iengthy pIannIng
processes are ImpIemented vIrtuaIIy over nIght-an uneasy, sometImes panIcked
dynamIsm. It Is "a poIIcy o! scorched earth, rather than pIannIng..." (Meron 8en-
venIstI, page ¤8}. NatIonaIIst Interest determInes the cIty's deveIopment: poIItIcaI
pIannIng by the IsraeII munIcIpaIIty but aIso the tactIcaI responses o! the cIty's
PaIestInIan InhabItants.
:E>AD<J:
£rom a CentraI European perspectIve, ]erusaIem Is !requentIy consIdered an
uncanny remInder o! an age Iong past: a conHIct o! coIonIaI and terrorIst vIo-
Ience that bIurs dIstInctIons between mIIItary and cIvIIIan, pubIIc weI!are, and
ethnIc dIscrImInatIon. Western European capItaIIst democracy Is stIII seen as a
¤2
l
¤¤
IntroductIon
unIversaI concept dIsmIssIng both socIaI revoIutIons and mIIItary conHIct to
the perIphery o! the deveIopIng worId. It seems onIy naturaI then, to export
thIs apparent success story to the MIddIe East, AsIa, A!rIca, etc., In the roIe o!
moraIIy superIor arbIter engaged In poIItIcaI and moraI medIatIon. £rom thIs
skewed perspectIve, the roots o! aggressIon such as New York's September 11th
attacks, or the subsequent attacks In MadrId or Iondon, couId onIy be !ound In
the ]eaIousy, reIIgIous !anatIcIsm, and barbarIsm that characterIzes an "uncIvI-
IIzed" perIphery. The apparentIy unexpected return o! such vIoIence to the
"£Irst WorId" cIty was shockIng, and onIy seemed to rea!ñrm !ears that "out
there" barbarIsm stIII prevaIIed-now In the !orm o! mIIItant IsIamIc terrorIsm.
In thIs IIght, ]erusaIem's vIoIent urban context appears as a dangerous dIsease
to guard and protect oneseI! agaInst.
Thus, the drastIc measures adopted In the "War on Terror" have been ]ustIñed
as a means o! protectIng Europe and North AmerIca agaInst outsIde threats. 8ut
In reaIIty, such threats have been !used wIth the !ears derIved !rom InternaI con-
HIcts resuItIng !rom Iong-term structuraI probIems o! the European and North
AmerIcan cIty: the same preventatIve securIty measures and rhetorIc are read-
IIy used to "deaI" wIth !aIIed IntegratIon o! mIgrant communItIes or IncreasIng
socIaI poIarIzatIons. IInes between externaI and InternaI pressures are bIurred.
What Is changIng European and AmerIcan cItIes Is not destructIon by means
o! suIcIde bombIngs, but the growIng !ear o! "the other" and the manner In
whIch these suspIcIons are manI!ested In urban space. Covernment and prIvate
measures agaInst the pervadIng !ear o! terror threats (be they reaI or ImagIned}
have chaIIenge the very !reedom o! the IndIvIduaI that was once heraIded a
trIumph o! the Western system. Urban dIversIty ItseI! Is perceIved as a potentIaI
threat. "The worry here," wrItes Stephen Craham, "Is that attempts wIII be made
by governments (and the securIty-mIIItary-IndustrIaI compIexes whIch have bur-
geoned sInce the advent o! the 'war on terror'"} to reengIneer cItIes so that theIr
porous, open, and IntrInsIcaIIy HuId spaces and systems become IIttIe more than
an endIess serIes o! securItIzed passage poInts" (Stephen Craham, page 1ç8}.
As Western cItIes become cuIturaI, socIoeconomIc and poIItIcaI mIcrocosms o!
a gIobaIIzed and dIversIñed worId, our mentaI map o! the cIty shouId be redrawn,
and the posItIon o! cItIes IIke ]erusaIem vIs-a-vIs the European cIty revIsed. Ceo-
graphIc dIstance Is no Ionger reIevant. What seemed at the perIphery o! CentraI
Europe Is now In !act cIoser than ever. A change o! perspectIve not onIy aIIows us
to better understand the cIty and the dynamIcs through whIch conHIct aIters urban
!abrIc, but aIso aIIows us to better understand the deveIopment-current and pre-
dIcted-o! the reIatIon o! conHIct and the Western metropoIIs. ]erusaIem Is a Iabo-
ratory !or a conHIct urbanIsm whose symptoms are aIready aII too !amIIIar.
WhIIe we suggest IearnIng !rom ]erusaIem's conHIct urbanIsm today, It
remaIns our hope !or the !uture that perhaps a cIty, whIch has produced such
an urbanIsm, can aIso serve as a Iaboratory !or practIces that undermIne, erode,
and transgress thIs condItIon.
1 Tom Segev, "ConcedIng Har Homa," £ebruary 1, 2oo6, www.haaretz.com

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Extens|ve ethn|c segregat|cn |n Jerusa|em has prc-
duced a fragmented spat|a| |andscape ccns|st|ng
cf |sc|ated °exc|aves" and °enc|aves." 1he Dreen
L|ne that cnce d|v|ded the c|ty |ntc twc ha|ves has
been transfcrmed |ntc a ccmp|ex, three-d|men-
s|cna| matr|x. Israe|| sett|ement ccnstruct|cn |n
East Jerusa|em and the west ßank |s gu|ded by the
spat|a| pr|nc|p|e cf |sc|at|cn, wh|ch prctects |nha-
b|tants aga|nst a perce|ved hcst||e |andscape. In the
prccess, sett|ements d|smember the spat|a|, scc|a|,
and eccncm|c fabr|c cf the surrcund|ng Pa|est|n|an
ne|ghbcrhccds and v|||ages, and destrcy the|r |and
reserves fcr agr|cu|tura| use and urban deve|cp-
ments. As a resu|t, Pa|est|n|an v|||ages and ne|ghbcr-
hccds are fcrced |ntc a spat|a| ccnta|nment s|m||ar
tc that cf the sett|ements. 1hey beccme enc|aves
w|th|n an area cf Israe|| hegemcny, yet are exc|uded
frcm Israe|| pc||t|ca|, scc|a|, and cu|tura| ||fe.
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?:GJH6A:B>CI=::6GANIL:CI>:I=8:CIJGN
A conversatIon on ]erusaIem wIth Meron 8envenIstI and SaIIm TamarI
moderated by MIchaeI £Ischer and PhIIIpp MIsseIwItz
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: SaIIm, In your recent research you have used dIarIes
wrItten by Arab ]erusaIemItes In order to pIece together a sense o! what It was
IIke to IIve In ]erusaIem durIng the earIy perIod o! the 8rItIsh Mandate (1¤18-1¤21}.
You have dIscovered that the authors IdentIñed themseIves ñrst and !oremost as
cItIzens o! ]erusaIem, and onIy In a second Instance, as beIongIng to a partIcuIar
ethnIcIty: as Arab MusIIms, Arab ChrIstIans, or ]ews. You have !ound a perIod
where modernIty was vIewed wIth excItement, through new kInds o! pubIIc
InstItutIons IIke street ca!es, restaurants, and so on. Can we extrapoIate your
ñndIngs to descrIbe an essentIaI quaIIty o! the MIddIe Eastern cIty at the begInnIng
o! modernIty: an urban envIronment accommodatIng a muItItude o! dI!!erent,
more or Iess unstabIe IdentItIes, a cIty based on the paradIgm o! coexIstence that
has sInce been Iost?
TamarI: What can be constructed !rom these dIarIes Is a transItIon between
two kInds o! modernItIes: the Cttoman kInd, whIch Is usuaIIy seen as contInuatIon
o! a communItarIan system, and 8rItIsh Mandate coIonIaI modernIty, whIch Is
seen as usherIng In a new era. It Is o!ten !orgotten that the Iate Cttomans were
In !act the promuIgators o! notIons o! modern cItIzenshIp, whIch had Immense
ImpIIcatIons !or the modernIty o! the cIty as a whoIe. In the perIod coverIng the
Iast thIrd o! the 1¤th century to the end o! WorId War I, a new urban IdentIty was
!ormed In ]erusaIem, 8eIrut, Damascus, and In AnatoIIa, whIch was based on
cIass trans!ormatIon, constItutIonaI re!orm, and urban pIannIng, and was o!ten
expressed through cItIzens' departure !rom the conñnes o! theIr dweIIIngs In the
waIIed cIty or tradItIonaI !amIIy neIghborhoods.
AII these cItIes were composed o! mInorItIes and It Is Important to state that
I do not re!er to ethnIc mInorItIes, whIch Is a retrospectIve concept o! Cttoman
mInorItIes. Rather, we shouId speak o! communItIes beIongIng to dI!!erent reII-
gIons or IInguIstIc groups. The ma]or change that a!!ected coexIstence between
these groups a!ter the coIIapse o! the Cttoman EmpIre and the begInnIng Man-
date perIod was the emergent notIon o! natIonaIIty, whIch meant separatIng
!rom the notIon o! muItIethnIc, muItIcommunaI Cttoman cItIzenshIp. The most
Important o! these was, o! course, a sense o! greater Arabness wIthIn Creater
SyrIa (that Is, the area re!erred to as 8IIad ash-Sham, or the Eastern MedIter-
ranean Arab provInces}-some wouId caII It PaIestInIan or SyrIan natIonaIIsm.
Iater, or probabIy In paraIIeI, PaIestInIan regIonaI IdentIty was aIso a!!ected by
the emergence o! a separatIst ]ewIsh natIonaIIsm.
In !act, the Cttomans had Introduced many !eatures o! these urban modernItIes,
whIch the 8rItIsh and the £rench then cIaImed retrospectIveIy. AIready the ñrst
governor o! ]erusaIem, RonaId Storrs, deñned PaIestIne and certaInIy ]erusaIem
not as a country wIth one potentIaI cItIzenshIp, or even two natIonaIItIes, but as
a country and cIty o! three reIIgIons. To emphasIze thIs, he combIned the star o!
DavId, the crescent, and the cross In hIs embIem. ThIs prIncIpIe determIned the
way the 8rItIsh dIvIded the CId CIty, Issued natIonaI IdentIty cards and passports,
and so on. Cne couId say that they actuaIIy created a regressIon In a certaIn
buddIng notIon o! Cttoman modernIty. We see these separate deveIopments
aIready In the perIod a!ter WorId War I In the wrItIngs o! KhaIII SakakInI (on the
Arab sIde} and EIIahu EIyashar (on the ]ewIsh sIde}.
8envenIstI: I'm remInded o! my !ather who was born In SaIonIca In Creece.
When he came to PaIestIne In 1¤1¤ to study amongst other SephardIc ]ews, aIso
Cttoman sub]ects, he dId not consIder thIs makIng Va^nV [ImmIgratIng, or IIteraIIy,
"goIng up"j, as dId other AshkenazI ]ews at the tIme. He sImpIy moved to another
pIace In the country. There was a very touchIng moment In my !ather's dIarIes
where he saId he came to ]a!!a and he !eIt he had arrIved home. Cne mIght thInk
that he meant that he was comIng home to the HoIy Iand, but no-he !eIt at
home because he spoke the Ianguage and wore the same iVgWjh] [[Zoj as TurkIsh
o!ñcIaIs. ThIs moment was totaIIy unIIke the cuIture shock !eIt by AshkenazI ]ews
on theIr arrIvaI In a dusty MedIterranean cIty.
8ut I can agree wIth you onIy up to a poInt. What you are sayIng about
Cttoman modernIty seems to me somewhat anachronIstIc and nostaIgIc. In
!act, the emergence o! natIonaIIsm was !ostered by the Cttomans, when It
suIted them. £or Instance, under the Cttomans, a spIIt between the ChrIstIan
communIty Into Creeks and 8uIgarIans was created by the creatIon o! a rIvaI
8uIgarIan patrIarch. Some ChrIstIans who deñned themseIves as "orthodox"
became Creek natIonaIIsts, especIaIIy !rom AnatoIIa but aIso In SaIonIoca.
ChrIstIans In MacedonIa now became 8uIgarIans. £IghtIng broke out between
the two !actIons, despIte that 2o years prIor they had aII IdentIñed themseIves
as sImpIy orthodox ChrIstIans.
Cnce WorId War I broke out, the paradIgm o! muItIethnIc cItIzenshIp was
onIy supported by the ]ews o! Turkey and the 8aIkans. The ]ews In SaIonIca, the
ma]orIty o! the cIty's InhabItants, remaIned the Iast beIIevers In the Cttoman
modeI o! cItIzenshIp. WIth the emergence o! natIonaIIsm, ]ewIsh SaIonIca was
ñnIshed, because It !ound ItseI! between natIonaIItIes. Even In PaIestIne, there
was InItIaIIy a sense o! soIIdarIty wIth Turkey, whIch then dIssIpated because o!
the regIme's crueIty and venaIIty.
TamarI: C! course, the arrIvaI o! the 8rItIsh was preceded by the war, whIch
had aIready destroyed the system out o! whIch Cttoman re!orm was producIng
a natIon o! cItIzens, rather than sub]ects. ThIs Ied to the recessIon o! commu-
naI or cIty conscIousness In !avor o! a wIder regIonaI conscIousness, whether
ShamI [SyrIanj, or PaIestInIan. The war aIso Ied to a dramatIc change In the way
peopIe conceIved the Cttomans. As a resuIt o! the war, the Cttoman Idea-o! a
muItIethnIc, muItInatIonaI cItIzenshIp-dIed. Cne couId say that thIs was a step
backwards because o! the great possIbIIItIes Inherent In thIs broader !rame o!
¤a
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IntroductIon
IdentIñcatIon. CItIes such as ]erusaIem, and even more so 8eIrut, Damascus, and
IstanbuI, trans!ormed !rom centers o! cosmopoIItan muItInatIonaI cItIzenshIp to
centers !or ethnIc encIaves, be they TurkIsh, ArmenIan, Creek, or certaInIy Arab.
8envenIstI: I do not thInk that WorId War I gave such an Impetus to natIonaIIsm,
whIch was aIready HourIshIng. To specuIate that wIthout thIs war we couId have
contInued to IIve In an IsIand o! muItIcuIture, In whIch deñnItIons or entItIes
are moIded around communIty and reIIgIon, Is wIsh!uI thInkIng. It Is perhaps
Important to consIder the specIaI posItIon o! Arabs wIthIn the Cttoman EmpIre,
as they had much more power than the ]ews. Arabs o! the MIddIe East, despIte
the !act that Iater on they sought to dIsassocIate themseIves !rom the Cttoman
EmpIre, dId not need natIonaIIsm. I beIIeve that In Iraq today we see the very end
o! thIs SunnI Cttoman domInance that we saw vanIshIng In many other parts o!
the MIddIe East durIng the mId 1¤ços to Iate 1¤8os o! the Iast century, and whIch
remaIned onIy In the regIme o! ]ordan. I! we try to approprIate the Iost paradIgm
o! ]erusaIem as a "cIty o! communItIes" !or the present we wouId return to
somethIng that, un!ortunateIy has vanIshed, and wIII return onIy when we see
the end o! natIonaIIsm.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: How dId the shI!t towards natIonaIIsm and ethnIc beIongIng
a!!ect the cIty o! ]erusaIem?
TamarI: We couId say that the modern coIonIaI Impact and the creatIon o! the
]ewIsh state trans!ormed a IImIted urban conscIousness to one o! beIongIng to
the country as a whoIe. DurIng the Cttoman perIod, there was a core geographIc
area InsIde whIch peopIe IdentIñed themseIves as comIng !rom the cIty. I am
edItIng a dIary o! an Cttoman soIdIer !rom ]erusaIem durIng the Creat War. £or
hIm, marryIng outsIde the cIty o! ]erusaIem was unImagInabIe. He couId ImagIne
marryIng a ChrIstIan or a ]ewIsh woman !rom the cIty but not a non-]erusaIemIte,
because beIongIng to ]erusaIem bounded the parameters o! hIs experIence and
hIs conscIousness. We can see that thIs IdentIñcatIon works across reIIgIous
boundarIes; a !eIIow ]erusaIemIte was a ]ew, or a ChrIstIan was prImarIIy seen
as a compatrIot o! a specIñc communIty. Then aII o! a sudden, a ]ew In Arab
PaIestInIan eyes became the European, the Intruder !rom a dI!!erent ethnIc
communIty whIch was contestIng [ownershIp o!j the Iand. The ]ews o! the cIty
were no Ionger part o! the natIonaI communIty, but ]oIned wIth theIr European
co-reIIgIonIsts who contested the Arab PaIestInIan's cIaIm to the Iand. So the
country as a whoIe, not the cIty, was the maIn arena o! the conHIct. £or ]erusaIem,
one mIght say that thIs shI!t happened In the 1¤2os as a graduaI and cumuIatIve
process that aII o! a sudden dawned on pubIIc conscIousness. ThIs process started
ImmedIateIy a!ter the end o! the 8rItIsh mIIItary government In 1¤22, and the
begInnIng o! the Mandate.
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£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: How dId the shI!t !rom an IncIusIve cIty to a cIty o! competIng
ethnIcItIes a!!ect the spatIaI and physIcaI !abrIc o! ]erusaIem? I! one Iooks at
]erusaIem's Iate 1¤th century expansIon beyond the CId CIty waIIs, one aIready
ñnds a surprIsIngIy cIear dIvIsIon Into ethnIcaIIy homogeneous areas: Arabs In
the north, ]ews In the northwest, etc. I! SaIIm's theory o! Cttoman modernIty Is
rIght, where are the urban typoIogIes that manI!ested thIs?
TamarI: ThIs happened as the mIddIe cIasses and pro!essIonaIs moved beyond
the cIty waIIs Into areas where those !amIIIes possessed or purchased Iand. In
some o! those areas, IIke SheIkh ]arrah, where the MusIIm eIItes (NashashIbIs,
]araIIahs, and HusseInIs} moved, we wItness cIass and reIIgIous IdentIty combIne.
The ]ews had theIr pIanned communItIes In the western areas, near Mea SharIm,
YamIn Moshe, or MontIñore. SImIIarIy the Creek Crthodox mIddIe cIasses and
some o! the IatIn Arab CathoIIcs buIIt TaIbIya and Katamon. 8aqaa, by contrast,
was mIxed by reIIgIon but homogeneous In cIass character. It Is one o! the great
paradoxes o! the modernIty o! Cttoman ]erusaIem that the deveIopIng new cIty
consIsted o! reIIgIousIy and spatIaIIy deIIneated communItIes o! ]ews, ChrIstIans,
and MusIIms, whIch were much more segregated than communItIes o! the CId
CIty, even though they were modern and secuIar.
8envenIstI: In order to understand the degree o! encroachIng separatIon, one
has to dI!!erentIate between resIdentIaI neIghborhoods and the busIness dIstrIct.
Cuter resIdentIaI areas were aIways segregated due to Iand ownershIp, whIch SaIIm
descrIbed. 8ut In more centraI areas IIke SheIkh ]arrah or Romema, mIxIng was
Important at Ieast untII the Iate 1¤2os. 8ut I! we Iook at ]erusaIem's maIn busIness
dIstrIct around ]uIIan's Way and ]a!!a Road, we ñnd that It was compIeteIy mIxed
untII 1¤a8. The way to measure the degree o! separatIon here wouId be to research
the archIves o! the Arab-owned Rex CInema on PrIncess Mary Street (today's
ShIomzIon HaMaIka} and ñnd out how many ]ews went there. You wouId ñnd that
vast numbers attended. Even I remember goIng there as a chIId In 1¤a6 on Saturday
evenIng or £rIday evenIng when cInemas were cIosed In ]ewIsh areas.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: What Impact dId the admInIstratIve re!orms and pIannIng
e!!orts o! the 8rItIsh authorItIes have? SaIIm mentIoned earIIer that the 8rItIsh
Introduced strIct dIvIsIons between three reIIgIous groups. How dId thIs sectarIan
thInkIng manI!est ItseI! In the sweepIng re!orms that were supposed to modernIze
the cIty?
TamarI: Cne o! the most dramatIc re!orms was the dIvIsIon o! the CId CIty. The
8rItIsh Mandate authorItIes retroactIveIy dIvIded the area Into !our communItIes:
MusIIm, ArmenIan, ChrIstIan, (Arab} and ]ewIsh. WhIIe ArmenIans, MusIIms,
ChrIstIans, and ]ews aIways exIsted as dIstInct communItIes, the 8rItIsh trIed
to deIIneate them as admInIstratIveIy separate quarters. I! one reads the demo-
graphIc map o! the Iate Cttoman perIod, there was a great deaI o! mIxture In
the MusIIm quarter-whIch was substantIaIIy InhabIted by ]ews and ChrIstIans.
ReIIgIous IabeIIng o! these communItIes was noted by !oreIgn vIsItors, but was
not recognIzed by the Cttoman admInIstratIon, nor by the natIves o! the cIty.
EquaIIy, there were many MusIIm !amIIIes IIvIng In the so-caIIed ]ewIsh quarter,
and a !ew MusIIms In the ChrIstIan quarter. The onIy quarter whIch was actuaIIy
"ethnIcaIIy pure" was the ArmenIan quarter, because It was deIIneated by the
ArmenIan convent and Its admInIstratIon.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: What about urban pIannIng? The 8rItIsh authorItIes
expended great e!!orts not onIy In surveyIng the exIstIng !abrIc, but aIso In
pIannIng the !uture expansIon o! the cIty.
¤6
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IntroductIon
TamarI: PIannIng Is a very InterestIng notIon here. EarIy pIans by SIr WIIIIam
McIean and CharIes Ashbee, drawn at the InvItatIon o! CoIoneI Storrs a!ter WorId
War I and Iater expanded by the SIr PatrIck Ceddes and Henry KendaII pIans,
showed that the 8rItIsh envIsIoned what you mIght caII a "garden cIty" (based
on romantIc EngIIsh notIons o! urban use}. Those were partIcuIarIy InHuenced
by cIty pIanner Ashbee-an accompIIshed !oIIower o! WIIIIam MorrIs In EngIand.
Here we see a dIchotomous vIsIon o! ]erusaIem dIvIdIng the CId CIty and New
CIty. The 8rItIsh envIsaged the CId CIty behInd the waIIs as a "pIckIed" cIty-
a preserved IIvIng archeoIogIcaI museum comprIsed o! hIstorIc buIIdIngs and
pathways. ThIs concept o! museum-cIty InvoIved renovatIon schemes whose
ob]ectIve was to protect and InsuIate hIstory !rom modernIst IntrusIons. The
New CIty beyond the waIIs was desIgnated as an area o! modernIst pIannIng and
habItat. 8oth CId and New cItIes were supposed to be IInked by gardenIng and
IandscapIng pro]ects wIthIn whIch the IconIc CId CIty couId be approprIateIy
staged. AII the buIIdIngs that had IInked these parts were to be erased, and In
!act thIs process was begun by removIng aII the commercIaI estabIIshments and
Iandmarks erected In the ImmedIate vIcInIty o! the waIIs near ]a!!a Cate, Damascus
Cate, and the New Cate. Part o! thIs overaII scheme o! preservatIon was the
en!orcement o! a munIcIpaI Iaw, aIready on paper !rom the Iate Cttoman perIod,
whIch dIctated that aII new buIIdIngs must be constructed !rom IocaI stone-
ensurIng a degree o! unI!ormIty and aesthetIc controI over heIght and materIaI.
8ut we have to remember that 8rItIsh pIannIng had IIttIe chance o! actuaIIy
beIng ImpIemented !or ñscaI reasons and due to the chIe! pIanners' short tenure.
The 8rItIsh budget !or the cIvII admInIstratIon o! PaIestIne had to be raIsed IocaIIy
(!rom taxes} and most o! It was consumed !or de!ense operatIons durIng the
Arab RevoIt (1¤¤6-1¤¤¤}, whose aIm was to oppose 8rItIsh sponsorshIp o! ]ewIsh
home ruIe In PaIestIne (the 8aI!our ProcIamatIon}.
8envenIstI: 8rItIsh pIannIng was much more reactIve than proactIve. The KendaII
pIan In partIcuIar Is a totaIIy overrated and unImportant document. It was pubIIshed
onIy !our months a!ter the end o! the 8rItIsh Mandate In 1¤a8. KendaII dId not
reaIIy pIan much but sImpIy accepted and aesthetIcIzed what was happenIng any-
way. He couId not have pIanned It because you cannot pIan a mIxed ]ewIsh-Arab
neIghborhood when ]ews and Arabs wanted to buIIt theIr own areas. To me the
garden cIty pIan was IargeIy determIned by the abIIIty and success o! the ]ews In
buyIng Iand. When the ]ews succeeded In purchasIng the neIghborhood o! RehavIa
!rom the Creek Crthodox Church, they buIIt the ]ewIsh neIghborhood o! RehavIa.
When they couId buy the Iand o! TaIpIot, they buIIt TaIpIot.
8ut apart !rom Its pIannIng reguIatIons, 8rItIsh pIannIng hardIy a!!ected the
expandIng cIty, whIch resuIted Instead !rom competItIon between ]ews and Arabs
over Iand. ThIs story contInues untII the present day. UntII thIs moment, urban
pIannIng In a tradItIonaI sense Is totaIIy unImportant. A!ter the 1¤a8 War, It was
not the western cIty government but the ]ewIsh NatIonaI £und or the state that
grabbed as many abandoned Arab propertIes as they couId. Each tIme the IsraeII
MInIstry o! HousIng hastIIy buIIt an ugIy neIghborhood on a hIIItop, and ruIned the
pIace wIth bad pIannIng and bad constructIon, they moved on to another one. It
was and stIII Is a poIIcy o! scorched earth, rather than pIannIng. You buIId a sectIon
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as I! you are at war and have one ob]ectIve: to conquer a strategIc spot. Whatever
couId be touched and cIaImed was cIaImed. The reaI pIanners are poIItIcIans and
bureaucrats. ArchItects and urban pIanners become mere technIcIans, who never
raIse vaIue questIons and are wIthout ethIcaI consIderatIons.
ArchItecturaI pIans do not expIaIn what Is happenIng now In ]erusaIem eIther.
IsraeII pIanners have aIways opportunIstIcaIIy smeIIed what the government or
munIcIpaI authorIty wants and then ]umped on the opportunIty. The same story
Is now repeatIng ItseI! In the case o! the E-1 pIannIng pro]ect whIch Is supposed
to IInk MaaIe AdumIm and munIcIpaI ]erusaIem. PIanners and archItects are
ñghtIng one another to have a chance to pIan that monstrosIty wIthout thInkIng
about poIItIcs, quaIIty, sustaInabIIIty, and so on. PIannIng Is certaInIy not what
!ormed the current !abrIc o! ]erusaIem. It's onIy the poIItIcIans and the vIoIence
that determIned the pIannIng o! ]erusaIem.
TamarI: I agree that prIvate Interests changed the Mandate cIty much more
e!!ectIveIy than pubIIc pIannIng. 8ut a!ter 1¤a8, the reIatIonshIp between cIvII
conscIousness and Iand ownershIp changed dramatIcaIIy. The notIon o! prIvate
versus pubIIc ownershIp o! Iand was subsumed under a dI!!erent rubrIc, wIth the
emergence o! the ]ewIsh state as a key agency o! power. SuddenIy, vIrtuaIIy aII
Arab property was exproprIated by the ]ewIsh state under the Absentee Iaw
reguIatIons (whIch made use o! the expuIsIon o! PaIestInIan re!ugees !rom theIr
IocaIItIes} and then natIonaIIzed In order to create new ]ewIsh communItIes (In
IsraeI, !reeIy-heId prIvate Iand amounted to a mInIscuIe percentage o! the totaI Iand
area} whIch was then Ieased to new ]ewIsh ImmIgrants who arrIved a!ter 1¤a8.
A!ter 1¤6), the State o! IsraeI aIso cIaImed Iand In East ]erusaIem and the West
8ank whIch had beIonged prIvateIy to ]ewIsh cItIzens be!ore 1¤a8-even though
those ]ewIsh owners themseIves were unabIe to cIaIm It. Those approprIatIons
IncIuded propertIes prImarIIy In the ]ewIsh quarters o! ]erusaIem's CId CIty and
In Hebron, the vIIIages o! SIIwan or SheIkh ]arrah, or the area o! Neve Yaacov,
Atarot, etc. To my knowIedge there Is onIy one orIgInaI !amIIy who actuaIIy "went
back" to the ]ewIsh Cuarter o! ]erusaIem. C! course, Arabs were not permItted to
recIaIm Iand In West ]erusaIem or IsraeI that had beIonged to them be!ore 1¤a8.
These are areas that are hundreds o! dunams Iarger than those cIaImed by IsraeI
on behaI! o! antebeIIum ]ewIsh communItIes. A!ter 1¤6), IsraeI aIso cIaImed pubIIc
propertIes In East ]erusaIem, by makIng ItseI! the successor o! the ]ordanIan
state. In addItIon, vast tracks o! Iand In ]erusaIem (as weII as In the rest o! the
West 8ank} were exproprIated In the pubIIc's name. Iater, these hoIdIngs were
used aImost excIusIveIy to buIId neIghborhoods !or ]ews. IsraeI created a IegaI
ñctIon In whIch the "pubIIc" was deñned as the "]ewIsh pubIIc," whIch aIIowed
many settIers-wIth government backIng-to cIaIm PaIestInIan property as theIr
own. In very !ew cases have IsraeII courts accepted chaIIenges to thIs massIve
scheme o! Iand the!t.
8envenIstI: DurIng the Mandate perIod, the cIty admInIstratIon bareIy !unc-
tIoned. To say that under the Mandate exIsted a kInd o! cIvIc !raternIty, wIth both
sIdes partIcIpatIng In pubIIc II!e Is totaIIy wrong. It's part o! the nostaIgIa that
peopIe !eeI about the 8rItIsh Mandate wIth memorIes o! ]ews and Arabs havIng
tea at the KIng DavId HoteI. Ever sInce the begInnIng o! the natIonaI era, cIty haII
ao
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a1
IntroductIon
was contested. EverythIng was based on ethnIcIty. In the earIy days o! the Man-
date, the ]ews stIII agreed to contInue the tradItIon o! gIvIng the mayor's o!ñce
to the MusIIms whIIe ChrIstIans and ]ews wouId determIne the deputy mayors.
8ut tensIons soon became worse, and eventuaIIy the 8rItIsh totaIIy dIsmIssed the
munIcIpaI councII and appoInted a 8rItIsh commIssIoner.
TamarI: I thInk you are aIso recreatIng a segregatIonIst vIsIon whIch was the
product o! the 1¤¤6 RebeIIIon. It Is true that there was substantIaI resIdentIaI
segregatIon. 8ut as you have poInted out yourseI!, there was an Integrated cIty.
PeopIe mIxed not onIy commercIaIIy wIth ]oInt busInesses, but aIso In the socIaI
domaIn, wIth common rItuaI ceIebratIons o! a quasI-reIIgIous nature. These
IncIuded the !estIvaIs o! NabI Rubeen, aI-Khader (St. Ceorge}, and NabI Musa.
Above aII, socIaI InteractIon between communItIes was very common and was
not at aII a rItuaI cohabItatIon, but one based on neIghborhood coexIstence. The
!act that these exchanges were IImIted, and the !act that there was aIso communaI
conHIct Iater on, does not correspond to the segregatIonIst modeI o! the cIty that
appeared onIy In the 1¤¤os. In thIs regard, coIIectIve memory Is short IIved and
tends to paInt a pIcture o! conHIct that goes back to "tIme ImmemorIaI."
8envenIstI: ThIs Is not my understandIng o! hIstory. I must be the pessImIst and
you the optImIst. I remember vIvIdIy how I was raIsed In the Iast house on Caza
Road, on the border o! the Rosh HaIr quarter In Katamon. Cur house was the Iast
house between ]erusaIem and the Arab vIIIage o! aI-MaIha. I remember how we
!ought wIth the Arab chIIdren aII the tIme.
TamarI: I was sayIng that segregatIon happened a!ter the rebeIIIon, not be!ore.
I am not onIy IncIudIng the 8rItIsh Mandate years but aIso the Iate Cttoman
perIod that preceded It.
8envenIstI: To me, the Cttoman perIod Is a dI!!erent era aII together. I'm not
sayIng that those who IIved under the 8rItIsh dId not have good !rIends across the
sectarIan dIvIde. 8ut one cannot draw any concIusIons !rom that. Then you wouId
aIso have to caII the perIod between 1¤6) and 1¤)¤ a "goIden era" when there was
!requent exchange between mIddIe cIass ]ews and InteIIectuaI PaIestInIans.
TamarI: The poInt Is not that ]ews and Arabs IIved together weII and then there
was a rupture and then they went back agaIn. I thInk what happened Is that
peopIe dId not thInk o! themseIves as ]ews and Arabs but they graduaIIy became
]ews and Arabs. 8e!ore that there were communItIes In ]erusaIem and many
o! the ]ews IdentIñed wIth neIghborhoods wIth MusIIms and ChrIstIans, whIch
took the !orm o! busIness partnershIps, socIaI vIsItatIons, and neIghborIy bonds.
I shouId mentIon here that In EIIahu EIyashar's memoIrs, reIatIons between
SephardIc ]ews and MusIIms were descrIbed as much better than between ]ews
and ChrIstIans, who vIed occupatIonaIIy !or contested cIerIcaI posItIons wIthIn
the ImperIaI domaIn.
EDA>I>86AEA6CC>C<
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: You have descrIbed a powerIess munIcIpaIIty durIng the
8rItIsh Mandate, whIch was Ie!t to react to and sanctI!y an IncreasIngIy segre-
gatIonIst cIty. The post-1¤6) IsraeII munIcIpaI structure, whIch sees ItseI! as an
authorIty !or a "reunIñed" cIty, Is compIeteIy boycotted by PaIestInIans In East
]erusaIem and servIces In the eastern part are poor. The munIcIpaIIty remaIns
the excIusIve agent !or ]ewIsh cItIzens, yet pIannIng schemes are deveIoped aII
the tIme. What are the aIms and ob]ectIves o! thIs process o! pIannIng? Can we
speak about pIannIng?
8envenIstI: £Irst o! aII, we have to remember that the munIcIpaI borders o!
post-1¤6) are an InventIon by the IsraeIIs. They were determIned by poIItIcs,
not by pIannIng. So we shouId not taIk about East ]erusaIem, but o! a poIItIcaIIy-
motIvated IsraeII IntrusIon Into areas that dId not beIong to them. I! Arabs couId
equaIIy acquIre Iand and buIId In the entIre cIty, we couId begIn taIkIng about
pIannIng. AII the Investment poured Into thIs area served the poIItIcaI agenda
to cement the Imposed unIñcatIon through !acts on the ground: the shI!tIng o!
a huge ]ewIsh popuIatIon Into the area beyond the Creen IIne (UN-admInIstered
armIstIce IIne between IsraeI and ]ordan, 1¤a8-1¤6)} wIth the IntentIon o!
encIrcIIng the Arab popuIatIon and acquIrIng vast stretches o! Iand.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: 8ut that does not mean that pIannIng does not exIst.
PIannIng Is aIways poIItIcaI, servIng poIItIcaI goaIs, and pIanners are agents o!
poIItIcaI programs. Perhaps the extent to whIch poIItIcIans determIne spatIaI and
demographIc Issues Is unIque In thIs conHIct. WouId It be rIght to say here that
poIItIcIans are not ]ust commIssIonIng pIanners, but act as pIanners themseIves?
8envenIstI: I! we taIk about pIannIng In ]erusaIem, we cannot taIk about benIgn,
posItIve pIannIng. Ma]or pIannIng decIsIons !or the Iong-run are made by cabInet
mInIsters and the army, wIth aImost no urban consIderatIon or consIstent thInkIng.
PIanners and pubIIc ob]ectIons are arrogantIy Ignored. SectarIan and partIsan
IsraeII Interests are aIways predomInant and IegItImate PaIestInIan needs are
re]ected as an expressIon o! hostIIIty.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: You are descrIbIng a very asymmetrIcaI reIatIonshIp
between InstItutIons servIng the Interest o! ]ewIsh IsraeIIs, and PaIestInIans who
do not have a representatIve body to press !or theIr rIghts. 8ut Is thIs reIatIon-
shIp reaIIy sImpIy a reIatIonshIp between the power!uI and the weak? DespIte
tIght pIannIng restrIctIons, PaIestInIans contInue to buIId and expand IIke never
be!ore. Can we speak here aIso o! !acts on the ground estabIIshed by the dIsen-
!ranchIsed and dIscrImInated part o! the popuIatIon-a strategy In whIch In!ormaI
pIannIng Is pIayed out agaInst !ormaI pIannIng?
TamarI: I thInk we have to be wary o! conventIonaI academIc wIsdoms here. It
has become very !ashIonabIe among anthropoIogIsts to taIk about the oppressed
resIstIng by creatIng !acts on the ground through IIIegaI buIIdIng and so on. ThIs
seems to me a rather unconvIncIng way o! descrIbIng thIs sItuatIon, partIcuIarIy
on the part o! socIaI scIentIsts who use thIs paradIgm. (I am re!errIng to !ashIon-
abIe ]ames Scott-styIe expIanatIons that seek !orms o! resIstance In the manner
that ordInary cItIzens adapt to sItuatIons o! oppressIon by "bendIng" the Iaw-!or
exampIe, by creatIng unauthorIzed housIng schemes.} The IndIvIduaI soIutIons o!
buIIdIng a house here or addIng a room there wIII never accumuIate to reaI quaII-
tatIve Improvements. The probIem deñnIteIy has to do wIth the heIpIessness o!
ordInary peopIe agaInst a coIonIaI system that creates a regIme o! dIscrImInatIon-
denyIng them buIIdIng permIts, and IImItIng theIr !reedom o! movement through
checkpoInts and barrIers, aII on the basIs o! theIr ethnIc IdentIty.
a2
l

IntroductIon
At the MadrId Peace Con!erence In 1¤¤1-and In aII subsequent peace negotIa-
tIons-PaIestInIans were !orced to conñne themseIves to the !uture o! "East
]erusaIem" as the basIs o! negotIatIons. ThIs was a mIstake. We accepted
"West ]erusaIem" as IsraeII domaIn, even though the PartItIon PIan o! 1¤a)
estabIIshed the whoIe cIty as a corpus separatum. That was the perIod (In 1¤¤1}
when PaIestInIans shouId have saId, "You cIaIm Arab ]ewIsh-owned property
In Atarot, and In the ]ewIsh quarter o! the CId CIty, and we cIaIm pre-1¤a8
PaIestInIan property !rom Katamon, MaIha, and so on." C! course that dId not
happen and the PIC (PaIestIne IIberatIon CrganIzatIon} accepted the weakness
o! theIr posItIon as a part o! the negotIatIng paradIgm. ThIs Ied IogIcaIIy to the
concIusIons that US PresIdent 8III CIInton and IsraeII PrIme MInIster Ehud 8arak
trIed to Impose In the Camp DavId negotIatIons In 2ooo and In Taba In 2oo1,
when the proposed dIvIsIon o! the cIty was to dIvIde East ]erusaIem between
PaIestInIans and IsraeIIs.
EA6CC>C<6?D>CI;JIJG:4
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: Is It possIbIe to deveIop a ]oInt, mutuaIIy acceptabIe vIsIon !or
the cIty? What agencIes couId undertake such a pro]ect? How shouId It be done?
TamarI: There are so many thInk tanks supported by the Europeans today
where the assumptIons I suggested above IImIt the nature o! the soIutIon. ThIs
Is wIsh!uI thInkIng by socIaI scIentIsts, as none o! them actuaIIy embody In theIr
paradIgms a radIcaI questIonIng o! the current power reIatIonshIp between IsraeI
and the PaIestInIans In dIscussIng the !uture o! the cIty. UtopIan vIsIons can be
use!uI as a way o! transcendIng reaIIty and remIndIng ourseIves o! other !utures.
8ut wIth the power reIatIons so overwheImIng stacked agaInst the PaIestInIan
sIde, aII these !uturIst schemes become abstract and seI!-congratuIatory.
8envenIstI: I totaIIy agree wIth SaIIm on thIs Issue. Thank Cod, I can a!!ord not
to be part o! thIs peace Industry, but others need to IIve. The ñrst step shouId be
to questIon the spatIaI IImIts o! ]erusaIem. We shouId !orget about the notIons o!
"East ]erusaIem" and "West ]erusaIem," or the vast and monstrous area that the
IsraeIIs caII "Creater ]erusaIem." We can thInk o! thIs InHatIon o! terrItory we
caII "]erusaIem" as a baIIoon; one thIng I wouId want Is to pIerce that baIIoon and
to compact ]erusaIem, to de-]erusaIemIze ]erusaIem: to return to the CId CIty
and !orget the rest !or the next ço years.
Iet's thInk about ]erusaIem as a museum: the CId CIty. The rest, we ]ust
Invented. I see thIs as a way o! overcomIng !atIgue !rom the obsessIon about
]erusaIem. Cne exampIe o! thIs !atIgue was the IsraeII eIectIons !or the ]erusaIem
mayor In 2oo¤. No IsraeII poIItIcIan or IegIsIator was ready to stand !or eIectIon.
Why? PeopIe couIdn't have cared Iess about ]erusaIem. Those who cared about
]erusaIem were bIgots! RIght wIng orthodox, uItra-orthodox, and maybe some
o! the Arabs, too. I am sayIng that maybe we have to waIt !or ]erusaIem to be
drawn Into a stupor o! boredom. The Iess you dIscuss ]erusaIem, the better the
chances that there wIII be a soIutIon.
TamarI: Another way Is to push these parameters o! dIscussIng the !uture o!
the cIty so as to propose them !or the whoIe country, and not to IImIt them to
the cIty ItseI!.
8envenIstI: ExactIy. That Is aIso a possIbIIIty. EIther you expand the whoIe thIng
endIessIy, or contract It. You say, "IIsten, what Is ]erusaIem?" ]erusaIem Is the
CId CIty. Maybe I! you want, Mandatory ]erusaIem. Iet's take KendaII's PIan and
say that Is ]erusaIem. Here we can IdentI!y thIngs that are reaIIy contested. 8ut
outer settIements IIke Har Homa are not ]erusaIem; they are reaIIy part o! 8eIt
Sahur. Why do we have to add to ]erusaIem's mIsery aIso Har Homa, whIch was
buIId on conñscated (In other words, stoIen} Iand.
I can detect some gIImmer o! hope on the IsraeII sIde. PeopIe are gettIng
sIck and tIred o! usIng the name o! ]erusaIem In vaIn. You heard that !rom the
IsraeII deIegatIon to the Ceneva process who saId, "We dId not pray 2ooo years
!or Shu!at." And there Is wIIIIngness even among IIkud peopIe (as you can see
!rom the !ence that IsraeI Is constructIng} to gIve up the notIon o! the sanctIty
o! !ormer ]erusaIem mayor Teddy KoIIek's 1¤6) borders o! ]erusaIem. Maybe In
that IIes a !uture.
7DG9:GH!L6AAH!E6GI>I>DCH
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: Can we turn back to the questIon o! power? It couId aIso be
a dangerous ñctIon to !orget the agencIes o! power. What are the possIbIIItIes
and Ieverages !or subvertIng the current asymmetrIcaI power reIatIonshIp? Is
the two-state, two-capItaI soIutIon stIII the onIy posItIon? What wouId be the
ImpIIcatIons !or ]erusaIem I! we !oIIow the bI-natIonaI state or the two-state
paradIgm?
TamarI: I do not want to pIay that game because I do not beIIeve that we have
a choIce today between havIng one state or two states. I thInk both Ideas are
probIematIc. The abandonment o! the terrItorIaI soIutIon Is very probIematIc
poIItIcaIIy because It means that you cannot, as a matter o! prIorIty, struggIe
agaInst Iand conñscatIon, agaInst settIements, and agaInst terrItorIaI expansIon.
Why? 8ecause you wouId Instead be In the mIndset o! ñghtIng !or equaI cItIzen-
shIp. To abandon the terrItorIaI cIaIms Is a poIItIcaIIy shortsIghted posItIon,
because It trans!orms the Issue o! PaIestIne prImarIIy Into an Issue o! cIvIc
rIghts. Cn the other hand, to behave as I! we are In the ñrst IntI!ada and are on
the road to Independence-I.e. the creatIon o! two sovereIgn states-Is aIso bIInd
because It means IgnorIng the Iast 2o years o! erodIng possIbIIItIes !or a vIabIe
state on our sIde. There Is one poIItIcaI economy In the entIre country now; the
Idea that there Is an Independent PaIestInIan AuthorIty Is deceptIve. It may make
many PaIestInIans !eeI good that they have theIr own passports and Hag, but
these are not at aII reaI. So, obvIousIy we have to thInk o! the paradIgm that can
transcend thIs dIchotomy o! two states versus one state.
8envenIstI: 8oth proposItIons are aIready part o! one contInuum, aIthough many
peopIe use one state versus two states reIIgIousIy or as I! they are dIchotomous.
In certaIn aspects, we aIready have two states wIth rIgId borders, but those bor-
ders appIy to PaIestInIans onIy. At the same tIme, we aIso have a unItary state
wIthout any regard !or borders, where the IsraeIIs are domInant.
Cne mIght re!er to the modeI o! 8osnIa or the unImpIemented modeI o!
Cyprus. What Is most Important [In these modeIsj !or our purposes, Is the !act
that the InternatIonaI communIty has understood the advantages o! preservIng
aa
l

IntroductIon
terrItorIaI IntegrIty, pre!errIng "so!t" InternaI boundarIes to rIgId dIvIdIng IInes
whIch wouId have made It dI!ñcuIt to traveI !reeIy and hInder economIc recovery.
AIteratIons In InternatIonaI borders dIsturb the exIstIng geopoIItIcaI baIance
and gIves rIse to tensIons In nearby countrIes. £or exampIe, resoIutIon o! the
KurdIsh probIem vIa the partItIon o! Iraq (or even by creatIng a !ederatIon}
wouId send dangerous poIItIcaI shockwaves throughout the three neIghborIng
states whIch have Iarge KurdIsh mInorItIes (Iran, Turkey, and SyrIa}. It Is there-
!ore pre!erabIe to retaIn the recognIzed InternatIonaI borders-whIch are IIke a
mosaIc, In that every IIttIe change dIstorts the pIcture and causes probIems-
and to aIm, I! possIbIe, !or "so!t" InternaI boundarIes.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: Can you expIaIn a bIt more?
8envenIstI: RIgId borders IIe between two states wIth a border separatIng
them. There Is no questIon that we need a cIear IdentIty o! ethnIcIty and
terrItory, whIch thIs modeI provIdes. 8ut we !ace the probIem o! how to
deñne IdentIty, ethnIcIty, and terrItory. Cne shouId dIscuss the one-state concept
usIng eIther the Western modeI o! a unItary state such as £rance, or !ace the
Idea o! muItIracIaI South A!rIca. That Is why IsraeIIs aIways dIscuss demography,
because they are tryIng to reIate demography and votIng patterns. 8ut thIs Is
not aIways the case. Cne couId create a !ederated PaIestIne-IsraeI wIth InternaI
so!t borders that wIII keep ethnIc IdentIty attached to terrItory. And there!ore-
to return to ]erusaIem-]erusaIem deñnIteIy needs so!t boundarIes between
ethnIcaIIy-deñned areas. I thInk we can work on that wIthout usIng the dIchot-
omy o! one versus two states, but rather thInk about one state and two states
as a contInuum. We shouId seIect and choose !rom both concepts. A unItary
state by ItseI! Is not goIng to work because the probIem here Is wIth coIIectIve,
rather than IndIvIduaI, rIghts. 8ut the concept o! surgIcaI partItIon wIII aIso not
work because the current power reIatIonshIps guarantee that IsraeII Interests
wIII prevaII. What we have to ñnd Is IdeaIIy somethIng In between.
£or the ñrst tIme In ZIonIst hIstory, IsraeIIs have now acknowIedged the !act
that there are PaIestInIans. There are PaIestInIans, and there!ore you cannot
Ignore them by buIIdIng settIements In theIr mIdst. SuddenIy, they understand
that there are PaIestInIans that they cannot absorb. And the prIce !or that Is the
wIthdrawaI !rom Caza, but aIso eventuaIIy !rom areas beyond the Creen IIne.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: Do you mean that I! the dIspute shI!ts to a dIspute about
borders, Ie!tIsts and PaIestInIans wIII try to push the waII westwards a IIttIe bIt
here, a IIttIe bIt there, In order to Improve sItuatIon !or PaIestInIans?
8envenIstI: You cannot teII the PaIestInIans that they have to IIve wIth what Is
goIng to be 8% o! hIstorIc PaIestIne. They wIII not accept It, and It Is not sus-
taInabIe.
TamarI: We shouId remember that the nature o! the ]ewIsh cIty Is aIso
changIng, IncIudIng the notIon o! cItIzenshIp wIthIn IsraeI. AIso, the country's
reIatIonshIp to the DIaspora Is changIng In a very IntrIguIng way. The Idea o!
duaI natIonaIIty, !or exampIe, creates great possIbIIItIes, not onIy !or the ]ews
but aIso !or the Arabs. It Is conceIvabIe that the e!!ect o! the 1.2 mIIIIon RussIan
ImmIgrants In IsraeI (many o! them not ]ews} wIII In]ect Into the IsraeII natIon-
aIIty prospects that transcend the MIzrahI-AshkenazI dIchotomy. I! we then
add the duaI natIonaIIty that many IsraeIIs share wIth European countrIes or
the US, It couId become IncreasIngIy possIbIe !or IsraeIIs to accept that IsraeI Is
part o! the worId and not part o! "£ortress ]udaIca."
I! IsraeI redeñnes ItseI! as part o! the gIobaI communIty, the waII on Its
eastern !rontIer, aIready seen as IIIegaI by the InternatIonaI communIty, wIII be
re]ected by many IsraeIIs as deñnIng theIr borders. These are countervaIIIng
tendencIes. IsraeI ItseI! Is redeñnIng ItseI! as a corporate entIty. The terms o!
trade, the reIatIonshIp wIth the UnIted States, the reIatIonshIp wIth the European
CommIssIon, and uItImateIy new ways o! IookIng at PaIestInIans wIII make the
waII ItseI! an anathema.
8envenIstI: I! you consIder the ImmedIate ImpIIcatIons o! the waII on ]erusa-
Iem, It Is creatIng great urban probIems and Iong term upheavaIs. I stIII hope
that IsraeIIs wIII not be success!uI, because eventuaIIy the sheer power o! the
IncIsIon created by the waII wIII Ieave the West 8ank dIvIded Into two, maybe
three, separate cantons, wIth roadbIocks desIgned as InternatIonaI crossIngs
In 8ethIehem, 8etunIya, CaIandIya. Perhaps PaIestInIans have no choIce but to
accept thIs In the short term. 8ut then It wIII sImmer and accumuIate. Most
socIoIogIsts, and pIanners thInk that there Is aIways a posItIve !uture. 8ut
there Is never a !uture, there Is aIways onIy the present. I! IsraeI succeeds In
ImpIementIng the same prIncIpIes In the northern and southern West 8ank that
were ImpIemented In Caza, IncIudIng the partItIon o! the West 8ank by MaaIe
AdumIm, and PaIestInIans pIacIdIy accept thIs, thIs Is the ñnaI vIctory o! ZIonIsm.
8ut It wIII be a pyrrhIc vIctory.
TamarI: There wIII aIways be peopIe who accept and peopIe who resIst. And
I thInk there are too many !actors that mItIgate agaInst a Iong-term soIutIon. I!
what you are sayIng Is true, then the waII wIII become a border, an ethnIc border.
8ut It wIII become an embarrassment, ]ust as the 8erIIn WaII was !or Cermany.
IsraeI wants to be part o! Europe, not onIy economIcaIIy and poIItIcaIIy, but
cuIturaIIy. I thInk It wIII be very dI!ñcuIt to maIntaIn Its status vIs-a-vIs the
InternatIonaI communIty whIIe maIntaInIng ethnIc segregatIon wIthIn Its own
boundarIes. Turkey Is another good exampIe o! thIs trend. As Turkey Inches
cIoser towards the European UnIon, condItIons wIII be !orced on It whIch wIII
make ethnIc segregatIon and IInguIstIc restrIctIons IncreasIngIy dI!ñcuIt. In the
!oreseeabIe !uture, the IsraeII waII, currentIy ]ustIñed by securIty and de!ensIve
ratIonaIIzatIons, wIII become such a monstrosIty that It wIII change the attItude
o! the Europeans and the AmerIcans towards the State o! IsraeI.
8envenIstI: You know, I wouId say somethIng even stronger: that the whoIe
notIon that we are dIscussIng o! a geographIcaI entIty caIIed "]erusaIem" Is
!aIse. ]erusaIem Is a ñctIon. As a hIstorIan, I couId never understand the notIon
that boundarIes create communItIes. UsuaIIy we say that natIonaIIsm emerged
In an area, and then borders were deñned around that deñnItIon o! natIonaIIsm.
We aII know that the coIonIaI experIence Is ]ust the opposIte.
Here I see how an admInIstratIve poIItIcaI deñnItIon creates a geographIcaI
concept, and then peopIe accept It. I wouId suggest to you that what we are
dIscussIng Is not ]erusaIem but the probIems that we wouId IIke to attach to
]erusaIem because we need to deñne !or ourseIves an agenda. There Is no
a6
l
a)
IntroductIon
Ionger an ob]ectIve entIty such as ]erusaIem, because when we ask now, "What
Is ]erusaIem?" we get answers that speak more o! the poIItIcaI, economIc or
cuIturaI poInt o! vIew o! the deñner. AccordIng to the IsraeII munIcIpaI deñnItIon,
]erusaIem now covers an area o! 12a square kIIometers. ThIs Is monstrous and
totaIIy ñctItIous.
£Ischer and MIsseIwItz: Is It more ñctItIous than, !or Instance, the boundary o!
any other metropoIIs?
8envenIstI: We cannot compare a contested cIty IIke ]erusaIem, where boundarIes
and demography are consIdered poIItIcaI Issues, to the probIems o! Iondon or
other metropoIIses. Here, everythIng Is a poIItIcaI statement more than an urban
statement.
''' ·J
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(BrltlsnVandateI
WestBank
lsrael
Gaza3trlo
WestBank
lsrael
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Palestlne
(BrltlsnVandateI
1917-1948 1948-1967
1917-1948 1948-1967
WestBank
lsrael
Gaza3trlo
Golan|elgnt
WestBank
lsrael
Gaza3trlo
Golan|elgnt
2001
2001
58 ¦ 59
0 20 40 60 80 100 k||cme|ers
¯. ¯.'º' `·J·' ' º'
|º.·' ´´´¯2JJ´)
0nder Br|||sh manda|e
0nder Br|||sh manda|e
The S|a|e c| lsrae|
Tempcrarv Occup|ed bv lsrae|| |crces
(19481949)
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn
Os|c /rea C
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lsrae|
Os|c area //B
(|u||/par||a| ccn|rc| c| |he |a|es||n|an /u|hcr||v)
19171948
19481967
2001
Crea| Br||a|n rece|ved |he |eague c| Na||cn's
Vanda|e |n 1922 |c |ac||||a|e |he |cund|ng c|
an |ndependen| s|a|e c| |a|es||ne. Bu| |ens|cns
be|ween |he Z|cn|s| mcvemen| and /rab res|s|
ance prcved |rresc|vab|e. The 0N |ar||||cn ||an
c| 1947 was re|ec|ed bv |he /rab s|a|es, and
|he subsequen| 1948 1ar resu||ed |n |he |cund
|ng c| |he S|a|e c| lsrae|. Vcre |han 700,000
/rab |a|es||n|ans ||ed and where |crced cu|. ln
|he S|x 0av 1ar c| 1967, lsrae| ga|ned ccn|rc|
cver Egvp|'s S|na| |en|nsu|a, |he Svr|an Cc|an
|e|gh|s, Jcrdan|an 1es| Bank and Egvp||an
Caza S|r|p. |a|es||n|ans |hemse|ves have revc||ed
|n |wc |n|||adas. The Os|c /cccrds (1993) and
|he Rcad Vap (2004) he|d cu| |he pcss|b||||v
c| an |ndependen| |a|es||n|an s|a|e, bu| ccre
|ssues rema|ned unsc|ved.
Klooµtz
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Jerlcno
60 ¦ 61
0 1 2 3 4 5 k||cme|ers
¯.'º' `·J·'
|.º·' ´´´¯´´~c)
1||h |he cc||apse c| |he O||cman Emp|re |n
1917, |he |arger pc||||ca| and cu||ura| |ramewcrk
|cr a mu|||cu||ura| c||v had evapcra|ed. C|||zen
sh|p ncw became |ncreas|ng|v de||ned |n |erms
c| e|hn|c||v. |ue||ed bv |he Br|||sh Vanda|e's
(19201948) amb|gucus prcm|se c| a Eurc
peans|v|e na||cns|a|e, Jews and /rabs were
drawn |n|c a s|rugg|e |cr hegemcnv. Tens|cns
and even|ua||v near c|v|| war cvershadcwed |he
hcpes and pc|en||a|s ccnnec|ed |c |he c||v's
encrmcus grcw|h |rcm 60,000 |c 200,000
|nhab||an|s |n cn|v 30 vears. The e||ec|s cn
Jerusa|em's scc|a|, eccncm|c and cu||ura| |ab
r|c were d|sas|rcus. Vcdern|za||cn, eccncm|c
grcw|h and expans|cn were |ncreas|ng|v dr|ven
bv e|hn|c |n|eres|s. 1h||e scme m|xed areas
rema|ned, new ne|ghbcrhccds were s|r|c||v
segrega|ed.
Vus||m/Chr|s||an bu|||up areas
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Aoµ Dls
62 ¦ 63
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Jcrdan Jerusa|em 19491967
lsrae||Jcrdan
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¯.JJ '
|.º·' ´´~c´´o¯)
0nab|e |c prcv|de a sc|u||cn |c |he e|hn|c ccn|||c|
|n |a|es||ne, |he Br|||sh de|erred |c |he new|v
es|ab||shed 0n||ed Na||cns. On 29 Ncvember,
1947, |he 0n||ed Na||cns |ar||||cn ||an |cr |a|
es||ne was adcp|ed (Resc|u||cn 181), wh|ch
resc|ved |ha| |a|es||ne wcu|d beccme a ccn
|edera||cn be|ween Jew|sh and /rabccn|rc||ed
areas and an |n|erna||cna||zed Jerusa|emBe|h
|ehem area as a ccrpus separa|um. The p|an
|a||ed. \|c|ence evc|ved |n|c a |u||sca|e war
a||er |he Br|||sh w||hdrawa| |n Vav 1948, resu||
|ng |n |he |arges| pcpu|a||cn d|sp|acemen| |n
|he c||v's h|s|crv. 45,000 /rab Jerusa|em||es
and a|mcs| 30,000 v|||agers res|d|ng w||h|n |he
Jerusa|em d|s|r|c| |cs| |he|r prcper||es and ||ve||
hccds and became re|ugees |rcm areas wh|ch
were annexed |n|c |he new|v|cunded lsrae||
s|a|e. Vcre |han 30 Jerusa|em v|||ages e||her
van|shed |rcm |he map cr were exprcpr|a|ed
and |rans|erred |c Jew|sh cwnersh|p, re||ec||ng
s|m||ar prccesses a| wcrk |n |he res| c| |a|es||ne.
Jews ||ed |he ncw Jcrdan|anccn|rc||ed O|d C||v
and c|her ne|ghbcrhccds. / 0N adm|n|s|ered
arm|s||ce ||ne (|he Creen ||ne), sp||| |he c||v |n|c
a Jcrdan|an ha|| and an lsrae|| ha||.
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn
3µrBanlr
Jerµsalem
1alolot
Batlr
Ora
Votzallllt
BeltZavlt
Pafat
Oalandlva
BlrNaoala
Belt3anµr
PlsgatZeev
Klooµtz
PamatPanel
Betnlenem
OldCltv
Umm1µoa
Vt.3cooµs
FlnKerem
BeltJala
Gonen
PamotAlon
Vea3nearlm
NeveYaacov
Gllo
|arNof
Pomema
Belt3afafa
Ar-Pam
Belt|anlna
GlvatZeev
Blddµ
Bavltvegan
Pamat
3narett
Klrvat
Venanem
At-1µr
|eoron
lssawlva
3nµafat
Glvat3naµl
Pamallan
3llwan
1elAvlv
Jaffa
FlnKerem
Gonen
PamotAlon
Vea3nearlm
NeveYaacov
|arNof
Pomema
1alolot Ora
BeltZavlt
Pafat
GlvatZeev
Bavltvegan
Pamat
3narett
Oalandlva
PlsgatZeev
Votzallllt
Glvat3naµl
Klrvat
Venanem
1elAvlv
Jaffa
Klooµtz
PamatPanel Gllo
3µrBanlr
Umm1µoa
BeltJala
Belt3afafa
Batlr
Ar-Pam
Belt|anlna
Blddµ
At-1µr
BlrNaoala
|eoron
lssawlva
3nµafat
Pamallan
3llwan
Betnlenem
Belt3anµr
OldCltv
Jerµsalem
Vt.3cooµs
AoµDls
VaaleAdµmlm VaaleAdµmlm
AoµDls
Jerlcno
0 1 2 3 4 5 k||cme|ers
¯.J .'·'
|.º·' ´´o¯´´c¯)
/||er |he S|x 0av 1ar, lsrae| annexed Jcrdan|an
Eas| Jerusa|em, |nc|ud|ng scme c| |he |err||crv
c| |he ncwcccup|ed 1es| Bank, and |nc|uded
|| w||h|n en|arged mun|c|pa| bcundar|es. Th|s
annexa||cn has ve| |c be |ega||v reccgn|zed
bv |he |n|erna||cna| ccmmun||v. 1h||e a re|a
||ve |rag||e ca|m preva||ed, war bv c|her means
ccn||nued cver spa||a| and demcgraph|c ccn|rc|
cver |he c||v. Based cn |he exprcpr|a||cn c|
|a|es||n|an |ands, lsrae| crea|ed rccm |cr vas|
bu||d|ng prcgrams des|gned |c cemen| |he c||v's
un|||ca||cn. 0esp||e |hese cverwhe|m|ng new
|ac|s cn |he grcund, Jerusa|em ccn||nued |c be
d|v|ded a|cng e|hn|c seam ||nes¬||nes nc |cnger
ccns|||u|ed |hrcugh phvs|ca| barr|ers, bu| a ccm
p|ex svs|em c| |nv|s|b|e wa||s surrcund|ng |n|er
ccnnec|ed ccmmuna| arch|pe|agcs. |a|es||n|ans
were ab|e |c ccn||nue |c ||ve w||h scme degree
c| au|cncmv and even eccncm|c prcgress,
ma|n|a|n|ng separa|e schcc| and pub||c |ranspcr|
svs|ems, usua||v re|a|n|ng |he|r Jcrdan|an c|||zen
sh|p, and bcvcc|||ng |c vc|e |cr |he lsrae|| mun|c
|pa| au|hcr||v. / pr|va|e|v|unded 'bu||d|ng bccm¨
exp|cded cn |he c||v's per|pherv, as |a|es||n|ans
were mcs||v unab|e |c cb|a|n bu||d|ng perm||s
|ns|de |he lsrae|| mun|c|pa| bcundar|es.
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn
|a|es||n|an bu|||up areas
lsrae|| bu|||up areas
Jerusa|em and annexed
Eas| Jerusa|em areas
lsrae||Jcrdan
/rm|s||ce ||ne ('Creen ||ne')
Vun|c|pa| bcundarv
64 ¦ 65
|ar|oma
3µrBanlr
Jerµsalem
Batlr
Ora
Votzallllt
BeltZavlt
Pafat
Oalandlva
BlrNaoala
Belt3anµr
PlsgatZeev
1alolot
Betnlenem
OldCltv
Umm1µoa
Vt.3cooµs
FlnKerem
BeltJala
Ge'µllm
Gonen
PamotAlon
Vea3nearlm
NeveYaacov
Gllo
|arNof
Pomema
Belt3afafa
Ar-Pam
Belt|anlna
GlvatZeev
Blddµ
Bavltvegan
Pamat
3narett
Klrvat
Venanem
At-1µr
Pamallan
1elAvlv
Jaffa
Klooµtz
PamatPanel
|eoron
Betarllllt
lssawlva
3llwan
3nµafat
Glvat3naµl
FlnKerem
Ge'µllm
Gonen
PamotAlon
Vea3nearlm
NeveYaacov
Gllo
|arNof
Pomema
Ora
BeltZavlt
GlvatZeev
Bavltvegan
Pamat
3narett
Oalandlva
1elAvlv
Jaffa
Betarllllt
|ar|oma
PlsgatZeev
Votzallllt
Glvat3naµl
Klrvat
Venanem
Klooµtz
PamatPanel
1alolot
Pafat
Betnlenem
3µrBanlr
Umm1µoa
BeltJala
Belt3afafa
Batlr
Ar-Pam
Belt|anlna
Blddµ
At-1µr
BlrNaoala
Belt3anµr
Pamallan
|eoron
lssawlva
3llwan
3nµafat
OldCltv
Jerµsalem
Vt.3cooµs
AoµDls
Fzzarlva
VaaleAdµmlm
F1(olannedsettlementexoanslonareaI
Oedar
Jerlcno
VaaleAdµmlm
F1(olannedsettlementexoanslonareaI
Oedar
AoµDls
Fzzarlva
Jerlcno
0 1 2 3 4 5 k||cme|ers
Ccn|||c| |gn||ed aga|n dur|ng |he ||rs| ln|||ada
(19871993) aga|ns| |he pers|s||ng lsrae|| cccu
pa||cn. ln|erna||cna| pressure |crced bc|h par||es
|c end v|c|ence and |crma||v reccgn|ze a |wc
s|a|e pr|nc|p|e. Negc||a||cns |ed |c |he s|gn|ng c|
|he 1993 Os|c /cccrds. Bu| ||m||ed se||ru|e |cr
|he |a|es||n|ans was ccmb|ned w||h a new se|
c| res|r|c||ve pc||c|es. lsrae|| checkpc|n|s were
se| up ||m|||ng |rave| |c and |rcm Jerusa|em,
|hus sever|ng |he eas|ern c||v |rcm ||s 1es|
Bank h|n|er|ands. Se|||emen| ccns|ruc||cn was
s|epped up and |a|es||n|an su|c|de a||acks cn
lsrae|| c|v|||ans ccn||nued. The |a||ure c| Os|c |c
sc|ve |he Jerusa|em cr|s|s |n par| |ed |c |he
cc||apse c| |he peace prccess |n 2000, and |hen
|he a|/qsa ln|||ada. an |n|erm|nab|e cvc|e c|
m||||arv |ncurs|cns, su|c|de a||acks, and cc||ec||ve
pun|shmen|. ln |h|s a|mcsphere, lsrae| was ab|e
|c |mpcse |arreach|ng phvs|ca| changes |us||
||ed as |empcrarv an|||errcr|s| measures. /n 8
|c12me|erh|gh wa|| and |ence ccmp|ex |c||cws
a ccn|cr|ed pa|h seek|ng lsrae|| demcgraph|c
and spa||a| hegemcnv, wh||e ma|n|a|n|ng |he
pre|ence c| a un||ed c||v.
|a|es||n|an bu|||up areas
lsrae|| bu|||up areas
/rea enc|csed bv Sepera||cn 1a||/|ence
lsrae||Jcrdan
/rm|s||ce ||ne ('Creen ||ne')
Separa||cn |ence/1a||
Separa||cn |ence/1a||
rcu|e sub|ec|ed |c |ur|her ccmp|e||||cn
Vun|c|pa| bcundarv
.·''J '
|.º·' ´´c¯2JJ')
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn 66 ¦ 67
Ccn|||c| |gn||ed aga|n dur|ng |he ||rs| ln|||ada
(19871993) aga|ns| |he pers|s||ng lsrae|| cccu
pa||cn. ln|erna||cna| pressure |crced bc|h par||es
|c end v|c|ence and |crma||v reccgn|ze a |wc
s|a|e pr|nc|p|e. Negc||a||cns |ed |c |he s|gn|ng c|
|he 1993 Os|c /cccrds. Bu| ||m||ed se||ru|e |cr
|he |a|es||n|ans was ccmb|ned w||h a new se|
c| res|r|c||ve pc||c|es. lsrae|| checkpc|n|s were
se| up ||m|||ng |rave| |c and |rcm Jerusa|em,
|hus sever|ng |he eas|ern c||v |rcm ||s 1es|
Bank h|n|er|ands. Se|||emen| ccns|ruc||cn was
s|epped up and |a|es||n|an su|c|de a||acks cn
lsrae|| c|v|||ans ccn||nued. The |a||ure c| Os|c |c
sc|ve |he Jerusa|em cr|s|s |n par| |ed |c |he
cc||apse c| |he peace prccess |n 2000, and |hen
|he a|/qsa ln|||ada. an |n|erm|nab|e cvc|e c|
m||||arv |ncurs|cns, su|c|de a||acks, and cc||ec||ve
pun|shmen|. ln |h|s a|mcsphere, lsrae| was ab|e
|c |mpcse |arreach|ng phvs|ca| changes |us||
||ed as |empcrarv an|||errcr|s| measures. /n 8
|c12me|erh|gh wa|| and |ence ccmp|ex |c||cws
a ccn|cr|ed pa|h seek|ng lsrae|| demcgraph|c
and spa||a| hegemcnv, wh||e ma|n|a|n|ng |he
pre|ence c| a un||ed c||v.
Betnµenem
3µr Banlr
Jerµsaµem
JaoaµAoµ Gnnelm
Betnµenem
3µr Banlr
Jerµsaµem
JaoaµAoµ Gnnelm
JaoaµVµkkaoer JaoaµVµkkaoer
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
`.·c \''··
. ¯·'. ´c~´)
Sur Bah|r was |cunded cn |he upper s|cpes
c| a rcckv h|||, cver|cck|ng |cur va||evs (wad|s)
|ha| s|cpe |n a scu|heas|ern d|rec||cn |cwards
|he Jcrdan va||ev r|||. The v|||age ccns|s|ed c|
severa| ||gh| bu||d|ng c|us|ers arcund ccur|vards
(hosh). Each c|us|er be|cnged |c d|||eren| pa|r|
||nea| ex|ended |am|||es (hamµ|a). The dwe|||ngs
|hemse|ves were dcmed, ccns|ruc|ed en||re|v
|rcm |cca| ||mes|cne, and c||en |cca|ed abcve
rcck caves. Thev were s||ua|ed |n such a wav
|ha| |hev a||cwed res|den|s |c eas||v guard crcps
and c||ve grcves |n |he |er|||e cu|||va|ed va||evs.
/gr|cu||ure de|erm|ned |he rhv|hms c| v|||age |||e
and, dur|ng harves| per|cds |am|||es c||en s|aved
cvern|gh| |n ||e|d s|crage hcuses (qµsµr). \|||age
|ands were de||ned |hrcugh |he accumu|a||cn
c| |nd|v|dua| and ex|ended |am||v |and hc|d|ngs,
as we|| as ccmmcn |and (moshaa). ln |he ||gh||v
kn||, se||ccn|a|ned ccmmun||v, nc |crma| prcp
er|v ||nes were requ|red, |err||cr|a| bcundar|es
were remembered cver genera||cns |hrcugh cra|
descr|p||cns c| |rees, rccks, cr re|a|n|ng wa||s as
mark|ngs.
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn
Bu|||up areas
68 ¦ 69
Umm 1µoa
Klooµtz
Pamat Panel
Betnlenem
3µr Banlr
Jaoal Aoµ Gnµnalm
Jerµsalem
Umm 1µoa
Betnlenem
3µr Banlr
Jerµsalem
Jaoal Aoµ Gnnelm
Klooµtz
Pamat Panel
Jaoal Vµkkaoer Jaoal Vµkkaoer
Sur Bah|r rema|ned una||ec|ed bv |he ear|v vears
c| Br|||sh ru|e, wh|ch ccncen|ra|ed cn reg|cna|
recrgan|za||cn and |cwn p|ann|ng schemes. \||
|ages ccn||nued |c deve|cp |n an crgan|c wav
acccrd|ng |c |rad|||cna| ru|es (based cn ls|am|c
shar|ah |aw, wh|ch a||c|s and deve|cps prcper|v
acccrd|ng |c re|a||ve p|c| s|ze, prcper|v ||nes,
bu||d|ng he|gh|, and ccns|ruc||cn dens||v) and
w||hcu| |he |n|er|erence c| an ex|erna| p|ann|ng
reg|me wh|ch |mpcr|s and ccp|es p|ann|ng s|ra|
eg|es |n a |cpdcwn prccess (see Khama|s| |n
|h|s vc|ume). S|cw|v, |he v|||age begun |c spread
a|cng |he mcun|a|n r|dges be|ween |he agr|cu|
|ura| va||evs. |a|er, |he Br|||sh |n|||a|ed ex|ens|ve
|and survevs wh|ch, |cr |he ||rs| ||me, de||ned a
v|||age bcundarv arcund |he |am||v |and hc|d|ngs
and ccmmcn |ands, |hus |ac||||a||ng a gradua|
sh||| |rcm ccmmuna| |c pr|va|e |and |ha| had
begun dur|ng O||cman |and re|crms. |||e |n Sur
Bah|r begun |c change w||h |he |cunda||cn c|
K|bbu|z Rama| Rache| |n 1926. Three vears |a|er,
|he k|bbu|z was a||acked and burned dcwn |n
cne c| |he ||rs| ma|cr cu|burs|s c| |ens|cns. The
k|bbu|z was rebu||| a vear |a|er, be|ween 1936
and 1939 || aga|n was |he s||e c| v|c|ence |rcm
|a|es||n|ans prc|es||ng Z|cn|s| |mm|gra||cn.
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
lsrae|| bu|||up areas
\|||age bcundarv
|a|es||n|an bu|||up areas
70 ¦ 71
'. '·'c.º
. ¯·'. ´´2')
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn
Umm 1µoa
Betnlenem
3µr Banlr
1sµr Banlr
Jerµsalem
Jaoal Aoµ Gnnelm
Umm 1µoa
Betnlenem
3µr Banlr
1sµr Banlr
Jerµsalem
Jaoal Aoµ Gnnelm
Klooµtz
Pamat Panel
Klooµtz
Pamat Panel
Jaoal Vµkkaoer Jaoal Vµkkaoer 72 ¦ 73
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
¯.'. ¯º
. ¯·'. ´´~´)
The drama||c even|s |ha| engu||ed Jerusa|em
|n |he |a|e 1930s and 1940s (cu|m|na||ng |n
|he d|v|s|cn c| |he c||v, expu|s|cn c| pcpu|a||cn,
and demc||||cn c| mcs| c| Jerusa|em's wes|ern
v|||ages) |ed |c an equa||v drama||c change
|cr Sur Bah|r and |he ne|ghbcr|ng k|bbu|z. The
new 0Nadm|n|s|ered arm|s||ce ||ne was drawn
|mmed|a|e|v |c |he ncr|hwes| c| |he v|||age,
arcund Rama| Rahe|, wh|ch was ccmp|e|e|v
des|rcved |cr |he seccnd ||me |n |he war. Sud
den|v, v|||age and k|bbu|z were pcs|||cned cn |he
gecpc||||ca| |rcn||er be|ween lsrae| and Jcrdan,
separa|ed bv a brcad s|r|p c| ncman's|and. The
des|rcved k|bbu|z was qu|ck|v rebu||| as a s|ra
|eg|c cu|pcs| cversee|ng |he mcs| scu|heas|ern
|rcn||er c| 1es| Jerusa|em. 1||h |he h|s|cr|c rcad
under lsrae|| ccn|rc|, Sur Bah|r ncw became an
|mpcr|an| ncr|hscu|h passage pc|n| ccnnec||ng
Be|h|ehem and Eas| Jerusa|em, re|n|crced bv
an cu|pcs| c| |he Jcrdan|an /rmv. Bu| genera|
eccncm|c s|agna||cn and Jcrdan|an under|nves|
men| |n Jerusa|em s|cwed v|||age grcw|h and
manv c| ||s vcunger genera||cn em|gra|ed.
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn
|a|es||n|an bu|||up areas
lsrae|| mun|c|pa| bcundarv
lsrae||Jcrdan
/rm|s||ce ||ne ('Creen ||ne')
lsrae|| bu|||up areas
Jerµsalem
Jerlcno
|eoron
Pamallan
Naolµs
1µlkram
Betnlenem
Jerµsalem
Jerlcno
|eoron
Pamallan
Naolµs
1µlkram
Betnlenem
3elllemenls Paleslinian urban areas
Jerµsalem
Pamallan
Betnlenem
Pamallan
Betnlenem
Jerµsalem
Walled cilies 78 ¦ 79
0 10 0 20 30 40 k||cme|ers
The es|ab||shmen| c| Jew|sh se|||emen| |n |he
1es| Bank s|nce 1967, |he pc||||ca| par||||cn c|
|err||cr|es acccrd|ng |c |he Os|c agreemen|s
(2001) and |he ccns|ruc||cn c| |he Separa||cn
|ence/1a|| have prcduced a spa||a| |andscape
c| enc|aves and exc|aves. Se|||emen|s have
|ragmen|ed and enc|rc|ed |a|es||n|an ne|gh
bcrhccds, d|smember|ng |he|r spa||a|, scc|a|,
and eccncm|c |abr|c and des|rcv|ng |he|r |and
reserves |cr agr|cu||ura| use and urban deve|
cpmen|s. /s a resu||, |a|es||n|an v|||ages and
ne|ghbcrhccds are |crced w||h|n |he same k|nd
c| spa||a| ccn|a|nmen| |ha| charac|er|zes |he
se|||emen|s. Thev have beccme enc|aves w||h|n
a space c| lsrae|| hegemcnv.
1es|bank annexed |c lsrae|
0rban areas
Separa||cn |ence/1a||
lsrae|Jcrdan /rm|s||ce ||ne (19481967)
1a||ed c|||es
Os|c /rea B
(|a|es||n|an c|v|| ccn|rc|, lsrae|| m||||arv ccn|rc|)
|a|es||n|an urban areas
Se|||emen|s
Os|c /rea C
(|u|| lsrae|| ccn|rc|)
Se|||emen|s
`.'o'··
.º' ¯·· |.º·'
Ccn|||c| and 0rban Trans|crma||cn
Os|c /rea /
(|u|| ccn|rc| c| |he |a|es||n|an /u|hcr||v)
Ccncep| and ccpvr|gh|
T|m R|en|e|s, |h|||pp V|sse|w||z
Scurces
T|me||ne. Charma|ne Se||z w||h Karen |ee Brachah, Vcna 0a|an|
and ¥ehuda Creen||e|dC||a|.
B'|se|em The lsrae|| ln|crma||cn Cen|er |cr |uman R|gh|s |n |he
Occup|ed Terr||cr|es, The ¼est Bank !ewish $ett|ements and
the $eoaration Barrier, (Jerusa|em, 2004).
ln|erna||cna| |eace and Cccpera||cn Cen|er l|CC, Ram| Nasra|
|ah, Rassem Khama|s|, V|chae| ¥cunan, !erµsa|em on the Vao
(Jerusa|em, 2005).
|e Vcnde 0|p|cma||que (ed||.), ^t|as der C|ooa|isierµng, |az \er
|ags und \er|r|ebs Cmb|, (Ber||n, 2003).
|rc|ec| Crenzgecgra||en (ln|erna||cna| |eace and Cccpera||cn
Cen|er l|CC Jerusa|em, Beza|e| /cademv c| /r| and 0es|gn Jeru
sa|em, 0n|vers||v c| |he /r|s Ber||n, ET| Sw|ss |edera| lns|||u|e
c| Technc|cgv Zur|ch), Tri|atera| $tµdent ¼orkshoos (Jerusa|em,
20032005).
Survev c| |a|es||ne, !erµsa|em ^rea (sca|e 1.1.250), (1946).
Survev c| |a|es||ne, !erµsa|em ^rea (sca|e 1.20.000), (1943).
The /pp||ed Research lns|||u|e Jerusa|em (/RlJ), ^ Ceooo|itica|
^t|as of Pa|estine The ¼est Bank and Caza (Jerusa|em, 2004).
0n||ed Na||cns, O|||ce |cr |he Cccrd|na||cn c| |uman||ar|an
/||a|rs (OC|/), C|osµre Vaos (2005).
0n||ed Na||cns, O|||ce |cr |he Cccrd|na||cn c| |uman||ar|an
/||a|rs (OC|/), ¼est Bank Barrier Poµte Pro|ections. Pre|iminary
Overview (2005).
eg^cX^eaZhd[
[gdci^Zg\Zd\gVe]n
EyaI WeIzman
I! borders are abstract IInes whIch desIgnate the edges o! ]urIsdIctIons, barrIers
make those IImIts physIcaI. SInce the mechanIzatIon o! war!are In the 1¤th and
2oth centurIes, and the reIatIveIy symmetrIcaI power maIntaIned across borders
between more or Iess equaIIy armed natIonaI armIes and aIIIed coaIItIons,
de!ense Is no Ionger conceptuaIIzed on a IocaI or urban scaIe, but at the IeveI o!
Immense IInear constructIons aIong the edges o! natIonaI space. 8orders were
!ortIñed to controI the movement o! armIes, as weII as to reguIate the movement
o! goods, Iabor, In!ormatIon, weaIth, and dIsease Into the body o! the state. The
demarcatIon and !ortIñcatIon o! borders had a compIementary pro]ect: the
IssuIng o! traveI documents and passports, whIch was sIgnIñcant In creatIng and
sustaInIng the poIItIcaI modeI o! a sovereIgn natIonaI entIty. £Ixed borders came
to embody a state o! "peace" whereIn the consoIIdatIon o! cItIzenshIp and the
homogenIzatIon o! Ianguages and cuItures couId take pIace.
War Is an extreme boundary-!ramIng condItIon. The trenches o! WorId War I-
barrIers on a contInentaI scaIe-are a case In poInt. They proved that shoveIs and
barbed wIres couId become strategIc weapons capabIe o! paraIyzIng the move-
ments o! two opposIng coaIItIon armIes. Stephen Kern descrIbed them thus:
"Trenches zIgzagged through the Iand, outIInIng the ever-changIng !acets o! the
!ront and IInkIng areas o! mIIItary operatIons behInd. Nearest the enemy was the
!ront IIne, !rom whIch shaIIow 'saps' ran Into no-man's-Iand and Ied to the most
!orward observatIon posts, grenade throwIng posts, and machIne-gun empIace-
ments. About two hundred yards behInd that was the support IIne In whIch the
men spent most o! the tIme IIvIng In dugouts cut Into the dIrt waIIs In deeper
chambers tunneIed down as !ar as thIrty !eet. SeveraI hundred yards behInd that
was the reserve IIne, and communIcatIon trenches ran perpendIcuIar to, and
connected aII three... £rom an aerIaI perspectIve the trench system gave the terraIn
a CubIst-IIke composItIon o! IrreguIar geometrIcIzed !orms." (Kern, 2oo¤:¤oç}
Post-WorId War I strategIc doctrIne reIIed on the prIncIpIes o! IInear de!ense
as manI!ested In three ma]or !ortIñcatIon systems, two o! them buIIt aIong the
voIatIIe £rench-Cerman border: the Cerman West WaII was desIgned to hoId o!!
the £rench Army whIIe the Wehrmacht was de!eatIng Its enemIes to the east.
£acIng It was the £rench MagInot IIne, desIgned to deIay the Wehrmacht's west-
ward ßIìtzkrìeg untII £rench reserves couId be dra!ted. The Cerman AtIantIc WaII
was desIgned to prevent an AIIIed InvasIon o! the Cerman-occupIed contInent
aIong the AtIantIc coast. However, the Increased capacIty !or rapId maneuver and
the IntegratIon o! aIr and ground !orces made It easy to bypass or pIerce these
IInes, eventuaIIy renderIng them obsoIete.
PoIsonous gas, so decIsIve In breakIng the terrItorIaI IntegrIty o! the trench
IInes In WorId War I, Is aIso aIIegorIcaI: It expresses another kInd o! HexIbIe terrI-
torIaIIty, quIte opposIte to the IInearIty and soIIdIty o! stabIe space. The shI!tIng
terrItorIaIIty o! gas was reaIIzed In the drI!tIng mIIIeu o! a deadIy mIcrocIImate
wIthout !ront or back. "WIth gas war!are, the trIgonometry whIch had governed
mIIItary theory In an unbroken contInuIty sInce the days o! Roman sIege-catapuIts,
gave way to a ñendIshIy compIex muItIparameter caIcuIus, In whIch the sImpIe
varIants o! propuIsIve !orce, aIr resIstance, gravIty and dIstance were compII-
cated by the addItIon o! wInd-dIrectIon and speed, aIr-pressure, humIdIty and
temperature" (Connor, 2oo¤}. The terrItorIaIIty Inaugurated by gas war!are was one
o! process rather than !orm. The abIIIty o! gas to dI!!use and InñItrate, and Its
e!!ectIveness agaInst a statIc enemy, undoubtedIy heIped to dIssoIve the !ront
IIne and the terrItorIaIIty o! cIear edges.
The coIIapse, durIng WorId War II, o! the statIc IInear modeI o! war!are turned
Iong !ortIñed IInes Into gIant monuments to the absurdIty o! standIng stIII In
battIe and beIIevIng In eternaI terrItorIaI controI. The Iast !ortIñed IIne to have
entertaIned the !antasy o! soIId de!ense was the IsraeII 8ar-Iev IIne, buIIt on the
eastern bank o! the Suez CanaI, onIy to coIIapse In the 1¤)¤ Arab-IsraeII War-
ItseI!, the Iast symmetrIcaI battIe to be !ought between state armIes o! reIatIveIy
equaI !orce. In a vIctory o! How over stasIs, the gIant sand dykes o! the 8ar-Iev
IIne were eroded by hIgh-pressure water ]ets. A!ter the coIIapse o! the Iron CurtaIn,
and the end o! the perIod o! mIIItary baIance, a dI!!erent poIItIcaI space and type
o! mIIItary engagement-Iow-IntensIty, nonsymmetrIcaI conHIct between reguIar
armIes and paramIIItary organIzatIons-graduaIIy staged a return.
The !rontIer Is antIthetIcaI to !ortIñed IInes. AgaInst the geography o! stabIe,
statIc pIaces, and baIance across sovereIgn borders, the !rontIer Is a space o!
"How." It Is a mIIItary and poIItIcaI pattern o! eIastIc and shI!tIng geography, a
zone o! contact that cannot be represented by IInes. The !rontIer can be asso-
cIated wIth a varIety o! poIItIcaI !orms, past and present, such as cIty-states,
empIres, and coIonIzIng states. I! sovereIgn borders are IInear and ñxed, !rontIers
are deep, !ragmented, and eIastIc.
;A:M>7A:<:D<G6E=N
DespIte a common perceptIon, the !rontIer dId not orIgInate wIth the expansIon
o! Europe Into AmerIca, AustraIIa, or A!rIca. It was part o! the terrItorIaIIty o!
premodern empIres. The margIns o! the Roman and ChInese EmpIres, as weII
as those o! the Aztecs and the Inca, were deep, shI!tIng, and scantIIy deñned
domaIns o! cuIturaI exchange and war!are where battIes took pIace wIth peopIe
deñned sInce ancIent Creece as "barbarIans." These empIres were based upon a
HexIbIe reIatIonshIp between center and perIphery, deñned by power, commerce,
and a!ñIIatIon rather than terrItorIaI proxImIty. In thIs respect, the geographIc
!orm o! ancIent empIres couId be seen as a strong center wIth a HexIbIe cIrcum!er-
ence. "8arbarIans" were not onIy an amaIgamatIon o! prImItIve warrIor-trIbes;
they were o!ten hIghIy organIzed and cuItured settIed or semI-nomadIc peopIes.
8a
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Zones o! ImperIaI controI were extended not onIy through the conquest, occupa-
tIon, and annIhIIatIon o! "barbarIans," but aIso through theIr "accuIturatIon" wIth
a sIngIe Ianguage or reIIgIon; the HattenIng o! dI!!erences and the meItIng o!
"!oreIgnness" Into the socIaI and economIc pots o! the empIre.
The pattern o! any !rontIer's geographIcaI expansIon Is IrreguIar. It shI!ts wIth
changIng cIImate, geoIogy, and technoIogIcaI possIbIIItIes. It pours across pastoraI
steppe grassIands In an attempt to grab and !ence o!! sIzeabIe ñeIds; It !oIIows
the narrow and spIInterIng arterIes o! geoIogIcaI strata; It traces the rIdges o!
metaI and mIneraI deposIts above ground In work camps, towns, and cItIes, or
occupIes geographIcaI "IsIands" over IsoIated energy ñeIds. The pattern o! habIta-
tIon across a !rontIer draws a dIagram not onIy o! the baIance o! power between
coIonIzers and "barbarIans," but o! the economIc and technoIogIcaI IeveI and
socIaI organIzatIon o! the coIonIzers themseIves. Pockets o! controI contInuousIy
expand or contract. Temporary IInes o! engagement and con!rontatIon, marked
by makeshI!t boundarIes, are not IImIted to the edges o! the occupIer's space, but
exIst throughout the depth o! Its terrItory.
:C8A6K:H
Contemporary geopoIItIcaI space has severaI !rontIer characterIstIcs. Instead o!
beIng demarcated by contInuous IInes, It has come to resembIe a terrItorIaI patch-
work o! Introvert encIaves. AnseIm £ranke, Ines WeIzman, and I have descrIbed
these encIaves as "IsIands," and theIr organIzatIon as "archIpeIago" (though what
surrounds them Is not the sea}. IsoIated !rom theIr externaI condItIons, these
homogenIzed extraterrItorIaI encIaves Iay outsIde the ]urIsdIctIon that physIcaIIy
surrounds them. They can be !ound In the !orm o! zones o! humanItarIan Interven-
tIon, mIIItary camps, or InternatIonaI transport, trade, and manu!acturIng hubs.
The InternatIonaI-Iaw prIncIpIes o! "suspended sovereIgnty" and "extraterrItorIaI
]urIsdIctIon," upon whIch "IsIands" reIy, vIoIate the tradItIonaI ]urIdIcaI terrIto-
rIaIIty o! the sovereIgn state and caII the WestphaIIan border-based statesystem
Into questIon.
The noncontIguous nature o! borderIInes and the !ragmentatIon o! space are
mIrrored by temporaI nonsequentIaIIty. ActIons do not un!oId In a consIstent,
IInear manner. At no poInt across the AmerIcan £rontIer was there a cIear IIne
between coIonIzed terrItorIes and yet-to-be-coIonIzed terrItorIes. The area had
been broken Into settIement pockets surrounded by uncuItIvated Iand-ItseI! cut
up by !orts, roads, and raIIway IInes. C!ten thIs spIIntered geography !oIds In
!rom the edge o! the terrItory to Its InterIor. £rontIer condItIons can be !ound to
varyIng degrees wherever one Iooks at a geographIcaIIy expandIng power. The
"barbarIans" are never organIzed behInd ñxed IInes, they are aIways aIready
InsIde. The border Is In !act everywhere: around every pubIIc and prIvate property
and In!rastructure, takIng the !orm o! IocaI or regIonaI !ortIñcatIons and securIty
apparatuses epItomIzed by today's roadbIocks, checkpoInts, !ences, waIIs, CCTV
systems, and sterIIe perImeters.
PopuIar !ears have recentIy provoked the reconceptuaIIzatIon o! the border.
The US Is attemptIng to reborder Its own natIonaI space usIng a set o! new tech-
noIogIes, Iaws, and practIces that extend Its ]urIsdIctIon. The pro]ect o! creatIng
2
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a "vIrtuaI border" aIms to extend AmerIcan surveIIIance networks, so as to
compIIe and share vast amounts o! bIometrIc and other data that wouId make
It possIbIe to IdentI!y and Intercept "terrorIsts" whIIe stIII "abroad." ThIs exten-
sIon o! US borders reHects, accordIng to MIchaeI SorkIn, the AmerIcan IdeoIogy
o! the !rontIer. It creates a !rontIer zone between the terrItory o! the US and Its
extended vIrtuaI border where an archIpeIago o! extra-terrItorIaI detentIon and
InvestIgatIon centers mete out "!rontIer ]ustIce" beyond any IegaI ]urIsdIctIon.
ED>CIH6C9A>C:H
The mIIItary geometry o! the hIstorIcaI !rontIer was based on a reIatIon between
poInts and IInes. ReIatIveIy autonomous !orts scattered across the perIphery pro-
vIded an IntrIcate matrIx o! controI over the terraIn. StronghoIds have o!ten been
mIIItary coIonIes InhabIted by cIvIIIanIzed veterans/soIdIers who were gIven
Iand rIghts In return !or !uIñIIIng the task o! !rontIer management and de!ense.
Across the AmerIcan West, natIve natIons, cattIe barons, and bandIts shared at
Ieast one threat: the creepIng domestIcatIon o! the terrItory by !armers who,
!encIng themseIves In and parceIIng out the great pIaIns, brought wIth them a
rIgId code o! Iaw en!orcement and prIvate property. Iaw ItseI! was terrItorIaIIzed,
uItImateIy through the productIon o! boundarIes and hIerarchIes, zones and
encIaves, mappIng, and Iand regIstry. Iand regIstry pro]ects rareIy recognIzed
the rIghts o! "natIves" over Iands In theIr possessIon the way they recognIzed
the ownershIp rIghts o! coIonIzers. Across AustraIIa, New ZeaIand, and North
AmerIca, Iand rIghts were based on the 18th century terrItorIaI !antasy o! a terra
nuIIìus-an empty Iand where natIves were no dI!!erent !rom nature, havIng there-
!ore no estabIIshed rIghts to the envIronment. I! rIghts were granted, such as In
the case o! reservatIons, they o!ten dId not extend vertIcaIIy to IncIude naturaI
resources ]ust beIow the sur!ace.
Roads are crucIaI !or !rontIer geographIes. WIthout them, there couId be no
mIIItary depIoyment, expansIon, or suppIy, no commerce, and thus, no cuIture.
CoIonIaI routes, IIke £rance's routes natìonaIs, desIgned In, or InspIred by the
SchooIs o! HIghway and 8rIdges, were IaId In straIght IInes across mountaIns and
vaIIeys, and stood !or the ratIonaI, CartesIan power o! the state. IInes o! commu-
nIcatIon and transportatIon can !unctIon as wedges that open up "aIIen terraIn"
!or !urther coIonIzatIon, enabIIng Iarger popuIatIons to mIgrate and InhabIt
settIement-poInts. Paths o! communIcatIon may aIso create e!!ectIve barrIers
that honeycomb IocaI popuIatIons Into IsoIated encIaves o! IImIted habItat. In thIs
respect, the roIe o! rIvers Is an Index o! the dI!!erence between !rontIer and border
geographIes. £or states, rIvers are o!ten "naturaI" borders that mark the edge o!
terrItorIes.

They serve as physIcaI Icon !or an ImagInatIon that naturaIIzes the
state as a compIete, IndIvIsIbIe terrItory o! an a-temporaI patrImony.
PoInts and IInes are Interdependent Instruments that merge mIIItary and
cIvIIIan archItecture. The dIstrIbutIon o! settIement-poInts

across the !rontIer
requIres a compIex set o! IInes to connect them.

However, the reIIabIIIty o!
movement and transport aIong these IInes depends on the strong-poInts pIaced to
protect them. As such, the !rontIer resembIes a dynamIc battIeñeId pIayed out In
sIow motIon. It reguIarIy shI!ts !rom o!!ensIve expansIon-seekIng the temporary
88
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occupatIon o! new strategIc poInts and securIng theIr IInes o! suppIy-to de!ensIve
organIzatIon desIgned to protect terrItorIaI gaIns !rom counter-o!!ensIves.
£rantz £anon descrIbed coIonIaI occupatIon as a compIex compartmentaIIzed
system, whIch at every poInt Is dIvIded Into two. CoIonIaI occupatIon, when
secureIy settIed, can be understood as a geometry o! state power, but at the
expansIon stages It may exhIbIt dynamIc topoIogIcaI characterIstIcs sImIIar to
the network-based geography o! the coIonIzed.
The InItIaI reIatIon and encounter between coIonIsts and natIves can some-
tImes appear "recIprocaI" wIth !eedback mechanIsms o! mImIcry and counter-
mImIcry. RecurrIng !rontIer myths teII o! the !ragIIe "ImmIgrant" hardened Into a
"natIve," transgressIng the IImIt between cIvIIIzatIon and wIIderness, combatIng
barbarIc !orces, gaInIng a rIght to settIement by the destructIon o! IocaI "evII,"
and ñnaIIy assumIng somethIng o! the character o! the "natIves" ]ust destroyed.
In hIs 18¤¤ Iecture, "The SIgnIñcance o! the £rontIer In AmerIcan HIstory,"
£rederIck ]. Turner announced the cIosure o! the AmerIcan !rontIer, contendIng
that AmerIcan democracy wouId not have deveIoped as It dId wIthout Incorporat-
Ing some o! the rough and rugged characterIstIcs o! !rontIer IndIvIduaIIty and
the vaIues o! "personaI !reedom" Into the natIonaI repertoIre. He descrIbed the
!rontIer as IIberatIon !rom a stIHIng European cuIture and urbanIzed East Coast.
"What the MedIterranean Sea was to the Creeks, breakIng the bonds o! custom,
o!!erIng new experIences, caIIIng out new InstItutIons and actIvItIes, that, and
more, the ever retreatIng !rontIer has been to the UnIted States" (Turner, 18¤¤:}.
The quaIItIes o! IIberty and autonomy, as weII as those o! IntoIerance to Iaw,
order, and aII thIngs metropoIItan, were typIcaI o! attItudes that deveIoped In
IsoIated !rontIer !orts and settIements, to the extent that the open space o! the
!rontIer couId be decIared no Iess than "the conceptuaI terraIn o! repubIIcan
democracy." (NegrI and Hardt, 2ooo:168}. 8ut Turner's Iecture not onIy descrIbed, It
manu!actured the cuIturaI ImagInarIes and coherent narratIve that heIped to
sustaIn, ]ustI!y, and even ceIebrate expansIon at the expense o! natIve natIons.
8eyond the AmerIcan myth o! do-It-yourseI! !rontIer IndIvIduaIIty, !rontIer
coIonIzatIon IargeIy depended "on organIzed expansIon o! Iarge capItaIIst enter-
prIses and on urban ñnancIaI specuIatIon that !unded them," (HIrst, 2ooç:)8, 8a} as
weII as on organIzed mIIItary de!ense and new InstItutIonaI !orms.
;GDCI>:GK>DA:C8:
C! the )o recognIzed poIItIcaI conHIcts In the worId today, onIy sIx manI!est
themseIves as war between two or more sovereIgn states, whIIe at Ieast haI!
are carrIed on outsIde the ]urIdIcaI !ramework o! any sovereIgn power. In
!rontIer Iands, no ruIes o! conduct bInd the conHIctIng partIes. AII boundarIes
are provIsIonaI and permeabIe. A!ñIIatIons, enmItIes, and IoyaItIes are tempo-
rary. The vIoIence used to pacI!y !rontIers cannot be accommodated wIthIn the
IegaI !ramework o! the modern state. Murder and other crImes go unrecorded
and no truces are permanent. SInce the gradIent o! state-power dImInIshes
towards the perIphery, poIItIcaI InItIatIves shI!t !rom the InstItutIons o! the
center to those o! the edge. InhabItants o! the !rontIer thus exercIse strong
poIItIcaI Ieverage over "maInIand" poIItIcs, an InHuence o!ten mIsused by the
state ItseI!. CrItIcIzed !or theIr brutaIIty, coIonIaI powers have o!ten cIaImed
they Iacked e!!ectIve means to en!orce theIr own Iaws on the perIphery o! theIr
terrItorIes, or cIaIm that the crImInaI actIons carrIed out by theIr agents are
exceptIons that do not reHect the ruIe. C!ten, however, these powers proñt In
psychoIogIcaI e!!ect and/or terrItorIaI controI !rom the brutaI and IIIegaI "IocaI
InItIatIves" o! armed settIers or rough soIdIers, wIthout havIng to take respon-
sIbIIIty !or the Iatter's actIons. CoIonIzIng states may excuse what Is e!!ectIveIy
the ruIe as an exceptIon, and exceptIons as the ruIe. Covernments sometImes
create the atmosphere that aIIows certaIn crImes to take pIace.

When the
!rontIer seems to degenerate Into compIete IawIessness, It Is because Its
"organIzed chaos" Is o!ten generated !rom the center.
The perpetuatIon o! vIoIence Is deemed a necessary condItIon !or the pacI-
ñcatIon o! the !rontIer. ProvocatIon produces resIstance or counter-vIoIence
and thus the very ]ustIñcatIon !or !urther suspendIng due process or mIIItary
restraInt. A IegaI paradox Is thus created: states may suspend both natIonaI
and InternatIonaI Iaws, act In breach o! InternatIonaI conventIons wIthout any
InternatIonaI mandate, e!!ectIveIy creatIng a IawIess domaIn, yet crImInaIIze aII
acts o! resIstance agaInst It as IIIegaI. £rontIers o!!er a varIety o! zones o! IegaI
exceptIon where crIme and murder are possIbIe. AccordIngIy, AchIIIes Mbembe
descrIbes coIonIes as "zones In whIch war and dIsorder, InternaI and externaI
ñgures o! the poIItIcaI, stand sIde by sIde or aIternate wIth each other. As such,
the coIonIes are the IocatIon par exceIIence where the controIs and guarantees
o! ]udIcIaI order can be suspended-the zone where the vIoIence o! the state o!
exceptIon Is deemed to operate In the servIce o! 'cIvIIIzatIon'"(Mbembe, 2oo¤:1¤}.
The !ragmented !rontIer creates a shI!tIng IegaI geography o! exceptIon
posItIoned outsIde the condItIons o! modernIty and progress, or, usIng CIorgIo
Agamben's words, creates "zones o! IndIstInctIon" the edges o! whIch are
eIastIc, shI!tIng, and Incoherent. £or Agamben, temporarIness Is IntegraI to
the !unctIon o! the "state o! emergency" and the ruIes o! exceptIon. A "tempo-
rary" state o! emergency and/or appIIcatIon o! martIaI Iaw aIIow the !rontIer to
maIntaIn a IeveI o! IawIessness that wouId not be toIerated were they consId-
ered permanent. The sItuatIon wIII remaIn "temporary" as Iong as needed !or
vIctory to be achIeved, and !or the !rontIer to be domestIcated. CnIy then, can
the "cIosed o!!" !rontIer be endowed wIth the "normaI" Iaws o! the state. £rom
1¤th and earIy 2oth century "pacIñcatIon" to Iate 2oth century and earIy o! 21st
century "peace keepIng," !rontIers embody the temporary InstabIIIty o! the
"stabIIIty" to come.
£rontIer vIoIence Is never conñned to the actIons o! reguIar armIes or para-
mIIItary organIzatIons. StruggIe over Iand and habItat redeñne every act o! IIvIng,
settIIng, extractIng, harvestIng, or tradIng as vIoIence ItseI!. In the !rontIer zone,
the settIer Is a mIIItarIzed and armed cIvIIIan and mIIItary actIons and resIstance
are carrIed out In the mIdst o!, or agaInst, cIvIIIan popuIatIons. In a !rontIer
envIronment a dIstInctIon Is maIntaIned between two kInds o! IIves: modern and
prImItIve. NatIves have so o!ten been assocIated wIth the Iandscape, as noted
be!ore, that "when European men massacred [natIvesj they somehow were not
aware that they had commItted murder." (Mbembe, 2oo¤:2¤}
¤o
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The terrItorIaI archItecture o! the "war on terror" has pIaced the ImagInary
space o! the !rontIer at the !ore!ront o! gIobaI conscIousness, and extended Its
IegaI, socIaI, and mIIItary characterIstIcs across a new geopoIItIcaI constructIon
sIte. The mIIItarIzatIon o! gIobaI and IegaI In!rastructures have turned economIc
encIaves Into outposts and trade channeIs Into temporary aIIIances and mIIIta-
rIzed tra]ectorIes. A new gIobaI geography o! !ragments, mIcro-conHIcts, newIy
erected barrIers, and !ortIñcatIons can be !ound across thIs borderIess state o!
terrItorIaI ambIvaIence.
1 The Cder/NeIsse between Cermany and PoIand, the Amur/HeIIong ]Iang between RussIa and
ChIna, the ]ordan between IsraeI, the occupIed West 8ank, and the KIngdom o! ]ordan.
2 Roman !ortresses, the ChInese steppe-!orts, Crusaders' castIes, the !ortIñed settIements o! the
ConquIstadors, the 8rItIsh Ra]'s hIII statIons In Northern IndIa, £rench bIockhouses across the
VIetnamese and AIgerIan !rontIers, AmerIcan aIr bases on PacIñc or AtIantIc IsIands, the suburban
settIers' outposts on the West 8ank.
¤ The paved roads o! the Roman EmpIre, the mountaIn passes o! the Crusaders, the raIIway and the
teIegraph IInes o! the AmerIcan West, the bypass hIghways o! the West 8ank, the e!!ectIve routes
o! strategIc bombers !or the US AIr-!orce.
a AccordIng to IsraeII hIstorIan 8enny MorrIs, It onIy took DavId 8en CurIon makIng hIs wIshes !or
the expuIsIon o! the PaIestInIan popuIatIon known to ID£ (IsraeIIe De!ense £orces} top brass In
1¤a)-1¤a8 !or them to Iaunch Into actIon.
SeI ect ed 8I bI ography
ArIeIIa AzouIay and AdI CphIr, ßad Days (TeI AvIv: ResIIng Press, 2oo2}.
Zygmunt 8auman, "IIvIng (CccasIonaIIy DyIng} Together In an Urban WorId," In Cìtìes, War and
Terrorìsm, ed. Steven Craham (Cx!ord: 8IackweII Press, 2ooa}.
CIdeon 8Iger, Iand o| Many ßorders (8e'er Sheva: 8en CurIon UnIversIty Press, 2oo1}.
Steven Connor, "An AIr That KIIIs: A £amIIIar HIstory o! PoIson Cas." Paper deIIvered at the
"Death 8y TechnoIogy" con!erence, 8Irkbeck CoIIege, May ¤o, 2oo¤.
CIIIes DeIeuze and £eIIx CuattarI, A Thousand IIateaus, CapìtaIìsm and 8chìzophrenìa (New York
and Iondon: ContInuum 8ooks, 2ooa}.
HastIngs Donnan and Thomas M WIIson, ßorders: Irontìers o| Identìty, Natìon and 8tate (Cx!ord:
8erg PubIIshers, 1¤¤¤}.
£rantz £anon, The Wretched o| the £arth (Iondon: PenguIn books, 2oo¤}.
Derek Cregory, "DeñIed CItIes," 8ìngapore ]ournaI o| TropìcaI Ceography 2a, (¤} (2oo¤}.
Derek Cregory, The CoIonìaI Iresent, A|ghanìstan, IaIestìne, Iraq (Cx!ord: 8IackweII PubIIshIng,
2ooa}.
PauI HIrst, 8pace and Iower, IoIìtìcs, War and Archìtecture (Iondon: PoIIty Press, 2ooç}.
RIchard HowItt, "A NatIon In DIaIogue: RecognItIon, ReconcIIIatIon and IndIgenous RIghts In
AustraIIa," Hagar 2 (2oo1}.
Stephen Kern, The CuIture o| Tìme and 8pace, i88o-ioi8 (CambrIdge: Harvard UnIversIty Press:
2oo¤}.
ErIc IIchtbIau and ]ohn Marko!!, Accenture Is Awarded U.8. Contract Ior ßorders, New York TImes,
]une 2, 2ooa, http://www.nytImes.com.
AchIIIe Mbembe, "NecropoIItIcs," IubIìc CuIture: 1ç (1}, 2oo¤.
8enny MorrIs, The ßìrth o| the IaIestìnìan Re|ugee IrobIem, ioa/-ioao, (CambrIdge: CambrIdge
UnIversIty Press, 1¤8)}.
AntonIo NegrI and MIchaeI Hardt, £mpìre (CambrIdge: Harvard UnIversIty Press, 2ooo}.
MIchaeI SorkIn, "8ush In Space," In WorId Archìtects (serIes}, ed. EyaI WeIzman: Domus Magazìne,
December 2ooa.
£rederIck ] Turner, "The SIgnIñcance o! the £rontIer In AmerIcan HIstory," orIgInaIIy read at the
meetIng o! the AmerIcan HIstorIcaI AssocIatIon In ChIcago, ]uIy 12,18¤¤ and ñrst pubIIshed In the
Iroceedìngs o| the 8tate HìstorìcaI 8ocìety o| Wìsconsìn, December 18¤¤.
MartIn Warnke, IoIìtìcaI Iandscape, The Art Hìstory o| Nature (Iondon: ReaktIon 8ooks, 1¤¤a}.
EyaI WeIzman, Ines WeIzman, and AnseIm £ranke, "IsIands, the Ceography o! Extra-TerrItorIaIIty,"
Archìs MagazIne, December 2oo¤.
heVX^dX^YZ
SarI Hanañ
I=:HE68>D8>9:D;E6A:HI>C:
Compared to other coIonIaI and ethnIc conHIcts such as Rwanda-8urundI, SerbIa-
8osnIa, ect, the 1¤a8 war dId not, reIatIveIy speakIng, produce many casuaItIes.
The notIon o! aI-Nakba (the Catastrophe} Is based on re!ugeehood and the Ioss
o! Iand, rather than the Ioss o! II!e. Even a!ter ñve years o! IntI!ada, the number
o! vIctIms Is reIatIveIy Iow,

certaInIy I! compared to the sIx week kIIIIng ram-
page In Rwanda whIch saw some 8oo,ooo peopIe massacred. The IsraeII coIonIaI
pro]ect Is not a genocIdaI pro]ect but a "spacIo-cIdaI" one. In every conHIct,
beIIIgerents deñne theIr enemy and shape theIr mode o! actIon accordIngIy.
In the PaIestInIan-IsraeII conHIct, the IsraeII target Is the pIace. The ]erusaIem
Emergency CommIttee, a workIng group set up by ]erusaIem-based NCCs (non-
governmentaI organIzatIons} a!ter the AprII 2oo2 IsraeII InvasIon o! the West
8ank, reported on the systematIc destructIon o! pubIIc pIaces: aII but two PaI-
estInIan mInIstrIes and 6ç NCCs were partIaIIy or totaIIy destroyed. What was
strIkIng about thIs wanton destructIon was the vandaIIsm. To seIze documents
and computer hard drIves !rom the MInIstry o! EducatIon can be "understood"
wIthIn the !ramework o! a mIIItary quest !or In!ormatIon that wouId "prove" that
the PaIestInIan educatIonaI system "produced IncItement and engendered suIcIde
bombers," but why dId soIdIers aIso have to smash the computer screens and
tear apart the !urnIture?
DurIng the war years In the !ormer YugosIavIa, archItect 8ogdan 8ogdanovIch
was one o! the ñrst to coIn the term "urbIcIde" to descrIbe the destructIon o!
8aIkan cItIes. SerbIan natIonaIIsm romantIcIzed ruraI vIIIages, where a sIngIe
communIty spIrIt predomInated. The cIty, In thIs context, was a symboI o! com-
munaI and cuIturaI muItIpIIcIty, the antIthesIs o! the SerbIan IdeaI. In the PaIes-
tInIan occupIed terrItorIes, the entIre Iandscape has been targeted. The weapons
are not so much tanks, but buIIdozers that have destroyed streets, houses,
cars, and dunum a!ter dunum (1 dunum equaIs 1,ooo square meters} o! oIIve
groves. It Is a war In an age o! IIteraI agoraphobIa, the !ear o! space as artIcu-
Iated by ChrIstIan SaImon In 2oo2, seekIng not the dIvIsIon o! terrItory but Its
aboIItIon. A traII o! devastatIon stretches as !ar as the eye can see: a ]umbIe o!
demoIIshed buIIdIngs, IeveIed hIIIsIdes, and Hattened vegetatIon, both wIId and
cuItIvated. ThIs barrage o! damage has been wrought not onIy by the bombs o!
tradItIonaI war!are, but by IndustrIous, vIgorous destructIon, whIch has toppIed
¤2
l
¤¤
EncIaves
ExcIaves
propertIes IIke a vIcIous tax assessor. It Is "spacIocIde," not urbIcIde. It Is more
hoIIstIc, IncorporatIng "socIocIde" (targetIng PaIestInIan socIety as whoIe}

,
"economocIde" (hInderIng the movement o! peopIe and goods} and "poIItIcIde"
(destroyIng PaIestInIan NatIonaI AuthorIty (PNA} InstItutIons, and other physIcaI
embodIments o! natIonaI aspIratIons}

. The cIImax o! these poIIcIes so !ar, has
been the destructIon o! a thIrd o! the ]enIn Re!ugee Camp.

The IsraeII agenda In thIs IntI!ada (2ooo-2ooç} has been to Induce what one
IsraeII mInIster caIIed "voIuntary trans!er," I.e. get rId o! the PaIestInIan popuIa-
tIon by trans!ormIng the PaIestInIan topos to atopIa, by turnIng terrItory Into
mere Iand. It Is through spacIocIde that IsraeI Is preparIng such an exodus, and
sInce the IntI!ada began In 2ooo, some 1oo,ooo PaIestInIans have Ie!t the country
(¤.¤ % o! the PaIestInIan popuIatIon o! the West 8ank and Caza}.
PaIestInIans have been !orced to mIgrate InternaIIy as weII. In Hebron, !or
Instance, some ç,ooo peopIe (8ço !amIIIes} have Ie!t the CId CIty to neIghborIng
vIIIages because o! ]ewIsh settIer vIgIIantIsm and IsraeII army Imposed cur!ews.
House demoIItIons are another tactIc used to provoke trans!er. £rom Sep-
tember 2ooo to September 2ooç, )¤,ç6) housIng unIts In the West 8ank and Caza
were damaged and ),6¤¤ were compIeteIy destroyed.

And the numbers ]ust keep
cIImbIng. Trans!er Is aIso reaIIzed wIth the "denaturaIIzatIon" o! some 2oo,ooo
PaIestInIans trapped between IsraeI's West 8ank !ence/waII and the Creen IIne
(UN-admInIstered armIstIce IIne between IsraeI and ]ordan, 1¤a8-1¤6)}, who now
ñnd themseIves neIther In PaIestInIan terrItory nor In IsraeII terrItory, but rather
stateIess and space-Iess.
ThIs "spacIocIde" has been made possIbIe by the dIvIsIon o! the PaIestInIan
occupIed terrItorIes Into A, 8, 8-, 8+, C, H1, and H2 zones, whIch was a conse-
quence o! the CsIo Accords. In these "twIIIght" zones, PaIestInIan In!rastructuraI
deveIopment has been aImost ImpossIbIe, due to spatIaI !ragmentatIon, but aIso
to the !ragmentatIon o! the PaIestInIan poIItIcaI system. The PaIestInIan NatIonaI
AuthorIty (PNA}, !or exampIe, cannot ImpIement water reservoIr pro]ects !or
vIIIages In zones A or 8 I! the pIpeIIne passes through zone C. The pavIng o! a
new road between 8ethIehem and Hebron was haIted In 1¤¤¤ because IsraeI
dId not authorIze It to pass through zone C. There has been sIgnIñcant urban
deveIopment In zones A and 8, but these are aIways surrounded by IsraeII zones
o! controI, curtaIIIng the possIbIIItIes !or commercIaI, IndustrIaI, or resIdentIaI
expansIon-IncIudIng those pro]ects ñnanced by InternatIonaI agencIes.
I=:8=6G68I:G>HI>8HD;HE68>D8>9:
SpacIocIde Is a strategIc coIonIaI IdeoIogy appIIed In IsraeI/PaIestIne regardIess
o! the "peace process." Even a!ter the sIgnIng o! the CsIo Accords, the area o!
the settIements doubIed and the number o! settIers IIvIng In them trIpIed (!rom
12o,ooo to a¤o,ooo-IncIudIng East ]erusaIem}.
SpacIocIde Ignores and denIes the deveIopment needs o! the PaIestInIan com-
munIty. No reIIabIe IsraeII demographIc studIes have been conducted on the
PaIestInIan popuIatIon o! the occupIed terrItorIes. The onIy "soIId" studIes have
been those o! IsraeII anthropoIogIsts workIng on the hamuIa (cIan} system !or
surveIIIance and reguIatIon purposes.
SpacIocIde Is o! a three-dImensIonaI nature, as EyaI WeIzman has eIaborated
In "The PoIItIcs o! VertIcaIIty." CountIess unsettIed Issues regardIng underground
sewage, aquI!ers, water reservoIrs, tunneIs and brIdges, archaeoIogy, etc. pIIed
up on the IsraeII-PaIestInIan negotIatIng tabIe have made It cIear to the partIes
negotIatIng the "peace process" that a two-dImensIonaI soIutIon to the conHIct Is
untenabIe. The IsraeII approach has been to o!!er PaIestInIans IImIted sovereIgnty
on the ground, whIIe retaInIng controI o! the subsoII and the aIrspace. In other
words, creatIng a kInd o! sovereIgnty sandwIch: IsraeI-PaIestIne-IsraeI, across
the vertIcaI dImensIon. Peace technIcIans (the peopIe who are aIways drawIng
new maps !or new soIutIons} have arrIved at some !ar-!etched proposaIs !or
soIvIng the three dImensIonaI probIems o! InternatIonaI borders.
SpacIocIde shapes not onIy the pIace, but aIso Its boundarIes. IsraeII coIonIaI
practIces entaII the constant redrawIng o! borders, creatIng a new type o!
!rontIer: portabIe, porous, and hazy-a border In motIon I! you wIII. The border
desIgnates two spaces that are compIeteIy dI!!erent: PaIestInIan space and
settIement space. The IsraeII occupatIon determInes what wIII be IIIumInated
and what wIII remaIn In the dark; what wIII be rendered vIsIbIe or InvIsIbIe,
accessIbIe or InaccessIbIe.
SpacIocIde aIms to trans!orm the PaIestInIan occupIed terrItorIes Into 8an-
tustans, or noncontIguous encIaves or, In the words o! AdI CphIr and ArIeIIa
AzouIay, camps.

It Is InterestIng to note that In August 2ooa, the ID£ (IsraeII
De!ense £orces} presented the WorId 8ank wIth a pIan !or new roads, brIdges,
and tunneIs to be buIIt and utIIIzed by PaIestInIans and ñnanced by the Interna-
tIonaI organIzatIon. The ImpIIcatIon beIng that IsraeI Is no Ionger commItted to
a !uture PaIestInIan state wIth terrItorIaI contIguIty so much as transportatIonaI
contIguIty.
ThIs Is spacIocIde at the macro IeveI. CertaInIy !uture research shouId exam-
Ine how thIs kInd o! pIannIng !unctIons at the mIcro IeveIs, I.e. the InteractIon
between coIonIzer and coIonIzed, or: how socIaI actors resIst thIs pIannIng and
transgress these power structures.
8DADC>6A7>D"EDL:G!76G:A>;:!6C9I=:HI6I:D;:M8:EI>DC
How dId spacIocIde become possIbIe In the PaIestInIan occupIed terrItorIes? The
sovereIgn power, accordIng to CIorgIo Agamben, routIneIy dIstInguIshes between
those who are to be admItted Into "poIItIcaI II!e" and those who are to be excIuded
!rom It as the mute bearers o! "bare II!e." The process he descrIbes Is one In
whIch peopIe and bodIes are categorIzed In order to manage, controI, and monItor
them, reducIng them to a II!e whIch Is bare, I.e. to mere "vegetatIve" beIngs,
apart !rom the socIaI, poIItIcaI, and hIstorIcaI attrIbutes that constItute them
as IndIvIduaI sub]ects. And the task at hand Is the IdentIñcatIon o! mechanIsms
through whIch the state Is abIe to Insert ItseI! Into cItIzen/coIonIzed bodIes as a
measure o! sovereIgn power, enactIng specIñc !orms o! vIoIence by the ruIe o!
the exceptIon-through whIch sovereIgn power Is deñned-and turnIng aII II!e
and aII poIItIcaI struggIes Into battIes, once agaIn, over bare II!e. Such !orms o!
sovereIgnty can be !ound In the way coIonIaI powers manage bodIes accordIng to
coIonIaI and humanItarIan categorIes.
¤a
l
¤ç
EncIaves
ExcIaves
DeveIopIng MIcheI £oucauIt's expIoratIon o! bIopower, CIorgIo Agamben
demonstrates how sovereIgnty carrIes wIth It a "power over II!e" by ruIe o! excep-
tIon, I.e. beIng above the Iaw-as Its constItutIng !orce-but aIso sa!eguardIng Its
appIIcatIon. Agamben sees two modeIs o! power, a ]urIdIcaI one-!ocused on the
probIem o! the IegItImacy o! Western power (the probIem o! sovereIgnty}, and
a non]urIdIcaI one-centered around the probIem o! the e!!ectIveness o! West-
ern power. These two modeIs meet In the dImensIon o! exceptIon. The sovereIgn,
accordIng to CarI SchmItt, Is the one who may procIaIm the state o! exceptIon;
thIs person Is not characterIzed by the order that she or he InstItutes, but by the
suspensIon o! thIs order. ThIs temporary suspensIon becomes a new and stabIe
spatIaI arrangement InhabIted by the naked II!e (o! peopIe wIthout poIItIcaI rIghts}
that cannot be InscrIbed Into the order. The sovereIgn has the rIght to suspend the
vaIIdIty o! Iaw, a rIght that Is, o! course, not InscrIbed In the constItutIon.
£oucauIt contested tradItIonaI approaches to the probIem o! power, whIch
had been based excIusIveIy on ]urIdIcaI modeIs ("what IegItImIzes power?"}
or InstItutIonaI modeIs ("what Is the state?"}. He stressed the passage !rom a
"terrItorIaI state" to a "state o! Its popuIatIon" and the Increased promInence o! a
natIon's heaIth and bIoIogIcaI II!e as a probIem o! sovereIgn power. ThIs growIng
IncIusIon o! man's naturaI II!e Into the mechanIsms and caIcuIatIons o! power,
transIated, !or the ñrst tIme In hIstory, Into the possIbIIIty that power both pro-
tects II!e and authorIzes Its destructIon. In thIs vIew o! sovereIgnty, popuIatIons
are ob]ectIve matter to be admInIstered, rather than potentIaI sub]ects o! hIstorIcaI
or socIaI actIon. ThIs does not mean that sub]ects cannot emerge and resIst thIs
sovereIgnty, but that sovereIgnty attempts to reduce the sub]ectIve tra]ectorIes
o! IndIvIduaIs to bodIes. Thus, IndIstInct, dIspIaced, IocaIIzed, and coIonIzed bod-
Ies come to be cIassIñed and deñned as re!ugees, stateIess peopIe, resIdents o!
zones A, 8, 8-, 8+, C, H1, H2 (CsIo categorIes}, InhabItants o! areas In !ront o!
IsraeI's West 8ank !ence/waII, or behInd It, potentIaI terrorIsts (post-¤/11 catego-
rIes}, etc. PopuIatIons are assIgned dI!!erent statuses as IegaI sub]ects; IndIvIduaI
IIves are suspended In an ontoIogIcaI no-man's-Iand. The ob]ectIve o! thIs cIassI-
ñcatIon Is prImarIIy to excIude

and make possIbIe the spacIo-cIdaI pro]ect.
The poIItIcaI pro]ect o! the PaIestInIan peopIe (or the "poIItIcaI peopIe" to bor-
row Cerard 8ras' termInoIogy} Is trans!ormed Into a coIIectIon o! dIstInct sub-
groups who become antagonIsts In the pursuIt o! theIr own Interests vIs-a-vIs the
conHIct and Its possIbIe soIutIons: It Is In the Interest o! the PaIestInIan resIdents
o! ]erusaIem to stay outsIde the PaIestInIan natIonaI pro]ect, as IsraeI trans!orms
the occupIed terrItorIes Into 8antustans; the geographIcaI !ragmentatIon o! the
West 8ank and Caza create two (or more} dIstInct entItIes wIth dI!!erent popuIa-
tIons anImated by theIr own stereotypes and power struggIes; to say nothIng
o! the PaIestInIan cItIzens o! IsraeI or PaIestInIan re!ugees In the dIaspora. ThIs
process became possIbIe as the exercIse o! sovereIgn power (as actuaIIty but aIso
as potentIaIIty} created not onIy zones o! IndIstInctIon between the InsIde and
outsIde (o! the natIon, town, or home}, but penetrated the entIre poIItIcaI/socIaI
ñeId, trans!ormIng It Into a dIsIocated bIo-poIItIcaI space In whIch modern poIItIcaI
categorIes (e.g. IsIamIst/natIonaIIst, rIght/Ie!t, prIvate/pubIIc, dIctatorIaI/demo-
cratIc} are enterIng a post-poIItIcaI reaIm o! dIssoIutIon.
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8ut sovereIgnty does not work accordIng to one-way excIusIon. PaIestInIans
are excIuded !rom the recourse o! the Iaw, but remaIn sub]ect to It. TheIr IIves
are reguIated and restrIcted by IsraeII statutes and mIIItary orders whIch appIy
even to the prIvate spheres o! marrIage and chIIdren. PaIestInIan cItIzens o! IsraeI
can no Ionger marry theIr West 8ank and Caza kIn!oIk and compatrIots sInce a
recent IsraeII HIgh Court ruIIng IegItImated a 2oo¤ Iaw, barrIng "!amIIy reunIñca-
tIon" !rom "mIxed" coupIes. The case o! PaIestInIan ]erusaIemItes Is the epItome o!
excIusIon/IncIusIon: IncIuded by vIrtue o! the unIIateraI IsraeII annexatIon o! theIr
cIty and excIuded !rom munIcIpaI servIces, master pIans, and cIvII IIbertIes bIg and
smaII; they IIve In a segregated cIty In whIch they are resIdents, but not cItIzens.
The InternatIonaI communIty's InabIIIty to see IsraeI as a coIonIaI state stems
!rom the !act that Its democratIc practIces !or ]ewIsh cItIzens IIvIng In the State
o! IsraeI overshadow Its dIctatorIaI practIces !or the PaIestInIans IIvIng In the
state o! exceptIon: PaIestInIan cItIzens o! IsraeI; PaIestInIan ]erusaIemItes; PaI-
estInIan resIdents o! the dI!!erent zones o! the occupIed terrItorIes; PaIestInIan
re!ugees InsIde and outsIde the camps, InsIde and outsIde the country.
WIth thIs state o! exceptIon, IsraeI Is abIe to restrIct PaIestInIan resIdentIaI
constructIon In East ]erusaIem and then "IegaIIy" destroy houses buIIt wIthout a
permIt. WIth the same state o! exceptIon, PaIestInIan resIdentIaI constructIon In
the varIous zones o! the occupIed terrItorIes Is aIso constraIned. MIIItary order
a18, caIIed "Crder !or the PIannIng o! Towns, VIIIages and 8uIIdIngs (]udea and
SamarIa}," outIInes the requIrements !or obtaInIng buIIdIng permIts. ArtIcIe ),
caIIed "SpecIaI Powers," grants the HIgh PIannIng CouncII the power to "amend,
canceI or suspend !or a specIñed perIod the vaIIdIty o! any pIan or permIt; to
assume the powers aIIocated to any o! the commIttees mentIoned In artIcIe 2 and
ç; to grant any permIt whIch any o! the commIttees mentIoned In artIcIe 2 and
ç are empowered to grant [.j; to dIspense wIth the need !or any permIt whIch
the Iaw may requIre." (Coon, 1¤¤1:28o} In other words, the sovereIgn power can use
these exceptIons to annuI Its own reguIatIons.
ThIs Is a regIme o! exceptIon that renders conceIvabIe the Idea that In certaIn
"IegaI" cIrcumstances, It Is possIbIe to kIII wIthout ]udIcIaI InterventIon. It can
be saId that the PaIestInIan Is a homo sacer-one who, accordIng to Agamben,
may be kIIIed wIthout due process and wIthout the kIIIer beIng punIshed. IsraeI's
!requent extra-]udIcIaI kIIIIngs are made possIbIe because IsraeI exercIses Its
sovereIgnty In a manner that permIts It to kIII wIthout commIttIng homIcIde or
ceIebratIng a sacrIñce; It Is, rather, the actuaIIzatIon o! a "capacIty to be kIIIed"
Inherent In the condItIon o! the coIonIzed: the PaIestInIans. The InternatIonaI
communIty, wIth Its sIIence and/or tImId protestatIons, encourages IsraeI to
contInue In thIs veIn.

DurIng any number o! InvasIons o! PaIestInIan towns, the
IsraeII army has decIared the town a cIosed mIIItary zone, barrIng !oreIgners and
]ournaIIsts !rom accessIng It. In the regIme o! exceptIon, It Is Important to keep
the exceptIon InvIsIbIe. IsraeI and the UnIted States have InsIsted, sInce the sec-
ond year o! the current IntI!ada, on a ceaseñre rather than an end to occupatIon
makIng negotIatIons securIty-reIated rather than poIItIcaI.
IsraeI's "spacIocIde" Is enabIed through bIopoIItIcs, the sovereIgn's capacIty to
procIaIm the state o! exceptIon and en!orce a state o! suspensIon. However, the
¤8
l
¤¤
EncIaves
ExcIaves
coIonIzed do not take these mechanIsms IyIng down. They use vIoIent and non-
vIoIent modes o! resIstance, constructIng home and socIety, makIng themseIves
vIsIbIe, mobIIIzIng gIobaI movements. And PaIestInIan "voIuntary trans!er" has
Its IsraeII counterpart: IndIcators show IsraeI beIng "quIt" too, as the year 2oo¤
saw the Ieast ImmIgrants sInce 1¤)ç.
G:H>HI>C<I=:8DADC>6ADG9:G/I=:HJ7?:8I>K>IND;I=:
8DADC>O:9
8IopoIItIcs make spacIocIde possIbIe, and spacIocIde creates deterrItorIaIIzed
bodIes; PaIestInIans wIthout a pIace In terrItory, re!ugees wIthout Iand. SpacIocIde
Ieaves body wIthout space. Such bodIes, then, attempt to regaIn theIr sub]ectIvIty
by bIowIng hIm/herseI! up together wIth an enemy. SpacIo-cIdaI poIItIcs then
become suIcIdaI poIItIcs, where uprooted bodIes become bodIes ready to expIode.
The uprooted body Is a body wIthout reIatIonshIp to terrItory; It Is a body In orbIt,
a sateIIIte, an uncontroIIabIe and unsupervIsed ob]ect bound to take revenge.
In the unIpoIar and ImperIaIIst era under the hegemony o! the UnIted States,
revenge does not adhere to geographIcaI and poIItIcaI boundarIes but Is pIayed
out on a gIobaI stage. 8ut vIoIence Is not the onIy !orm o! resIstance. To counter
the IsraeII spacIo-cIdaI pro]ect, PaIestInIans transgress the regIme o! exceptIon by
constructIng theIr habItat wIthout permIts, even at the rIsk o! demoIItIon. A study
on PaIestInIan dIaspora Investment In the occupIed terrItorIes showed heavy Invest-
ment In constructIon. To gaIn a !oothoId In PaIestIne, some o! PaIestInIans IIvIng
abroad buy or buIId a "vacatIon" apartment or house. Cthers buIId !or theIr !amIIy
members In PaIestIne. The PaIestInIan CentraI 8ureau o! StatIstIcs conducted an
"ExIstIng 8uIIdIng Survey" and a study o! "ExpendIture and ConsumptIon IeveIs,"
estImatIng IndIvIduaI Investments !rom the dIaspora In prIvate constructIon In
PaIestIne at some S1)o mIIIIon In 1¤¤6 and some S2oo mIIIIon In 1¤¤).
E:GHE:8I>K:
8IopoIItIcs and the regIme o! exceptIon are reIn!orced, In the case o! IsraeII and
PaIestInIan actors, by the chaIn o! vIctImIzatIon. In a mIrror o! dIstorted perspec-
tIves and pro]ectIons, IsraeIIs see themseIves as The VIctIms, an exceptIonaIIty
stemmIng !rom the exceptIonaIIty o! the HoIocaust. PaIestInIans aIso see them-
seIves as the uItImate vIctIms (the Iast coIonIzed peopIe wIth the Iargest re!ugee
group In the Iongest unresoIved poIItIcaI conHIct} and construct thIs excep-
tIonaIIty begInnIng wIth aI-Nakba. In the same sense that IsraeII "spacIocIde"
Is In!ormed by the ZIonIst myth o! "a Iand wIthout peopIe !or a peopIe wIthout
Iand," PaIestInIan re!ugees nurture a dream o! a Iand wIthout re!ugees !or re!u-
gees wIthout a Iand. The PaIestInIan re!ugees o! the West 8ank and Caza, but
aIso o! the dIaspora, have greater attachment to the Iand o! PaIestIne than to the
peopIe o! PaIestIne. In IntervIews, they o!ten InsIst on taIkIng about property,
Iand, the MedIterranean Sea, aI-Aqsa Mosque, 8IrIm Church, but avoId the
questIon o! how they mIght IIve, and wIth whom.
I am not suggestIng that cooperatIon between PaIestInIan returnees and theIr
]ewIsh neIghbors Is ImpossIbIe, but that It Is necessary to thInk o! return not
onIy In terms o! geography but aIso In terms o! socIety.
1 As o! Cctober 2ooç, the ñgures are ¤,8¤1 PaIestInIan dead and 2¤,222 PaIestInIan In]ured;
1,o)a IsraeII dead and ),ç2o In]ured. £or PaIestInIan numbers see PaIestInIan CentraI 8ureau o!
StatIstIcs In www.pcbs.org/martyrs/IIst.aspx; !or IsraeII numbers see www.Id!.II/SIPSTCRACE/
DCVER/ñIes/)/2182).doc.
2 SocIocIde, a concept deveIoped by PaIestInIan poIItIcaI scIentIst SaIeh AbdeI ]awad, denotes poII-
cIes used by one poIItIcaI entIty !or the totaI destructIon o! another, not onIy as a poIItIcaI entIty,
but aIso as a socIety In aII Its dImensIons. The ñnaI ob]ectIve o! socIocIde Is the compIete repIacement
o! one socIety by another.
¤ £or Instance, the destructIon o! Caza Port as a symboI o! commercIaI autonomy, or the canceIIa-
tIon o! the PaIestInIan InternatIonaI phone code (¤)o}.
a The InvasIon o! thIs camp In AprII 2oo2 resuIted In the damagIng o! 1,8a6 homes, o! whIch 68o
were compIeteIy destroyed and 1,166 partIaIIy destroyed.
ç PaIestInIan 8ureau CentraI o! StatIstIcs, www.pcbs.org/martyrs/desta.aspx.
6 CommunIcatIon at the con!erence "The PoIItIcs o! HumanItarIanIsm," Van Ieer InstItute, March
2ooa.
) As Agamben noted, bIopoIItIcs Is the orIgInaI excIusIonary !unctIon o! Western poIItIcs.
8 CommunIcatIon by AdI CphIr at the Mada con!erence In Nazereth, 2oo¤
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
CIorgIo Agamben, Moyens sans hns. Notes sur Ia poIìtìque (ParIs, ÉdItIons Payot et RIvages, 1¤¤)}.
CIorgIo Agamben, Homo 8acer. 8overeìgn Iower and ßare Iì|e (Stand!ord: Stand!ord UnIversIty
Press, 1¤¤8}.
Meron 8envenIstI, "The West 8ank Data Pro]ect-A Survey o! IsraeI's PoIIcIes," (WashIngton:
AmerIcan EnterprIse InstItute !or PubIIc PoIIcy Research, 1¤8a}
Anthony Coon, Town IIannìng Under MìIìtary Cccupatìon: An £xamìnatìon o| the Iaw and Iractìce
o| Town IIannìng ìn the Cccupìed West ßank, (Dartmouth PubIIshIng Croup, 1¤¤2
MIcheI £oucauIt, Dìts et écrìts (ParIs: CaIIImard, 1¤¤a}.
Rema HammamI, SarI Hanañ, and EIIzabeth TayIor, "DestructIon o! PaIestInIan InstItutIons.
PreIImInary Report," AprII 1¤,2oo2, commIssIoned by ]erusaIem NCCs Network, ]erusaIem.
SarI Hanañ, "ContrIbutIon de Ia dIaspora paIestInIenne a I'economIe des TerrItoIres: InvestIssement
et phIIanthropIe" In Maghreb-Machrek 161 (November, 1¤¤8}.
SarI Hanañ, "Report on the DestructIon to PaIestInIan InstItutIons In NabIus and Cther CItIes
(Except RamaIIah}, Caused by ID£ £orces 8etween March 2¤ and AprII 21," 2oo2, http://www.
]mcc.org/new/o2/apr/destructIon.htm.
SarI Hanañ, "The Impact o! SocIaI CapItaI on the EventuaI RepatrIatIon Process o! Re!ugees. Study
o! EconomIc and SocIaI TransnatIonaI KInshIp Networks In PaIestIne/IsraeI," In £xìIe m Return.
Iredìcaments o| IaIestìnìans and ]ews, eds. Ann Iesch and Ian IustIck (PhIIadeIphIa: UnIversIty o!
PennsyIvanIa Press, 2ooç}.
SarI Hanañ and IInda Taber, Donors, InternatìonaI organìzatìons, IocaI NCCs. The £mergence o| the
IaIestìnìan CIobaIìzed £Iìte (RamaIIah: MuwatIn and InstItute !or ]erusaIem StudIes, 2ooç}.
SIna Na]añand and ]e!!rey Kastner, "The WaII and the Eye," Cabìnet Magazìne onIIne, (¤}, (WInter,
2oo2/o¤}.
MarIeIIa PandoIñ, "MoraI Entrepreneur, SouveraInete mouvemente et 8arbeIes. Ie bIo-poIItIque
dans Ies 8aIkans postcommunIstes," In AnthropoIogìe et 8ocìétés, numero specIaI, eds. M. PandoIñ,
and M. AbeIès, IoIìtìques jeux d'espaces, 26 (1}, (2oo2}.
ChrIstIan SaImon, "The 8uIIdozer War," Ie Monde DìpIomatìque (May, 2oo2}.
AnIta VItuIIo, "PeopIe TIed to PIace: StrengthenIng CuIturaI IdentIty In Hebron's CId CIty," ]ournaI
o| IaIestìne 8tudìes, ¤¤ (12¤}, £aII, 2oo¤.
EyaI WeIzman, "The PoIItIcs o! VertIcaIIty," www.opendemocracy.net.
1oo
l
1o1
EncIaves
ExcIaves
lVaaVcYidlZg
I=:BDA9D;>HG6:A>69G>@=6AJI
Sharon Rotbard
6G8=>I:8IJG:6C969G>@=6AJI
The ]ewIsh settIement pro]ect over the past century has gIven bIrth to two archI-
tecturaI tradItIons: Eretz IsraeII VgX]^iZXijgZ and IsraeII VYg^`]Vaji. Eretz IsraeII
archItecture re!ers to archItecture made by ]ews In Eretz IsraeI ("The Iand o! IsraeI,"
aka "PaIestIne"} be!ore the decIaratIon o! the State o! IsraeI. IsraeII VYg^`]Vaji Is
an archItecturaI tradItIon o! Hebrew-speakIng ]ews In the State o! IsraeI and the
PaIestInIan CccupIed TerrItorIes a!ter the decIaratIon o! the State o! IsraeI.
The dIstInctIon between these tradItIons Is chronoIogIcaI and poIItIcaI, but
aIso IInguIstIc: the evoIutIon !rom one to another requIred a sharp move !rom a
European archItecturaI cuIture to an Invented Hebrew one.
WhIIe the archItect, as AdoIph Ioos suggested, Is "a buIIder who Iearned
IatIn," the VYg^`]Va Is one who has !orgotten hIs !oreIgn mother tongue, but aIso,
does not aIways speak Hebrew properIy, eIther. And besIdes, Hebrew was stIII a
Ianguage In the makIng.
ApparentIy, archItecture and aYg^`]Vaji are synonymous, and thus used Inter-
changeabIy and sometImes sImuItaneousIy. Maybe that's why the TechnIon (IsraeI
InstItute o! TechnoIogy} In HaI!a !ashIons "archItects" and TeI AvIv UnIversIty
produces "VYg^`]Vah," and In addItIon to the hIstorIcaI UnIon o! IsraeII ArchItects
(UIA}, there Is today a new assocIatIon o! VYg^`]Vah (the In!amous IAUA}. DespIte
theIr !oreIgn orIgIns, I.e. Creek and AcadIan, and the !act that both can be !ound
In the Hebrew dIctIonary, VYg^`]Vaji Is used more commonIy nowadays and Is
perceIved as somehow more "Hebrew" than Its counterpart. InterestIngIy, the
meanIngs o! archItect and VYg^`]VI are quIte dI!!erent, reveaIIng two opposIng
conceptIons o! the roIe o! the archItect and hIs/her reIatIonshIp to physIcaI reaIIty:
whIIe the Creek VgX]^"iZXi re!ers to the proud "master o! tectonIcs," the AcadIan
VgY"]Z^`]Va denotes a humbIer roIe as the "sIave o! the paIace."
B6HI:GH6C9HA6K:H
The unIqueness o! the IsraeII condItIon Is reveaIed through the dIaIectIc between
master and sIave, between archItecture and VYg^`]aji. I! any pIanned physIcaI
reaIIty Is produced In three dImensIons: the poIItIcaI, the urban, and the archI-
tecturaI-archItecture Is no Iess poIItIcaI than It Is urban. NevertheIess, archItec-
ture's reIatIonshIp to poIItIcs depends on Its abIIIty to deñne ItseI! as an autono-
mous dIscIpIIne, to Impose Its own agenda and to reaIIze It physIcaIIy. WhIIe acts
o! modern archItecture were !ormuIated throughout the Western worId under
the IIIusIon o! autonomy and structured In a compIex reIatIonshIp between theory
and practIce, In IsraeI they were governed prImarIIy by poIItIcaI cIrcumstance
and sIgnIñcance. Compared to the Western archItecture that had the Iuxury o!
coverIng Its poIItIcaI tracks under books and manI!estos, In IsraeI It Is ImpossIbIe
to Ignore archItecture's sImpIe, concrete truths.
The most sIgnIñcant aspect o! both IsraeII tradItIons: archItecture and VYg^`]Vaji,
overt and covert, are theIr poIItIcaI dImensIons. In IsraeI, archItecture, ]ust IIke
war, Is a contInuatIon o! poIItIcs by other means. Every archItecturaI act executed
by ]ews In IsraeI Is a ZIonIst act, be It caIcuIated or not. The poIItIcaI program o!
"buIIdIng the Iand o! IsraeI" Is a !undamentaI component o! every buIIdIng In IsraeI,
and the poIItIcaI !acts they create are more domInant and concIusIve than any
styIIstIc, aesthetIc, experIentIaI, or sensuaI Impact they may have.
RenewaI, settIement, and constructIon o! the ]ewIsh State have been the
decIared ob]ectIves o! the ZIonIst movement, IncIudIng Its archItecturaI tradItIons.
The new archItecture, new house, and new town have been both sIte and means
!or reaIIzIng ]ewIsh settIement. 8uIIdIng Eretz IsraeI Is the centraI vaIue and
key metaphor o! the new natIonaI ethos: "We came to thIs Iand to buIId and be
buIIt!"-sang the pIoneers o! the 1¤2os. In IsraeI, buIIdIng Is an educatIonaI tooI,
an o!ñcIaI Ianguage, an IdeoIogy.
ThIs has dIctated to the Eretz IsraeI archItect, and even more so to the IsraeII
VYg^`]Va, a paradoxIcaI IIst o! prIorItIes, accordIng to whIch, poIItIcaI IdeoIogy and
archItecturaI theory merge, depend on each other, con!ront one another, hIde
and are hIdden !rom the other. Every practIcIng archItect In IsraeI Is con!ronted
wIth a sItuatIon whereIn dIstInctIve "archItecturaI" dIIemmas are In!used wIth
crItIcaI poIItIcaI ImpIIcatIons.
£rom Its InceptIon, the ZIonIst movement used modern archItecture to create
Its pIaces. It was a marrIage o! convenIence, as both sought a new pIace: the
!ormer needed one, and the Iatter strove to create one. As an extensIon o! the
European modern archItecturaI debate, Eretz IsraeII archItecture managed to
maIntaIn the appearance o! a normaI, Western, modern archItecturaI tradItIon.
Cne must remember that normaIIty, Westernness and modernIty have aIways
been the ZIonIst movement's most power!uI strategIc weapons.
SInce the decIaratIon o! the State o! IsraeI, archItecture has been openIy
mobIIIzed. The new Hebrew speakIng "natIve" tradItIon, IsraeII VYg^`]Vaji, had
to meet the poIItIcaI needs o! the tImes (conquer !rontIers, occupy terrItorIes,
dIstrIbute popuIatIons, house ImmIgrants} and, I! possIbIe, procIaIm ItseI! as
doIng so. IsraeII VYg^`]Vah at theIr best have been true servants o! the paIace,
servIng the ZIonIst pro]ect to varyIng degrees o! IntegrIty, humIIIty, dedIca-
tIon, and responsIbIIIty, as they trIed to enabIe poIItIcaI IdeoIogy to InñItrate
through archItecturaI !orms, and sImuItaneousIy enabIe archItecturaI doctrInes
to express themseIves through programs InspIred or dIctated by poIItIcs. The
archItecturaI dImensIon o! archItecture-that cuIturaI or spIrItuaI aura o! the
buIIt ob]ect and the surpIus vaIue o! the buIIdIng act-served at Its best as a mere
accessory, and at Its worst as pure camouHage.
1o2
l
1o¤
EncIaves
ExcIaves
HavIng !orsaken the wouId-be unIversaI vIewpoInt heId by Western archItects
(and Eretz IsraeII archItects} rooted In the dIaIectIcs o! theory and practIce,
IsraeII VYg^`]Vaji Is rooted In the dIaIectIcs o! poIItIcs and archItecture; thIs Is
where Its dIIemmas, bIInd spots, and paradoxes are to be !ound. IsraeII VYg^`]Vaji
produces ImpressIve archItecturaI ob]ects but Iacks a crItIcaI, comprehensIve
vIew o! ItseI!; mobIIIzed by poIItIcaI IdeoIogIes, It sets !acts In concrete that are
InherentIy poIItIcaI, but Iack poIItIcaI awareness.
I=:H:IIA:B:CID;;:CH>K:
AIthough dated !rom the perIod o! the Eretz
IsraeII archItecturaI tradItIon, the =dbVJb^\YVa
("WaII and Tower"} settIements o! the 1¤¤os were
a ñrst expressIon o! a ]ewIsh natIve archItecturaI
tradItIon, I.e. VYg^`]Vaji. As an archItecturaI phe-
nomenon InItIated and executed aImost entIreIy
"wIthout archItects" In the servIce o! poIItIcaI
ob]ectIves, WaII and Tower was a true reaIIzatIon
o! the concept o! VYg^`]Vaji, and certaInIy a dIrect
response to the demands o! the paIace.
WaII and Tower responded to the "Creat Arab
RevoIt" that erupted In PaIestIne/Eretz IsraeI In
AprII 1¤¤6. The revoIt began wIth rIots In ]a!!a
(nIne ]ews were kIIIed and dozens more wound-
ed
³
}, !oIIowed by a generaI strIke. It IncIuded
economIc measures such as a commercIaI
boycott and a ban on Iand saIes to ]ews, as weII
as organIzed armed struggIe. The "Creat Arab
RevoIt" was the ñrst mass-based reactIon on the part o! the PaIestInIan popuIa-
tIon to the ZIonIst settIement pro]ect, and certaInIy the ñrst broad-based organ-
Ized poIItIcaI expressIon o! a new PaIestInIan IdentIty. £or the ]ewIsh popuIatIon,
and especIaIIy the ZIonIst organIzatIon the revoIt o!!ered a goIden opportunIty
to devastate the PaIestInIan economy and acceIerate the estabIIshment o! a ]ew-
Ish State. £acIng PaIestInIan resIstance to ]ewIsh settIement In ruraI areas, and
growIng dI!ñcuItIes In the purchase o! Iands, the ZIonIst organIzatIons eIaborated
a coordInated strategy o! "settIement o!!ensIve" throughout the country. The Idea
was to estabIIsh, In the shortest tIme possIbIe, a chaIn o! new settIements that
wouId create a ]ewIsh contInuum and deñne the !uture borders o! the state. ThIs
contInuum took the shape o! the Ietter "N" !rom the ]ordan VaIIey In the north,
to the 8eIt Shaan VaIIey, to the ]ezreeI VaIIey, through the coastaI pIane, to the
Negev desert In the south.
³
In thIs settIement o!!ensIve the maIn tactIcaI tooI
was Homa uMIgdaI-WaII and Tower.
L6AA6C9IDL:G
WaII and Tower Is a seemIngIy de!ensIve, but In !act o!!ensIve, system o! settIe-
ment Invented In 1¤¤6 by members o! kIbbutz TeI AmaI (today kIbbutz NIr Dav-
Id-a kIbbutz [pIuraI kIbbutzImj Is an agrIcuIturaI coIIectIve !ound In IsraeI} In the
VoIunteers on theIr way to
estabIIsh the EIn Cev kIbbutz
at the Sea o! CaIIIee (photo:
ZoItan KIuger, 1¤¤)}
8uIIdIng the ñrst hut at the
EIn Cev kIbbutz
(photo by ZoItan KIuger, 1¤¤)}
8eIt Shaan vaIIey. The InventIon, attrIbuted to ShIomo Cur,
³
was deveIoped by
archItect Yohanan Ratner.
ª
£rom the start, the ob]ectIve o! thIs !ortIñed communaI
settIement was to seIze controI o! Iand that had been purchased by the ]ewIsh
NatIonaI £und (]N£}
³
but couId not be settIed.
The system was based on the hasty constructIon o! a waII made o! pre!ab-
rIcated wooden moIds ñIIed wIth graveI and surrounded by barbed wIre. AII In
aII, the encIosed space !ormed a ¤ç F ¤ç meter yard. WIthIn thIs encIosure, a
pre!abrIcated wooden tower was erected !rom whIch It was possIbIe to vIew
the surroundIng area. £our shacks housed a "conquerIng troop" o! ao peopIe.
8etween the years 1¤¤6 and 1¤¤¤, some ç) such outposts were estabIIshed
throughout the country and rapIdIy deveIoped Into permanent coIIectIve settIe-
ments o! the kIbbutz and moshav type.
The WaII and Tower settIement had to meet severaI tactIcaI condItIons: It
had to be pIanned so It couId be constructed In one day, and Iater, In one nIght;
It couId protect ItseI! Iong enough !or backup support to arrIve; It couId be vIsIbIe
to other settIements and accessIbIe by motor vehIcIe.
I:A6B6A
The ñrst WaII and Tower outpost was estab-
IIshed at the sIte that Iater became kIbbutz TeI
AmaI In the ]ezreeI VaIIey. The kIbbutz mem-
bers, who ñrst !ormed a coIIectIve In TeI AvIv,
were searchIng !or Iand upon whIch to settIe.
When severaI o! them arrIved at kIbbutz 8eIt
AI!a, they understood that the members o!
that kIbbutz wanted to estabIIsh another set-
tIement east o! theIr own, where there was a
Iarge 8edouIn encampment, so It wouId not
be the most remote settIement In the area.
AIthough the Iand surroundIng kIbbutz 8eIt
AI!a had been bought by the ]N£, !rom Arab
owners In 8eIrut, It was used by 8edouIns as
pastures In wInter. The members o! kIbbutz
TeI AmaI set up camp near 8eIt AI!a and began
to cuItIvate the Iand. WIth the outbreak o! the
Arab RevoIt In 1¤¤6, theIr settIement attempts
were thwarted when the 8edouIns set ñre to
theIr camp. ThIs attack Ied the TeI AmaI group to InItIate, together wIth the
resIdents o! 8eIt AI!a and other nearby settIements, new means o! de!ense
agaInst the 8edouIns, who were saId to be armed wIth 8rItIsh rIHes. A !ormu-
Ia was devIsed !or the constructIon o! !our shacks surrounded by sandbags.
ThIs soon deveIoped Into doubIe waIIs ñIIed wIth graveI up to the wIndows
and observatIon posts.
ThIs desIgn raIsed two ob]ectIons: that It wouId not provIde su!ñcIent
de!ense between the huts, and that the waIIs wouId not wIthstand the pres-
sure o! the graveI. A!ter !urther caIcuIatIons, It became cIear that wIth IIttIe
PuttIng up the tower at the
]oInt WaII and Tower SettIe-
ment o! kIbbutz Massada and
kIbbutz HaCoIan Shaar In the
]ordan VaIIey (photo: ZoItan
KIuger, 1¤¤)}
TeI AmaIk kIbbutz In the 8eIt
Shaan VaIIey
(photo by ZoItan KIuger, 1¤¤)}
1oa
l
1oç
EncIaves
ExcIaves
addItIonaI cost It mIght be possIbIe to surround the huts wIth a yard, and
around the yard buIId a waII wIth an observatIon tower and a IIght pro]ector.
ShIomo Cur consuIted Yohanan Ratner, and returned wIth a dra!ted pIan !or a
rectanguIar waII wIth !our de!ensIve posItIons at Its corners. The proposaI was
submItted to the RegIonaI CommIttee, whIch accepted It, decIarIng a new era o!
!ortIñed waIIs.
£oIIowIng the success o! the TeI AmaI experIment, WaII and Tower operatIons
were executed throughout the country, "sometImes seven outposts In a sIngIe
nIght," recounted Cur (AzouIay, 2ooo:2)-¤ç}, who partIcIpated In the organIzatIon o!
some ço such operatIons. These nocturnaI mIssIons were aIways reIn!orced by
nearby settIements, and coordInated by the ZIonIst IeadershIp.
HJHI6>C67A:D88JE6I>DC
The hIstorIcaI Importance o! the settIement o!!ensIve and WaII and Tower was
Immense: there Is no doubt that wIthout those ç) WaII and Tower outposts
spread strategIcaIIy throughout the CaIIIee, the ]ordan VaIIey, the ]ezreeI VaIIey,
and the Negev, the !ate o! the State o! IsraeI In 1¤a8 wouId have been entIreIy
dI!!erent. The WaII and Tower outposts set aIong the "N" scheme conñgured the
borders o! the State o! IsraeI untII 1¤6), and shaped Its onIy consensuaI outIIne.
The success o! the settIement o!!ensIve deñned state strategy In the years
to come. SettIement has became one o! the IsraeII De!ense £orces' (ID£'s} maIn
mIssIons, and soon a!ter Its !ormatIon In 1¤a8, 8en CurIon created a specIaI
mIIItary unIt, the NAHAI (acronym !or "PIoneerIng £IghtIng Youth"}, whIch
combInes combat and settIement actIvItIes. As he expIaIned the NAHAI's purpose
to Its soIdIers In the unIt's InauguraI parade: "not wIth sIIent stone !ortIñca-
tIons but wIth Iabor and the creatIon o! a IIvIng human waII-the onIy waII that Is
abIe to resIst the enemy's weaponry. The onIy sustaInabIe occupatIon resIdes In
buIIdIng." (8en CurIon, 1¤86:1oa}.
=>HIDGN
WaII and Tower hoIds a mythIcaI pIace In IsraeII hIstory. NonetheIess, despIte Its
potent symboIIsm o! sacrIñce, dedIcatIon and heroIsm so centraI to the cIvIc edu-
catIon o! every IsraeII ]ew, and Its current and tragIc reIncarnatIon In the separa-
tIon !ence/waII, WaII and Tower Is conspIcuousIy absent !rom the IsraeII archItec-
turaI canon, whIch has busIed ItseI! In the Iast decade wIth !abrIcatIng a dubIous
narratIve about the "WhIte CIty" o! TeI AvIv's so-caIIed "8auhaus" styIe. WhIIe
makIng every possIbIe e!!ort to canonIze the IsraeII versIon o! the InternatIonaI
StyIe, IsraeII VYg^`]Vaji has Ignored not onIy one o! the most archItectonIcaIIy
unIque phenomena o! the 1¤¤os-and the onIy one reIevant to the poIItIco-spatIaI
sItuatIon today-but aIso the soIe IocaI archItecturaI phenomenon that receIved
InternatIonaI recognItIon In the 1¤¤os themseIves.
It Is there!ore not surprIsIng that In 1¤¤), one year a!ter the estabIIshment o!
kIbbutz TeI AmaI, a modeI o! WaII and Tower was chosen !or the PaIestIne-Eretz
IsraeI PavIIIon at the WorId ExposItIon In ParIs-the expo remembered In archItec-
turaI hIstory as the one that garnered the goId medaI !or AIbert Speer's Cerman
PavIIIon.
DMNBDGDC
WaII and Tower expresses the characterIstIcs and dIIemmas o! the IsraeII buIIt
envIronment, reveaIIng the tensIons between Its ImpuIses and InternaI contra-
dIctIons. It Is the sIte o! aII IsraeII oxymorons: "o!!ense through de!ense," "IntrusIve
sIege," "the camp as home," "Introverted expansIon," "permanent temporaIIty,"
"house-arrest." The ñgure o! the oxymoron Is stamped In the genetIc code o! the
ZIonIst pro]ect and has accompanIed It sInce Theodor HerzI wrote the noveI AIt-
neuIand ("The CId-New Iand"}, transIated Into Hebrew (the IIvIng dead Ianguage}
sImpIy as "TeI AvIv."
ª
Perhaps the greatest oxymoron o! aII Is the notIon o! IsraeI
as a "DemocratIc ]ewIsh State."
EGD<G6B
As metaphor !or the IsraeII practIce o! [V^iVXXdbea^, WaII and Tower Is paradIg-
matIc o! aII ]ewIsh archItecture In IsraeI, germInatIng the program and moId o!
IsraeII VYg^`]Vajt, I.e. Its !uture characterIstIcs across the board: hasty transIatIon
o! poIItIcaI agendas Into acts o! constructIon; occupatIon o! terrItory (sur!aces}
through settIement (poInts} and In!rastructure (IInes}; prIorItIzIng the securIty
!unctIons and mIIItary capabIIItIes (both de!ensIve and o!!ensIve} o! buIIdIngs;
and the In!ormed use o! modernIty-organIzatIon, admInIstratIon, pre!abrIcatIon,
IogIstIcs, and communIcatIon.
As tIme went by and new settIements were estabIIshed usIng more sophIs-
tIcated means, the two essentIaI !unctIons o! WaII and Tower-!ortIñcatIon and
observatIon-heId !ast and repIIcated themseIves on every scaIe. They dIctated
the IocatIon o! new settIements on mountaIn and hIII tops and the technoIogIcaI
e!!orts o! the IsraeII space program (sateIIItes, etc.}. They contoured the Iand-
scape as a network o! poInts, as an autonomous Iayer spread over an exIstIng
Iandscape, trans!ormIng the country by dIvIdIng It not accordIng to naturaI,
terrItorIaI, and cadastraI dIvIsIons, but accordIng to dromoIogIcaI dIvIsIons, such
as transportatIon speed and In!rastructure IInes. Thus, In the occupIed terrItorIes
today we ñnd two superImposed countrIes: "]udea and SamarIa" above-the Iand
o! settIements and mIIItary outposts, !our-Iane bypass roads, brIdges, and tunneIs;
and "PaIestIne" beneath-the Iand o! vIIIages and towns, pot-hoIed roads, and dIrt
paths. UItImateIy, WaII and Tower had a decIsIve e!!ect on the way IsraeIIs perceIve
the space In whIch they IIve, whIch In turn maps out theIr vaIues: observers vs.
observed, CartesIan ghetto vs. chaotIc perIphery, threatened cuIture vs. "desert
makers" (In the words o! 8en CurIon}, cIty vs. !rontIer, past and !uture vs.
present, ]ews vs. Arabs.
The combInatIon between hasty settIement through mIIItary or paramIIItary
means In cIvIIIan camouHage, the secIusIon o! an IdeoIogIcaIIy homogenous
communIty behInd !ortIñed waIIs, and the panoptIcaI observatIon o! the sur-
roundIng area has repIIcated ItseI! countIess tImes and In countIess !orms
sInce the ñrst days o! WaII and Tower. The "settIement poInt" system has been
Integrated Into natIonaI master pIans throughout IsraeI's hIstory, such as the
pIan drawn up In the 1¤)os !or the ]udaIzatIon o! the CaIIIee, and In the current
"spontaneous" expansIon o! IsraeII settIements In the occupIed terrItorIes.
Throughout, IdeoIogIcaI and socIaI homogeneIty has been IargeIy maIntaIned-
1o6
l
1o)
EncIaves
ExcIaves
be It through an exIstIng core o! !ounders or through mechanIsms that ñIter
new resIdents accordIng to IdeoIogIcaI, socIaI, and economIc crIterIa. Whatever
the reasons !or homogeneIty, the repetItIon o! thIs settIement pattern, In whIch
there Is congruence between geographIc IocatIon and socIaI status, IdeoIogy and
ethnIc IdentIty, It has been one o! the most promInent characterIstIcs o! the
IsraeII buIIt Iandscape.
I=:L6AA
AIthough the state o! IsraeI has never had ñxed recognIzed borders, It has con-
tInuousIy toyed wIth them In Its attempts to deñne ItseI! geographIcaIIy and
socIaIIy. The hIstory o! IsraeI Is repIete wIth pIans detaIIIng possIbIe borderIIne
scenarIos. The map o! the State o! IsraeI Is IIke a paIImpsest bearIng dI!!erent
traces o! thIs quest: the 1¤a) UN partItIon IIne, the 1¤a¤ armIstIce green IIne
(UN-admInIstered armIstIce IIne between IsraeI and ]ordan, 1¤a8-1¤6)}, the
1¤6) cease ñre purpIe IIne, the 1¤)a !orces' separatIon bIue IIne, the varIous CsIo
"peace" boundarIes. The physIcaI expressIon o! these borderIInes vary !rom the
barbed wIre o! ]erusaIem's demarcatIon IIne, to the "£atIma Cate" o! the "Cood
£ence",
'
!rom the bunkers o! the "8ar Iev IIne"
ª
to the eIectronIc separatIon
!ence/waII under constructIon today In the West 8ank. A sImIIarIy desperate
quest !or borders, IImIts, and partItIons can be seen on any number o! scaIes
throughout o! the IsraeII Iandscape and buIIt envIronment. I! the phenomena
o! gated communItIes Is reIatIveIy new to most Western socIetIes, In IsraeI It
Is quIte normaI to ñnd kIbbutzIm, moshavIm (a moshav [pIuraI moshavImj Is a
cooperatIve agrIcuIturaI settIement}, suburbs, towns, and cItIes surrounded wIth
a physIcaI borderIIne: waIIs, chaIn-IInk !ences, barbed wIre, not to mentIon the
Eruv borderIIne deñnIng the IImIts o! the Sabbath zone.
°
Much has been saId and wrItten about the IInk between externaI threats on
the State o! IsraeI, reaI or ImagIned, and the !ormatIon o! socIaI cohesIon and
natIonaI unIty. In WaII and Tower, we see exactIy how thIs IInk Is estabIIshed:
the prIorItIes o! WaII and Tower outposts stIpuIated that ñrst the waII was to
be buIIt, then the observatIon poInt, and Iater the houses. In contraventIon o!
Its expansIonIst ambItIons, the WaII served to perpetuate the resIdents' ghetto
mentaIIty and ImpuIse !or encIosure. SecIusIon wIthIn the waII separates the set-
tIement !rom Its envIronment and deñnes the new communIty not onIy as those
who choose to IIve "InsIde," but aIso as those who are under threat !rom "outsIde."
ShIomo Cur hImseI! admItted that one o! the reasons TeI AmaI searched !or Iand
upon whIch to settIe, was In order to keep the coIIectIve !rom dIsmantIIng.

I=:ED>CI
As a strategy, WaII and Tower reaIIzed the drIve !or terrItorIaI expansIon and
conquest by estabIIshIng new "settIement poInts," suggestIng that the "poInt"
on the map was more Important than the "settIement" It denoted; that Is, the
IocatIon o! the settIement had more Importance than Its actuaI exIstence. In
WaII and Tower, the settIement poInt on the map was a poInt wIthIn a stra-
tegIc network o! poInts, and Its pIacement was determIned by an optImaI van-
tage poInt. The network was spread In such a way, so that every outpost had
eye contact wIth another, enabIIng the Towers to transmIt messages through
Morse code usIng HashIIghts by nIght and mIrrors by day. The settIement poInt
was ñrst and !oremost an observatIon poInt: erectIng the Tower was the poInt
In whoIe.
I=:IDL:G
The Tower was the spearhead o! IndustrIaIIzatIon and modernIty not onIy due
to Its IogIstIcaI and technoIogIcaI characterIstIcs, but because It trans!ormed the
envIronment Into the ob]ect o! IndustrIaI and InstrumentaI scrutIny. The vantage
poInt had Its own accompanyIng technoIogIes, such as bInocuIars and IIght pro-
]ectors, and was organIzed as a systematIc pro]ect to be managed and manned.
8eyond the mIIItary ImpIIcatIons o! the vantage poInt, or to borrow !rom PauI
VIrIIIo, I see there!ore I kIII, the panoptIc observatIon o! the "tower"
³º
deter-
mIned the power reIatIons between the WaII and Tower settIements and theIr
surroundIngs even be!ore the Iand was cuItIvated and Its agrIcuIturaI economIc
expIoItatIon commenced.
As an InItIatIve Intended to organIze the IogIstIcs o! the gaze, WaII and Tower
trans!ormed, IIteraIIy !rom one day to the next, the terrItory It occupIed. HenrI
Ie!ebvre characterIzed agrarIan tIme and space as a heterogeneous combInatIon
o! varIabIes such as cIImate, !auna and Hora, whIIe cIaImIng that IndustrIaIIzed
tIme and space tends towards homogeneIty and unIty. DespIte the !act that the
WaII and Tower outposts were erected In estabIIshed agrarIan regIons, the organ-
Ized observatIon poInts were su!ñcIent !or trans!ormIng these terrItorIes Into
IndustrIaIIzed spaces. A !ew such panoptIc observatIon posts had the power to
unI!y an entIre agrarIan regIon and eradIcate, through one strategIc threat, the
compIex economIc and cuIturaI dI!!erences that dIstInguIshed Arab nomads !rom
!armers !rom urbanItes In 1¤¤os PaIestIne. The very InstrumentaIIzatIon o! the
terrItory wIth a gaze, Invested the Iandscape wIth scenarIos and schemes, threats
and dangers, In!usIng pIaces and ob]ects wIth tactIcaI possIbIIItIes, sItuatIng them
wIthIn a strategy, and unI!yIng them Into one "poIItIcaI" space-to use Ie!ebvre's
terms.
³³
WaII and Tower trans!ormed the Iandscape Into a battIeñeId, a scene o!
conHIcts, a !rontIer-In other words, Into a cIty.
I=:86BE6C9I=:9DB6>C
As an aImost dImensIonIess poInt In space, WaII and Tower Is more o! an optIcaI
Instrument than a pIace-an aII-seeIng eye that cannot see ItseI!. NevertheIess,
wIth Its waII, Its tower, and Its !our shacks, WaII and Tower Is a rough dra!t o!
a pIace. DespIte Its resembIance to European medIevaI urban Imagery, WaII and
Tower paInts In a most vIvId manner the concrete scheme o! the IsraeII pIace:
the camp and the domaIn.
The camp and the domaIn dIvIdes the terrItory Into two maIn !unctIons-
Iands to be settIed and Iands to be expIoIted. ThIs dIvIsIon has shaped the
IsraeII attItude toward terrItory; the mIIItary IogIc at the basIs o! the terrItorIaI
reIatIonshIp between the camp and the domaIn can be IIkened to the economIc
IogIc that dIstInguIshes the urban !rom the ruraI eIsewhere. The concrete trans-
IatIon o! the camp and the domaIn on the ground, be It In the !orm o! a kIbbutz
1o8
l
1o¤
EncIaves
ExcIaves
or a moshav, Imposed archItecturaI soIutIons where the camp Is perceIved
as a unIñed, coherent entIty surrounded by a vast unbuIIt domaIn, cuItIvated
coIIectIveIy (In the kIbbutz}, or separateIy (In the moshav}. Above aII, thIs
dIvIsIon, characterIstIc o! ruraI settIements, underIIes one o! IsraeI's greatest
socIaI In]ustIces: unIIke Western countrIes, where the socIoeconomIc structure
Is based on socIaI tradItIon (Europe} or economIc practIce (USA}, the IsraeII
cIass system has been based on the dIstrIbutIon o! the country's most precIous
resource-Iand. In thIs sense, the settIer may ñnd hIm or herseI! at the heIght
o! the socIaI Iadder. I! In the ñrst years o! the State hIs or her prestIge was
mereIy poIItIcaI and symboIIc, It was soon enough transIated In materIaI terms.
Even today, the questIon o! the domaIn-who owns It, and what to do wIth
It-seems no Iess compIex and probIematIc than the questIon o! IsraeII borders,
and Is cause !or much pubIIc debate.
86BE
"The camp Is your home-guard It weII." ThIs sIogan, posted on countIess IsraeII
army bases, can be seen as the essence o! the settIement program. I! the camp
Is home, and I! It must be guarded, the !ate o! the camp's resIdents Is to become
prIsoners o! theIr own gaze.
The settIement e!!ort InvoIved a serIes o! tasks, some o! whIch were mIIItary
and tactIcaI, whIIe others were cIvIIIan and strategIc. ThIs duaIIty !ound expres-
sIon In sIogans such as "one hand on the pIough, the other hand on the sword."
DespIte the !requent use o! mIIItary means, a cIvIIIan appearance has aIways
been maIntaIned, and Is stIII one o! the ZIonIst enterprIse's maIn ob]ectIves. ThIs
Is why WaII and Tower, and Iater other !orms o! settIement, Ie!t the status o! the
pIace and Its resIdents In doubt. In every type o! poIItIcaIIy motIvated settIement
enterprIse, be It InstItutIonaIIy sanctIoned or not, there Is a mIxture o! a cIvIIIan
and a mIIItary operatIon; a mIIItary operatIon In cIvIIIan cIothIng; enIIsted cIvIIIans
under army patronage.
"CIvIIIanIzatIon" Is the trans!ormatIon o! the soIdIer Into the pIoneer-who Is
abIe, I! need be, to change cIothes and trans!orm back Into a soIdIer at any tIme.
The trans!ormatIon o! the camp Into a home Is the trans!ormatIon o! the para-
mIIItary outpost Into a permanent settIement. ThIs Is why wouId-be normaIcy, a
routIne o! cIvIIIan II!e, has aIways depended on a mIIItary presence, whIch In the
Iong run, taxes coIIectIve resources !ar more than the act o! settIement ItseI!. In
IsraeI, the mundane Is a strategIc weapon.
IGD?6C=DGH:H
WaII and Tower spawned an orIgInaI tradItIon o! IocaI Tro]an horses, Instruments
o! InñItratIon and other types o! ambuIatory, temporary, poIItIcaI, and hyperactIve
ob]ects: the tent In the outpost and the mobIIe home In the settIements. These
banaI ob]ects are ostentatIous not because o! how they Iook, but because o! theIr
potentIaI !or mobIIIty, expansIon, and trans!ormatIon; because they threaten
to change the temporary Into the daIIy, the daIIy Into the permanent and the
permanent Into the eternaI; because o! how they can turn the Iandscape Into an
arena o! struggIe.
I=:HE:8I68A:
There Is no doubt that the appearance o! new settIements was a spectacuIar
event, an act o! creatIng somethIng !rom nothIng, a spectacIe o! IIght
³³
-tracIng
the tra]ectorIes o! buIIets and the echoes o! expIosIons, both nIght and day.
ShIomo Cur saw In WaII and Tower a prosaIc answer to the probIems o! set-
tIement. In an IntervIew wIth ArIeIIa AzouIay, he cIaImed to be IndI!!erent to
theIr vIsuaI e!!ect. The readIng o!!ered here wouId be aIIen not onIy to the axI-
omatIc perceptIon he had o! hIs system, but aIso to hIs sense o! seI! as a "man o!
actIon." Cn the other hand, It Is dI!ñcuIt to Ignore the sImpIe !act that In many
WaII and Tower settIement operatIons, Cur was accompanIed by photographer
ZoItan KIuger and hIs team !rom the CrIentaI Photography Company, and
KIuger's wages were paId !or by The UnIted IsraeI AppeaI.
The WaII and Tower settIements o! EIn-Cev and Massada/Shaar HaCoIan, !or
exampIe, were the sub]ect and IocatIon o! the ñrst Hebrew TechnIcoIor ñIm shot
In PaIestIne/Eretz-IsraeI: "SprIng In CaIIIee" dIrected by E!raIm IIsch (1¤ mInutes,
1¤¤¤} and produced by the ]N£. SImIIarIy, the ]N£ supported and promoted the
ñrst Hebrew Cpera "Dan the Cuard," whIch ceIebrated the WaII and Tower settIe-
ment o! HanIta. The opera, based on S. ShaIom's pIay "ShootIngs at the KIbbutz"
(1¤¤6}, was adapted In 1¤¤¤ by composer Marc Iavry and wrIter Max 8rod.

I=:BDA9
As Is usuaIIy the case In IsraeII VYg^`]Vaji, the actuaI ob]ect Is much more pow-
er!uI than any Image or metaphor. The reaI spectacIe o! WaII and Tower dId not
stem !rom the way It Iooked but !rom what It was, and what It dId. It was, ñrst
and !oremost, a waII. The waII was a program destIned to become an "IdeoIogy,"
but It was aIso a pIaIn wooden moId, 2o centImeters wIde ñIIed wIth graveI. The
waII was a premonItIon o! thIngs to come, because whoever ñIIs the moId wIth
graveI, wIII not hesItate to ñII It wIth other materIaIs. 8eyond the !act that It was
a barrIer, whose ]ob It was to prevent unwanted InñItratIon and o!!er protectIon
!rom buIIets, the waII was a technoIogIcaI presentatIon and IogIstIcaI idjgYZ
[dgXZ: It was the promIse, or the threat, o! concrete.
1 My Crand!ather, 8en]amIn PIascow, was aIways proud to remInd me that he was the ñrst man
wounded In the "Events" o! AprII 1¤¤6. He was stabbed In hIs chest on ]a!!a Road on hIs way back
!rom work at the ]a!!a port. A tIn cIgarette box (today one o! my !amIIy's dearest possessIons}
saved hIm !rom more serIous In]ury.
2 Rañ SegaI and EyaI WeIzman descrIbe the ZIonIst and IsraeII settIement pro]ects as a contInuaI
move !rom the vaIIey to the mountaIn.
¤ ShIomo Cur-Cerzovsky (1¤1¤-2ooo} was a !oundIng member o! kIbbutz TeI AmaI who became a
natIonaI pro]ect manager !oIIowIng hIs success wIth WaII and Tower. 8e!ore the estabIIshment o!
the state, he was responsIbIe !or pIannIng the de!ense constructIons o! many settIements. A!ter
the estabIIshment o! the State, he was charged wIth IsraeI's ñrst \gVcYhegd_Zih: the Hebrew
UnIversIty, the NatIonaI IIbrary and the Knesset In ]erusaIem.
a Yohanan Ratner (18¤1-1¤6ç}, a traIned archItect and a !ormer Red Army o!ñcer, was the chIe!
archItect and strategIc pIanner o! the Hagana, the pre-state predecessor o! the IsraeI De!ense
£orces (ID£.} As a member o! the CentraI Command durIng the 1¤a8 war, Ratner was the onIy
generaI to receIve permIssIon !rom 8en CurIon to keep hIs non-Hebrew !amIIy name. Iater, he
served as Dean o! the £acuIty o! ArchItecture at the TechnIon In HaI!a, where he was consIdered
a reactIonary and staunch opponent o! modernIst archItecture.
ç The ]ewIsh NatIonaI £und (]N£} was estabIIshed In 1¤o1 durIng the çth ZIonIst Congress In 8aseI,
SwItzerIand, In order to promote the purchase o! Iand In PaIestIne !or the ]ewIsh peopIe. To thIs
day, the ]N£ Is the most Important pIayer In the country's Iand regIme. More than ¤o% o! the
11o
l
111
EncIaves
ExcIaves
Iand In the State o! IsraeI Is desIgnated as "state Iand" and managed by the IsraeI Iands AuthorIty
(IIA}, whIch Is controIIed by a board o! dIrectors composed o! a ma]orIty o! ]N£ representatIves.
SInce the ]N£ Is an organ o! the ZIonIst movement, these Iands beIong to the "]ewIsh PeopIe"
rather than to the State o! IsraeI or the cItIzenry o! the state, whIch IncIudes a sIzabIe non-]ewIsh
popuIatIon.
6 6aicZjaVcY was pubIIshed In 1¤o2. In thIs !uturIstIc noveI, InspIred by the taIes o! ]uIes Verne,
HerzI reIays the adventures o! a young ]ewIsh InteIIectuaI !rom VIenna, Dr. £rIedrIch Iowenberg,
who meets a mysterIous character named KIngscourt. The doctor and hIs companIon decIde to
dIssocIate themseIves !rom the decadence o! Europe, and settIe on a deserted IsIand In the PacIñc
Ccean. Cn theIr way, they pass through the Iand o! IsraeI and ñnd It In a state sImIIar to that In
whIch HerzI !ound PaIestIne durIng hIs hIstorIc 18¤8 vIsIt. A!ter 1o years on the IsIand, Iowenberg
and KIngscourt decIde to resume theIr traveIs. They return to the Iand o! IsraeI and dIscover
6aicZjaVcY (oId-new Iand} settIed and buIIt accordIng to HerzI's own program In hIs book I]Z
?Zl^h]HiViZ. The ñrst Hebrew transIatIon o! 6aicZjaVcY was pubIIshed In 1¤oa under the bIbIIcaI
tItIe IZa6k^k, borrowed !rom the 8ook o! EzekIeI. TeI AvIv, o!ñcIaIIy estabIIshed ñve years Iater In
1¤o¤, appears to be the onIy cIty In the worId named a!ter a book.
) The "Cood £ence" Is the IsraeII name !or the borderIIne that ran between the State o! IsraeI and
the "SecurIty 8eIt" o! IsraeII-occupIed Southern Iebanon !rom the 1¤)8 IItany CperatIon to the
ID£ wIthdrawaI In 2ooo.
8 The name o! the de!ensIve !ortIñcatIon aIong the Suez CanaI, conceIved In the Iate 1¤6os by then
ID£ ChIe! o! Sta!! HaIm 8arIev.
¤ The :gjk Is a symboIIc reIIgIous wIre that surrounds every ]ewIsh communIty In IsraeI, demarcatIng
an area wIthIn whIch one can carry personaI ob]ects on the Sabbath, wIthout It beIng consIdered
"work" to do so.
1o ArIeIIa AzouIay IInks thIs bIrds-eye vIew to another o! ShIomo Cur's pro]ects. In 1¤¤), Cur photo-
graphed the roo!tops o! ]erusaIem's CId CIty In order to pIan the de!ense o! the ]ewIsh Cuarter.
AzouIay descrIbes these photographs In detaII In the IntroductIon to her pubIIshed conversatIons
wIth Cur, InterpretIng them as a precursor to "the o!ñcIaI eye o! the State o! IsraeI." (AzouIay,
2ooo:28}; the mythIcaI phrase ostensIbIy coIned by a tIred ID£ soIdIer upon conquerIng Mount
Hermon In 1¤)¤, caIIIng It "the eyes o! the state," shouId aIso be noted In thIs context.
11 ThIs Is a concrete exampIe o! Ie!ebvre's cIaIm: "[Aj Iandscape that has undergone InstrumentaII-
zatIon becomes a poIItIcaI Iandscape." (Ie!ebvre, 1¤68:2))-2)8}.
12 See PauI VIrIIIo's IInkage between the IIght pro]ectors o! WorId War II antI-aIrcra!t de!ense
mechanIsms and the embIem o! 2oth Century £ox, as weII as other expressIons o! the spectacuIar,
such as AIbert Speer's CathedraI o! IIght In Nurnberg.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
ArIeIIa AzouIay, =dl9dZh^iAdd`idNdj4 (TeI AvIv: 8abeI, 2ooo}.
DavId 8en CurIon, "An Army !or De!ense and 8uIIdIng," speech recorded In the anthoIogy Dc
HZiiaZbZci!&.&*"&.*+ (TeI AvIv: HakIbbutz Hameuhad, 1¤86}.
PauI VIrIIIo, LVgVcY8^cZbV, trans. PatrIck CamIIIIer (Iondon and New York: Verso, 1¤8¤} [<jZggZ
Zi8^cZbV (ParIs: CahIers du CInema EdItIons de I'EtoIIe,1¤8a}j.
HenrI Ie!ebvre, "Espace et PoIItIque," In HenrI Ie!ebvre, AZ9gd^iVaVK^aaZ (ParIs: EdItIons Anthropos,
1¤68}.
Cded Yedaya, "Towards a SocIaI £unctIon: on ZoItan KIuger's Photography In the PerIod o! Homa
UmIgdaI," @Vk 1o (]uIy, 1¤¤o}.
Rañ SegaI and EyaI WeIzman, "The MountaIn," In 68^k^a^VcDXXjeVi^dc, eds. Rañ SegaI and EyaI
WeIzman (Iondon: Verso and TeI AvIv: 8abeI, 2oo¤}.
Theodore HerzI, 6aicZjaVcY (TeI AvIv: 8abeI, 1¤¤)}.
YehezkeI £renkeI, &%NZVgh, a TeI AmaI bookIet, 1¤a6.
YehezkeI £renkeI, "How We ArrIved at Homa uMIgdaI," In )%NZVghid=dbVJb^\YVa, a TeI AmaI
bookIet, 1¤)6.
Zeev Aner, "ShIomo Cur, The Man 8ehInd Homa uMIgdaI," a monoIogue recorded In I]Z9Vnhd[
=dbVjB^\YVa, ed. MordechaI Naor (]erusaIem: Yad 8en ZvI Press, 1¤86}.
Xdadc^oVi^dcVh
hjWjgWVc^oVi^dc
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6II=:;GDCI>:G
DavId Newman
CoIonIzatIon In the tradItIonaI sense o! ImpIantIng a cIvIIIan popuIatIon and
estabIIshIng settIements In an occupIed terrItory has, wIth !ew hIstorIcaI excep-
tIons, taken pIace In dIstant Iands. The "mother" country encourages Its cItIzens
to settIe these Iands as a means o! ensurIng Iong-term terrItorIaI controI. CoIo-
nIzIng popuIatIons graduaIIy take over IocaI ruIe, supportIng the mother country
by trans!ormIng dIrect mIIItary domInatIon Into a quasI-cIvIIIan !orm o! admIn-
IstratIon, aIbeIt backed by a strong mIIItary presence. TradItIonaI coIonIzatIon
o! thIs kInd aIso resuIts In the creatIon o! ñrst and second cIass socIetIes, wIth
the settIers en]oyIng !uII IegaI and economIc rIghts, whIIe the IocaI, IndIgenous
popuIatIons (I! they have not been sub]ect to genocIde} are bound to subsIstence
economIes and barred !rom ma]or posItIons o! power.
It Is agaInst thIs weII documented "modeI" o! coIonIzatIon that I dIscuss the
settIement o! the West 8ank and Caza by IsraeI In the past thIrty years (1¤)ç-
2ooç}, !oIIowIng IsraeI's occupatIon o! these terrItorIes In 1¤6). Many have
argued that the ZIonIst, and Iater IsraeII, settIement and Iand coIonIzatIon pro]ect
be!ore 1¤6) dI!!ers !rom that whIch has taken pIace In the West 8ank and Caza
In the past ¤o years, because o! the IegaI status o! the terrItorIes In questIon, the
nature o! the mIIItary/cIvIIIan admInIstratIon, and the perceIved moraIIty and/or
]ustIce o! the cause. Though It couId aIso be argued otherwIse-that one process
o! settIement and Iand coIonIzatIon !oIIows the other-thIs paper IImIts Its dIs-
cussIon to the West 8ank and Caza aIone.
<:D<G6E=>86C9:8DCDB>88=6G68I:G>HI>8HD;H:IIA:"
B:CI8DADC>O6I>DC>CI=:L:HI76C@6C9<6O6
The process and ob]ectIves o! IsraeII coIonIzatIon In the West 8ank and Caza
were not vastIy dI!!erent !rom those o! European countrIes In A!rIca, AsIa, and
the AmerIcas, nameIy to ensure Iong term terrItorIaI controI through the ImpIan-
tatIon o! a cIvIIIan popuIatIon that wouId buIId homes, !arms and !actorIes, and
breed new generatIons o! settIers who wouId see these Iands as theIr homeIand.
8ut In many other respects, the mechanIsms o! IsraeII coIonIzatIon have been
vastIy dI!!erent.
£Irst, IsraeII settIers were spurred on by an IdeoIogy In whIch they saw them-
seIves as "IIberatIng" (rather than "occupyIng"} the coIonIzed terrItory and
returnIng It to Its "rIght!uI" owners-the ]ewIsh peopIe. Second, the terrItory In
questIon was physIcaIIy ad]acent to the mother country, requIrIng !amIIIes to
112
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11¤
EncIaves
ExcIaves
move no more than a !ew kIIometers !rom theIr prevIous homes. ThIrd, whIIe
settIers changed theIr pIace o! resIdence, most kept theIr pIaces o! empIoyment
InsIde IsraeI, easIng the dIsIocatIon o! reIocatIon and, In e!!ect, trans!ormIng the
coIonIzatIon process Into IIttIe more than a suburban commute. £ourth, the settIer
movement has been IargeIy mIddIe cIass and educated, wIth many settIers beIng
part and parceI o! the IsraeII admInIstratIve eIIte.
G:A><>DEDA>I>8H
ReIIgIon as coIonIzatIon IdeoIogy pIays a ma]or roIe In expIaInIng how some
2ço,ooo settIers (not countIng those In East ]erusaIem} came to IIve In the West
8ank In a reIatIveIy short perIod o! tIme. AIthough by no means Is the entIre
settIer popuIatIon "reIIgIous," the ma]orIty !aII Into thIs category, and theIr Iead-
ers are actIve In the Cush EmunIm ("8eIIevers
8Ioc"} movement and the NatIonaI ReIIgIous
Party (NRP}. SInce most settIers beIIeve that the
occupIed terrItorIes beIong to them by rIght o! a
DIvIne PromIse, and that they were "redeemed"
In a mIracuIous war o! DIvIne InterventIon, they
are not prepared to reIInquIsh them (at Ieast
not wIthout a ñght}, !or the sake o! terrItorIaI
compromIse In the !ramework o! a !uture peace
agreement wIth the PaIestInIans.
The decIsIon-makIng process o! many settIers Is determIned by the ruIIngs o!
charIsmatIc reIIgIous Ieaders, whom adherents regard as more IegItImate than
eIected o!ñcIaIs. ThIs Is o! partIcuIar sIgnIñcance when It comes to reIIgIous
ruIIngs "!orbIddIng" the reIInquIshIng o! terrItorIes once they have come under
IsraeII-]ewIsh controI. Some reIIgIous-natIonaIIst Ieaders have caIIed upon theIr
!oIIowers In the army to re!use orders to evacuate settIements, as thIs Is Inter-
preted (perhaps soIeIy by them} as a dIrect contraventIon o! the reIIgIous precept
o! preservIng the IntegrIty o! the "cItIes o! our Cod." ThIs cIash between reIIgI-
opoIItIcs and the ruIe o! Iaw manI!ested durIng the recent Caza dIsengagement.
<:D<G6E=>86AEGDM>B>IN6C9I=:A6C9B6G@:I
The West 8ank and Caza are terrItorIes ad]oInIng the State o! IsraeI. As such,
IsraeII coIonIzatIon takes pIace In Its own "backyard." £or most settIers, coIonIza-
tIon In the West 8ank and Caza has been no more than "resIdentIaI reIocatIon"
!or poIItIcaI motIves (the vIsIon o! "Creater IsraeI"}, economIc motIves (better
quaIIty o! II!e}, or both.
IIke most Iand markets In metropoIItan areas, the prIce per dunum !aIIs In
accordance wIth Its dIstance !rom the urban center, In our case TeI AvIv-IsraeI's
economIc and cuIturaI capItoI. £amIIIes seekIng Iarger, detached houses wIth
a yard are !orced Into suburban and exurban areas where Iand costs are Iow.
DurIng the 1¤8os, at the heIght o! West 8ank coIonIzatIon actIvItIes, Iand prIces
took a sharp downturn the moment one crossed the Creen IIne (UN-admInIs-
tered armIstIce IIne between IsraeI and ]ordan, 1¤a8-1¤6)}. So as to encourage
potentIaI settIers to settIe, especIaIIy those not motIvated by IdeoIogy, reIIgIon
Road advertIsements !or
new settIement constructIon
pro]ects In the West 8ank
(photo: edItorIaI team, 2oo6}
or poIItIcs, the state o!!ered occupIed West 8ank Iands at extremeIy cheap rates,
In some cases \gVi^h. AII the homeowner reaIIy had to pay !or was the house.
ThIs was a consIderabIe IncentIve !or peopIe who were not opposed to reIocatIng
beyond the Creen IIne In order to exchange cramped apartments !or spacIous
vIIIas. The sIogan "ñve mInutes !rom K!ar Saba" (read: ñve mInutes !urther !rom
your pIace o! empIoyment, but much better housIng condItIons} appeaIed to
many settIers In thIs perIod. WIth the pavIng o! hIghways IInkIng ]erusaIem and
TeI AvIv to theIr exurban hInterIands, one came to !eeI that they were IIvIng not
In "Creater IsraeI" but In a greater metropoIItan area.
HJ7JG76C>O6I>DC6C98DBBJI>C<
The Cush Dan metropoIItan area, at the center o! whIch stands TeI AvIv, was
IImIted to north/south growth, as the west was cut o!! by the MedIterranean Sea
and the east by the Creen IIne. The conquest o! the West 8ank In 1¤6) e!!ectIveIy
opened up the urban hInterIands o! ]erusaIem and TeI AvIv In dIrectIons prevIousIy
consIdered "ex-terrItorIa." 8ut suburban coIonIzatIon was IImIted In the ñrst
decade o! occupatIon due to the Iabor government's pre!erence !or agrIcuIturaI
settIements, especIaIIy In the ]ordan vaIIey, In the !ramework o! what became
known as the AIIon PIan. ThIs pIan prIvIIeged
settIement In perIpheraI and !rontIer regIons,
IeavIng most o! the hIIIy areas o! the West 8ank
unsettIed (among other reasons, due to hIgh
PaIestInIan popuIatIon densIty}. However, thIs
changed wIth the IIkud government In 1¤)), and
the subsequent deveIopment o! a suburban com-
muter beIt aIong the Creen IIne In the 1¤8os.
The domInant ZIonIst/IsraeII tenets o! IocatIon,
terrItorIaI controI, and settIement pIannIng shI!t-
ed !rom rIgId, centraIIzed ruraI agrIcuIturaI cooperatIve communItIes (kIbbutzIm
and moshavIm

} to the Iooser, more aV^hhZo[V^gZ prIvate resIdentIaI communItIes
typIcaI o! Western postIndustrIaI socIetIes.
The suburbanIzatIon o! coIonIzatIon opened up the settIement optIon to
groups that had prevIousIy been excIuded !rom such actIvIty, not Ieast because
they had no Interest In becomIng part o! an agrIcuIturaI or cooperatIve commu-
nIty. The proxImIty between theIr new and oId homes meant that they couId
keep theIr ]obs but aIso theIr vocatIonaI pre!erences, and that the government
dId not have to expend resources to create new pIaces o! work. EmpIoyment In
the settIements Is usuaIIy IImIted to pubIIc sector ]obs (e.g. educatIon} or manage-
rIaI posItIons In specIaIIy created and hIghIy subsIdIzed prIvate sector IndustrIaI
zones. And ]ust as Iand !or housIng Is cheap, so too Is Iand !or busIness (and
o!ten tax !ree}.
Throughout IsraeI's hIstory, successIve governments have promoted a settIe-
ment poIIcy o! popuIatIon dIspersaI to the perIphery by o!!erIng Iower taxatIon
rates and a range o! economIc beneñts aImed at encouragIng resIdents to stay In
pIaces that su!!er !rom a "doubIe perIpheraIIty": perIpheraI IocatIon and economIc
hardshIps. 8ut these poIIcIes have en]oyed onIy IImIted "success," and couId not
Showroom wIth modeIs !or
new apartments In the settIe-
ment o! Har Homa (photo: ]örg
CIäscher, 2ooa}
11a
l
11ç
EncIaves
ExcIaves
keep the chIIdren o! poor ImmIgrants !rom mIgratIng to the urban centers In
search o! socIaI mobIIIty. The constructIon o! settIements In the occupIed ter-
rItorIes, however, changed thIs poIIcy aItogether. In order to encourage peopIe
to reIocate beyond the Creen IIne, the government provIded settIers wIth Incen-
tIves prevIousIy o!!ered onIy to communItIes In the Negev or the CaIIIee-but thIs
tIme It was !or settIIng the geographIc center o! the country, ]ust "ñve mInutes
!rom K!ar Saba." In e!!ect, they were o!!ered a "doubIe centraIIty": centraI IocatIon
wIth the economIc beneñts o! the perIphery}.
Much o! the IsraeII pubIIc bought Into thIs arrangement, despIte the !act that
the geographIc, demographIc, poIItIcaI, and economIc reaIItIes o! the settIements
are vastIy dI!!erent !rom those o! the country's reaI !rontIer communItIes. Why,
gIven these pre!erabIe condItIons, wouId anyone not opposed to settIIng In the
West 8ank or Caza have chosen a perIpheraI "deveIopment town" when he or she
couId receIve the same ñnancIaI support In a mIddIe cIass resIdentIaI communIty?
HD8>D:8DCDB>88DBEDH>I>DCD;I=:H:IIA:GEDEJA6I>DC
SuburbanIzatIon Is a mIddIe cIass actIvIty. The suburban myth Is buIIt around
the notIon o! pro!essIonaI !amIIIes wIth chIIdren ImprovIng theIr standard o! IIvIng
by HeeIng crowded cIty centers !or "open space" and "!resh aIr"-where they
wIII ñnd Iess noIse and poIIutIon, better pubIIc educatIon, and more communIty
soIIdarIty. Suburban communItIes In the Western worId normaIIy exhIbIt hIgher
IeveIs o! educatIon and empIoyment In the tertIary and pro!essIonaI sectors. ThIs
Is aIso true o! the settIements o! the West 8ank and Caza, thanks to the pubIIc
and prIvate !unds poured Into these communItIes.
Cne mIght thInk that the workIng cIass resIdents o! "deveIopment towns"
wouId have spearheaded the campaIgn agaInst the settIements, I! onIy because
o! the "un]ust" aIIocatIon o! resources. 8ut thIs has not happened. Most "deveI-
opment town" resIdents have remaIned !aIth!uI to rIght wIng poIItIcaI partIes,
especIaIIy the governIng IIkud party, as It has been perceIved as the onIy poIItIcaI
outIet !or socIaI protest agaInst the hegemony o! the Iabor party-whIch !ounded
the state, and wIth It, Its InnumerabIe InequItIes.

B:IGDEDA>I6C8DADC>O6I>DC>CI=:?:GJH6A:B=>CI:GA6C9
8e!ore 1¤6), ]erusaIem's suburbs grew west o! the cIty-the onIy dIrectIon not
obstructed by the Creen IIne. A!ter the annexatIon o! East ]erusaIem In 1¤6),
suburban deveIopment extended In other dIrectIons, creatIng wedges between
the PaIestInIan neIghborhoods and suburbs o! the cIty. SeveraI West 8ank settIe-
ments, such as MaaIe AdumIm to the east, 8eIt EI to the north, and the Cush
EtzIon settIement bIoc to the south, !unctIon as ]ewIsh suburbs o! ]erusaIem.
IIke the suburban settIements aIong the Creen IIne, resIdents o! these settIe-
ments commute to work In ]erusaIem, but go home to Iarger, detached houses
wIth yards. ]ewIsh ]erusaIem has become IntertwIned wIth Its West 8ank envI-
ronment, makIng the eventuaI evacuatIon o! these settIements that much more
dI!ñcuIt, and that much Iess IIkeIy. £oIIowIng the Caza dIsengagement, the !ocus
o! terrItorIaI struggIe shI!ted to MaaIe AdumIm, the Iargest most popuIous settIe-
ment In the West 8ank, as rIght wIng poIItIcIans are demandIng Its expansIon
1
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and munIcIpaI IInkage to ]erusaIem. WIthIn thIs metropoIItan regIon known as
"Creater ]erusaIem," !unctIonaI space Is duaI-wIth IsraeII and PaIestInIan commu-
nItIes IIvIng sIde by sIde, but experIencIng theIr daIIy IIves o! workIng, shoppIng,
studyIng, commutIng, etc. IIke dI!!erent unIverses.
I=:>BE68ID;I=:H:E6G6I>DC;:C8:$L6AADCI=:
H:IIA:B:CI>C;G6HIGJ8IJG:
The route o! the newIy constructed separatIon !ence/waII (ostensIbIy !or "secu-
rIty purposes," I.e. to prevent PaIestInIan suIcIde bombers !rom enterIng IsraeI}
has been determIned by, and wIII In turn determIne, the process o! settIement
expansIon. WhIIe the ma]or settIement bIocs are IncIuded on the "IsraeII sIde" o!
the barrIer, many IsoIated and remote settIements now ñnd themseIves on the
"outsIde" (the PaIestInIan "InsIde"} or the "wrong" sIde. £or them, thIs Is a cIear
IndIcatIon that even a rIght wIng IsraeII government wIII not InsIst on keepIng
them In the !ramework o! a !uture terrItorIaI agreement, certaInIy In IIght o! the
recent Caza dIsengagement.
>BEA>86I>DCHD;I=:<6O69>H:C<6<:B:CI
Heated opposItIon to the Caza dIsengagement notwIthstandIng, Its actuaI ImpIe-
mentatIon took pIace wIthout any ma]or probIems and the specter o! vIoIence
was, In retrospect, exaggerated. WhIIe many non-settIer IsraeIIs empathIzed
wIth the settIers who were !orced out o! theIr homes, It dId not shI!t pubIIc
opInIon !rom overwheImIng support !or the dIsengagement ItseI!. Had the set-
tIers crossed the IIne between perceIved "IegItImate" and "IIIegItImate" cIvII
dIsobedIence, support !or theIr cause, or at Ieast theIr cIvII rIghts, wouId have
rapIdIy deterIorated. MaInstream settIer Ieaders were acuteIy aware o! thIs,
knowIng they had to contaIn the !erocIty o! theIr constItuents' opposItIon. SInce
the dIsengagement, they have been harshIy crItIcIzed by West 8ank settIers !or
backIng down !rom more aggressIve modes o! resIstance. What the Caza dIsen-
gagement showed the IsraeII pubIIc was that whoIesaIe settIement evacuatIon Is
possIbIe. At the same tIme, !uture evacuatIons In the West 8ank-the settIement
heartIand-wIII probabIy be met wIth stronger opposItIon than It was In Caza, not
Ieast because consensus !or wIthdrawaI !rom these areas Is not as wIdespread as
It was !or Caza.
¹HJ7JG76Cº8DADC>O6I>DC
WhIIe the prImary ob]ectIves o! coIonIzatIon are poIItIcaI and terrItorIaI-In the
West 8ank and Caza as eIsewhere-IsraeII settIers and the successIve govern-
ments that ImpIanted them have succeeded In trans!ormIng much o! the settIe-
ment enterprIse Into a socIoeconomIc and geographIcaI process o! metropoIItan
suburbanIzatIon.
As In most suburban and exurban communItIes In Western IndustrIaIIzed
and postIndustrIaIIzed socIetIes, peopIe move to the suburbs because o! what
they perceIve as better IIvIng condItIons, whIIe maIntaInIng theIr pIaces o!
empIoyment In metropoIItan areas. WIth sIgnIñcant Improvements In IsraeI's
transportatIon system, an IncreasIng number o! "deveIopment town" resIdents
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are commutIng on a daIIy basIs to theIr pIaces o! work In urban centers. WhIIe
the IongItudInaI dIstances between the CaIIIee In the north and the Negev In
the south and the center o! the country are grater than the IatItudInaI dIstances
between TeI AvIv and, say, the settIement o! ArIeI nestIed In the heart o! the
West 8ank, these gaps are narrowIng.
I! suburbanIzatIon, I.e. socIoeconomIc advancement, pIayed a ma]or part In
makIng the settIement process possIbIe despIte Its expIIcIt poIItIcaI ob]ectIves,
perhaps the converse Is aIso possIbIe: changes In patterns o! IsraeII suburbanIzatIon
couId brIng about a decIIne In settIement, poIItIcaI processes notwIthstandIng.
1 EdItors note: A kIbbutz (pIuraI kIbbutzIm} Is a type o! agrIcuIturaI coIIectIve !ound In IsraeI. Its
typIcaI !eatures IncIude the coIIectIve ownershIp o! property, communaI IIvIng. A moshav (pIuraI
moshavIm} Is a type o! cooperatIve agrIcuIturaI settIement, generaIIy based on the prIncIpIe o!
prIvate ownershIp o! Iand and communaI marketIng.
2 £or Its part, the IIkud has consIstentIy promoted mIddIe cIass settIement programs at the
expense o! the workIng cIass, coupIed wIth IaIssez-!aIre, antI-weI!are economIc poIIcIes, espe-
cIaIIy under the tuteIage o! !ormer £Inance MInIster 8en]amIn Netanyahu. However, the IIkud
has not been the onIy party to promote settIement. The coIonIzatIon o! the occupIed terrItorIes
began under Iabor ruIe, and the greatest perIods o! settIement growth took pIace, perhaps IronI-
caIIy, durIng the RabIn and 8arak governments o! the 1¤¤o's. The recent eIectIon o! AmIr Peretz,
a !ormer "deveIopment town" mayor and trade unIon Ieader, as chaIrman o! the Iabor Party has
the potentIaI to turn thIs "tradItIonaI" votIng pattern around. HIs emphasIs on socIaI weI!are,
coupIed wIth support !or the peace process-, whIch couId necessItate the evacuatIon o! most
West 8ank settIements, mIght heraId a structuraI change In IsraeII votIng, but aIso In IsraeII set-
tIement-as It becomes Iess and Iess attractIve In the post-Caza dIsengagement era.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
Abu Ayyash AbduI-IIah, "IsraeII PIannIng PoIIcy In the CccupIed TerrItorIes," ?djgcVad[EVaZhi^cZ
HijY^Zh 11 (1} (1¤81}.
MIchaeI Dumper, I]ZEda^i^Xhd[?ZgjhVaZbh^cXZ&.+, (New York: CoIumbIa UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤)}.
Tamar Hermann and DavId Newman, "Extra-ParIIamentarIsm In IsraeI: A ComparatIve Study o!
Peace Now and Cush EmunIm," B^YYaZ:VhiZgcHijY^Zh 28 (¤} (1¤¤2}.
Aharon KeIIer, HdX^ZinVcYHZiiaZbZci^ci]ZAVcYd[>hgVZa (AIbany: SUNY Press, 1¤¤2}.
8aruch KImmerIIng, O^dc^hbVcYIZgg^idgn/I]ZHdX^d"iZgg^idg^Va9^bZch^dcd[O^dc^hiEda^i^Xh (8erke-
Iey: UnIversIty o! CaII!ornIa, InstItute o! InternatIonaI StudIes, 1¤8¤}.
DavId Newman, "The TerrItorIaI PoIItIcs o! ExurbanIzatIon: ReHectIons on ThIrty Years o! ]ewIsh
SettIement In the West 8ank," >hgVZa6[[V^gh ¤ (1} (1¤¤6}.
DavId Newman, "£rom 'HItnachhaIut" to "HItnatkut': The Impact o! Cush EmunIm on IsraeII SocI-
ety and PoIItIcs," >hgVZaHijY^Zh (2ooç}.
DavId Newman and IevIah AppIebaum, "DeñnIng the Urban SettIement: PIannIng ModeIs and
£unctIonaI ReaIItIes In IsraeI," JgWVc<Zd\gVe]n 1o (¤} (1¤8¤}.
YuvaI PortugaII, "]ewIsh SettIement In the CccupIed TerrItorIes: IsraeI's SettIement Structure and
the PaIestInIans," Eda^i^XVa<Zd\gVe]nFjVgiZgan 1o (1¤¤1}.
ShaIom ReIchman, "PoIIcy Reduces the WorId to EssentIaIs: a ReHectIon on the ]ewIsh SettIement
Process In the West 8ank SInce 1¤6)," In EaVcc^c\^cijgWjaZcXZ, eds. D. MorIey and A. Shachar
(]erusaIem: Magnes Press, 1¤86}.
k^aaV\ZhjcYZgh^Z\Z
696EI6I>DC!G:H>HI6C8:!>BEDH:9BD9:GC>O6I>DC6C9
JG76C>O6I>DC>C?:GJH6A:B¼H:6HI:GCK>AA6<:H
Rassem KhamaIsI
ThIs essay wIII anaIyze the nature o! ruraIIsm, suburbanIzatIon, and urbanIzatIon
In reIatIon to the PaIestInIan "vIIIages" Iocated wIthIn the munIcIpaI bounda-
rIes o! IsraeII-annexed East ]erusaIem. As a resuIt o! the pIannIng regIme o!
the IsraeII-controIIed ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty, PaIestInIans su!!er !rom Imposed
urbanIzatIon. ThIs experIence o! physIcaI and socIocuIturaI sIege manI!ests a
partIcuIar spatIaI !abrIc. Its eIements IncIude the physIcaI restrIctIons and IImIta-
tIons Imposed by externaI and poIItIcaIIy-motIvated pIannIng, Iand and property
exproprIatIons; Its outcomes comprIse changIng socIocuIturaI systems, norma-
tIve behavIoraI patterns, and vaIue systems InsIde the communItIes themseIves.
GJG6A>HBK:GHJHJG76C>HB
TradItIonaIIy, the term "ruraIIsm" has re!erred to the way o! II!e In smaII IocaIItIes
and vIIIages wIth Iow popuIatIon growth and physIcaI densIty, where tradItIonaI
customs and behavIoraI patterns evoIve around an agrIcuIturaI economy. In
contrast, the notIon o! "urbanIsm" has IncIuded Iarge IocaIItIes, towns, and cItIes
based on nonagrIcuIturaI economIes and characterIzed by hIgh popuIatIon growth
resuItIng !rom ImmIgratIon, densIty, socIaI dIversIty and IndIvIduaIIsm. In the
modern era, however, thIs dIchotomy began to gray. AIthough the two mIght
stIII be dI!!erentIated physIcaIIy, !unctIonaIIy, and structuraIIy, the compIex proc-
esses o! urbanIzatIon, modernIzatIon, and gIobaIIzatIon !orce us to reconsIder
both terms (HuntIngton, 1¤¤)}. Cn the one hand, PaIestInIan East ]erusaIem couId
be saId to exempII!y the generIc typoIogIes o! urbanIzed IocaIItIes and communI-
tIes: suburbanIzatIon and semIurbanIzatIon (Conen, 1¤¤ç}, sustaInabIe urbanIzatIon
(AIIen and You, 2oo2}, newIy urbanIzed systems (Eben SaIeh, 2oo2} and urbanIzatIon
wIthout urbanIty (KhamaIsI, 2ooa}. Cn the other hand, such termInoIogy not onIy
decodes the space, but then serves a crucIaI tooI In ImpIementIng spatIaI poIIcIes
wIthIn a Iarger urban system. ThIs "recodIng" Is an Instrument !or reguIatIng and
restrIctIng !uture deveIopment. Thus, we see that "ruraIIsm," "urbanIzatIon," and
"suburbanIzatIon" are not neutraI terms, but Ianguage that wIeIds terrItorIaI and
geopoIItIcaI power In determInIng demographIc deveIopment and the aIIocatIon
o! resources.
UntII the mIddIe o! the 1¤th century, ]erusaIem was deñned by the CId CIty's
de!ensIve waII-an area o! approxImateIy ¤oo dunams (1 dunum = 1ooo square
meters} square (8en ArIah, 1¤¤o}-and a number o! surroundIng smaII vIIIages
and theIr agrIcuIturaI hoIdIngs. £rom the Iate 1¤th century and begInnIng o!
12o
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the 2oth century, the popuIatIon o! ]erusaIem began to grow, partIcuIarIy due
to the new geopoIItIcaI and admInIstratIve status o! ]erusaIem as a provIncIaI
admInIstratIve center under the Cttomans and then, !rom 1¤1), as the sIte o! the
8rItIsh Mandate governorshIp. Crowth was !ueIIed by ]ewIsh ImmIgratIon, as
weII as the naturaI growth o! the Arab popuIatIon. The new ]erusaIem deveIoped
and expanded to the west and northwest, beyond ]a!!a and Damascus Cate and
aIong the road to ]a!!a, to 8aqaa In the south and SheIkh ]arrah In the north (TamarI,
1¤¤¤}. 8ut In contrast to the rapId urban growth, the vIIIages o! the ]erusaIem area
were growIng sIowIy and dIstInctIy dIvIded !rom the expandIng cIty by open and
agrIcuIturaI areas.
WhIIe the 8rItIsh Mandate authorItIes concentrated on regIonaI reorganIzatIon
and town pIannIng schemes, vIIIages contInued to deveIop In an organIc way
accordIng to tradItIonaI ruIes (based on IsIamIc h]Vg^V] Iaw, whIch aIIots and
deveIops property accordIng to reIatIve pIot sIze, property IInes, buIIdIng heIght,
and constructIon densIty} and wIthout the Inter!erence o! an externaI pIannIng
regIme that Imports and copIes pIannIng strategIes In a top-down process.
VIIIage Iands were deñned through the accumuIatIon o! IndIvIduaI and extended
!amIIy Iand hoIdIngs, as weII as common Iand (bdh]VV}. TerrItorIaI boundarIes
were generaIIy deñned by an oraI tradItIon untII the begInnIng o! the 2oth century,
when 8rItIsh Mandate authorItIes ImpIemented the Cttoman Iand Iaw (18ç8}
and Iand RegIstratIon Iaw (1861}.
The expuIsIon o! aII ruraI popuIatIons !rom western ]erusaIem In 1¤a8 radI-
caIIy changed the nature o! the urban-ruraI reIatIonshIp. As western ]erusaIem
was reInvented as the vastIy expanded capItaI o! the newIy !ounded State o! IsraeI,
what physIcaIIy remaIned o! the vIIIages was quIckIy repIaced by new urban
neIghborhoods InhabIted by an urbanIzed ]ewIsh popuIatIon. In East ]erusaIem
(whIch Is the !ocus o! thIs essay}, the reIatIonshIp between cIty and vIIIages
remaIned nearIy Intact: Independent IocaI councIIs governed vIIIages surroundIng
a moderateIy-Important ]ordanIan cIty.
HE6I>6AEDA>I>8HD;H>:<:
CnIy weeks a!ter the end o! the war, on ]une 2), 1¤6), the IsraeII government
decIded to expand the munIcIpaI boundarIes o! West ]erusaIem to the east. WhIIe
the new boundarIes were to deIIver a "UnIted ]erusaIem" as eternaI capItaI o!
IsraeI and the ]ewIsh peopIe, they were addItIonaIIy care!uIIy engIneered to
excIude as many PaIestInIans as possIbIe, thus ensurIng a )a.2% ]ewIsh ma]orIty
and IImItIng the PaIestInIan popuIatIon In the cIty to a mere 68,6oo (compared
to 1¤),)oo ]ews}. In acquIrIng the greatest area o! Iand but the !ewest number
o! PaIestInIans, the agrIcuIturaI Iands surroundIng ]erusaIem's eastern vIIIages
provIded an IdeaI spatIaI reservoIr. Seventy thousand dunams, comprIsed o! the
]ordanIan ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty and the surroundIng vIIIages, were annexed by
the IsraeII ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty. The more popuIous vIIIage centers o! Abu DIs,
EzarIya, Ar-Ram, and 8Ir NabaIa remaIned outsIde o! the munIcIpaI boundary.
The resuIt was a reductIon o! the space used by PaIestInIans to Iess than 2ç,ooo
dunams or about ¤a% o! the totaI area o! annexed East ]erusaIem. ApproxImateIy
1o,ooo dunams, or 1ç% o! East ]erusaIem remaIned open !or new deveIopment.
HE6I>6A:C8>G8A>C<
The spatIaI Impact o! the new boundary regIme and the Iand exproprIatIons was
dramatIc. PaIestInIan vIIIages IIke Sur 8ahIr, 8eIt Sa!a!a, and Shu!at Iost most o!
theIr agrIcuIturaI hoIdIngs and hInterIands. The spatIaI contInuIty between the
vIIIages was severed, and they were robbed o! theIr naturaI spatIaI resources.
In an unprecedented manIpuIatIon o! good pIannIng rhetorIc, the exproprIated
areas were redesIgnated as "green areas" !or pubIIc use, but "pubIIc" was now
deñned excIusIveIy as ]ewIsh and the "green areas" became sItes o! vast ]ewIsh
settIement pro]ects. Through economIc IncentIves and subsIdIes, more than
2oo,ooo ]ewIsh resIdents were moved Into a serIes o! bedroom communItIes
IInked to the western cIty by e!ñcIent road systems. Creen bu!!er zones deñned
by InvIsIbIe waIIs and boundarIes were trans!ormed Into InhabIted bu!!er zones
secured by perImeter roads and waIIs. The sum e!!ect was to bIock any possIbIe
expansIon o! the PaIestInIan vIIIages.
EDA>I>86AEA6CC>C<
PoIItIcaI pIannIng extended beyond the redrawIng o! terrItorIaI boundarIes and
Iand exproprIatIons. Urban pIannIng reguIatIons proved to be an equaIIy e!!ec-
tIve Instrument to controI and IImIt PaIestInIan buIIdIng actIvIty. The absence
o! !ormaI Iand parceIIatIon In the PaIestInIan areas served as an excuse !or
decIarIng a moratorIum on any one expansIon pro]ect. 8uIIdIng IInes were
drawn around the aIready buIIt-up !abrIc, !reezIng the boundarIes o! the vIIIages
and restrIctIng constructIon opportunItIes to prIvate Iand InsIde the vIIIages.
At the same tIme, o!ñcIaI pIannIng schemes were never deveIoped or deIayed
(In the case o! Sur 8ahIr, pIans were commIssIoned ¤ç years a!ter IsraeII con-
troI}. PaIestInIan appIIcants !or buIIdIng permIts to thIs day endure a bIased
and dIscrImInatory regIme that hoIds IIttIe promIse wIthIn the !ramework o!
the reguIated pIans. WIthout reason, permIts are deIayed or sImpIy not gIven;
PaIestInIans must there!ore o!ten choose between not buIIdIng at aII, or buIIdIng
onIy to have the home demoIIshed. £rom 1¤6) to 2oo1, approxImateIy ¤,1oo buIId-
Ing eZgb^ih were granted to PaIestInIans In East ]erusaIem, whIIe some 1¤,¤oo
housIng unIts were constructed.
£urther, new pIans !or exIstIng vIIIages are consIstentIy deveIoped IgnorIng
the spatIaI reaIIty InsIde the vIIIages, or avaIIabIe data on actuaI and !uture hous-
Ing needs. PubIIc housIng schemes !or PaIestInIans do not exIst (other than the
NusseIbeh pro]ect constructed In northern 8eIt HanIna In the 1¤)os}. The current
physIcaI state o! the vIIIages-densIty wIthout urbanIty-Is a dIrect resuIt o! thIs
pIannIng regIme. In e!!ect, the pIannIng regIme !orced upon the vIIIages prescrIbes
ruraIIsm through socIaI-cuIturaI dImInutIon; an urban servIce In!rastructure Is
denIed, whIIe communItIes are !orced to urbanIze terrItorIaIIy and economIcaIIy.
As spatIaI encIrcIIng prevented horIzontaI expansIon o! the buIIt-up !abrIc o!
vIIIages, vIIIagers were Ie!t to ñII In, renovate, add to, or extend aIready exIstIng
buIIdIngs, generatIng an ever-IncreasIng physIcaI densIty InsIde the vIIIages. In
the absence o! an urban In!rastructure and approprIate servIces, vIIIages reIIed
on the ruraI In!rastructures o! narrow roads and the organIc prIncIpIes o! sprawI
In buIIdIng IndIvIduaI houses, !amIIy compounds, or commercIaI busInesses and
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workshops. In the Iast decade, partIcuIarIy the Iast IntI!ada, !requent cIosures have
spurred the openIng o! some shops In communItIes IIke Sur 8ahIr.
UsIng the aesthetIc argument o! wantIng to preserve the vIIIage's ruraI character,
the ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty has cdi embraced and steered densIñcatIon, rather It Is
ñghtIng It by ImposIng a IImIt on buIIdIng heIght and en!orcIng a buIIdIng-to-pIot
ratIo. The CId CIty and Its surroundIng vIIIages were even decIared a natIonaI
preservatIon zone, whIch pIaces tIght IImItatIons on any constructIon actIvIty and
provIdes excuses !or IegaIIy demoIIshIng structures that "spoII" the area's ruraIIsm,
regardIess o! whether or not those structures exIsted prIor to 1¤6).
The hypocrItIcaI nature o! thIs poIIcy Is exposed when one compares the
ruIes that appIy to vIIIages IIke Sur 8ahIr wIth surroundIng settIements, such as
Har Homa. WhIIe Sur 8ahIr Is !orced to preserve Its ruraI character through Iow
buIIdIngs and restrIctIve pIot-to-buIIdIng ratIos, the neIghborIng settIement Is a
mega-structure o! Interconnected muItIstory, pre!abrIcated apartment bIocks.
The buIIdIng rIghts gIven In TaIpIot MIzrah (]ewIsh settIement} are 1ço%-1)o%
per buIIdIng pIot, whIIe In PaIestInIan ]abaI aI-Mukaber, buIIdIng rIghts are a
tIHIng 2ç% per buIIdIng pIot (Marom, 2ooa:6¤}.
>C;DGB6A>O6I>DC
EconomIc recovery and popuIatIon growth a!ter 1¤6) spurred Investment In the
Improvement, renovatIon, and extensIon o! vIIIage homes, but denIaI o! constructIon
permIts, the costs InvoIved In obtaInIng a permIt, or deIays In the process caused
many !amIIIes to buIId IIIegaIIy or semI-IegaIIy. These "IIIegaI" buIIdIng actIvItIes
are not a new phenomenon, In !act, but actuaIIy began In the 8rItIsh Mandate
perIod, as soon as pIannIng reguIatIons were InstItuted. 8ut a!ter 1¤6), IIIegaI
constructIon has been !oIded Into the wIder geopoIItIcaI and ethno-demographIc
conHIct rather than beIng vIewed as a cIvIc probIem, as under the 8rItIsh and
]ordanIans. IsraeII authorItIes combat IIIegaI housIng wIth the !erocIty o! a securIty
probIem, whIIe persIstentIy IgnorIng regIonaI overcrowdIng, Iack o! resources, and
the ImpossIbIIIty o! obtaInIng IegaI permIts. 8etween 1¤¤2 and 2ooa, some ç,¤18
buIIdIng o!!ences were recorded by the IsraeII-controIIed munIcIpaIIty. ApproxI-
mateIy ¤,8¤o cases were taken to court, ç)a stop work orders deIIvered, and 61a
demoIItIon orders Issued. Two hundred and thIrty-eIght buIIdIngs were In !act
demoIIshed, none o! them owned by ]ewIsh IsraeIIs (Marom, 2ooa:aa}.
8ADHJG:H
When PaIestInIans !rom the ]erusaIem area partIcIpated In vIoIent actIvItIes
and demonstratIons durIng the ñrst IntI!ada (1¤8)-1¤¤¤}, the IsraeII authorItIes
dramatIcaIIy stepped up securIty measures. A!ter the sIgnIng o! the 1¤¤¤ CsIo
Accords wIth PaIestInIans, IsraeI InstaIIed temporary mIIItary checkpoInts at
the entrance poInts to most PaIestInIan neIghborhoods and vIIIages In East
]erusaIem. ThIs new poIIcy o! "cIosure," as It came to be caIIed, was a Iong-term
strategy aImed at shorIng up IsraeII domInatIon. At the same tIme, permanent
checkpoInts IImIted mIgratIon Into ]erusaIem and reIn!orced the cIty's munIcIpaI
boundary. £urther, the new "center o! II!e" poIIcy retroactIveIy appIIed In 1¤¤ç,
created a IegaI !ramework !or conñscatIng the IsraeII IdentIty cards !rom thou-
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sands o! East ]erusaIemItes, who had chosen to IIve In more a!!ordabIe housIng
outsIde the munIcIpaI boundarIes. (Any contact wIth the authorItIes, couId entaII
resIdents beIng asked !or myrIad !orms o! proo! conñrmIng that the cIty o!
]erusaIem remaIned theIr "center o! II!e"; Ioss o! the IdentIty card meant the Ioss
o! the rIght to IIve, work, and move In the cIty.} ThIs new poIIcy reversed the
stream o! out-mIgratIon and has sInce dramatIcaIIy Increased the pressure on the
aIready-saturated PaIestInIan housIng market InsIde the munIcIpaI boundarIes.
The begInnIng o! the aI-Aqsa IntI!ada (sInce 2ooo} Ied to !urther IntensIñca-
tIon o! these poIIcIes. The IImIts on access and movement are currentIy beIng
trans!ormed Into a physIcaI separatIon through the buIIdIng o! a serIes o! waIIs
and !ences runnIng through East ]erusaIem, severIng PaIestInIan popuIated areas
!rom the cIty's heart. The concurrent graduaI ampIIñcatIon o! the separatIon o!
PaIestInIans In East ]erusaIem !rom PaIestInIans IIvIng In the eastern surround-
Ing terrItory has created a sItuatIon o! concentrated sIege, a sIege perceIved by
PaIestInIans as a new stage o! heIghtened occupatIon.
>CI:GC6AEG:HHJG:H
ThIs externaI geopoIItIcaI sIege has had a pro!ound Impact on the InternaI spatIaI,
socIoeconomIc, and cuIturaI structure o! vIIIages; Its e!!ects are !eIt by the IndI-
vIduaI vIIIage dweIIer as weII as the wIder Arab communIty.
9kbjkhWb<hW]c[djWj_ed
At the tIme o! East ]erusaIem's annexatIon, ao% o! the cIty's PaIestInIans (2),ooo
peopIe} IIved In an urban settIng, whIIe the remaInder IIved In 12 vIIIages. The
new 1¤6) munIcIpaI boundarIes made PaIestInIan vIIIagers and urban ]erusaIe-
mItes, two very dI!!erent socIaI, ethnIc, and cuIturaI groups, Into IIke-resIdents
o! the cIty o! ]erusaIem. 8ut the new IsraeII government had a poIItIcaI Interest
In sustaInIng and deepenIng exIstIng ethno-reIIgIous or socIocuIturaI dIvIdes
(MusIIm versus ChrIstIan, urbanIte versus vIIIager versus 8edouIn, or even ]eru-
saIemIte versus HebronIte, natIve versus ImmIgrant versus re!ugee and so !orth}.
SInce PaIestInIans re]ected the new munIcIpaIIty as a representatIve body, the
IsraeII authorItIes Instead began to make deaIs wIth IndIvIduaIs and sub-groups,
thereby deepenIng socIocuIturaI !ragmentatIon and preventIng organIzed resIst-
ance !rom a unIted PaIestInIan body. The empowerment o! tradItIonaI ]VbjaV
(extended !amIIy} networks and the !osterIng o! IocaI patrIotIsm In the vIIIages
and neIghborhoods proved an e!!ectIve tooI !or stoppIng or sIowIng the growth
o! a power!uI cIvII socIety that couId demand rIghts and equaI access to the cIty's
resources. It must aIso be saId that the Arab communItIes o!ten readIIy accepted
such poIIcIes, partIcuIarIy a!ter the traumatIc events o! the war and In IIght o!
new economIc opportunItIes o!!ered by IsraeII markets.
AIthough the IsraeII Iabor market was opened to aII occupIed PaIestInIans,
the mobIIIty o! West 8ank and Caza StrIp resIdents was severeIy restrIcted by
dIrect mIIItary ruIe. 8y comparIson, East ]erusaIemItes receIved IsraeII IdentIty
cards desIgnatIng them as "permanent resIdents" (not quIte cItIzens} o! IsraeI.
The resuItIng prIvIIeges-access to the IsraeII socIaI securIty system and !reedom
o! movement-Ied to more economIc opportunItIes. 8etween 1¤6) and 1¤8), East
126
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12)
EncIaves
ExcIaves
]erusaIem's popuIatIon grew !rom 68,ooo InhabItants to 1¤¤,ooo, a growth o!
1o¤% and dIsproportIonateIy hIgh I! compared wIth an overaII popuIatIon growth
o! 68% !or the entIre munIcIpaI area. ThIs growth was IargeIy !ueIIed by natu-
raI Increase (about ¤.¤% per year} and ImmIgratIon !rom the rest o! the West
8ank, and Caza, and many ]erusaIem resIdents who had Ie!t the cIty be!ore 1¤6)
returned to seek empIoyment opportunItIes. Cther !actors In the Increase IncIuded
the absorptIon by ]erusaIem vIIIages o! resIdents !rom the Hebron regIon and
West 8ank perIphery, and appIIcatIons !or IsraeII resIdency papers !or non-
]erusaIem ID-carryIng spouses and chIIdren.
<Wc_boHeb[WdZFem[h
In PaIestInIan ruraI tradItIon, Iand ownershIp determInes economIc resources
and the socIaI status o! the !amIIy. SaIe o! Iand was generaIIy !rowned upon,
IncIudIng saIes to neIghborIng !amIIIes or newcomers. The contInuaI !ear o! Iand
exproprIatIon and Ioss o! ]erusaIem IdentIty status, as weII as the !utIIIty o!
ñndIng aIternatIve housIng InsIde the cIty, has heIghtened thIs ImpuIse to secure
and preserve !amIIy Iand !or !uture generatIons. ThIs tendency has sIgnIñcant
consequences, as It !urther sIows processes o! urbanIzatIon by reducIng deveIop-
ment to prIvate housIng pro]ects and IImItIng the Iand avaIIabIe !or commercIaI
or IndustrIaI endeavors. The !amIIy-based system o! ownershIp equaIIy suppresses
reguIar market buyIng and seIIIng and InHates Iand prIces. As Iong as ]VbjaVh
preserve theIr terrItory In the vIIIages, no cIvIc and natIonaI Arab PaIestInIan
InstItutIons have the power and authorIty to IndependentIy InItIate and organIze
constructIon actIvItIes. IocaI tradItIonaI Ieaders, IncIudIng the bj`iVgh connected
to each vIIIage's ma]or !amIIIes, do not command aII o! the tooIs requIred to see
the communIty out o! ruraIIsm and Into seIectIve urbanIzatIon. The absence o!
a cIvIc socIety or an IntegratIve munIcIpaI or a natIonaI pIannIng regIme adds to
the growIng tensIons wIthIn the tradItIonaI structure o! beIongIng. The power o!
the extended !amIIy preserves prIvate Interests and Ieads to a "voIuntary" wIth-
drawaI !rom the Interests o! the pubIIc. Most vIIIage conHIcts erupt over Iand
boundarIes; these are settIed through medIatIon between !amIIIes wIth the heIp
o! trusted outsIders.

In IIeu o! thIs, there Is no Independent and democratIcaIIy
seIected body that vIIIagers IdentI!y wIth and that can provIde a suItabIe aIterna-
tIve to the IsraeII court system.
9bWiiFebWh_pWj_ed
]erusaIem-area vIIIages, IIke aII ruraI socIetIes, have been deepIy a!!ected by the
outward mIgratIon o! the educated mIddIe cIasses. In communItIes where trIbaI
vaIues !orm the basIs o! socIaI reIatIons, and cIass advancement and empIoy-
ment opportunItIes are IImIted, new generatIons o!ten seek re!uge In more urban
envIronments that have a hIgher degree o! toIerance and are open to absorbIng
new mIgratIon. The recent economIc recessIon and decIIne In ]ob opportunI-
tIes In IsraeI have Increased the vIIIage unempIoyment rate and addItIonaIIy
Impacted cIass InequaIItIes. The current trend Is a growIng poor undercIass. ThIs
trans!ormatIon In cIass structure wIII cause IncreasIng socIaI dIsparItIes wIthIn
PaIestInIan socIety and !urther wIden the gap between cItIes and vIIIages (KhamaIsI
and NasraIIah, 2oo¤}. IImIted socIaI mobIIIty between cIasses adds to the Iatent,
truncated and !aIse urbanIzatIon o! ruraI communItIes and !urther strengthens
socIaI IocaIIzatIon and trIbaIIsm, as weII as the stratIñcatIon o! PaIestInIan socIaI
groups In East ]erusaIem.
8DC8AJH>DC
The wIder geopoIItIcaI, terrItorIaI and demographIc conHIct has engendered a
process o! Iatent and !aIse urbanIzatIon In eastern ]erusaIem vIIIages. UrbanIza-
tIon In ruraI envIronments wIthIn the eastern ]erusaIem area Is characterIzed
by a dIchotomy between urban IIvIng standards and consumer behavIors on one
hand and socIocuIturaI behavIor based on tradItIonaI norms and prIncIpIes on
the other (HuntIngton, 1¤¤)}. The maIn IndIcator o! thIs seIectIve urbanIzatIon Is
popuIatIon growth. 8etween 1¤6) and 2oo2, the PaIestInIan popuIatIon In East
]erusaIem's vIIIages grew by 22¤% (as compared wIth a ]ewIsh popuIatIon growth
o! about 1¤2%, and growth In the entIre cIty o! 1ç6%} (Choshen, 2ooa} wIth an aver-
age naturaI Increase o! about ¤% per year. These demographIc characterIstIcs
ñt tradItIonaI ruraI communItIes, despIte that East ]erusaIem vIIIages are IargeIy
dependent on the urban space o! ]erusaIem. The tradItIonaI spatIaI modeI o!
]erusaIem's organIc vIIIages has radIcaIIy changed physIcaIIy Into a modeI more
sImIIar to that o! suburban communItIes, even as theIr socIaI and cuIturaI char-
acterIstIcs remaIn tradItIonaI.
1 ThIs medIatIon practIce Is caIIed the hja]V, It Incorporates agreed-upon communIty-monItored
payments and punIshments, and Is wIdeIy used to soIve aII kInds o! InternaI and externaI !amIIy
dIsputes.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
AdrIana AIIen, et aI., HjhiV^cVWaZJgWVc^oVi^dc/7g^Y\^c\i]Z<gZZcVcY7gdlc6\ZcYVh (Iondon:
UN-HabItat, DeveIopmentaI PIannIng UnIt, UnIversIty CoIIege Iondon, 2oo2}.
ArIeh Yehoshua 8en, "The CId and New CIty In the 1¤th Century," In HijY^Zh^c=^hidgnd[?ZgjhVaZb,
ed. Amnon Cohen (]erusaIem: Yad YItzhaq 8en TsvI, 1¤¤o, In ArabIc}.
Robert 8rooks, et aI., I]ZLVaad[6ccZmVi^dcVcY:meVch^dc/>ih>beVXidci]Z?ZgjhVaZb6gZV
(]erusaIem: IPCC, 2ooç}.
Maya Choshen, ed., HiVi^hi^XVaNZVgWdd`d[?ZgjhVaZb!'%!'%%'$'%%( (]erusaIem: The ]erusaIem
InstItute !or IsraeII StudIes, 2ooa}.
Mohammed AbduIIah Eben SaIeh, "The Trans!ormatIon o! ResIdentIaI NeIghborhoods: the Emer-
gence o! New UrbanIsm In SaudI ArabIan CuIture," 7j^aY^c\VcY:ck^gdcbZci ¤) (May, 2oo2}.
AmIram Conen, 7ZilZZc8^inVcYHjWjgWVc/JgWVcGZh^YZci^VaEViiZgchVcYEgdXZhhZh^c>hgVZa
(Avebury: AIdershot, 1¤¤ç}.
SamueI P HuntIngton, I]Z8aVh]d[8^k^a^oVi^dc (New York: Touchstone, 1¤¤)}.
Rassem KhamaIsI and RamI NasraIIah, eds., I]Z?ZgjhVaZbJgWVc;VWg^X (]erusaIem: IPCC, 2oo¤}.
Rassem KhamaIsI, "UrbanIzatIon WIthout CItIes: The Urban Phenomena Among the Arabs In
IsraeI," =dg^odc^c<Zd\gVe]n (2ooa}.
Nathan Marom, I]ZEaVcc^c\9ZVYadX`/EaVcc^c\Eda^X^Zh!AVcYGZ\jaVg^oVi^dc!7j^aY^c\EZgb^ihVcY
=djhZ9Zbda^i^dch^c:Vhi?ZgjhVaZb (]erusaIem: 8Imkom and Eer ShaIem, 2ooa}.
SaIIm TamarI, ed., ?ZgjhVaZb&.)-/I]Z6gVWCZ^\]Wdg]ddYhVcYi]Z^g;ViZ^ci]ZLVg (]erusaIem:
The InstItute o! ]erusaIem StudIes and 8adII Resource Center, 1¤¤¤}.
128
l
12¤
EncIaves
ExcIaves
gZ[aZXi^dchd[heVi^Va
egZhZciVi^dc^chjgWV]^g
6HIJ9N>CJH:
YehotaI ShapIra
Sur 8ahIr, Iocated In southeast ]erusaIem, was born In the sIxteenth century as
a smaII PaIestInIan agrarIan communIty, and graduaIIy deveIoped Into today's
neIghborhood o! 12,ooo InsIde the IsraeII ]erusaIem metropoIIs. ThIs essay wIII
trace the IandscapIng tradItIons and buIIdIng herI-
tages that characterIzed thIs trans!ormatIon and
Its InHuence upon contemporary East ]erusaIem
pIannIng con!rontatIons. ThIs tack dI!!ers !rom the
predomInant manner In IsraeI o! examInIng the
pIannIng o! PaIestInIan surroundIngs; usuaIIy these
anaIyses use a crItIque wIth a specIñc tra]ectory:
one movIng !orward, towards "progress" (]abarIn
m Iaw-Yone, 1¤¤8:68-)6}. In many cases, PaIestInIan
communItIes' tradItIonaI structuraI quaIItIes are
seen as ob]ects !or change or conservatIon vIa
the pro!essIonaI archItecturaI dIscIpIIne, despIte
that these quaIItIes are key to understandIng the
contemporary evoIutIon o! pIaces and theIr actuaI
possIbIIItIes.
ThIs essay wIII tIe archItecture and IandscapIng
to HaII's (1¤¤):1¤-)ç} arguments that representa-
tIons are part o! broader cuIturaI processes whIch
organIze, normaIIze, and gIve structure to the
worId, as crucIaI components In the creatIon o! common vaIues. As such, thIs
essay wIII gIve precedence to the !aIth and customs o! the communIty and Its
IndIvIduaIs In descrIbIng theIr reIatIonshIp between buIIdIng and cuIture. The
memorIes and the pIannIng probIems descrIbed were In!ormed by dIscussIons
wIth pIanner and VIIIage DeveIopment CommIttee head Hassan Abu AsIah and
VIIIage DeveIopment CommIttee member KhaIed Dabash.
³

AyaI (1¤¤¤} argues that IsraeII academIc wrItIng on "The Arab VIIIage" tends
to construct PaIestInIans as the dIstInct Cther. CertaInIy, new IsraeII wrItIng-no
Iess thIs essay-Is In danger o! reproducIng exIstIng power reIatIons wIthIn the
schoIarIy reaIm, repeatIng dIscrImInatIon agaInst PaIestInIans by creatIng new
versus oId perspectIves and hIerarchIes. AII too o!ten, anaIyses reen!orce Euro-
AmerIcan notIons and "utIIIze" the presence o! dIscrImInatIon as a pIat!orm !or
ConstructIon o! house exten-
sIon In Sur 8ahIr (photo: KhaIed
Dabash}
TradItIonaI Cttoman dweII-
Ing In Sur 8ahIr (photo: KhaIed
Dabash}
IntegratIon Into the InternatIonaI pro!essIonaI dIscourse. In IIght o! these dangers,
I argue that the meanIng o! such wrItIng IIes In the greater mutuaI understandIng
gaIned by examInIng PaIestInIan and IsraeII cuIturaI dI!!erences.
B:BDGN!=>HIDGN!6C9IG69>I>DC>CHJG76=>G
Sur 8ahIr has been InhabIted sInce the 16th century (Hutteroth and AbduI!attah,
1¤)):11)}. The vIIIage deveIoped aIongsIde the 8ethIehem-]erusaIem Intercourse,
and the ma]orIty o! Its houses were Iocated In caves away !rom agrIcuIturaI
Iands (HIrsch!eId, 1¤8):8a; Kark and Cren-NordheIm, 1¤¤ç:¤2a-¤2¤}. The Iand surround-
Ing the caves was orIgInaIIy used !or pasture Iand; over tIme It was cuItIvated
and ad]acent houses were buIIt o! IocaIIy-!ound stone.
³
Each nucIear !amIIy
InhabIted a one-room house encIrcIIng an Inner open-aIr courtyard used by the
entIre extended !amIIy. The house had very smaII wIndows and was aIso used
as a pIace !or agrIcuIturaI productIon and sheIter !or anImaIs. DomestIc areas
were separated !rom those used !or anImaI sheIter by graduated Inner pIat-
!orms connected wIth staIrcases.
The reIIgIous-cuIturaI need to shIeId women !rom pubIIc access, and the
requIrements o! de!endIng the communIty !rom marauders (untII the end o! the
1¤th century, the desert !rontIer near ]erusaIem was the sIte o! !requent cIashes
between vIIIages and 8edouIn raIds} dIctated Introverted constructIon (Canaan,
1¤¤¤:ç)-6¤; £uchs, 1¤¤8:8)-¤1; HIrsch!eId, 1¤8):ça-)8}. The InternaI courtyard had many
uses: storIng graIn, cookIng In a wood oven, pIayIng, washIng, o!!erIng hospI-
taIIty, and sheIterIng anImaIs. Its Hoor was made o! stone and trodden earth,
and aIong Its Iength were dItches that Ied water run-o!! to cIsterns, whIch were
Sur 8ahIr's onIy source o! water. When constructIon was InItIated around the
InternaI courtyard, the entIre extended !amIIy and the rest o! the vIIIage ]oIned
In the socIaI event (Canaan, 1¤¤¤:ç)-6¤}.
³

ThIs IntImacy wIth the earth InspIred echoes o! naturaI !orms In the buIId-
Ing cuIture. Structures contaIned rIgorous repetItIons o! the rectanguIar room
pIaced In heIght accordIng to the topography. These rectanguIar rooms, sIIghtIy
dIspIaced !rom each other, created rIch, muItIdImensIon !orms reHectIng the
surroundIng area, whIIe the roo! o! the home was a stone cross chamber remI-
nIscent o! a vauIted sky. The hIIIsIde terraces contInued Into the house, dIvIded
vertIcaIIy on dI!!erent pIateaus, adapted and varIed accordIng to the changIng
topography, each wIth Its own use. There was a naturaI progressIon outward
and no consIderatIon gIven to the ñnaI !rontaI vIew o! the sIte (ShapIra, 2ooa}.
ª

£rom the Iate 1¤th century onwards, Sur 8ahIr's buIIdIngs, spatIaI organIza-
tIon, and attItude towards the Iandscape began to change.
³
In paraIIeI, ]erusa-
Iem-area vIIIages' popuIatIon sIze Increased markedIy by the end o! the 1¤th
century (8en ArIe, 1¤8¤:)¤-8a}. ThIs process o! modernIzatIon was both InternaIIy
and eternaIIy motIvated. 8uIIdIng patterns and the IocatIon and status o! open
spaces were aItered: stretchIng !rom a tIghtIy-knIt vIIIage, Sur 8ahIr began to
extend aIong the nearby rIdges. The anImaIs were eIther removed !rom the
house aItogether, or Ie!t on the ñrst Hoor whIIe the IIvIng area was eIevated
to a second Hoor buIIt !rom chIseIed stones wIth Iarger wIndows In paIrs wIth
a supportIng arch above them. Iater, thIs second !Ioor adopted a "trIpIe"
1¤o
l
1¤1
EncIaves
ExcIaves
entranceway, characterIzed by two wIndows next to a door IeadIng out upon
a baIcony. At tImes, even a thIrd Hoor was constructed (Cren-NordheIm, 1¤8ç}. The
house was thus vIsuaIIy separated !rom Its surroundIngs.
Now the home and the courtyard had changed pIaces: the courtyard Iocated
at the center o! the house had moved to surround the domIcIIe. 8uIIdIngs were
newIy pIanned In the center o! the Iand pIot. Structures once buIIt In rIgorous
!unctIonaIIsm, where each was equaI to the others, began to represent the
IndIvIduaI In the pubIIc sphere through the use o! varIed chIseIed stones and
decoratIons. The !açade's appearance was not onIy a sIgn o! new technIque, but
o! aItered socIaI perceptIons; the IndIvIduaI was IncreasIngIy vIsIbIe and repre-
sented, rather than beIng subsumed wIthIn the wIder cIan. ThIs trans!ormatIon
addItIonaIIy sIgnaIed aItered perceptIons concernIng the expressIon o! status
and property ownershIp (ShapIra, 2ooa}.
Hassan Abu AsIah remembers that there were severaI !unctIonIng pubIIc
open spaces In Sur 8ahIr, each one Intended !or a separate extended !amIIy.
These were the new sItes o! socIaI events and communaI agrIcuIturaI actIvIty.
Wheat was processed In a dry, !enced-In area marked by the 8rItIsh survey
as the "threshIng !Ioor." PartIes were aIso heId here where guests danced
the YZW`V.
ª
WeddIng processIons began at the groom's house, coursIng aIong
the road to the ñrst crossroads above the Sur 8ahIr cemetery, where the
;Vi^]V
'
was read near the burIaI structures o! SheIkh Dawary's !amIIy (Canaan,
1¤2):a, 2¤}. An addItIonaI common pubIIc area was the hV]V, a buIIdIng used !or
the meetIng o! the men o! the extended !amIIy.
ª
ThIs practIce was upheId
untII the 1¤ços. AII o! the vIIIage's !amIIIes used the cemetery at the center
o! the vIIIage; SheIkh Dawary's !amIIy graves (a saInt's bVfVb} were one
Important pIace o! prayer.
°
These structures were destroyed at the behest o!
the MusIIm authorItIes, durIng a Iater perIod o! deIegItImatIon o! PaIestInIan
saInt worshIp.
AgrIcuIture was both a source o! work and the !oundatIon o! IeIsure, wIth
no separatIon between them (Canaan, 1¤28:1¤¤-1ao}. Hassan Abu AsIah descrIbes
hIs experIence: "In the oIIve-pIckIng season, aII the peopIe gathered outsIde
the house to harvest the oIIves. £or me as a chIId It was a unIque experIence,
cIImbIng [the oIIve treesj. We grew squash on the pIaIn [asj summer !ruIt. We
wouId make a tent and sIeep there !or three months [or In a cave or a shedj,
takIng the cat and the utensIIs and havIng a pIcnIc. We wouId work-gettIng up
In the mornIng and pIckIng oIIves-and we wouId aIso go to the market to seII
the produce and brIng home some money. £eeIIng the mornIng dew wettIng the
!eet was a reaI pIeasure."
³º
The occupatIon o! East ]erusaIem In 1¤6) and the annexatIon o! Sur 8ahIr
acceIerated the vIIIage's urbanIzatIon. ThIs process was accompanIed by
decreasIng agrIcuIturaI actIv ty.
³³
Two !orms o! agrIcuIture stIII take pIace In
the vIIIage. £Irst, oIIve groves are cuItIvated In the wadIs, In pIace o! prevIousIy
varIed crops. CIIve groves do not requIre a great deaI o! Iabor or a Iarge ñnancIaI
Investment, and theIr cuItIvatIon does not restrIct an urban exIstence. The oIIve
groves are aIso used !or maIntaInIng ownershIp over Iand whIch Is threatened
by IsraeII ]ewIsh settIement expansIon. Second, contemporary agrIcuIture
persIsts through domestIc husbandry, comprIsed o! carIng !or pIgeons and
chIckens, and the tendIng o! !ruIt trees aIongsIde ornamentaI growth (IsraeII
and Western attrIbutes are vIsIbIe In the bIoomIng pIants and grass watered by
IrrIgatIon hoses}.
8uIIdIng !orms !rom varIous eras exIst sIde by sIde In Sur 8ahIr, and are now
Interwoven-reIIcs o! caves sIt besIde houses wIth an Inner courtyard, whIch In
turn neIghbor structure-saturated, modern buIIdIng sItes. Important tradItIonaI
attrIbutes persIst wIth modern varIatIons: today, the wIder vIIIage partIcIpates
In constructIon, and unIts are added on to a maIn structure ("buIIdIng !rom the
InsIde"} accordIng to need. These eIements are Integrated Into contemporary
technoIogIes (take, !or exampIe, the home that rIses ñve storIes hIgh, In order
to house the growIng extended !amIIy, each nucIear !amIIy on a dI!!erent Hoor}.
IocaI motI!s such as vauIts appear !requentIy next to modern patterns, and aII
types o! stones and cuttIngs creates a!Huence In styIe and !orm. Inner dIvIsIons
are now horIzontaI, each room wIth Its own purpose. The tradItIonaI room !or
entertaInIng guests remaIns In nearIy every house.
The neIghborhood Is characterIzed by Iack o! o!ñcIaI pIannIng and Invested
resources, as weII as an abundance o! prIvateIy-drIven buIIdIngs. The resuIt Is
ad hoc, wIth resIdents turnIng prIvate structures Into educatIonaI buIIdIngs,
arrangIng theIr own access routes, deveIopIng roads wIth shared prIvate !und-
Ing, and so on. Caps arIse In IrrIgatIon, potabIe water, eIectrIcIty, and sewers.
£urthermore, the communIty su!!ers !rom constructIon that Iacks the usuaI
o!ñcIaI InspectIons reIated to sa!ety, ñre preventIon, earthquake prepared-
ness, and parkIng requIrements. ConverseIy, urbanIzatIon processes In Sur
8ahIr are deepIy a!!ected by reguIatIons Issued by the IsraeII pIannIng authorI-
tIes. The centraI probIem In the communIty today Is the Iack o! IegaIIy-buIIt
housIng, sInce IsraeII zonIng permIts constructIon onIy In the center o! the
vIIIage. In that area, upwards buIIdIng Is repIacIng the tradItIonaI horIzontaI
structure, swaIIowIng the urban !abrIc and IeavIng no room !or nostaIgIa or
reIIance on IocaI buIIdIng herItage. DespIte o!ñcIaI restrIctIons that crowd
buIIt-up areas, the neIghborhood does not have a sIngIe open pubIIc space
buIIt or maIntaIned by the munIcIpaIIty, to compensate !or the resuItIng
squeeze (It has as yet buIIt onIy a !ew pubIIc structures}. "The munIcIpaIIty
has the abIIIty to requIsIte Iands !or thIs purpose, and pIans were prepared !or
that matter," says Abu AsIah. "8ut thIs munIcIpaIIty does not want to Invest
In us and to deveIop the vIIIage."
In the vIIIage center, the crowded constructIon has InñItrated prIvate court-
yards. ResIdent £uad ]adaIah expIaIns that, IackIng any other aIternatIves !or
chIIdren to pIay, "we hang a swIng InsIde the house. Ten years ago, peopIe had
open courtyards; now there's no room." The pressure to buIId houses cIose
together has overrIdden the desIre !or protected outdoor areas !or women
and chIIdren. Nor has the crowdIng been stayed by the economIc beneñts o!
courtyard agrIcuIture. DIscrImInatory pIannIng pushes Sur 8ahIr resIdents to
buIId homes wIthout permIts, and as a resuIt, IIIegaIIy-buIIt homes are reguIarIy
demoIIshed by the munIcIpaIIty. Heaps o! rubbIe !rom demoIIshed homes scar
the neIghborhood, a vIsIbIe remInder o! the choked space.
1¤2
l
1¤¤
EncIaves
ExcIaves
I=:8A6H=D;>HG6:A>EA6CC>C<6C9E6A:HI>C>6C7J>A9>C<
The munIcIpaIIty orders that these homes be demoIIshed because o! a specIñc
IsraeII pIannIng perspectIve. ThIs perspectIve cannot aIIow a bIInd eye to be
turned to the subversIve act o! extensIve, IIIegaI PaIestInIan buIIdIng. Neverthe-
Iess, onIy a smaII portIon o! these orders are ImpIemented. I suggest that thIs
partIaI ImpIementatIon o! o!ñcIaI IsraeII poIIcy, seen aIongsIde Insu!ñcIent pIan-
nIng and Investment In PaIestInIan neIghborhoods, Is evIdence o! IsraeII con!u-
sIon and embarrassment about the ethIcs o! thIs poIIcy. The authorItIes' !ears
and dreams restrIct theIr abIIIty to acknowIedge dI!!erent communIty and natIon-
aI needs (see the reIated essay In thIs voIume by Naama MeIshar and YehotaI
ShapIra}. Moreover, the contradIctIon between IsraeII poIIcy and ImpIementatIon
Is a sIgn o! the IsraeII authorItIes' conHIcted poIIcIes concernIng PaIestInIans'
basIc human rIghts, and the !aIIures o! the IsraeII representatIon o! the seI! versus
the Cther In East ]erusaIem.
Put sImpIy, the authorItIes !aII to su!ñcIentIy and !aIrIy provIde !or the needs
o! these resIdents, and construct Instead a pIcture o! them as Iaw-breakers. The
Iack o! o!ñcIaI responsIbIIIty Ieaves these resIdents heIpIess, !orcIng them to
bypass IegaI obIIgatIons and posItIonIng them as a pubIIc !or whIch these IegaI
obIIgatIons do not appIy. ThIs undermInes the basIc moraI !oundatIon o! IsraeI's
democracy wIth aII Its ImpIIcatIons. 8ut the vast uncontroIIed constructIon aIso
exposes the !aIIure and Iack o! IogIc o! IsraeII pIannIng poIIcIes. DesIgned to con-
troI buIIdIng actIvItIes, the strIct ruIes have the opposIte e!!ect. IsraeII hegemony
over pIannIng and archItecturaI representatIon Is undermIned by the sheer energy
wIth whIch the urban !abrIc Is trans!ormed by the peopIe themseIves.
A centraI quaIIty o! Sur 8ahIr's buIIdIng cuIture Is Its !oundatIon In the consent
o! extended !amIIIes. ThIs quaIIty runs headIong Into IsraeII pIannIng poIIcy,
whIch Is conducted by a centraI sovereIgn authorIty managIng ownershIp over
most o! the state's Iand. The pIannIng authorIty decIdes on a "pro!essIonaI" basIs
the !astest way to settIe Iarge areas o! Iand wIth the maxImum amount o! con-
structIon and the greatest (]ewIsh} popuIatIon. Here, the pIannIng process occurs
!rom an aerIaI perspectIve and wIth a tautoIogIcaI vIew o! the resuIt. IsraeII
authorItIes then accuse the PaIestInIan pubIIc o! possessIng a "prImItIve" cuIture,
whIch Is responsIbIe !or not ñIIIng the gaps Ie!t by pubIIc pIannIng-I.e. the resI-
dents' "!aIIure" to turn prIvate Iand Into pubIIc schooIs, gardens, and so on. 8ut
pIannIng In areas prIvateIy owned by cIans who trans!er property by InherItance
and who rareIy seII Iand outsIde the !amIIy can onIy be based on consent between
the prIvate owners. In Sur 8ahIr, the resIdents dId not want to share knowIedge
about the subdIvIsIon o! ownershIp wIth the pIanners workIng !or the authorI-
tIes.
³³
There!ore, despIte theIr exIstence and use In the pre-modern and modern
era, pubIIc spaces are rareIy avaIIabIe. A decIIne In the tradItIonaI socIaI power
o! the extended !amIIy In !avor o! the needs o! nucIear !amIIIes and IndIvIdu-
aIs creates probIems !or the greater popuIatIon. A communIty's everyday basIc
necessItIes shouId dIrect pIannIng. I wouId argue that, aIongsIde dIscrImInatIon
and dIstress, the occupatIon has Introduced a partIcuIar mechanIsm o! pIannIng,
and a specIñc versIon and tempo o! modernIzatIon. Among the horIzons denIed
by the occupatIon Is the possIbIIIty o! creatIng a seI!-determIned mechanIsm o!
pIannIng and a seI!-InspIred tempo o! modernIzatIon. The dIverse cuIturaI !abrIc
o! ]erusaIem sets chaIIenges to contemporary pIannIng unIIke !ew cItIes In the
worId. In thIs context, the acknowIedgement o! specIñc representatIon and pre-
sentatIon o! cuIturaI dI!!erences and communItIes needs Is an essentIaI prerequI-
sIte to pIannIng and desIgn.
1 Abu AsIah Is the head o! the vIIIage's deveIopment commIttee. He worked as a pIanner In the
]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty durIng both ]ordanIan and IsraeII controI. Dabash has InItIated many
weI!are pro]ects In the vIIIage sInce the 1¤6os and has documented over years Sur 8ahIr's buIIdIng
herItage. I wouId IIke to thank Naama MeIshar !or her Important comments on thIs essay and !or
her partnershIp In the process o! recordIng some o! these memorIes.
2 These stones were not chIseIed. They were mInImaIIy cut In a styIe caIIed `]Vbn.
¤ AccordIng to ReIIIy (1¤81:¤1}, the coIIectIve organIzatIon o! the vIIIage or extended !amIIy was
manI!ested In common use o! varIous structures (such as ovens, a barn or a boardInghouse} (aIso
see RobInson, 1¤o):1o1}.
a ThIs anaIysIs was InspIred by the anaIysIs o! an A!rIcan vIIIage by T. T. MInh-Ha and ]. P. 8ourdIer
(1¤¤6} and by T. T. MInh-Ha usIng these apprehensIons o! cuIturaI crItIcIsm (MInh-Ha, 1¤¤2,
1¤¤¤}.
ç The vIIIage's deveIopmentaI processes and Its graduaI urbanIzatIon are evIdent In a comparIson
o! aerIaI photographs and maps o! the neIghborhood: In a PaIestIne ExpIoratIon £und map !rom
18)8, the vIIIage Is marked schematIcaIIy on the 8ethIehem-]erusaIem road. The vIIIage Is marked
In thIs map In a way that does not aIIow estImatIon o! Its sIze. Cther PaIestInIan vIIIages In the
]erusaIem area were marked In the same manner. In a map !rom 1¤¤¤ (scaIe 1:1o,ooo}, cIusters o!
houses can be seen aIongsIde the 8ethIehem-]erusaIem road. In a map !rom 1¤a¤ (scaIe 1:12ço},
It Is possIbIe to see how the buIIdIng In cIusters began to dIsperse towards the tIIIed agrIcuIturaI
Iands. Marks o! caves appear In the area, as weII as many waterhoIes between the houses and
severaI pIaces that served both !or cuItIvatIng wheat and as a pIace o! gatherIng !or !amIIIes !rom
the same cIan. Many buIIdIngs are marked on agrIcuIturaI Iands. The mosque grew ImmenseIy,
and severaI other common buIIdIngs can be seen. An aerIaI photograph !rom 2oo2 shows the
contInued urbanIzatIon process, partIcuIarIy aIong the maIn roads. An urban successIon Is evIdent
In extensIve areas, and there Is aImost no space (courtyard} between buIIdIngs. The buIIdIngs
themseIves grow both In wIdth and In heIght over tIme.
6 9ZW`V Is a dance customary durIng PaIestInIan weddIngs.
) The most promInent verse o! the Curan, whIch Is recIted at most ceremonIes. Today, vIIIage
weddIng processIons !oIIow the vIIIage streets, wIthout vIsItIng the IocaI shrIne.
8 In Sur 8ahIr there were at ñrst three maIn !amIIIes, each wIth Its own hV]V. Cver tIme, ten
dI!!erent hV]Vh deveIoped; today, one !amIIy has revIved the custom and uses onIy one hV]V !or
specIaI occasIons.
¤ A bVfVb, or shrIne o! a vIIIage saInt. Up untII the Iate 1¤2os, saInt shrInes were abundant
throughout PaIestIne as sItes o! pIIgrImage and prayer (Canaan, 1¤2):2} Sur 8ahIr's shrInes and
reIIgIous sItes IncIuded: SheIkh Dawary's d]amI; Cmar Ibn aI-Khattab (1)} (now the oId mosque
o! the neIghborhood}; es-Sh NenI (26} (now unknown}; es-Sh IsmaII (now known onIy as a
neIghborhood}; and es-Sh Suwan.(22} (an exIstIng cave, one part o! the neIghborhood caIIed a!ter
es-Sh Suwan} (22}; and the mosque/d]amI Cmar Ibn aI-Hattab (1)} (now the oId mosque o! the
neIghborhood}.
1o Sur 8ahIr was consIdered a ]erusaIem sateIIIte vIIIage. The vIIIage Is Iocated In the ñrst rIng
surroundIng the cIty, approxImateIy ñve kIIometers !rom the cIty center. Its agrIcuIturaI produce
was soId In the cIty's markets. (TamarI, 1¤¤¤:))-)8}.
11 Abu AsIah expIaIns: "Say I wouId wIsh to go back to [agrIcuIturej; It's not proñtabIe. The yard
[onIyj suppIements the househoId Income."
12 IocaI partIcIpatIon In the pIannIng process Is now recommended by the IsraeI authorItIes (IItzñeId,
1¤¤a} !or pIannIng In the Arab sector, becomIng a sIgnIñcant modeI !or pIannIng In IsraeI. PIannIng
by assent, as centraI to the PaIestInIan tradItIon, Is In !act partIcIpatory pIannIng. PartIcIpatIon o!
the IndIvIduaI In the envIronment Is aIso present In PaIestInIan buIIdIng cuIture where habItatIon
and buIIdIng are negotIated and shared wIth the extended !amIIy.
SeIected 8IbIIography
CII AyaI, "8en MIzrach vMaarav: HaSIcha aI 'HaK!ar HaAravI' bIIsraeI," TeorIa v8Iqoret
["8etween East and West: The DIscourse on the 'Arab VIIIage' In IsraeI," Theory and CrItIcIsmj
(TeI AvIv: Van Ieer ]erusaIem InstItute, HakIbbutze Hameuchad PubIIshIng House, 1¤¤¤}.
Yehoshua 8en ArIe, "San]ak YerushaIayIm bIShnot HaShevaIm sheI HaMea Ha-1¤," ["The San]ak o!
]erusaIem In the 18)os," Cathedra ¤6 (]erusaIem: Yad Izhak 8en ZvI, 1¤8ç}.
Tawñq Canaan, Mohammedan SaInts and SanctuarIes In PaIestIne (Iondon: Iuzak, 1¤2)}.
1¤a
l
1¤ç
EncIaves
ExcIaves
Tawñq Canaan, "PIant-Iore In PaIestInIan SuperstItIon," ]ournaI o! the PaIestIne CrIentaI SocIety
8 (1¤28}.
Tawñq Canaan. "The PaIestInIan Arab house-Its ArchItecture and £oIkIore (]erusaIem: SyrIan
Crphanage Press, 1¤¤¤}.
Ron £uchs. "Ha8eIt HaAravI HaEretz IsraeII: AIyun mIHadash" ["The PaIestInIan Arab House
ReconsIdered," Part 1 m 2, Cathedra 8¤-¤oj (]erusaIem: Yad Izhak 8en ZvI, 1¤¤8}.
Stuart HaII, "The Work o! RepresentatIon," In RepresentatIon: CuIturaI RepresentatIons and SIgnI-
!yIng PractIce (Iondon: Sage PubIIcatIons, 1¤¤)}.
YIzhar HIrsch!eId, 8eIt HaMegorIm HaEretz IsraeII bITqo!a HaRomIt 8IzantIt [DweIIIng Houses In
Roman and 8yzantIne PaIestInej (]erusaIem: Yad Izhak 8en ZvI, 1¤8)}.
WoI!-DIeter Hutteroth and KamaI AbduI!attah, HIstorIcaI Ceography o! PaIestIne, Trans]ordan,
and Southern SyrIa In the Iate 16th Century (ErIangen: £raenkIsche CeographIsche CeseIIscha!t,
1¤))}.
Ruth Kark and MIchaI Cren-NordheIm, ]erusaIem and Its EnvIrons Cuarters, NeIghborhoods,
VIIIages, 18oo-1¤a8 (]erusaIem: Magnes, Hebrew UnIversIty and IeIcester UnIversIty Press,
2oo2}.
Yose! ]abarIn and Hubert Iaw-Yone, PIannIng the Arab Towns In IsraeI (HaI!a: The TechnIon,
1¤¤8}.
IItzñeIed DaIIa, IItzñeIed NetaneI, TohnIt MItar CemIsha MadrIh IeThnon Ir Kayemet, MenhaI
HaTIhnon MIsrad HaPnIm, [£IexIbIe Statutory CIty PIan CuIde !or PIannIng ExIstIng Town, ]erusaIem
PIannIng AdmInIstratIon InterIor MInIstryj, 1¤¤a.
TrInh. ThI. MInh-Ha, CInema IntervaI (New York: RoutIedge, 1¤¤¤}.
TrInh-ThI-MInh-Ha, £ramer £ramed (New York: RoutIedge, 1¤¤2}.
TrInh-ThI-MInh-Ha and ]ean-PauI 8ourdIer, Drawn !rom A!rIcan DweIIIngs (8IoomIngton: IndIana
UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤6}.
MIchaI Cren-NordheIm, "EIn Karem - HItpathut HaShetah Ha8anoy" ["EIn Karem - DeveIopIng o!
the 8uIIt Area"j (semInar work, Department o! Ceography, Hebrew UnIversIty,1¤8ç}.
]ames ReIIIy, "The Peasantry o! Iate Cttoman PaIestIne," ]ournaI o! PaIestIne StudIes 1o (a} (1¤81}.
Ceorge Iees RobInson, VIIIage II!e In PaIestIne (Iondon: Iongmans Creen and Co, 1¤o)}.
SaIIm TamarI, ]erusaIem 1¤a8: The Arab NeIghborhoods and TheIr £ate In the War, (]erusaIem:
InstItute o! ]erusaIem StudIes B 8ethIehem: 8adII Resource Center !or PaIestInIan ResIdency and
Re!ugee RIghts, 1¤¤¤}.
ShapIra YehotaI, IsraeIIness and Space, A Case Study: Sata!: RepresentatIon and Cther SpatIaI
PossIbIIItIes as Sub]ectIve and CuIturaI Iandscape (M.A. thesIs, £acuIty o! HumanItIes, Hebrew
UnIversIty, 2ooa}.
=º' ·J `o·.''
|rc|ec| Crenzgecgra||en
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ZJOVVS
ZJOVVS
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TVZX\L
TVZX\L
ZJOVVS
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ZJOVVS
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TVZX\L
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0 50 100 150 200 250 me|ers
`.·c \''··
. ¯·'. 2JJ')
|csh and /par|men| 138 ¦ 139
1790
^hmad
1920
^hmad
1960
|a il
1968
uha a
2003
uha a
i
|a il
1790
^ha
1920
^ha
1960
|a il
1968
uha a
2003
uha a
i
|a il
1830
Mafai
1925
3hadi
1972
MahL ud
1830
Mafai
1925
3hadi
1972
MahL ud
´..· =º
. ¯·'. ´¯´J2JJ')
140 ¦ 141
The |rad|||cna| |a|es||n|an |am||v hcme |s |crmed
arcund a OVZO (ccur|vard) shared bv a mu|||
genera||cna| |am||v. Ownersh|p |s passed cn
|hrcugh pa|r|||near d|v|s|cn and |nher||ance,
serv|ng as |u|ure genera||cns' scurce c| s|ab||||v
and secur||v. The OVZO svs|em evc|ves gradu
a||v, based cn a pr|nc|p|e c| s|cw grcw|h. |||||e |s
ever demc||shed. Bu||d|ngs are added, ex|ended
cr upgraded |n acccrdance w||h |he spa||a|
needs and eccncm|c ab|||||es c| |he grcw|ng
|am|||es. Over ||me, |he OVZO beccmes dense
and ver||ca|, acqu|r|ng |crma| and arch||ec|ura|
ccmp|ex||v. The b|cgraphv c| OVZO and |am||v are
|n|er|w|ned and ||s arch||ec|ure re||ec|s |a|es||n
|an cu||ura| h|s|crv where h|s|cr|ca| and mcdern
bu||d|ng |rad|||cns pers|s| s|mu||anecus|v (|cr
examp|e, sc||d s|cne dcmes |rcm O||cman ||mes
were ex|ended w||h rec|angu|ar mascnrv c| |he
Br|||sh Vanda|e per|cd). Trad|||cna| sc||d ||me
s|cne s|ruc|ures have been rep|aced |cdav bv
cheaper s|cne c|add|ng cver mcdern re|n|crced
ccncre|e.
|csh and /par|men|
sestµdv
seenextoage
casestµdv
seenextoage
arcneologlcalexcavatlon
scnool
scnool
scnool
svnagogµe
oark
oark
scnool
(olannedI
scnool
(olannedI
oark
(olannedI
klndergarten
casestµdv
seenextoage
arcneologlcalexcavatlon
scnool
scnool
scnool
svnagogµe
oark
oark
scnool
(olannedI
scnool
(olannedI
oark
(olannedI
klndergarten
oollcestatlon
exoanslonareafor|ar|oma
oark
oark
klndergarten
(olannedI
commerclalcenter
(olannedI
oark
oark
klndergarten
(olannedI
commerclalcenter
(olannedI
exoanslonareafor|ar|oma
0 50 100 150 200 250 me|ers
|.º' ''''
=·. =· 2JJ')
|csh and /par|men| 142 ¦ 143
144 ¦ 145
The lsrae|| se|||emen| c| |ar |cma |s a s|a|e
|n|||a|ed and subs|d|zed hcus|ng prc|ec|,
acccmmcda||ng |n ||s ||rs| phase mcre |han
10,000 |nhab||an|s. l|s |avcu| and |crm |c||cw a
ccmb|ned |cg|c c| secur||v (c|rcu|ar w||h reduced
access pc|n|s a| |he h|||'s apex), s|andard|zed
ccns|ruc||cn |echn|ques (repe||||ve s|acked
un||s), access|b||||v bv car (undergrcund park|ng)
and pred|c|ed marke| demands (s|ze and |av
cu| c| un||s des|gned |cr vcung secu|ar m|dd|e
c|ass |am|||es). |c||cw|ng a |rad|||cn c| wes|ern
mcdern|s| p|ann|ng, arch||ec|s have assumed
an au|hcr||ar|an rc|e |n de|erm|n|ng, |n a s|ng|e
ges|ure, |he en||re|v c| |he urban env|rcnmen|,
|rcm arch||ec|ura| |crm and de|a|| |c |he des|gn
c| pub||c p|aces, schcc|s, ccmmerc|a| zcnes, e|c.
Th|s apprcach a||cws |||||e ||ex|b||||v |cr adap|
|ng |c res|den|s' needs. |as||rack, |cpdcwn
p|ann|ng a|sc serves |he s|ra|eg|c pc||||ca| a|m
c| rap|d|v es|ab||sh|ng |ac|s cn |he grcund |c
secure |err||cr|a| ccn|rc|.
|csh and /par|men|
|º'·' =º
=·. =· 2JJ')
nd regi lralion
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1 0
1 0 2 3 4 5
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0
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
70.000
80.000
10.000
0
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
Owner hip
regi lralion
Land regi lralion
complele
No planning
appeal proce
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Owner hip
regi lralion
complele
Need lo develop
lown planning
cheme
^ppeal procedure
if lown planning
cheme rejecled
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year
146 ¦ 147
Ccs|/dura||cn |cr lsrae|| |and|crds
Ccs|/dura||cn |cr |a|es||n|an |and|crds
|csh and /par|men|
¯'J· ·.ºº
º' ·J ¹
ln Jerusa|em, |he prcduc||cn c| urban space |s
s|rcng|v re|a|ed |c |he pc||||ca| and |ud|ca||ve
|nequa|||v |ha| ex|s|s be|ween Jew|sh and /rab
c|||zens. 1h||e Jew|sh lsrae||s rece|ve |ncen||ves
|c ren| cr purchase apar|men|s |n s|a|e|n|||a|ed
pub||c hcus|ng prcgrams, |a|es||n|ans are bc|h
exc|uded |rcm |hese prcgrams and den|ed |he
r|gh| |c bu||d cn |he|r cwn |and. \as| exprcpr|a
||cns prcgrams s|nce 1967 have drama||ca||v
reduced |a|es||n|an |and reserves. ln |he rema|n
|ng pccke|s c| pr|va|e |and, |a|es||n|ans are
sub|ec|ed |c a res|r|c||ve p|ann|ng reg|me r|dd|ed
w||h |ega| and ||nanc|a| hurd|es. ln manv cases,
prcper|v rema|ned unreg|s|ered and cu|s|de
mun|c|pa| p|ann|ng schemes. /s a resu||, |a|
es||n|ans rescr| |c |argesca|e |||ega| bu||d|ng.
/cccrd|ng |c lsrae|| es||ma|es, mcre |han ha|| c|
|a|es||n|an hcus|ng un||s |n Eas| Jerusa|em have
been ccns|ruc|ed w||hcu| bu||d|ng perm||s and
|hus are |hrea|ened w||h demc||||cn, a pc||cv |ha|
|s nc| app||ed |c |||ega| Jew|sh ccns|ruc||cn.
mukhlar
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road
alellile
leleviion
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upplie
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negolialewilh municipalily
upplie landline phone
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privale wale
colleclion
neighbour 1
neighbour 2
municipal
inpeclor
commillee 1
commillee 2
houe owner
policel
conlraclor
building
conlraclor
phone company
Eal 1erualem
public ervice
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road
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conlruclion
worker
developer
Minilry of |nlerior
Minilry of |nfralruclure
|raeli Land ^ulhorily
Municipalily
public ervice
Wel 1erualem
employworker
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landlin
^H[
landlin
|a|es||n|an ac|crs
|a|es||n|an ac|crs (ln|crma|/||ega| prccesses)
lsrae|| ac|crs
|a|es||n|an |n|ras|ruc|ures (ln|crma|/||ega|)
lsrae|| |n|ras|ruc|ures
|a|es||n|an |n|ras|ruc|ures
|a|es||n|an and Jew|sh ccns|ruc||cn |n Eas| Jeru
sa|em |nccrpcra|e prc|cund d|||erences |nd|ca
||ve c| ex|s||ng pcwer re|a||cns. 1h||e lsrae||
se|||emen|s are s|a|e|n|||a|ed and subs|d|zed
hcus|ng prc|ec|s, |a|es||n|an ccns|ruc||cn |s
exc|uded |rcm mun|c|pa| |nves|men|. The cwner
c| a dwe|||ng bu||| w||hcu| a bu||d|ng perm||
|cr examp|e re||es cn a ccmp|ex, sem||crma|
|am||v and ne|ghbcrhccd suppcr| svs|em |cr
ccns|ruc||ng rcad ex|ens|cns cr |app|ng |n|c
ex|s||ng wa|er, e|ec|r|c||v, cr sewage ne|wcrks,
as we|| as ccnduc||ng pragma||c negc||a||cns
w||h |he lsrae|| au|hcr|||es. Vanv |a|es||n|ans pav
h|gh mun|c|pa| |axes cn |||ega||vbu||| s|ruc|ures
|n |he hcpe c| even|ua||v |ega||z|ng |hem. |cr
|he same reascn, |||ega||vbu||| s|ruc|ures c||en
|c||cw lsrae|| bu||d|ng des|gn cr||er|a. 1herever
pcss|b|e, lsrae|| |ega| |ccphc|es are exp|cred.
|a|es||n|an mun|c|pa| |rash cc||ec|crs cr bus
dr|vers |requen||v |gncre |he ru|es bv serv|c|ng
|||ega| bu||d|ngs cr areas cu|s|de |he mun|c|pa|
bcundar|es.
|csh and /par|men|
º'.' ·.ºº
|'.·'
148 ¦ 149
|milalion oCslone arches
decoralive crenellalions
|milalion oCcircular
slone window
Mashrabiya
|milalion oCvernacular building Corms
3loped rooCs
wilh shingles
TransCer oCmodern
conslruclion lechniques
|milalion oCruslic
brick works
Bevcnd |crma| and cu||ura| d|||erences wh|ch
a||cw |he |mmed|a|e e|hn|c |den||||ca||cn c|
an lsrae|| cr |a|es||n|an hcme, Jerusa|em
a|sc shcws hcw |he presence c| |he c|her |s
negc||a|ed |hrcugh arch||ec|ura| means. 1||h
c|cse exam|na||cn, an amb|va|en| re|a||cnsh|p
|s revea|ed. lsrae|| bu||d|ngs |nc|ude e|emen|s
c| |a|es||n|an vernacu|ar arch||ec|ure¬a rus||c
s|cne ||n|sh, arched w|ndcws cr |he s|mu|a||cn c|
age |hrcugh des|gn ges|ures. /| |he same ||me,
|a|es||n|an hcmes are be|ng mcdern|zed and
ex|ended us|ng wes|ern ccns|ruc||cn |echn|ques
(bu||| as ccmpac|, mu|||s|crev dwe|||ngs w||h
|||ed rcc|s) and equ|pped w||h lsrae|| app||ances.
|ere, |he prcx|m||v |c lsrae|| cu||ure |s res|s|ed as
a cc|cn|a| |n||uence, and adm|red as a w|ndcw
cn mcdern||v and 1es|ern |||es|v|es.
|csh and /par|men|
`.'''.
`J·o'·'º
150 ¦ 151
Ccncep| and ccpvr|gh|
T|m R|en|e|s, |h|||pp V|sse|w||z
Scurces
|rc|ec| Crenzgecgra||en (ln|erna||cna| |eace and Cccpera||cn
Cen|er l|CC Jerusa|em, Beza|e| /cademv c| /r| and 0es|gn Jeru
sa|em, 0n|vers||v c| |he /r|s Ber||n, ET| Sw|ss |edera| lns|||u|e
c| Technc|cgv Zur|ch), ;YPSH[LYHS:[\KLU[>VYRZOVWZ (Jerusa|em,
20032005).

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East Jerusa|em's fragmented spat|a| un|ts re|y cn
an extens|ve |nfrastructure fcr access, supp|y, and
prctect|cn. 1he Israe||-Pa|est|n|an ccnf||ct has prc-
duced a set cf typc|cg|es that s|mu|tanecus|y ccn-
nect and separate d|fferent spaces. A h|ghway ||nk-
|ng suburban sett|ements d|rect|y tc the bcdy cf the
c|ty |s a|sc a barr|er fcr Pa|est|n|ans ||v|ng a|cng the
rcad whc have nc access tc |t. S|xty k||cmeters cf
the Separat|cn wa||/Fence |n the Jerusa|em area,
|ust|f|ed tc prctect Israe|| c|t|zens frcm attacks,
ccntcrts thrcugh space, ||nk|ng Israe|| areas wh||e
s||c|ng thrcugh the Pa|est|n|an scc|ceccncm|c fab-
r|c. Mcre cften, hcwever, the strateg|c agenda cre-
at|ng barr|ers and gateways |s h|dden beh|nd the
seem|ng|y ben|gn cb|ect|ves cf urban p|ann|ng. As
a resu|t, urban space beccmes susp|c|cus and |nse-
cure, fue|||ng b|as and m|strust.
heZXiZghd[iZggdg
Stephen Craham
New York: September 11, 2oo1; MadrId, March 11, 2oo¤; Iondon, ]uIy ), 2ooç-the
Iegacy and specter o! catastrophIc terror haunt the coIIectIve unconscIous o!
Western cItIes In the earIy 21st century. C! course, terrorIsm In Western cItIes Is
nothIng new. A Iong hIstory o! domestIc terror campaIgns In the West has been
!ueIIed by subnatIonaI Independence struggIes or Ie!t-RIght IdeoIogIcaI battIes.
8ut due to the scaIe o! theIr operatIons, the cuIture o! martyrdom shared by theIr
voIunteers, and the transnatIonaI dIasporIc character o! the communItIes !rom
whIch those voIunteers come, IsIamIst terror networks and theIr ImItators caII
Into questIon the deepest underIyIng assumptIons about Western urbanIsm.
Such attacks add !urther Impetus to an aIready paIpabIe mIIItarIzatIon o! urban
space In many Western cItIes, !ueIIed by socIaI poIarIzatIon, urban sprawI, the pro-
II!eratIon o! !ortIñed encIaves, and an IntensI!yIng cuIture o! !ear. Moreover, these
recent attacks have Ied to wIdespread caIIs, especIaIIy !rom rIght wIng commenta-
tors, !or the radIcaI redesIgn o! the physIcaI, technIcaI and socIaI archItectures o!
cItIes In order to ñght the "new enemy wIthIn." A!ter ¤/11, !or exampIe, many US
urban commentators caIIed !or an acceIeratIon o! sprawI and an end to skyscraper
constructIon so that IconIc urban targets were Iess IIkeIy to attract sImIIar attacks.
Across the ma]or cItIes o! the Western worId, poIIcy-makers addressIng transport,
ImmIgratIon, urban desIgn, archItecture, communIty poIIcIng, and socIaI poIIcy
have suddenIy been !orced to concern themseIves wIth how theIr work mIght
become "counter-terrorIst."
8ut who exactIy Is thIs "enemy wIthIn"? And "wIthIn" what exactIy does thIs
aIIeged enemy exIst? Can rethInkIng cItIes reaIIy prevent catastrophIc terror
attacks? And what mIght the possIbIe dangers be In attemptIng to rethInk urban-
Ism so as to apprehend thIs "enemy"? In what !oIIows, I wIII expIore three key
poInts that, I argue, need to be centraI to any dIscussIon on the IInks between
terrorIsm and contemporary Western cItIes.
IG6CHC6I>DC6AJG76C>HB!IG6CHC6I>DC6AI:GGDG
My ñrst poInt Is that terror attacks are, In theIr own way, horrIñc moments that
reveaI some o! the compIex dynamIcs o! "transnatIonaI urbanIsm"-as MIchaeI
Peter SmIth termed It (SmIth, 2oo1}. Such attacks reveaI the porosIty o! Western
urban sItes to the transnatIonaI networks that crosscut and constItute them, as
much as any gIobaI ñnancIaI marketpIace, cuIturaI medIascape, tourIst experI-
ence or commodIty chaIn. DIsa!!ected and radIcaIIzed IsIamIsts, eIther dIrectIy
IInked to transnatIonaI terror groups, or usIng TV and the Internet to ImItate
the Iatter's tactIcs, become convInced that martyrdom wIII avenge Western and
IsraeII mIIItary assauIts on the everyday sItes, spaces and IIves o! MusIIm cItIes
and theIr resIdents. Internet sItes heIp to propagate the extreme IdeoIogIes o!
the martyrdom, dehumanIzatIon, and hatred needed to recruIt potentIaI attackers.
8e they second or thIrd generatIon cItIzens o! Western natIons, or vIsItors wIth
temporary vIsas or ImmIgratIon documents, attackers do not requIre access to
substantIaI mIIItary hardware. In theIr eyes, cItIes, partIcuIarIy Western cItIes,
consIst o! and are constItuted by an InñnIte number o! "so!t targets."
Thus, aIrpIanes hI]acked by a !ew terrorIsts wIeIdIng box cutters become
suIcIdaI cruIse mIssIIes, whIch, when care!uIIy Hown Into the worId's Iargest
modernIst structures, brIng about devastatIon akIn to a tactIcaI nucIear attack.
The worId's TV networks, zoomed In on Manhattan, provIded the per!ect !orm
o! transmIssIon !or the terrorIsts' message as It broadcast the second pIane's
Impact "IIve" across the gIobe: you are our target and nowhere Is sa!e. InvarIabIy
crowded buses, subways and suburban traIns provIde conñned spaces where
devastatIon, bIoodshed, and medIa !renzy can be maxImIzed. The very bodIes o!
the perpetrators become both per!ect camouHage and per!ect weapon, mIngIIng
unnotIceabIy Into the vast ebb and How o! the contemporary, gIobaIIzed cIty.
Smart new technoIogIes IIke the Internet and mobIIe phones provIde trIggers
(as wIth MadrId ¤/11}, as weII as the means to pIan and coordInate attacks, acquIre
technIcaI In!ormatIon on bomb-makIng, and deIIver trIumphant propaganda a!ter
the !act. When extended to tourIst sItes o! IeIsure and pIeasure (as wIth the
two sets o! attacks In 8aII}, the purpose Is cIear: to undermIne notIons o! bodIIy
sa!ety and securIty-an essentIaI eIement o! Western urbanIsm-and to promuI-
gate the !ear that the banaI sItes, spaces, and technoIogIes o! the WesternIzed
cItyscape can erupt In orgIes o! death and destructIon at any moment, regardIess
o! geographIc IocatIon.
I=:9>A:BB6HD;JG76C6CI>I:GGDG>HB
My second poInt Is that once peopIe become radIcaIIzed to the poInt o! commIttIng
themseIves to urban suIcIde attacks, the prospects o! preventIng those attacks
are IImIted. ImprovIng the e!!orts o! securIty agencIes to generate InteIIIgence
that wouId make It possIbIe to Intercept attackers be!ore they strIke, o!!ers the
best ImmedIate hope !or undermInIng !urther attacks. WhIIst there have been
some successes In thIs area, ImprovIng InteIIIgence Is extremeIy dI!ñcuIt. WIth
many attackers apparentIy ImItatIng the broader IdeoIogIes and tactIcs o! aI-Caeda
and theIr IIke, and attackers wIth Western cItIzenshIps voIunteerIng !or the ]ob
(as wIth Iondon )/)}, It Is aII too easy !or attacks to be pIanned usIng readIIy
avaIIabIe materIaIs and In!ormatIon wIthout beIng detected. However, Western
poIIce and InteIIIgence agencIes couId certaInIy Improve theIr coordInatIon, and
gatherIng and exchange o! In!ormatIon, thereby ImprovIng theIr chances o! Inter-
ceptIng attackers be!ore they strIke.
Ma]or e!!orts are currentIy underway to reengIneer strategIc urban spaces and
In!rastructures so that they are equIpped wIth IncreasIngIy sophIstIcated surveII-
Iance systems. Many precedents appIy here. The ñnancIaI center o! Iondon, !or
1ç6
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8arrIers
IInks
exampIe, was wrapped In a "RIng o! SteeI" durIng the 1¤¤os to counter IRA bomb
attacks. Roads were cIosed and a "waII" o! smart CCTV sensors was strung up
around the area. These automatIcaIIy scan !or "abnormaI" events such as stoIen
cars beIng drIven In or cars drIvIng the "wrong way" down a one-way street.
The post-¤/11 surveIIIance surge may enabIe known terrorIst suspects to be
tracked more easIIy. "De!ensIve" urban desIgn can heIp to mInImIze the damage
o! terrorIst bombIngs on strategIc urban spaces. £or exampIe, metaI detectors
can heIp to secure vuInerabIe buIIdIngs but there are no "quIck ñxes" and "sIIver
buIIets" when the popuIatIon wIIIIng to commIt terrorIst attacks Is utterIy IndIs-
tInguIshabIe !rom the generaI popuIatIon o! a cIty or state.
Then there are the !undamentaI permeabIIItIes and aImost InñnIte compIexI-
tIes o! contemporary cItIes. These InevItabIy undermIne sImpIe technIcaI soIu-
tIons to possIbIe terrorIst attacks. TechnoIogIes !aII or do not work as Intended.
Systems aIways have bIInd spots. The human vIgIIance that backs up technoIo-
gIes wavers, a weakness that can be expIoIted by determIned attackers. Moreover,
the !act that the very !abrIc o! a cIty Is made up o! what terrorIsts regard as
"so!t targets," makes It extremeIy dI!ñcuIt to de!end agaInst determIned attacks
that have reached the IaunchIng poInt. The hopes attached to emergIng technoIo-
gIes, too, may be !aIse. £ace-recognItIon CCTV, !or exampIe, whIch Is beIng
heraIded by mIIItary and securIty technoIogy companIes as a means to track
known suspects, Is onIy e!!ectIve when peopIe stand In IIne In decent IIghtIng
condItIons and can be care!uIIy scrutInIzed at what socIoIogIsts caII "obIIgatory
passage poInts" (In aIrports or sports stadIums, !or exampIe}. In the ]umbIe o!
cIty streets, wIth rapIdIy varyIng weather, IIght and !acIaI angIes-!ace recognI-
tIon Is rather Ine!!ectIve.
£urthermore, the unpIanned sIde e!!ects o! radIcaI urban antIterrorIst poII-
cIes mIght be extremeIy damagIng !or urban II!e In the broader sense. Attempts
to turn the mêIée o! cItIes Into a system o! securItIzed poInts o! passage where
every person Is observed, scrutInIzed and matched up to !acIaI and/or other ID
databases, couId quIckIy make urban II!e untenabIe and IntoIerabIe. Success!uI
cItIes, a!ter aII, are based on the !reedom to move and Interact, on the power o!
serendIpItous contact and on the sheer creatIve capacIty o! dense and unpredIct-
abIe mIxture. The worry here, then, Is that attempts wIII be made by govern-
ments (and the securIty-mIIItary-IndustrIaI compIexes whIch have burgeoned
sInce the advent o! the "war on terror"} to reengIneer cItIes so that theIr porous,
open and IntrInsIcaIIy HuId spaces and systems become IIttIe more than an end-
Iess serIes o! securItIzed passage poInts (eIther vIsIbIe or InvIsIbIe}. I! thIs were
to happen, the mIIIennIa-oId tradItIon o! urban anonymIty wouId be sacrIñced.
The very vIbrancy that marks aII success!uI cItIes mIght sImpIy be engIneered
away. DemocratIc cIvII IIbertIes attaIned through socIaI and poIItIcaI struggIe
over centurIes mIght be abandoned In the name o! "ñghtIng terrorIsm." WIth
the mantra o! "securIty" creepIng over every domaIn o! pubIIc II!e and pubIIc
poIIcy-prevIousIy domInated by other concerns such as urban desIgn, socIaI weI-
!are, ImmIgratIon poIIcy, transportatIon management and cIty pIannIng-there
Is a reaI rIsk that wIth the excuse o! stoppIng terrorIsts, the very processes o!
Interchange, InterconnectIon, prIvacy, poIItIcaI organIzIng, and the socIaI and
1
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democratIc InnovatIon that make cItIes IIvabIe, dynamIc, creatIve, and success!uI,
mIght be serIousIy undermIned.
Chances are, though, that the e!!ort to "securItIze" every domaIn o! pubIIc
II!e mIght be hampered by an unIIkeIy source: bIg busIness. Indeed, I! borders
and movement wIthIn and between cItIes were to be pIaced under an ever-Inten-
sI!yIng armory o! contInuous checks and excIusIons, the mobIIIty and !reedom
requIred by transnatIonaI urbanIsm and gIobaI capItaIIsm may aIso be severeIy
undermIned. SInce ¤/11, many US corporatIons have compIaIned that they
have su!!ered ma]or Iosses by not beIng abIe to brIng In empIoyees, a!ñIIates,
recruIts, and coIIeagues !rom around the worId due to the extreme tIghtenIng o!
US natIonaI borders. 8ut radIcaI urban securItIzatIon strategIes InvoIve another
ma]or rIsk. The reIIance o! Western Iaw en!orcement and InteIIIgence agencIes on
crude proñIIng technIques, whIch pIace cItIzen and resIdent Arabs and MusIIms
under extreme scrutIny, restrIctIon and, In some cases, detentIon wIthout trIaI,
has In many cases served to deepen the sense o! grIevance, margInaIIzatIon, and
crImInaIIzatIon aIready !eIt In these communItIes. CoupIed wIth the wIdespread
demonIzatIon o! Arabs and MusIIms In HoIIywood movIes and maInstream West-
ern medIa, many peopIe IIvIng In Arab neIghborhoods In Western cItIes !eeI IIke
they have been IIvIng In a state o! sIege sInce ¤/11. £acIng rIsIng racIst vIoIence,
arson and murder, as weII as IncreasIng repressIon at the hands o! securIty
!orces, many In such communItIes !eeI that they are branded as terrorIsts even
though they condemn terrorIst attacks and may have Iong been workIng to
reduce the power o! radIcaI IsIamIst IdeoIogIes and recruItment networks.
:C9>C<I=:8>G8A:D;6IGD8>IN4
In the end, then-and thIs Is my thIrd poInt-the onIy sustaInabIe way o! prevent-
Ing catastrophIc terror attacks agaInst Western cItIes and theIr resIdents Is to
address the grIevances whIch make It possIbIe In the ñrst pIace !or radIcaI IsIamIst
IdeoIogIes and IdeoIogues to success!uIIy recruIt and radIcaIIze Iarge numbers o!
actIvIsts and attackers. There Is vIrtuaIIy no known hIstory o! technIcaI or mIII-
tary assauIt success!uIIy endIng a terrorIst campaIgn. In the Iong run, onIy poIItIcaI
and geopoIItIcaI change, whIch address poIItIcaI and geopoIItIcaI In]ustIces, can
reduce the number o! recruIts and render vIoIence IIIegItImate among those who
mIght otherwIse have expIIcItIy or ImpIIcItIy condoned It. Moreover, quasI-
ImperIaI mIIItary assauIts agaInst cItIes or states aIIegedIy harborIng "terrorIsts"
onIy resuIt In the deaths o! thousands o! Innocent cIvIIIans and-as even the CIA
has admItted In the case o! the US-UK InvasIon o! Iraq-serve as massIve recruIt-
ment aIds to terrorIst and Insurgent groups.
Here a grIm Irony presents ItseI!, one that urbanIsts are In a good posItIon to
spot. TerrorIst acts agaInst Western cItIes and theIr InhabItants mIrror prevaIent
Western poIIcIes o! InHIctIng catastrophIc vIoIence upon MusIIm and Arab urban
centers and theIr InhabItants. C! course, the means o! deIIverIng the vIoIence
couId not dI!!er more starkIy: "smart bombs" and "cIuster bombs" vs. the corpo-
reaI ImmedIacy o! the suIcIde bomber; Iaser and CPS targetIng vs. Ione perpetra-
tors boardIng a traIn, pIane or bus; medIa-obsessed "shock and awe" campaIgns
orchestrated vIa sateIIIte vs. Iow-grade propaganda web sItes and graIny vIdeo
16o
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!ootage o! murdered cIvIIIans, "martyrs," and "vIctorIous" attacks on "InñdeIs."
8ut both share deep sImIIarItIes. 8oth strategIes target the everyday urban spaces
and systems o! the "enemy" IndIscrImInateIy In order to pro]ect symboIIc vIoIence
and coercIve power aImed at mass medIa consumptIon. 8oth eIther deIIberateIy
try to kIII as many Innocent cIvIIIans as possIbIe, or caIIousIy dIsregard the InevI-
tabIIIty that many Innocent cIvIIIans wIII dIe. £InaIIy, on both sIdes, the compIex
socIaI and cuIturaI !abrIcs !orged by the dynamIcs o! transnatIonaI urbanIsm are
systematIcaIIy Ignored so that such cItIes can be essentIaIIzed, demonIzed and
dehumanIzed as preIudes to vIoIent attacks agaInst them. Thus, state terror begets
hoIy terror (and vIce versa}. A cIrcIe o! atrocIty emerges wIth both sIdes procIaImIng
themseIves as rIghteous vIctIms seekIng revenge and ]ustIce through vIoIence. And
the everyday sItes, symboIs, and In!rastructures o! the cIty become the key targets
o! thIs new !orm o! transnatIonaI, networked war!are.
The reaI chaIIenge, then, Is not to securItIze cItIes agaInst ImmInent terror-
Ist attacks. Rather, It Is to assert the power, strength, vaIue, and InevItabIIIty o!
a mIxed-up transnatIonaI urbanIsm In the !ace o! both vIoIent natIonaIIst and
ImperIaIIst pro]ects and extremIst reIIgIous IdeoIogIes. CnIy then mIght the racIst
!oreIgn poIIcIes o! Western states, wIth theIr catastrophIc targetIng o! MusIIm
and Arab cItIes and theIr resIdents, and the reIgn o! hoIy terror promuIgated by
aI-Caeda and theIr ImItators, be eradIcated.
The pIace to start Is the crucIaIIy Important acknowIedgement that, In an
IntenseIy gIobaIIzIng and urbanIzIng worId, transItIonaI urbanIsm wIII InevItabIy
create cItIes, whIch are hybrId and InñnIteIy compIex ]umbIes o! dI!!erence. (Craham
(ed.}, 2ooa} ThIs Ieads to ñve concIudIng poInts. £Irst, In thIs worId, aII notIons o!
natIonaI, ethnIc, or reIIgIous purIty-IncIudIng the crude and IncendIary notIon o!
an "enemy wIthIn" some putatIveIy homogenous ImagIned communIty-amount
to caIIs to vIoIence. Second, aII attacks agaInst the urban everyday spaces o!
transnatIonaI, mIxed-up cItIes wIII end In the kIIIIng and In]urIng o! peopIe !rom
a vast kaIeIdoscope o! natIonaI, ethnIc, socIaI, and reIIgIous communItIes. ThIrd,
In such a worId, the onIy hope Is a transnatIonaI cIvII socIety, whIch works to
margInaIIze extremIst and vIoIent natIonaI, ethnIc, and reIIgIous IdeoIogIes.
£ourth, such a socIety can onIy be based on the key buIIdIng bIocks o! the dIverse
and "mongreI" urban spheres that are key to our gIobaIIzIng age. (Sandercock, 2oo¤}
And ñ!th, success!uI transnatIonaI cItIes can demonstrate that the dIversItIes o!
thIs worId can coexIst wIth somethIng akIn to coIIectIve toIerance (or at Ieast In
a state where InevItabIe !rIctIons and grIevances need not spIraI catastrophIcaIIy
Into dehumanIzatIon and cycIes o! atrocIty}. Destroy and erode thIs crucIaI roIe
o! cItIes through over-zeaIous antI-terrorIst campaIgns In the West and MIddIe
East, and the dance o! death wIII onIy gaIn momentum.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
MIchaeI Peter SmIth, TransnatìonaI Urbanìsm, (8IackweII, 2oo1}.
Stephen Craham (ed.}, Cìtìes, War and Terrorìsm (8IackweII, 2ooa}.
IeonIe Sandercock, CosmopoIìs II: MongreI Cìtìes ìn the 2ist Century (ContInuum, 2oo¤}.
_ZgjhVaZb/[gdbh^Z\Z
idVX^in¼hXdaaVehZ4
Rassem KhamaIsI and RamI NasraIIah
The Issue o! IsraeI's constructIon o! encIrcIIng cement waIIs, !encIng, patroI
roads, and guard towers around PaIestInIan popuIatIon centers, has headed the
PaIestInIan-IsraeII agenda !or the past two years. IsraeI vIews the separatIon
waII as a unIIateraI step Intended to counter bombIngs agaInst IsraeII cIvIIIans
and domestIc InsecurIty. IsraeI's cIaIms, however, that the waII was constructed
!or securIty reasons, does not constItute a poIItIcaI border, and serves as a
temporary measure untII the concIusIon o! an agreed-upon soIutIon, are aII
mereIy pretexts to ]ustI!y the waII's constructIon. In !act, the waII !oIIows the
]une a, 1¤6) borders In some areas, whIIe penetratIng deep InsIde the West 8ank
(IgnorIng the 1¤6) borders} to IncIude IsraeII settIement zones and vast open
areas-e!!ectIveIy annexIng them to IsraeI. The waII-or the "!ence," as most
IsraeIIs pre!er to re!er to It, avoIdIng the word "waII's" negatIve connotatIons (In
most buIIt-up areas, the structure consIsts o! a sIx to eIght meter hIgh cement
waII, whIIe In open areas the structure consIsts o! a !ence; there Is no substantIaI
dI!!erence between the two In securIty measures, surveIIIance, and operatIng
patroIs}-aIms at separatIng PaIestInIans !rom IsraeIIs In the process o! exproprI-
atIng a great deaI o! Iand. In ]erusaIem and Its surroundIngs, however, the waII
separates PaIestInIans !rom PaIestInIans and amputates East ]erusaIem !rom Its
dIrect envIrons, severIng the cIty geographIcaIIy and !unctIonaIIy !rom the rest
o! the West 8ank, thereby termInatIng ]erusaIem's centraIIty as a metropoIItan
center !or the entIre West 8ank.
Most IsraeIIs support the constructIon o! the waII, sayIng It o!!ers them
securIty and psychoIogIcaI reIIe!.

The reaIIty Imposed by the waII makes It
hard to beIIeve, however, that the structure wIII not become the eastern border
o! the state o! IsraeI, and that Its path wIII not unIIateraIIy demarcate poIItIcaI
borders, determInIng the area o! the PaIestInIan state wIthout negotIatIons over
permanent status Issues (access to water resources, ]erusaIem as PaIestInIan
CapItaI, return o! re!ugees, etc.} estabIIshed by the 1¤¤¤ CsIo Accords. PaIestIn-
Ians poInt out that the waII constItutes one more annexatIon o! PaIestInIan Iands
to IsraeI, and that the resuItIng IsoIatIon o! the PaIestInIan popuIatIon !rom the
IsraeII settIements and unInhabIted PaIestInIan Iands wIII be permanent. A!ter
aII, hIstorIcaI experIence has taught them that temporary borders, emergIng !or
securIty reasons or to consoIIdate ceaseñres, have Iater become concrete borders
representIng geopoIItIcaI terms o! re!erence, even under InternatIonaI Iaw.

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Here we wIII brIeHy overvIew the concept o! the waII's constructIon, posItIon,
and ramIñcatIons In ]erusaIem. ThIs work Is based on ongoIng deveIopments In
the ]erusaIem area, as weII as IntervIews and surveys conducted to expIore the
waII's present and !uture consequences on ]erusaIemIte II!e, the possIbIIIty o!
reachIng a poIItIcaI settIement based on a two-state soIutIon, and ]erusaIem's
status under such a settIement.
7:;DG:I=:L6AAL6H7J>AI
The Arab-IsraeII conHIct has Iong been accompanIed, sInce Its evoIutIon In the
ñrst haI! o! the 2oth century, by proposItIons to demarcate borders that "sepa-
rate" the authentIc PaIestInIan Arab popuIatIon !rom the ImmIgrant ]ewIsh
popuIatIon.

The current structure underway Is one more Iayer o! physIcaI
dI!!erentIatIon.
IsraeI's 1¤6) occupatIon o! the West 8ank and Caza, and the InstItutIon o!
dIrect mIIItary ruIe there, gaIvanIzed domestIc caIIs !or separatIon !rom PaIestIn-
Ians, expressed !rom the Ie!t as caIIs to end the occupatIon, and !rom the rIght as
pressure to "dIsappear" the PaIestInIan popuIatIon. The ñrst IntI!ada (1¤8)-1¤¤¤}
renewed these caIIs and ñnaIIy resuIted In IsraeI's wIIIIngness to accord the PaI-
estInIans autonomy as a step towards the possIbIe estabIIshment o! a PaIestInIan
state. The motIve was both demographIc and geographIc; poIItIcaI and pubIIc
voIces sought to !urther entrench an overwheImIng ]ewIsh ma]orIty In IsraeI
(PaIestInIans comprIse some 2o% o! IsraeII cItIzenry} wIthout the threat o! an
expandIng PaIestInIan popuIatIon In the CccupIed TerrItorIes. They recognIzed
that contInuIng annexatIon and controI o! the PaIestInIan popuIatIon wouId not
preserve the ]ewIsh ma]orIty !or the Iong term.
8ut the most concIusIve and wIdespread support !or "separatIon" !rom PaIes-
tInIans came a!ter 1¤¤6. 8ombIngs In IsraeII cItIes by PaIestInIan suIcIde bombers
raIsed the Issue o! physIcaI separatIon !rom the PaIestInIans vIa estabIIshment o!
a separatIon !ence as one o! the ma]or means o! achIevIng IsraeII securIty, con-
troIIIng PaIestInIan movement, and maIntaInIng a ]ewIsh demographIc ma]orIty
In the areas under dIrect IsraeII controI. 8y 2oo2, the physIcaI components o!
separatIon had been dra!ted by a group o! center-Ie!t !ormer mIIItary Ieaders.

TheIr pIan IncIuded substantIaI wIthdrawaIs !rom IsraeII settIements In Caza and
the West 8ank and drew the Ire o! the rIght wIng, whIch saw any !ormaI dIvIsIon
o! the broad reIIgIous concept o! the Iand o! IsraeI as a concessIon. EventuaIIy,
however, rIght wIng PrIme MInIster ArIeI Sharon was convInced o! both the need
!or drastIc measures to haIt the demographIc threat, as weII as the manner In
whIch physIcaI separatIon couId be used to achIeve !urther West 8ank annexatIon,
partIcuIarIy In ]erusaIem, and pursue the goaIs o! the rIght.
The second IntI!ada, known as the aI-Aqsa IntI!ada, broke out In the wake o!
!aIIed IsraeII-PaIestInIan negotIatIons at Camp DavId In 2ooo, and ArIeI Sharon's
provocatIve vIsIt to ]erusaIem's Haram ash-SharI! or "TempIe Mount." AIthough
negotIatIons dId contInue at Taba, these taIks came to a haIt In 2oo1 on the eve o!
the IsraeII eIectIons, ]ust be!ore the Iabor Party's Ioss to IIkud Ieader ArIeI Sharon.
The comIng months wouId mark the bIoodIest perIod o! the uprIsIng, capped by
the IsraeII army's InvasIon o! PaIestInIan areas, IncIudIng PaIestInIan West 8ank
1
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cItIes admInIstered by the PaIestInIan AuthorIty and pIaced under PaIestInIan
securIty controI (Areas A} In accordance wIth InterIm agreements.
£oIIowIng the IsraeII InvasIon, poIItIcaI ñgures caIIIng !or the estabIIshment o!
a separatIon waII took center stage, and Its ImpIementatIon was popuIarIzed. In
2oo¤, the pIan was adopted by the government, when Sharon capItuIated (despIte
hIs earIy opposItIon} to the Idea's poIItIcaI popuIarIty. Sharon's sIogan became: I!
such a separatIon waII Is ImperatIve, then It must besIege PaIestInIans, rather than
PaIestInIans usIng It to besIege IsraeI. ThIs vIsIon was !undamentaI In determInIng
the path o! the waII, whIch Incorporated severaI crucIaI poIItIcaI prIncIpIes.
£Irst, the waII's path wouId be determIned by Its demographIc goaI: the route
was to IncIude the most IsraeIIs, even those In IsraeII settIements, and the smaIIest
possIbIe number o! PaIestInIans. Second, Its path wouId !oIIow terrItorIaI IInes In
order to achIeve the de!acto annexatIon o! any possIbIe unInhabIted Iands. ThIrd,
the waII was to once and !or aII estabIIsh IsraeII controI over unIñed Creater ]eru-
saIem, brIngIng West ]erusaIem out o! Its margInaI perIpheraI state, and repIacIng
the concept o! "unIñed ]erusaIem" wIth that o! Creater ]ewIsh ]erusaIem. MaaIe
AdumIm to the east and Cush EtzIon to the south-west wouId become the new
IsraeII ]erusaIem boundarIes, stretchIng the cIty Into the West 8ank more deepIy
than ever be!ore. Next, the waII, even as It separated the West 8ank and PaIestInIans
!rom ]erusaIem, was to !urther Incorporate the West 8ank settIements and settIers
wIthIn IsraeI by IInkIng them to ]erusaIem (now Creater ]ewIsh ]erusaIem} and
!acIIItatIng theIr traveI. £InaIIy, the waII wouId bar PaIestInIan entry Into IsraeI,
IncIudIng the How o! permItted Iaborers, whIch has sIowed to a trIckIe sInce 1¤¤¤,
and whIch IsraeI has saId wIII come to a compIete haIt by the year 2oo8.
I=:L6AA>C?:GJH6A:B
InspectIon o! the ImpIemented and pIanned path o! the waII In and near ]eru-
saIem shows that the crIterIa guIdIng the estabIIshment o! the separatIon waII
between PaIestInIans and IsraeIIs In ]erusaIem are dI!!erent !rom those appIIed
In the West 8ank In generaI. In ]erusaIem, the waII's path has not been guIded by
the 1¤6) Creen IIne (UN-admInIstered armIstIce IIne between IsraeI and ]ordan,
1¤a8-1¤6)}, rather penetratIng deep Into the CccupIed PaIestInIan TerrItorIes.
The resuIts mean the de!acto annexatIon o! aII Creater ]erusaIem settIement bIocs,
spannIng an area o! 1o% to 16% o! the West 8ank. In essence, the waII concre-
tIzes the 1¤)os pIannIng concept o! metropoIItan ]erusaIem, whIch estabIIshed
roadways and servIces !or hIghIy popuIated settIements on the perIphery o! the
]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty. NatIonaI and regIonaI tra!ñc arterIes are IncIuded on the
IsraeII sIde o! the waII, !acIIItatIng traveI between East ]erusaIem settIements
and Creater ]erusaIem settIements, and IInkIng them wIth West ]erusaIem and
centraI IsraeI. Caps that IIe between the ]erusaIem-area settIements have been
annexed to those settIements; MaaIe AdumIm, !or one, has been expanded so that
Its borders span over ç¤,ooo dunams (1 dunum = 1ooo square meters}; Its area
now rIvaIs that o! TeI AvIv, and merges wIth the munIcIpaI borders o! ]erusaIem.
The E-1 PIan, !or whIch Iand has been prepared, wIII estabIIsh a settIement neIgh-
borhood north o! MaaIe AdumIm comprIsed o! ¤,çoo resIdentIaI unIts, West 8ank
poIIce headquarters and a new 8order PoIIce base.
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As such, ]erusaIem's crucIaI and hIstorIc roIe as the West 8ank's geographIc and
!unctIonaI metropoIItan center, aIready IImIted by IsraeI's checkpoInt regIme and
cIosure poIIcy (begun In March 1¤¤¤}, wIII dramatIcaIIy recede. The waII wIII repIace
the checkpoInts as a nearIy ImpermeabIe means o! controIIIng ]erusaIemItes' move-
ment to and !rom theIr own neIghborhoods, as weII as the rest o! the West 8ank.
The Iong-term outcome wIII certaInIy be a
reductIon In the number o! PaIestInIans who are
]erusaIem resIdents, the separatIon o! PaIestIn-
Ian exIstence !rom the ]ewIsh metropoIIs, and
the !ragmentatIon and decIIne o! PaIestInIan
]erusaIem neIghborhoods. Many PaIestInIan
]erusaIemIte neIghborhoods wIthIn the munIcI-
paI borders (Ku!r Aqab and SamIramIs In the
north, Ras KhamIs, and Shu!at re!ugee camp and
DahIyat es-SaIaam In the east} were pIaced out-
sIde the waII In order to reduce the PaIestInIan popuIatIon wIthIn the waII. These
neIghborhoods north and east o! the CId CIty are InhabIted by nearIy çç,ooo
PaIestInIan ]erusaIemItes. In addItIon, an unknown number o! PaIestInIan ]eru-
saIemItes (estImates IIe at ao,ooo to 6o,ooo} contInue to IIve outsIde ]erusaIem's
munIcIpaI border. IsraeII poIIcy Is aImed at revokIng these PaIestInIans' resIdency
rIghts In the cIty and the waII wIII ease the IsraeII goaI o! IdentI!yIng and then
strIppIng these PaIestInIans o! theIr IdentIty documents.
¹8DC8G:I>O>C<ºI=:H>:<:D;E6A:HI>C>6C?:GJH6A:B
IsraeI began constructIng the waII north and south o! East ]erusaIem In 2oo2,
buIIdIng two segments, each ten kIIometers Iong. ThIs ñrst phase was compIeted
In ]uIy 2oo¤. In the meantIme, IsraeI began buIIdIng three other segments east
and northwest o! the cIty, !or a totaI Iength o! aç kIIometers. £urthermore, In
£ebruary 2ooç, the IsraeII government approved the de!acto annexatIon o! MaaIe
AdumIm to the east o! East ]erusaIem by buIIdIng a waII approxImateIy ao kIIom-
eters Iong around the settIement. ConstructIon o! the waII, by November 2ooç,

Incorporated 12 border "gates" (!or the entIre West 8ank} operated seIectIveIy on
natIonaI/ethnIc grounds: IsraeII settIers are granted quIck passage whIIe PaIestIn-
Ians may onIy pass wIth a specIaI permIt and a!ter rIgorous checkIng.
The waII Impacts PaIestInIans most dIrectIy,
It Is Important to poInt out, because It Is beIng
buIIt on PaIestInIan Iand. ApproxImateIy ç¤6,2oo
dunams o! prevIousIy conñscated settIement
Iand IIe to the west o! the waII. Another 16o,çoo
dunams o! West 8ank vIIIage Iand Is partIaIIy or
compIeteIy surrounded, on one sIde by the waII
and on the other by a secondary barrIer, and
usuaIIy not made accessIbIe to Its Iandowners.
These areas aIone totaI 12.a% o! the area o! the West 8ank. Moreover, at pubIIca-
tIon tIme, another 2oç,¤ço dunams west o! the waII was sIated !or conñscatIon
wIth the approvaI o! the IsraeII government. ThIs Iand grab aggravates the pIan-
In!ormaI checkpoInt at Abu
DIs be!ore compIetIon o! the
SeparatIon £ence/WaII (photo:
]örg CIäscher, 2ooa}
SeparatIon £ence/WaII at Abu
DIs (photo: ]örg CIäscher, 2ooa}
nIng crIsIs that aIready exIsts In East ]erusaIem (as part o! the West 8ank} and
Its hInterIands; resIdentIaI expansIon Is !orcIbIy concentrated and vertIcaI, wIth-
out proper pIannIng, and wIthout approprIate In!rastructure, road networks, and
coIncIdIng open areas.
CtherwIse, the waII Is InarguabIy the most harm!uI change made to ]erusaIem's
socIaI !abrIc sInce IsraeI occupIed the cIty In 1¤6). It serves as a tooI !or !rag-
mentIng and dIsmemberIng PaIestInIan ]erusaIem neIghborhoods. £or exampIe,
the waII runs straIght down the center o! the maIn road IInkIng RamaIIah wIth
]erusaIem, begInnIng !rom CaIandIya re!ugee camp and endIng In northern 8eIt
HanIna. ThIs portIon o! the waII separates Ar-Ram, DahIyat aI-8areed, and north-
east 8eIt HanIna !rom north 8eIt HanIna. Moreover, It severs SheIkh ]arrah, Ras
aI-Amud, ]abaI aI-Mukaber, and As-Sawahra aI-CharbIya neIghborhoods !rom aI-
EzarIya, Abu DIs and SheIkh Saad neIghborhoods. 8eyond thIs physIcaI dIsñgure-
ment, the waII wIII stand between members o! the same nucIear and extended
!amIIy, and resIdents o! the same town. As a resuIt, PaIestInIan socIety, whIch
Is based on extended !amIIy reIatIons, Is !acIng a perIod o! socIaI !ragmentatIon
where reIatIves are unabIe to vIsIt each other and the usuaI communaI probIem-
soIvIng wIII become more dI!ñcuIt.
SeveraI years ago, ]erusaIem's economy represented one-!ourth to one-thIrd
o! the entIre West 8ank market. Today, however, East ]erusaIem wIthIn the waII
Is beIng trans!ormed Into a !ew !ragmented neIghborhoods a!ñIIated wIth West
]erusaIem and IsraeI. SImuItaneousIy, the urban center and poIItIcaI heart that
has deveIoped unwIIIIngIy In RamaIIah and aI-8Ireh competes wIth ]erusaIem.
The contInuatIon o! ]erusaIem's IsoIatIon !rom Its surroundIngs threatens any
possIbIIIty that ]erusaIem couId become the capItaI o! the PaIestInIan state.
Moreover, the waII wIII undermIne contIguIty between the northern and
southern PaIestInIan West 8ank, repIacIng geographIc contIguIty wIth a trans-
portatIon route. IsraeI pIans to IInk the north and south West 8ank wIth a
road passIng through an arId unInhabIted area, thereby bypassIng ]erusaIem.
No Ionger wIII West 8ankers vIsIt ]erusaIem !or IeIsure, medIcaI treatment,
pIIgrImage, or even as a way-stop on to other West 8ank sItes. As such, the
waII constItutes a geopoIItIcaI [V^iVXXdbea^ preventIng ]erusaIem's deveIop-
ment as a PaIestInIan economIc and admInIstratIve center, weakenIng the cIty,
and ImpoverIshIng Its cItIzens (8rooks et. aI., 2ooç}. The cIty's urban eIIte may
weII choose to Ieave the cIty, !urther IsoIatIng ]erusaIem's poor. UItImateIy,
securIty and socIaI InstabIIIty, Increased poverty and crIme can be expected
In ]erusaIem wIthIn the waII.
6EDA>I>86AEGD<CDH>H
The constructed and pIanned segments o! the waII In the ]erusaIem area are
Intended to reaIIze demographIc ob]ectIves (ensurIng a ]ewIsh demographIc
ma]orIty In ]erusaIem and the area annexed to It wIthIn the waII}, terrItorIaI
ob]ectIves (annexatIon o! addItIonaI PaIestInIan Iands !or the !ree movement o!
IsraeIIs and expansIon o! theIr Interests}, and "so!t" ethnIc cIeansIng (ensurIng
and consoIIdatIng IsraeIIs' II!e !abrIc, whIIe !ragmentIng PaIestInIans' II!e !abrIc
and uItImateIy !orcIng PaIestInIans to emIgrate}.
168
l
16¤
8arrIers
IInks
The waII has been buIIt In accordance wIth the specIñcatIons requIred !or a
!ormaI border. It IncIudes a waII, eIectrIc and barbed-wIre !ences, border patroI
roads, and crossIngs that cannot be traversed wIthout permIts Issued !rom the
IsraeII sIde. IsraeI has presented thIs waII as a temporary securIty barrIer that
can be dIsmantIed In case o! a poIItIcaI settIement wIth PaIestInIans. 8ut the
reaIIty Is very dI!!erent: the Immense Investment In the waII, the consIderatIons
made In determInIng Its path, and the settIement schemes accompanyIng It,
IntImate that the waII Is an Imposed permanent border !uIñIIIng IsraeI's Interests
and contradIctIng the most basIc human rIghts, Iet aIone the PaIestInIan natIonaI
rIght to estabIIsh theIr capItaI In ]erusaIem In accordance wIth a peace!uI two-
state soIutIon.
The waII Is a geopoIItIcaI settIement Imposed by IsraeI. It Is the ñnaI phase o!
the separatIon process that began on the eve o! the CsIo Accords wIth the erectIon
o! checkpoInts IsoIatIng ]erusaIem !rom Its PaIestInIan envIronment. The waII
wIII render It nearIy ImpossIbIe to conduct geopoIItIcaI taIks concernIng ]erusaIem,
or to make the cIty an open cIty wIth two capItaIs !or two states-West ]erusaIem
as the capItaI o! the State o! IsraeI, and East ]erusaIem In accordance wIth the
1¤6) borders as the capItaI o! the !uture State o! PaIestIne. In !act, It Is possIbIe
to argue that, whIIe the symboIIc Importance o! ]erusaIem !ormed a barrIer to
reachIng a bIIateraI soIutIon In the past, the new reaIIty Imposed by IsraeI, In the
!orm o! the waII and annexatIon o! Creater ]erusaIem, Is a new physIcaI barrIer
to the peace!uI exIstence o! two states.
1 EdItors note: accordIng to the PubIIc CpInIon NatIonaI SecurIty Survey 2ooa, conducted by the
]a!!a Center !or StrategIc StudIes (]CSS} 8o% o! the IsraeII respondents supported the SeparatIon
£ence/WaII (see aIso: http://www.tau.ac.II/]css/surveyoa.pd!}.
2 £or exampIe, the 1¤a¤ truce IIne became known as the Creen IIne or the ]une a, 1¤6) border,
whIch Is the border that partItIoned ]erusaIem Into two parts: an eastern part under ]ordanIan
admInIstratIon and sovereIgnty, and a western part under IsraeII sovereIgnty, whIch IsraeI pro-
cIaImed as Its capItaI.
¤ EdItors note: !or more on thIs sub]ect, see the essay "WaII and Tower: The MoId o! IsraeII
6Yg^`]Vaji," by Sharon Rotbard In thIs voIume.
a AddItIonaIIy, In 2ooo the government o! Ehud 8arak had dra!ted a pIan !or unIIateraI separatIon
In case o! the !aIIure o! the Camp DavId taIks between PrIme MInIster 8arak and PaIestInIan
PresIdent Yasser Ara!at.
ç WhIIe IsraeI had expected to compIete the northern portIons o! the ]erusaIem waII by the cIose
o! 2ooç, hIgh court appeaIs by PaIestInIans IIvIng aIong the course o! the waII sIowed the process.
At the tIme o! pubIIcatIon, the IsraeII de!ense estabIIshment was !umIng that deIays had resuIted
In the compIetIon o! onIy one-thIrd o! the entIre waII's Iength, !ar behInd the pro]ect's target
compIetIon date.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
Robert 8rooks et. aI., I]ZLVaad[6ccZmVi^dcVcY:meVch^dc/>ih>beVXidci]Z?ZgjhVaZb6gZV
(]erusaIem: The InternatIonaI Peace and CooperatIon Center, 2ooç}.
Rassem KhamaIsI and RamI NasraIIah, ?ZgjhVaZbdci]ZBVe (]erusaIem: The InternatIonaI Peace
and CooperatIon Center, 2ooç}.
Yaacov Carb, I]ZHZeVgVi^dc7Vgg^ZgVcY?ZgjhVaZb»h6gVWCZ^\]Wdg]ddYh/>ciZ\gViZdgHZeVgViZWji
9dc¼iEdhiedcZ (]erusaIem: The £IoersheImer InstItute !or PoIIcy StudIes, 2ooç}.

)
(
9
9
0
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9
:
3
0
5
2
:
East Jerusa|em's fragmented spat|a| un|ts re|y cn
an extens|ve |nfrastructure fcr access, supp|y, and
prctect|cn. 1he Israe||-Pa|est|n|an ccnf||ct has prc-
duced a set cf typc|cg|es that s|mu|tanecus|y ccn-
nect and separate d|fferent spaces. A h|ghway ||nk-
|ng suburban sett|ements d|rect|y tc the bcdy cf the
c|ty |s a|sc a barr|er fcr Pa|est|n|ans ||v|ng a|cng the
rcad whc have nc access tc |t. S|xty k||cmeters cf
the Separat|cn wa||/Fence |n the Jerusa|em area,
|ust|f|ed tc prctect Israe|| c|t|zens frcm attacks,
ccntcrts thrcugh space, ||nk|ng Israe|| areas wh||e
s||c|ng thrcugh the Pa|est|n|an scc|ceccncm|c fab-
r|c. Mcre cften, hcwever, the strateg|c agenda cre-
at|ng barr|ers and gateways |s h|dden beh|nd the
seem|ng|y ben|gn cb|ect|ves cf urban p|ann|ng. As
a resu|t, urban space beccmes susp|c|cus and |nse-
cure, fue|||ng b|as and m|strust.
WVgg^Zgh!lVaah!VcYjgWVc
Zi]cdXgVXn^c_ZgjhVaZb
Cren YI!tacheI and HaIm YacobI

Some 1,2oo kIIometers o! securIty !ence/separatIon waII have aIready been buIIt,
consIstIng o! 6o-to-1oo-meter-wIde compIexes o! trenches, barbed wIre, trackIng
roads, and eIectronIc !ences In ruraI areas, and 8 meter hIgh concrete waIIs In
and around PaIestInIan towns and cItIes. Cver 2oo,ooo dunums (1 dunum = 1ooo
square meters} o! PaIestInIan Iand are to be a!!ected, I.e. exproprIated, cIeared,
or decIared "out o! bounds" to West 8ank PaIestInIans. The constructIon o! thIs
barrIer, coupIed wIth recent mInor IsraeII terrItorIaI wIthdrawaIs o! Iate, constItute
the State o! IsraeI's Iatest attempts to manage the growIng contradIctIons o! Its
"ethnocratIc" regIme.
These contradIctIons, whIch erupted In !uII !orce durIng the aI-Aqsa IntI!ada
(sInce 2ooo}, have moved IsraeI to unIIateraIIy trans!orm the Iandscape and
!urther curtaII PaIestInIan rIghts, IncIudIng the rIght to deveIop. 8ut IsraeI has
aIso Introduced IImIts to Its own expansIon, IncIudIng the voIuntary evacuatIon
o! the ]ewIsh settIements o! the Caza StrIp. These spatIaI and poIItIcaI "ad]ust-
ments" are acceIeratIng the process o! "creepIng apartheId" In IsraeI-PaIestIne.
A poInt crItIcaI anaIysts o!ten overIook Is the dIaIectIcaI nature o! spatIaI and
poIItIcaI change. A "bIInd spot" o! sorts Ieads many to portray the PaIestInIans
chIeHy as passIve vIctIms o! IsraeII aggressIon, both In the un!oIdIng o! IocaI
hIstory and In the geographIcaI trans!ormatIon o! the Iand. Yet PaIestInIan agency
In generaI, and vIoIent actIon In partIcuIar, pIay a ma]or roIe In the shapIng o!
ZIonIst-PaIestInIan spatIaI reIatIons. ThIs dIaIectIc manI!ests as ever-radIcaIIzIng
PaIestInIan resIstance and ever-escaIatIng IsraeII oppressIon, causIng ever-growIng
IeveIs o! human mIsery, maInIy, but not excIusIveIy, among PaIestInIans. ThIs
dIaIectIc Is asymmetrIcaI, wIth the ]ewIsh State yIeIdIng !ar greater mIIItary and
economIc power than Its stateIess PaIestInIan counterparts.
The barrIer's route runs entIreIy through PaIestInIan occupIed terrItory keepIng
the ma]orIty o! ]ewIsh settIers on the "IsraeII sIde," e!!ectIveIy annexIng 1o-16%
o! the West 8ank to IsraeI. When compIete, It may or may not Improve ]ewIsh
securIty, but It wIII have grave consequences !or the PaIestInIans: some 21o,ooo
peopIe wIII be caught between the barrIer and the Creen IIne (UN-admInIstered
armIstIce IIne between IsraeI and ]ordan, 1¤a8-1¤6)}, cut-o!! !rom theIr Iands
and theIr IIveIIhood. IsraeI's Intent to surround many settIements wIth a mInI
"securIty" barrIer means that more PaIestInIan Iand wIII be IIIegaIIy seIzed to
protect settIements buIIt on IIIegaIIy seIzed PaIestInIan Iand.
1)o
l
1)1
8arrIers
IInks
:I=CD8G68N
Iet us Introduce the concept o! "ethnocracy," whIch aptIy descrIbes regImes
!ound In contested terrItorIes where a domInant ethnIc group utIIIzes the state to
!urther Its expansIonIst aspIratIons, whIIe maIntaInIng the sembIance o! a !ormaI
democracy. EthnocratIc regImes are typIñed by hIgh IeveIs o! oppressIon over
IndIgenous, and (to a Iesser extent} ImmIgrant mInorItIes. IndIgenous groups
and mInorItIes, In turn, usuaIIy deveIop varIous !orms o! resIstance around
Issues o! Iand controI and settIement, whIch o!ten essentIaIIze IdentItIes and
poIarIze spatIaI and poIItIcaI systems !urther. TypIcaIIy, gaps between the state's
"democratIc" seI!-presentatIon and persIstIng oppressIon deveIop Into "ñssures"
wIthIn the ruIIng hegemony and destabIIIze the regIme.
As wIth most ethnocratIc pro]ects, the ]ews In IsraeI InItIaIIy beneñted greatIy
!rom terrItorIaI expansIon. UntII the Iate 1¤8os, IdentIty, and economIc and terrIto-
rIaI goaIs reIn!orced one another. The IsraeII conquest and occupatIon o! the West
8ank and Caza, and the coIonIaI settIements estabIIshed In those terrItorIes,
strengthened ]ewIsh natIonaI IdentIty and In!used the expandIng economy wIth
a Iarge pooI o! cheap Iabor and "!ree" Iand. IsraeI has used an e!!ectIve doubIe
dIscourse. DomestIcaIIy It has presented the PaIestInIan occupIed terrItorIes as
part o! the "eternaI ]ewIsh homeIand," thereby IncIudIng ]ewIsh settIers In those
terrItorIes as !uII state cItIzens, despIte the !act that they IIve outsIde the o!ñcIaI
bounds o! the state. At the same tIme, InternatIonaIIy, IsraeI has presented the
same occupIed terrItorIes as "temporarIIy admInIstered," thereby excIudIng theIr
PaIestInIan resIdents !rom poIItIcaI partIcIpatIon, IeavIng them powerIess to
shape the !uture o! theIr own homeIand.
IIke other ethnocratIc regImes, IsraeI has begun to !ace the contradIctIons o!
Its system. These sur!aced wIth the suppressIon the ñrst IntI!ada (1¤8)-1¤¤¤},
and the resuItant poIarIzatIon between the PaIestInIan cItIzens o! the state and
the ]ewIsh ma]orIty, and between reIIgIous and secuIar ]ews, over the !uture o!
the PaIestInIan occupIed terrItorIes and the character o! the State o! IsraeI. CIven
the depth o! ethnocratIc thInkIng In IsraeI and ]ewIsh !ears !ed by a hIstory o!
persecutIon, the e!!ects o! renewed PaIestInIan vIoIent resIstance, together wIth
antI-]ewIsh rhetorIc, caIIs !or the "IIberatIon o! the whoIe o! PaIestIne," and the
specter o! PaIestInIan re!ugees returnIng to IsraeI proper, have been potent, I!
predIctabIe. SInce the second IntI!ada (2ooo-2ooç}, most IsraeII ]ews have cIosed
ranks, stIgmatIzed the entIre PaIestInIan popuIatIon as "terrorIstIc," IegItImIzed
pubIIc debate on "trans!errIng" PaIestInIans !rom theIr homeIand, and shI!ted
poIItIcaIIy to the natIonaIIst RIght.
The IsraeII pubIIc, especIaIIy the maInstream mIddIe cIass, has demanded
ma]or changes. SeekIng to maIntaIn the IIIusIon o! a "normaI" democratIc state
whIIe maIntaInIng controI o! PaIestInIan areas, they have demanded "securIty"
and renewed economIc growth whIIe keepIng the PaIestInIans voIceIess and
powerIess. There have been dIssentIng voIces, I.e. caIIs !or a genuIne end to the
occupatIon and a return to sIncere negotIatIons, but they have been outweIghed
by racIsm and chauvInIsm.
;:C8:$L6AA
The state's response: constructIon o! the separatIon barrIer. 8egun as an InItIatIve
o! the ZIonIst Ie!t (promIsIng to combIne terrItorIaI wIthdrawaI wIth securIty}, the
separatIon !ence/waII was cIeverIy hI]acked by the ruIIng natIonaIIst RIght, whIch
moved It eastward deep Into PaIestInIan terrItory and away !rom the Creen IIne.
ThIs unIIateraI IsraeII move Is IIkeIy to generate more PaIestInIan resIstance, sub-
sequentIy strengthenIng the poIItIcaI RIght, whIch !eeds on a never-endIng sense o!
hostIIIty and sIege.
JG76C:I=CD8G68N
DespIte the reIatIve openness o! urban areas, theIr deveIopment In IsraeI/PaIestIne
has been !ramed by an ethnocratIc drIve !or ]udaIzatIon. SImIIar to other sItes
shaped by the IogIcs o! reconcIIIng ethno-natIonaIIsm wIth capItaIIsm, ethnIcaIIy
mIxed cItIes are characterIzed by stark patterns o! segregatIon and ethno-cIass
!ragmentatIon wIthIn each natIonaI group. MIxed spaces are both exceptIonaI
and InvoIuntary, o!ten resuItIng !rom the spatIaI process o! ethnIc expansIon and
retreat, prevaIent In contested urban spaces. "Urban ethnocracIes," I! you wIII, are
settIngs where tensIons characterIze the InteractIon between a cIty's economIc,
pIannIng, and ethno-terrItorIaI IogIcs, producIng sItes o! conHIct and InstabIIIty,
and essentIaIIzIng the boundarIes o! group IdentItIes and the zero sum nature o!
ethnIc geographIes.
?:GJH6A:B$6A"FJ9H
]erusaIem/AI-Cuds Is a cIear exampIe o! an urban ethnocracy. WhIIe the waII
under constructIon In Its mIdst Is usuaIIy thought o! as yet another manI!estatIon
o! IsraeII abuse o! PaIestInIans human rIghts, It Is aIso yet another manI!estatIon
o! ]ewIsh-PaIestInIan reIatIons In the cIty sInce 1¤6). WaIIs have exIsted In ]erusa-
Iem/AI-Cuds !rom the begInnIng o! occupatIon, but were Iess vIsIbIe, as the "stu!!"
they were made o! were the "buIIdIng bIocks" o! urban poIIcy, pIannIng strategIes,
and a rubber-stamp IegaI apparatus.
PaIestInIan AI-Cuds was conquered by ]ordan In 1¤a8, and In turn by IsraeI In the
war o! 1¤6). In a move seI!-descrIbed as "unIñcatIon," IsraeI unIIateraIIy annexed
Iarge parts o! the cIty and Its surroundIng vIIIages. SInce then, IsraeI has used Its
mIIItary mIght and economIc power to reIocate borders and boundarIes, grant and
deny rIghts and resources, shI!t popuIatIons, and reshape the cIty's geography to
ensure ]ewIsh domInance. Two compIementary IsraeII strategIes In East ]erusaIem
have been the massIve constructIon o! an outer rIng o! ]ewIsh settIements or
"neIghborhoods," whIch now house over haI! o! the ]ewIsh popuIatIon o! ]erusaIem,
and the contaInment o! aII PaIestInIan deveIopment, by denyIng buIIdIng permIts,
carryIng out house demoIItIon, and prohIbItIng mIgratIon to the cIty through
bureaucratIc means. WhIIe PaIestInIan neIghborhoods Iack basIc urban utIIItIes and
decent In!rastructure, ]ewIsh neIghborhoods are !uIIy servIced. IsraeII roads and
housIng compIexes have been shaped In the !orm o! segregatIve waIIs, aImed at
!ragmentIng the Arab cIty. These have Ied to the physIcaI decIIne and urban stagna-
tIon o! the PaIestInIan cIty, Its severance !rom the PaIestInIan hInterIand, and the
exodus o! PaIestInIan busInesses northward and southward Into the West 8ank.
1)2
l
1)¤
8arrIers
IInks
These transparent waIIs can aIso be !ound In ]erusaIem's pubIIc and poIItIcaI
spheres. DespIte the bI-natIonaI character o! ]erusaIem/AI-Cuds, urban governance
has been compIeteIy domInated by ]ews. PaIestInIans have been excIuded !rom
the cIty's decIsIon makIng bodIes-most notabIy CIty HaII-due to theIr re!usaI
to accept the ImposItIon o! IsraeII Iaw and the dIstorted munIcIpaI boundarIes
o! occupatIon. IsraeI wouId IIke the PaIestInIan resIdents o! ]erusaIem to see
]udaIzatIon as "InevItabIe," a !act to be accepted passIveIy as part o! the modern
deveIopment o! the metropoIIs.
I=:;:C8:$L6AA>C?:GJH6A:B$6A"FJ9H
The !ence/waII under constructIon In ]erusaIem/AI-Cuds wIII IncIude most o!
the areas annexed by IsraeI In 1¤6) (an IIIegaI annexatIon accordIng to Interna-
tIonaI Iaw} but aIso areas beyond the munIcIpaI boundarIes whIch IsraeI wouId
IIke to annex "de !acto," such as the "neIghborhoods" o! PIsgat Zeev and Har
Homa and the settIements o! MaIe AdumIm and CIvat Zeev. PaIestInIan areas
wIthIn ]erusaIem's munIcIpaI boundarIes, such as Shu!at Re!ugee Camp and the
vIIIages o! Anata and Ku!r Aqab, wIII be excIuded !rom the !ence/waII, causIng
some ao,ooo PaIestInIan resIdents o! ]erusaIem to Iose theIr ]erusaIemIte status.
These spatIaI and demographIc dIstortIons aIm to reduce the cIty's PaIestInIan
popuIatIon sIgnIñcantIy.
£or many years, ]erusaIem was the socIaI, cuIturaI, and economIc IInk
between the northern and southern West 8ank. CheckpoInts, and now the !ence/
waII, are !orcIng West 8ankers to use aIternate routes such as the In!amous and
perIIous Wad an-Nar (VaIIey o! £Ire/HeII} road to the east o! the cIty. ThIs has
turned ]erusaIem !rom a thrIvIng (aIbeIt occupIed} PaIestInIan metropoIIs Into a
ghost town that not onIy no Ionger serves the West 8ank, It can bareIy serve Its
own surroundIng vIIIages.
IsraeI's geopoIItIcaI and demographIc ImposItIons have redeñned the cIty.
The "known" dIvIsIon o! West ]erusaIem (the part controIIed by IsraeI sInce
1¤a8} and East ]erusaIem (the part occupIed by IsraeI sInce 1¤6)} Is no Ionger
evIdent. The cIty Is trans!ormIng as the !ence/waII Is !ormIng another borderIIne
aItogether. It seems that ]erusaIem's !uture Is beIng decIded by IsraeI be!ore any
negotIatIons between the two peopIes who cIaIm the cIty as theIr poIItIcaI and
spIrItuaI capItaI, have even begun.
67J9>H
The vIIIage o! Abu DIs Is a case In poInt. Abu DIs Is a suburb o! East ]erusaIem
Iocated two kIIometers !rom the CId CIty. WIth a totaI area o! 28,2¤2 dunums, the
separatIon waII wIII sever It !rom some 6,ooo dunums (1 dunum = 1ooo square
meters} o! agrIcuIturaI Iands, causIng a sIgnIñcant bIow to Its economy. DurIng
the 1¤¤os, Abu DIs gaIned centraIIty as a HourIshIng commercIaI center, but aIso
as a poIItIcaI hub where the PaIestInIan AuthorIty's o!ñces reIated to ]erusaIem
were estabIIshed. At one stage o! the IsraeII-PaIestInIan "peace process," Abu DIs
was consIdered as a possIbIe symboIIc "aIternatIve" to East ]erusaIem as the cap-
ItoI o! the PaIestInIan State. Abu DIs Is aIso home to AI Cuds UnIversIty, whIch,
wIth a student body o! some a,ooo men and women, Is an Important InteIIectuaI
and pro!essIonaI communIty InstItutIon. The IocaI popuIatIon o! Abu DIs (11,6)2}
nearIy doubIes wIth the daIIy InHux o! students, teachers, and sta!!.
In Cctober 2oo¤, IsraeI began constructIng a waII !rom Der SaIah vIIIage
southeast o! ]erusaIem northward toward Abu DIs and eastward toward EzarIya.
ThIs 1)-kIIometer-Iong sectIon o! the waII has turned a 1o mInute commute Into a
1-2 hour expedItIon. In Abu DIs, the waII has been buIIt straIght through the center
o! town, creatIng what gra!ñtI artIsts/actIvIsts have aptIy caIIed a "Chetto." The
ma]orIty o! the resIdents o! Abu DIs and Its surroundIng vIIIages have IsraeII IDs
whIch, In prIncIpIe, entItIe them !ree access to ]erusaIem.
Many IsraeIIs have argued that the escaIatIon o! vIoIent struggIe In the !orm
o! terror attacks on cIvIIIan targets requIred a radIcaI "soIutIon" In the !orm o! a
"securIty waII." However, In Its current !orm, the waII supports the process o!
"creepIng apartheId" more than It serves as a physIcaI sa!eguard. In Abu DIs the
waII separates some ¤ç househoIds !rom theIr ImmedIate !amIIIes on the other
sIde. C! these !amIIIes, ten hoId West 8ank IDs, though theIr house !aIIs on the
"IsraeII sIde" o! the waII. It remaIns to be seen whether they wIII be granted
IsraeII IDs, or wIII be !orced to reIocate to the "PaIestInIan sIde" o! the waII,
!uIñIIIng IsraeII wIshes to controI the demographIc "baIance" between ]ews and
PaIestInIans In the cIty.
In Abu DIs, the waII runs between and aIongsIde houses denyIng resIdents'
access to theIr reIatIves, but aIso to dayIIght. SeveraI houses aIong the waII's
route have been Issued demoIItIon orders. The army has advIsed homeowners
to take up the matter wIth the ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty, and the munIcIpaIIty, In
turn, has o!!ered to buy the houses !rom theIr PaIestInIan resIdents. NaturaIIy,
the homeowners have re!used to seII and petItIoned the courts Instead.
The waII Is takIng Its toII on the socIoeconomIc !abrIc o! Abu DIs as weII. WIth
Its once thrIvIng commercIaI/poIItIcaI/academIc dIstrIct e!!ectIveIy cut In haI!,
It Is IosIng customers, busInesses are cIosIng, students are droppIng out, and
unempIoyment Is on the rIse.
I=:ADC<6C9H=DGIGJC
In the Iong run, urban ethnocracy produces a deepIy Hawed and unsustaInabIe
urban order, generatIng conHIct and InstabIIIty. The poIItIcaI, socIaI, and economIc
pressures created by the separatIon !ence/waII wIII !eed the !rustratIons o! an
aIready dIstraught PaIestInIan communIty In ]erusaIem and escaIate vIoIence
!urther. "SecurIty" wIII not IIkeIy be the resuIt In the short run, but apartheId
most probabIy wIII.
1 We are Indebted to the IsraeI ScIence £oundatIon !or Its ñnancIaI support o! our pro]ect: "The
Emergence o! a New Iand RegIme: the Trans!ormatIon o! IsraeI's Urban IegaI Ceography."

SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
Cren YI!tacheI, "Ethnocracy and Its DIscontents: MInorIty Protest In IsraeI," 8g^i^XVa>cfj^gn 26
(2ooo}.
Cren YI!tacheI and HaIm YacobI, "Urban Ethnocracy: EthnIcIzatIon and the ProductIon o! Space In
an IsraeII MIxed CIty," :ck^gdcbZciVcYEaVcc^c\9/HdX^ZinVcYHeVXZ 21 (6} (2ooa}.
Cren YI!tacheI and HaIm YacobI, "PIannIng a 8I-NatIonaI CapItaI: ShouId ]erusaIem RemaIn UnIted?"
<Zd[dgjb ¤¤ (2oo2}.
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ShmueI Croag
The pIannIng o! roads In ]erusaIem and Its surroundIng areas Is an IntegraI tooI In
the approprIatIon o! physIcaI space In eastern ]erusaIem. ThIs essay wIII examIne
the exIstIng and pro]ected road system !rom two perspectIves. £Irst, a comparIson
wIII be made between the PaIestInIan neIghborhoods In East ]erusaIem and theIr
contemporarIes In the western part o! the cIty. Second, we wIII examIne the net-
work o! roads and tra!ñc arrays In the ]erusaIem metropoIIs. Put sImpIy-who are
those who move In thIs space and who are those who stand stIII?
£undamentaIIy, thIs task Is based on the !act
that pIannIng not onIy addresses the aesthetIcs,
beauty, and pro!essIonaI and technIcaI organI-
zatIon o! the envIronment and space, but aIso
embodIes poIItIcs In Its broadest sense: the
manI!estatIon In open space o! power reIatIons
between groups o! Interests. Even though West
and East ]erusaIem are !ormaIIy "unIted," the
dIvIsIon between them Is evIdent In the physI-
caI condItIon o! the roads, whIch are very poor
In the east and !uIIy deveIoped In the west. The
quaIIty, sIze, and nature o! each road, one mIght
say, Is a !aIr IndIcator o! whether PaIestInIans or
IsraeIIs move aIong It.
The pIannIng system In IsraeI, and In ]erusa-
Iem In partIcuIar, Is a top-down system. In the
]erusaIem area, the centraI goaI o! the system Is
to ImpIement the prIncIpIe o! a unIted ]erusaIem
under IsraeII sovereIgnty. As phrased by the pIanner o! the prevIous (1¤)8} mas-
ter pIan, archItect YossI SchwIed: "The ñrst and !oremost prIncIpIe In the pIan-
nIng o! ]erusaIem Is to ensure Its unIty [throughj.the buIIdIng o! the cIty In such
a way that wIII prevent the !ormatIon o! two separate natIonaI communItIes, In
order to prevent the possIbIIIty o! the cIty beIng dIvIded once agaIn on the dIvIdIng
IIne between the two communItIes" (8tseIem, 1¤¤ç:¤ç}.
The exIstIng and pIanned road system In the cIty Is a tangIbIe manI!estatIon
o! thIs perceptIon. SInce 1¤6), pIannIng poIIcIes In ]erusaIem have spurred
poIItIcaI and urban change wIth two goaIs In mInd. Cn the one hand, poIIcy has
MaIn road at ]abaI aI-Muka-
ber, East ]erusaIem (photo:
8IMKCM, 2oo¤}
8ypass road near 8Ir NabaIIa
(photo: ShmueI Croag, 2ooa}
sought to dIsengage East ]erusaIem !rom Its metropoIItan hInterIands In the rest
o! the West 8ank, thus bIockIng any possIbIIIty o! It becomIng the capItaI o! a
!uture PaIestIne. Cn the other hand, pIannIng poIIcy has worked to create a ]ewIsh
metropoIItan In aII possIbIe areas In the cIty and Its surroundIngs, sImuItaneousIy
expandIng the brand name o! "]erusaIem" beyond the orIgInaI munIcIpaI borders
Into the West 8ank.
686E>AA6GNGD69HNHI:B
A comparIson o! road system typoIogy In the PaIestInIan neIghborhoods o! East
]erusaIem wIth that o! western neIghborhoods reveaIs that the eastern regIon
Is served by a very sparse road system based on oId ruraI roads and wIthout the
varIous types o! roads requIred !or urban deveIopment. The eastern neIghbor-
hoods !unctIon wIthout a ma]or urban axIs !rom whIch It Is possIbIe to deveIop
pubIIc InstItutIons and commercIaI centers, or out o! whIch new resIdentIaI
neIghborhoods mIght grow, sImIIar to the exIstIng modeI In West ]erusaIem.
CurrentIy, the roads In Arab neIghborhoods are aIso In poor physIcaI condI-
tIon, most o! them wIthout sIdewaIks and In!rastructure systems. CnIy some
1o% o! the ]erusaIem munIcIpaI budget goes to In!rastructure and servIces In
Arab neIghborhoods (¤o% o! the cIty's popuIatIon}.

ThIs o!ñcIaI negIect o! East
]erusaIem's In!rastructure Is raIsed every sIngIe year, and the repIy gIven by aII
mayors to date has been that Improvements wouId requIre a tItanIc amount o!
money, and hence specIaI governmentaI aIIotments. These never arrIve, and the
deveIopment gap grows. WhIIe new ]ewIsh neIghborhoods In the west, as weII as
those constructed by the HousIng MInIstry In the east, were buIIt accordIng to
sophIstIcated pIans that aIIocate pubIIc space !or pubIIc roads and passages, most
o! the PaIestInIan neIghborhoods In the east remaIn-terrItorIaIIy and structur-
aIIy-seventeen tradItIonaI vIIIages that surrounded ]ordanIan East ]erusaIem.
The aged road system In these vIIIages, aII o! whIch are Iocated on hIIItops and
separated by ravInes, was broadIy based on a centraI road runnIng aIong the top
o! the mountaIn crest. AIongsIde thIs road, buIIt-up areas deveIoped organIcaIIy
and moderateIy In scattered cIusters, accordIng to !amIIIaI ownershIp. The Iack
o! roadway deveIopment and munIcIpaI Investment In PaIestInIan neIghborhoods
Is one component o! a poIIcy Intended to IImIt PaIestInIan urban deveIopment,
expansIon and demographIc growth. The underdeveIopment poIIcy In East ]eru-
saIem neIghborhoods Is IdentIcaI to that underway In Arab IocaIes wIthIn IsraeI.
There, too, the centraI pIannIng bureaucracy desIgns and ImpIements deveIop-
ment and buIIdIng systems In new ]ewIsh communItIes, but Ignores the deveIop-
ment o! In!rastructure In Arab neIghborhoods, where the Iand Is prIvateIy owned
and there Is no Iarge-scaIe reaI estate enterprIse. In opposItIon to thIs ethnocentrIc
pIannIng poIIcy, organIzatIons such as 8Imkom are IncreasIngIy demandIng the
!ormatIon o! a "cIvIc" pIannIng poIIcy that neutraIIzes the natIonaI component
and addresses area pIannIng needs ob]ectIveIy, and on the basIs o! the assump-
tIon (aIso partIaIIy ImagInary} that pIannIng decIsIons shouId derIve !rom pIannIng
rIghts, whIch are among the broader human rIghts. In the IsraeII reaIIty, where
economIc and natIonaI Interests dIctate pIannIng prIorItIes, thIs vIsIon Is but a
dIstant dream.
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The settIement pro]ect extendIng !rom Cush EtzIon In the south to CIvat Zeev
In the north, and !rom 8etar In the west to MaaIe AdumIm In the east, has been
dubbed "Creater ]erusaIem." SophIstIcated new hIghway systems IncorporatIng
brIdges and tunneIs connect these settIement bIocs to West ]erusaIem, bypass-
Ing PaIestInIan neIghborhoods. Today aII o! thIs Iand !ormerIy on the ]ordanIan
sIde o! the 1¤a8 IInes Is Iocated on the IsraeII sIde o! the serIes o! waIIs, barbed
wIre, !ences, and patroI roads (the SeparatIon WaII} that IsraeI Is constructIng
In the West 8ank.
Roads, as taught In aII archItecture schooIs, are the basIs, the skeIeton, o!
every urban pIan. In a paraIIeI metaphor, they are comparabIe to the vascuIar
system, the network suppIyIng bIood to aII areas o! the body. CentraI roads
are the tra!ñc arterIes, secondary roads are the veIns, and IocaI roads serve
as capIIIarIes. The cIty center Is the heart o! the urban area, and bypasses are
requIred to reroute tra!ñc bIockages.
Hence, whIIe the western cIty has been opened to Its ]ewIsh sateIIIte neIgh-
borhoods, East ]erusaIem has been truncated and cut o!!. The Abu DIs road
that !ormerIy served as the maIn access road to East ]erusaIem !rom the Dead
Sea has been turned !rom a centraI tra!ñc route to a cuI-de-sac. The maIn
road runnIng !rom the northern to the southern West 8ank !rom RamaIIah
to Hebron through ]erusaIem (Road No. 6o} Is currentIy cIosed to PaIestIn-
Ian tra!ñc, servIng the ]ewIsh popuIatIon In ]erusaIem and nearby settIements
excIusIveIy. The deveIopment o! hIgh-speed tra!ñc systems !or the excIusIve
use o! ]ewIsh settIers Is promInent In the whoIe o! the West 8ank, where aII
ma]or roads are Iocated (as per the CsIo agreement} In Area C, under !uII IsraeII
controI (8tseIem Report, 2ooç; E!rat, 2oo2}. C!ten these hIghways run through dI!ñcuIt
topography, causIng damage to the Iandscape and PaIestInIan agrIcuIture.
8ut the detachment o! East ]erusaIem !rom Its PaIestInIan metropoIIs Is
not achIeved soIeIy through Iack o! pIannIng or nondeveIopment o! roadways.
It Is an Integrated poIIcy that Incorporates the removaI o! PaIestInIan o!ñcIaI
markIngs and cuIturaI centers !rom the eastern sIde (such as the cIosIng
down o! the CrIent House, the Iong-tIme ]erusaIem address !or PaIestInIan
natIonaIIst organs} and the restrIctIng o! PaIestInIan West 8ank resIdents
!rom the cIty (even those who want to pray at Its hoIy sItes}. The prohIbItIon
o! non-]erusaIemIte PaIestInIans !rom enterIng the ]erusaIem cIty boundarIes
has been an expandIng process, one whIch began In 1¤¤1, be!ore the CsIo
agreements between PaIestInIans and IsraeIIs. To vIsIt the cIty, West 8ank
PaIestInIans are requIred to request a permIt to enter ]erusaIem !rom the cIvII
admInIstratIon (a cover name !or the mIIItary commander} In the West 8ank,
and thIs permIt must be presented at mIIItary barrIers set at the cIty's eastern
entrances. PermIts are onIy a!!orded to those o! a certaIn age, marItaI status,
and wIth a "cIean" securIty ñIe, and appIIcatIons can be turned down !or any
unstated reason. They are usuaIIy gIven soIeIy !or dayIIght hours and span
onIy a number o! days at a tIme. AIternateIy, PaIestInIans carryIng West 8ank
IdentIty cards can attempt to steaI "IIIegaIIy" Into ]erusaIem terrItory, rIskIng
arrest and monetary ñnes.
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Today thIs poIIcy Is beIng "per!ected" by the SeparatIon WaII under construc-
tIon on the edges o! ]erusaIem's munIcIpaI boundarIes (whIch twIsts and turns
to avoId IncorporatIng Iarge PaIestInIan popuIatIons on the cIty's hInterIands}.
EventuaIIy, thIs barrIer wIII make It ImpossIbIe to enter the ]erusaIem area wIth
cars and merchandIse. The cIty wIII be surrounded by ñve controI centers where
merchandIse wIII be trans!erred Into ]erusaIem In a "back-to-back" process,
where trucks meet !or the trans!er o! goods but never Ieave theIr respectIve areas
(sImIIar to the exIstIng passages between the Caza StrIp and the State o! IsraeI}.
Hence the reIatIve !reedom o! movement prevIousIy en]oyed by Arabs o! East
]erusaIem to enter and Ieave the rest o! the West 8ank wIII aIso be constraIned.
The destructIon o! East ]erusaIem and the trans!ormatIon o! Its neIghbor-
hoods Into cuIs-de-sac are aIso destroyIng West ]erusaIem. In the western part
o! the cIty, whIch Is currentIy expandIng towards the green Iungs o! the ]eru-
saIem mountaIns, a new tra!ñc array Is pIanned, IncorporatIng a western rIng
road In the 8eIt ZayIt and Mevasaret TzIon areas, to connect to the new access
road comIng !rom 8eIt Shemesh (Road No. ¤¤}, and to the tra!ñc array enterIng
Into the urban area under constructIon near Moza and II!ta. ThIs tra!ñc array,
In combInatIon wIth the !ast traIn beIng buIIt to TeI AvIv, Is awakenIng pubIIc
dIsputes, one over envIronmentaI damage and another concernIng ]erusaIem's
urban character as the Iargest and most scattered cIty In IsraeI. West and East
]erusaIem are IIke SIamese twIns, one o! them receIvIng excessIve nourIshment,
whIIe the other Is systematIcaIIy su!!ocatIng. DespIte the reIatIve growth o! West
]erusaIem, the economIc decIIne o! East ]erusaIem Is degeneratIng Its SIamese
twIn. Even Hashy, expensIve transportatIon pro]ects such as the IIght-raII traIn
wIII not revIve the degeneratIng urban center o! West ]erusaIem.
BDK>C<7:ADL6C9JC9:GG:6A>IN
Cn the eve o! the SIx Day War In 1¤6), NaomI Shemer wrote the song "]erusaIem
o! CoId." The songwrIter, a deepIy-rooted hVWgV (natIve-born IsraeII} !rom the
]ordan VaIIey, descrIbed the CId CIty and East ]erusaIem as vacated o! humans
("The market square stands empty"}. The roadways to ]erusaIem are aIso
descrIbed In the song-thIs tIme not as empty but as untra!ñcked. ("And no one
goes to the Dead Sea through ]erIcho"} These IInes In the song that has aImost
become IsraeI's new natIonaI anthem regard the eastern cIty and the roads IeadIng
to It as empty-Inasmuch as they are empty o! ]ewIsh vIsItors. 8ut the metaphor o!
"the empty Iand" and "the InvIsIbIe PaIestInIan" Is not onIy IIterary; the absurdIty
In ]erusaIem, Is the way In whIch metaphors and Images are turned Into operatIve
actIon: a dIstortIon o! tIme and space perpetuated through the road system.
ZIgmund 8auman, In hIs book about gIobaIIzatIon (1¤¤8}, descrIbes a worId-
wIde process o! strong popuIatIons gaInIng unIImIted mobIIIty and a !ree How
o! capItaI, whIIe weak popuIatIons graduaIIy become encIosed In theIr domestIc
spaces. CondItIons In East ]erusaIem and the West 8ank are a tangIbIe exampIe
o! thIs process. The deveIopment o! neIghborhoods and settIements In the
"Creater ]erusaIem" area has aIso Introduced sophIstIcated and muItIIeveIed
tra!ñc systems. In order to enabIe the dIrect access en]oyed by resIdents o! these
neIghborhoods and settIements to the sources o! the occupatIon and the cIty
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center, resIdents o! PaIestInIan neIghborhoods and towns have been cIosed In. In
constructIng the tra!ñc systems IeadIng to settIements such as Cush EtzIon and
MaaIe AdumIm, IsraeI Invested unprecedented amounts o! money In brIdge sys-
tems and wIde, state-o!-the-art tunneIs passIng beIow and above the PaIestInIan
areas and, In !act, beIow and above the PaIestInIan reaIIty, whIch ]ewIsh resIdents
do not even want to see.
Cne exampIe o! thIs can be !ound on Road No. aa¤, where the PaIestInIan
town o! 8Ir NabaIa Is hIdden !rom those who cross the brIdge above It by an
array o! concrete waIIs paInted wIth raInbows and bIue empty skIes. An ImagIned
orIentaIIst vIew o! reaIIty repIaces the panorama o! the actuaI communIty, aII the
whIIe masked by the argument that such a waII Is necessary to guard the securIty
o! passIng traveIers. In the 8ethIehem-area ]ewIsh settIement o! CIIo, a sImIIar
waII was constructed, ostensIbIy to protect resIdents !rom gunñre, and paInted
wIth an "Improved" Iandscape o! nearby PaIestInIan 8eIt ]aIa.
I=::6HI:GCG>C<GD69
Cne o! the Iargest IsraeII transportatIon pro]ects ever, and a case study !or the
concepts descrIbed above, Is ]erusaIem's Eastern RIng Road (PIan No. açç8}.
ThIs 1ç-kIIometer-Iong hIghway wIII pass through the most underdeveIoped
eastern neIghborhoods, whIch house approxImateIy one-thIrd o! the PaIestInIan
resIdents o! ]erusaIem (some 6ç,ooo peopIe}. ThIs hIghway wIII be !acIIItated by
tunneIs and brIdges, more or Iess on the edge o! ]erusaIem's munIcIpaI terrItory,
between the PaIestInIan neIghborhoods that are InsIde ]erusaIem and those that
IIe to the east o! the cIty, such as EzarIya, Abu DIs, and az-ZaIm.
8Imkom was asked by the a!!ected PaIestInIan communItIes to assIst In theIr
!ormaI ob]ectIons and to check aII reIated pIannIng documents (Paden, 2ooç}. An
examInatIon o! the reasons gIven !or thIs sophIstIcated road reveaIed that they
are not mereIy transportatIonaI-!or exampIe, compIetIon o! the tra!ñc rIng that
aIready exIsts In West ]erusaIem-but aIso geopoIItIcaI. The pIanned road wIII serve
as a kInd o! patroI and border road, deñnIng ]erusaIem's munIcIpaI boundarIes In
con]unctIon wIth the SeparatIon WaII. The ImpIIcIt assumptIon Is that thIs road
wIII heIp prevent dIvIsIon o! the cIty and the trans!er o! PaIestInIan neIghborhoods
to the PaIestInIan AuthorIty In the event o! substantIve poIItIcaI negotIatIons.
The maInstream IsraeII argument over thIs road !ocuses on how much the
reIated ñnancIaI Investments actuaIIy serve the IsraeII Interest. CnIy a tIny
aspect o! the argument addresses the Impact PaIestInIans wIII !eeI !rom thIs mas-
sIve In!rastructure pro]ect, even though-IIke the settIement roads In the West
8ank-thIs road wIII aIso pass above and beIow theIr neIghborhoods and dIssect
them IIke a hIghway, rather than a ma]or urban artery servIng the neIghborhoods
themseIves. The goaIs detaIIed by the road's pIanners were maInIy the creatIon o!
a !ast-movIng tra!ñc array to connect the southern settIements (the Cush EtzIon
area} wIth those In the east (MaaIe AdumIm and the E-1 area}, and !rom there on
to the north (Adam, Ceva 8InyamIn} wIthout cIoggIng the cIty center.
The road's deveIopment necessItates the exproprIatIon o! 1,2ço acres o!
prIvateIy-owned Iands !rom East ]erusaIem PaIestInIans, and the destructIon
o! a¤ buIIdIngs In the ]abaI aI-Mukaber neIghborhood aIone. The wIdth o! the
area Impacted by the hIghway, as much as 2oo meters, wIII !urther entaII new
constructIon IImIts on buIIdIngs standIng aIongsIde It, not to mentIon certaIn dam-
age to agrIcuIturaI Iands and sensItIve naturaI resources. The bIueprInts as they
stand wIII dIsconnect the neIghborhoods through whIch the road passes (there
are mInImaI entrIes and exIts Incorporated !or the neIghborhoods}, as weII as
dIssect an exIstIng array o! roads.
8Imkom has submItted ob]ectIons to the constructIon o! thIs rIng road,
emphasIzIng that It wIII not serve the neIghborhoods It passes through, nor con-
trIbute to the deveIopment o! urban areas, pubIIc InstItutIons, and resIdentIaI
neIghborhoods, as Its pIans are IImIted soIeIy to the constructIon o! the roadway.
The pIan does not propose aIternatIve compensatIon, !or Instance, whIch wouId
aIIow a Iandowner, whose agrIcuIturaI Iand was exproprIated or damaged, to buIId
In a commercIaI deveIopment or resIdentIaI area. Instead, 8Imkom demanded
that the proposed pIan become a Iever !or the urban deveIopment o! the entIre
East ]erusaIem area, and that the pIan be aItered to mInImIze In]ury to prIvate
Iandowners. The ob]ectIon suggested an aIternatIve, !or one, that constructIon o!
supportIng beams aIong the road couId prevent the exproprIatIon o! agrIcuIturaI
Iands currentIy aIIocated !or the work process aIone.
DC:"L6NBD7>A>IN
£or IsraeIIs, West ]erusaIem be!ore 1¤6) was a quIet, sIeepy capItaI cIty at the
end o! a no-exIt hIghway commonIy caIIed the "]erusaIem CorrIdor"; to them,
It was a cIty centered around government o!ñces and the Hebrew UnIversIty.
SInce 1¤6), the IsraeII pIannIng system has resoIved to Invert thIs metropoIItan
process-I.e., to turn expanded ]ewIsh ]erusaIem Into an urban metropoIIs, whIIe
sImuItaneousIy turnIng PaIestInIan East ]erusaIem Into a cIosed and degenerated
neIghborhood at the end o! a cuI-de-sac.
The deveIopment o! thIs rIng road, as a !ast hIghway and patroI road aIongsIde
the SeparatIon WaII that seaIs ]erusaIem, wIII hInder the possIbIIIty o! deveIopIng
the IocaI road system In East ]erusaIem and adaptIng It to that o! a modern and
progressIve cIty. AddItIonaIIy, It wIII reIn!orce the trend o! IsraeII spatIaI domInatIon
over the whoIe ]erusaIem metropoIIs, strengthenIng connectIons between the
]ewIsh settIements near ]erusaIem and the cIty ItseI!.
PaIestInIan movement Is at a standstIII. The SeparatIon WaII Is dramatIcaIIy
sIowIng tra!ñc How Into East ]erusaIem. WhIIe prevIousIy unreguIated admIssIon
Into the cIty suppIemented reguIated admIssIon, the WaII Is Intended to achIeve
compIete controI over aII entrances and transItIons. As prevIousIy noted, the
hIstorIc road runnIng towards the Dead Sea !rom Abu DIs has been compIeteIy
bIocked. The maIn road between ]erusaIem and RamaIIah has been bIsected
IengthwIse and turned !rom a !our-Iane thorough!are Into a two-Iane road, onIy
be severed In Its mIddIe by the SeparatIon WaII. SInce the concrete barrIer In
thIs sectIon Is exposed to those traveIIng aIong the road, Its buIIt eIements were
reduced !rom a heIght o! eIght meters to a heIght o! 6.ç meters, In a "mInI waII"
modeI. (PetItIons entered by the PaIestInIan resIdents, accompanIed by 8Imkom's
advIsory brIe!, to aboIIsh the waII or enabIe addItIonaI entrances through the waII
were re]ected by the IsraeII Supreme Court.}
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Thus, a sItuatIon has been created In whIch East ]erusaIem Is graduaIIy beIng
cIosed In, and unIIke other cItIes In the worId where tra!ñc systems are beIng
enIarged and Improved, the number o! entrances Into East ]erusaIem Is beIng
purpose!uIIy mInImIzed and Its roads made narrower and narrower. I! these
roads are bIood vesseIs, the veIns IeadIng Into the cIty are beIng bIocked at an
actuaI rIsk o! gangrene to Its IImbs.
In totaI, ]erusaIem's road array-both exIstIng and pIanned-can be read as a
graph o! poIItIcaI and pIannIng reaIItIes In the cIty and the West 8ank. The massIve
physIcaI changes brought about by thIs system do not aIter the essentIaI probIem
that ]erusaIem Is a dIvIded cIty. TheoretIcaIIy, a soIutIon mIght IIe In the separatIon
o! the SIamese twIns, or In ñndIng a poIItIcaI resoIutIon that enabIes cooperatIon
based on prIncIpIes o! equaIIty and !reedom o! movement.
1 The roads that were deveIoped were generaIIy !or tourIsts and !oreIgners IookIng out on the
"store!ront" o! the IocaI Iandscape. AImost ¤o% o! ]erusaIem's sewage pIpes, roads, and sIdewaIks
are !ound In West ]erusaIem; entIre PaIestInIan neIghborhoods have yet to be connected to a
sewage system and do not have paved roads or sIdewaIks.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
8tseIem, 6Eda^Xnd[9^hXg^b^cVi^dc/AVcY:megdeg^Vi^dc!EaVcc^c\VcY7j^aY^c\^c:Vhi?ZgjhVaZb,
ComprehensIve Report (May 1¤¤ç}.
8tseIem Report, "£orbIdden Roads," ]iie/$$lll#WihZaZb#dg\$Zc\a^h]$ejWa^XVi^dch$hjbbVg^Zh$
'%%)%-T[dgW^YYZcTgdVYh#Vhe (accessed December 21, 2ooç}.
EIIsha E!rat, <Zd\gVÃVh]Za@^Wjh]P<Zd\gVe]nd[DXXjeVi^dcR (]erusaIem: CarmeI, 2oo2}.
Zygmunt 8auman, <adWVa^oVi^dc/ I]Z=jbVc8dchZfjZcXZh (New York: CoIumbIa UnIversIty Press,
1¤¤8}.
YaeI Padan and NIII 8aruch, "8Imkom PIanners !or PIannIng RIghts Report, Eastern RIng Road,"
]iie/$$lll#W^b`db#dg\$Xdbbjc^inK^Zl#Vhe4egd_ZXi>Y2(* (accessed December 21, 2ooç}.
ARI], "Roads CIrcIIng ]erusaIem," at ]iie/$$lll#Vg^_#dg\$eVaZnZ$gdVY)*$ (accessed December 21,
2ooç}.
i]Z]
'
d[VXidg
]ane HIIaI and Sandra Ashhab
In arId areas such as the MIddIe East, conHIct over scarce water resources
appears InevItabIe. AII the ma]or regIonaI rIver systems and many regIonaI aquI-
!ers-no Iess those contested by IsraeI and PaIestInIans-cross natIonaI borders.
SInce IsraeI controIs the ]ordan RIver, groundwater has become the onIy possIbIe
water resource !or PaIestInIans. StIII, IsraeI InsIsts on expIoItIng the ma]orIty o!
groundwater reservoIrs, IeavIng PaIestInIans wIth a severe shortage. £or IsraeI,
controI o! thIs water Is a crucIaI eIement o! Its geostrategIc pIannIng. "My vIew
o! ]udea and SamarIa [the West 8ankj Is weII known," saId then-In!rastructure
mInIster ArIeI Sharon In 1¤¤8, "The absoIute necessIty o! protectIng our water
In thIs regIon Is centraI to our securIty. It Is a non-negotIabIe Item." (8oston CIobe,
18 Cctober 1¤¤8}.
£oIIowIng the 1¤6) War and IsraeI's occupatIon o! the West 8ank and Caza
StrIp, IsraeI Imposed restrIctIons on PaIestInIan water use and decIared the Iands
Iocated aIongsIde the ]ordan RIver cIosed mIIItary areas. Thus commenced IsraeI's
steady approprIatIon o! aquI!er-rIch areas !or ]ewIsh settIement expansIon, a
process, whIch has resuIted In deep InequaIItIes In IocaI water use. CurrentIy,
IsraeI Is expIoItIng about 82% o! the annuaI sa!e yIeId o! West 8ank's groundwater
basIns to meet 2ç% o! Its water needs. 8y comparIson, PaIestInIans consume 18%
o! the basIns' annuaI sa!e yIeId.
The IsraeII NatIonaI Water CarrIer unIIateraIIy dIverts the ]ordan RIver water
How !rom Iake TIberIas to the dry Negev desert, wIthout consIderatIon !or
other rIparIan partIes, IncIudIng PaIestInIans. ThIs has caused a drop In the rIver
waters HowIng Into the Dead Sea. As a resuIt o! thIs (and mIneraI mInIng by both
IsraeI and ]ordan}, the Dead Sea has sunk to dangerous IeveIs, threatenIng the
Dead Sea envIronment and dImInIshIng Its unIque ecosystem.
Water consumptIon In the Caza StrIp now amounts to 1oo-11o mcm or mIIIIon
cubIc meters per year. TakIng Into account the assumed naturaI InHow (a naturaI
annuaI recharge rate o! 6o mcm}, the Caza aquI!er Is heavIIy overexpIoIted.
ThIs over-expIoItatIon has contInued !or decades, begInnIng durIng the perIod
o! EgyptIan admInIstratIon between 1¤a8 and 1¤6) (Shawwa, 1¤¤¤:26} and a!ter the
IsraeII occupatIon In 1¤6).
The Caza aquI!er Is the onIy renewabIe resource avaIIabIe !or suppIyIng drInk-
Ing water to the overpopuIated strIp. 8ut the dramatIc overexpIoItatIon o! the
groundwater Is causIng seawater IntrusIon (!reshwater Is extracted and seawater
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takes Its pIace}, renderIng the water nearIy undrInkabIe. In some areas, water
saIInIty In Caza Is as hIgh as çoo mg to one, twIce the saIInIty IeveI recommend-
ed by the WorId HeaIth CrganIzatIon (at 2ço mg to one} (PHC, 2ooa:a¤}. IsraeII
water poIIcIes are not onIy causIng PaIestInIan thIrst, but harmIng the envIron-
ment-probabIy IrreversIbIy.

L6I:G6C9I=:E:68:EGD8:HH
IsraeI recognIzed PaIestInIan water rIghts when It sIgned the CsIo accords (see
artIcIe ao In CsIo II}. 8ut the detaIIs o! these rIghts were to be negotIated In sub-
sequent permanent status negotIatIons. To date, however, no negotIatIons have
been heId; the Issue o! PaIestInIan water rIghts Is expected to be one o! the most
!ractIous Issues on the tabIe.
In the InterIm, It was agreed that the !uture needs o! PaIestInIans In the West
8ank area measured )o to 8o mcm o! !resh water annuaIIy. It was aIso agreed
that a stopgap measure to raIse PaIestInIan domestIc water avaIIabIIIty durIng
the InterIm perIod was to suppIy them wIth an addItIonaI 28.6 mcm. The PaIestIn-
Ian AuthorIty wouId suppIy 1¤.1 mcm per year through the drIIIIng o! new weIIs,
whereas the remaInIng ¤.ç mcm per year was to be suppIIed by IsraeI (IsraeII
MInIstry o! £oreIgn A!!aIrs, 1¤¤ç:8)}. RegrettabIy, not aII o! thIs water has reached PaI-
estInIans; nor has the amount aIIotted proven su!ñcIent to meet the popuIatIon's
expandIng needs (PWA, 2oo¤:1¤}.
SInce Its occupatIon o! the West 8ank and Caza StrIp In 1¤6), IsraeI has
granted PaIestInIans onIy a !ew permIts !or the dIggIng o! new water weIIs. AII
o! these were restrIcted to domestIc use. New water weIIs !or agrIcuIturaI pur-
poses In the West 8ank were aIso restrIcted to three permIts. In addItIon, IsraeI
poIIcy o! meterIng aII PaIestInIan weIIs was another means o! restrIctIng quotas
on PaIestInIan water utIIIzatIon. In 1¤¤) and In order to honor the PaIestInIan
commItment o! provIdIng 1¤.1 mcm per year o! newIy suppIIed water resources,
coordInatIon was necessary wIthIn the !ramework o! the ]oInt IsraeII-PaIestIn-
Ian-AmerIcan CommIttee agreed upon by the ]oInt Water CommIttee (]WC} on
water productIon and deveIopment-reIated pro]ects. A pro]ect was InItIated,
commencIng In ]uIy 1¤¤). SIx monItorIng weIIs between ¤oo and )oo meters
In depth, and sIx paIrs o! water suppIy weIIs between ¤ço and 8ço meters In
depth, were to be constructed In the Hebron, 8ethIehem, ]enIn, NabIus, and
RamaIIah areas. WIthIn the !ramework o! ]WC, the IsraeIIs had gIven the PaIes-
tInIans proposed IocatIons, but not permIssIon, !or 11 weII sItes !or constructIng
PaIestInIan weIIs. These proposed weIIs were to be Iocated In Hebron, 8ethIe-
hem, and East ]erusaIem to tap the Eastern AquI!er System. AccordIng to the
workIng pIan o! the pro]ect, the weIIs were to be compIeted wIthIn 18 months
o! InItIatIon. 8y the year 1¤¤¤, onIy two permIssIons had been granted to con-
struct two weIIs In the Hebron-8ethIehem area In the HerodIon weII ñeId. It
was onIy In 2oo¤ when IsraeI gave addItIonaI permIssIon !or the constructIon o!
sIx new weIIs, two o! whIch were eventuaIIy suppIanted In the pIans by exIst-
Ing weIIs. Moreover, and In vIoIatIon o! the sIgned agreements, IsraeI has onIy
suppIIed 12 mcm o! water per year o! the addItIonaI 8o mIIIIon to whIch It com-
mItted ItseI!.
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2

k
m
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PaIestInIans are there!ore !orced to reconsIder the CsIo II agreement and
estImatIons o! theIr water requIrements !or the !uture. They must aIso demand
ImmedIate and serIous negotIatIons !or theIr water rIghts to the ]ordan RIver
waters and the West 8ank aquI!ers, partIcuIarIy the western aquI!er shared
between PaIestInIan AuthorIty and IsraeI. CurrentIy, PaIestInIan consumptIon
!rom thIs groundwater resource's sa!e yIeId does not exceed 6%.

>C:FJ>I67A:6AAD86I>DCD;L6I:GG:HDJG8:H>CI=:
?:GJH6A:B9>HIG>8I
The management o! shared water resources In the regIon shouId IdeaIIy be Inte-
grated !or theIr protectIon and sustaInabIe use, wIth mutuaI recognItIon o! each
party's water rIghts. Water aIIocatIon and management between IsraeI and the
PaIestInIans, however, Is a pro]ectIon o! the Iarger conHIct-It Is deñned by IsraeI's
denIaI o! PaIestInIan rIghts and contInued resource coIonIzatIon. CondItIons In
the ]erusaIem DIstrIct, where In!rastructure Is dIvIded between the cIty's west
and east, are representatIve o! the Issues at hand.
AIthough PaIestInIan East ]erusaIem's water dIstrIbutIon In!rastructures were
buIIt and/or repaIred by the IsraeII munIcIpaIIty a!ter 1¤6), they remaIn consIst-
entIy underdeveIoped In comparIson wIth those In West ]erusaIem and the East
]erusaIem ]ewIsh settIements. The dIsparIty In pubIIc servIces and In!rastructure
provIded by the State o! IsraeI to ]ewIsh neIghborhoods and PaIestInIan communI-
tIes In East ]erusaIem Is conscIous and systemIc. £ormer ]erusaIem mayor Teddy
KoIIek conñrmed thIs wIth brutaI honesty: "We saId thIngs that were ]ust taIk,
and carrIed them out. We repeatedIy promIsed to gIve the Arabs In the cIty rIghts
equaI to those en]oyed by the ]ews In the cIty-It was aII empty words.£or ]ewIsh
]erusaIem, I accompIIshed somethIng over the past 2ç years. £or East ]erusaIem
.NothIng. CuIturaI centers? ZIIch. Yes, we provIded them wIth sewage and we
Improved the water deIIvery system, but why? £or theIr beneñt? To make theIr
IIves better? Not at aII. There were a !ew cases o! choIera there, and the ]ews
panIcked that It mIght come theIr way, so they Improved the sewer system and
the water system agaInst the choIera" (ShragaI, ]une ç, 2ooo}.
UntII 1¤6), East ]erusaIem was suppIIed wIth water by the ]erusaIem Water
UndertakIng (]WU, a prIvate PaIestInIan water dIstrIbutIon company Iocated
In RamaIIah}. A!ter the 1¤6) War, the IsraeII ]erusaIem MunIcIpaIIty connected
the waterworks In east and west ]erusaIem. In 1¤68, the o!ñces, pIpeIInes, and
equIpment o! the ]WU were conñscated and trans!erred to the ]erusaIem munIcI-
paIIty (AbduI-]abar and MIr, 1¤¤8:1o1}.
The ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty, as It was redeñned by IsraeI a!ter 1¤6), IncIudes
1,o¤2 kIIometers o! water pIpeIIne snakIng through the cIty (]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty
websIte, November 2o, 2ooç}. Cn average, thIs equaIs one kIIometer o! pIpe !or every
6oo ]erusaIem resIdents and covers West ]erusaIem, East ]erusaIem, ]ewIsh
settIements In East ]erusaIem, and other West 8ank Iands annexed by IsraeI to
]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty. 8ut the condItIon and sIze o! the pIpeIInes servIng the
PaIestInIan and ]ewIsh communItIes are !ar !rom comparabIe. £rom 1¤6) untII
1¤8¤, temporary gravItatIonaI IInes o! two Inches In dIameter were InstaIIed In
some East ]erusaIem PaIestInIan communItIes on the backbone o! the ]ordanIan
188
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system, pendIng the deveIopment o! comprehensIve road, water, and sewage
pIans. Those pIans never materIaIIzed, and pIpIng was sImpIy added on request
and accordIng to the avaIIabIIIty o! !unds. In 1¤8¤, Iarger dIameter pIpes (12 to
16 Inches} were InstaIIed, repIacIng the smaIIer network, as part o! a decIsIon to
begIn to repIace the water system (AbduI-]aber et aI, 1¤¤8:11a}. 8ut Iess than ¤o% o!
the upgrade pIan has been carrIed out. Even today, there remaIn some ruraI PaIes-
tInIan ]erusaIem neIghborhoods wIth no runnIng water (PWA, 2oo¤:ç}.
WhIIe IsraeI remaIns the maIn suppIIer o! water through Its natIonaI water
corporatIon Mekorot Water Company Itd., the water management In ]erusaIem Is
dIvIded between three maIn bodIes: the IsraeI munIcIpaIIty (CIhon Company},
the ]erusaIem Water UndertakIng (]WU}, and the West 8ank Water Department
(W8WD}. CIhon Is responsIbIe !or managIng both water and sewage !or most
o! the ]ewIsh areas InsIde the borders o! the ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty (bar-
rIng a !ew exceptIons to be dIscussed Iater}. The ]WU suppIIes water to some
PaIestInIan parts o! the ]erusaIem area, maInIy Its northern suburbs. WIthIn
the munIcIpaIIty boundarIes, the ]WU suppIIes 8eIt HanIna and CaIandIya re!u-
gee camp. It aIso suppIIes some vIIIages outsIde o! the munIcIpaI boundarIes.
To meet thIs demand, the ]WU utIIIzes the EIn SamIa weIIs east o! RamaIIah,
augmented by water purchased !rom CIhon and the Mekorot Water Company
(CDM/MorgantI, 1¤¤):2ç}.
The W8WD, In exIstence sInce 1¤6), was an o!ñcIaI governmentaI body, trans-
!ormed by the IsraeII CIvII AdmInIstratIon Into a sort o! pubIIc department wIth
responsIbIIIty !or operatIng buIk water !acIIItIes. ProtocoIs were sIgned by IsraeI
reIInquIshIng the W8WD to the PaIestInIan AuthorIty In 1¤¤6, but the PaIestInIan
sIde re!used to sIgn thIs document because It dId not IncIude the return o! thIrteen
West 8ank weIIs conñscated by IsraeI In 1¤)8 (]ass, 2ooa:1}. Today W8WD suppIIes
water to as-Sawahra as-SharqIyya and aI-SheIkh Sa'd (aIso caIIed as-Sawahra aI-
CharbIya}, whIch both IIe wIthIn ]erusaIem's expanded munIcIpaI boundarIes. It
aIso suppIIes many vIIIages wIthIn the PaIestInIan ]erusaIem dIstrIct.

(PWA, 2oo¤:1)}.
In 1¤6), severaI days a!ter the war, IsraeI and the UnIted NatIons ReIIe! and
Works Agency !or PaIestInIan Re!ugees In the Near East (UNRWA} sIgned an
agreement through the IsraeII Ambassador to the UnIted NatIons, MIchaeI
Comay, and UNRWA CommIssIoner CeneraI Iawrence MIcheImore. The agree-
ment stated that IsraeI wouId, at Its own expense, suppIy water to the re!ugee
camps at pubIIc water poInts. SInce 1¤8¤, however, Shu!at re!ugee camp has
been dIsconnected !rom the water network. The IsraeII mIIItary government and
CIhon ordered the dIsconnectIon a!ter dIsagreements over water costs. Moreo-
ver, the PaIestInIan vIIIage o! EzarIya Is aIso In dIspute wIth the IsraeII munIcIpaIIty
over water prIces. 8y way o! punIshment, the vIIIage endures !requent reductIons
In water suppIy ordered by the ]erusaIem munIcIpaIIty.
The underIyIng commonaIIty o! thIs compIIcated dIvIsIon o! Iabor Is that aII
three companIes buy theIr water !rom the IsraeII Mekorot Water Company. Each
system, however, has a dI!!erent prIcIng pIan, whIch Ieads to very dI!!erent prIces
!or IsraeII and PaIestInIan customers, to the dIsadvantage o! the PaIestInIans,
who end up payIng hIgher water rates (New IsraeII ShekeI (NIS} a In 8ethIehem
as compared to approxImateIy NIS ¤.a In IsraeI}. ThIs aIso InHuences the overaII
rate o! water use (PaIestInIans use 81 m

per year per capIta whIIe IsraeIIs use
2ço m

per year per capIta}. In addItIon, these dI!!erentIy managed systems are
dIstInguIshabIe by theIr physIcaI characterIstIcs. £or Instance, InsIde the ]erusa-
Iem munIcIpaI boundarIes, homes servIced by the CIhon Company (partIcuIarIy
]ewIsh neIghborhoods} never have reserve water tanks on theIr roo!s, sImpIy
because water Is generousIy suppIIed aII year round. NeIghborhoods servIced
by the ]WU or W8WD, however, are easIIy recognIzabIe by the Iarge bIack water
tanks on each and every roo! (AbdeI-]aber, 1¤¤8:¤o}.
In a 1¤¤¤ strategIc pIannIng study, the PaIestIne Water AuthorIty (PWA}
IndIcated that the ]erusaIem DIstrIct wouId contInue to depend on the Mekorot
Water Company !or the dIstrIct's water suppIy even a!ter the year 2o2o. It Is
cIear that the PWA does not expect to have controI o! ]erusaIem's weIIs be!ore
the year 2o1o; the !rozen state o! negotIatIons o!!ers no reason to re!ute that
predIctIon. StIII, the PWA pIans to suppIy ¤8% o! ]erusaIem's popuIatIon wIth
potabIe water by the year 2o2o. To achIeve thIs target, the PWA Is deveIopIng
deep weIIs wIth pumps operatIng an average o! 2o hours per day durIng reguIar
consumptIon months and 2a hours per day durIng peak demand.

L6I:G6C9I=:H:<G:<6I>DCL6AA
The Intent o! IsraeII strategIc pIannIng Is to controI as many water resources as
possIbIe. IsraeI's constructIon o! a serIes o! waIIs, !ences, patroI roads, barbed
wIre barrIers, and guard towers runnIng through ]erusaIem's neIghborhoods and
the West 8ank aIso Incorporates an aspect o! water resources conñscatIon.
In the northern part o! the West 8ank, ¤1
artesIan weIIs have been IsoIated on the IsraeII
sIde o! the SegregatIon WaII.

These weIIs tap
the western basIn o! West 8ank aquI!ers, wIth
an annuaI dIscharge o! a.¤ mcm; as such they
represent 16% o! the PaIestInIan share In the
western aquI!er. PaIestInIan agrIcuIture depends
a great deaI upon the varIous sprIngs that bub-
bIe up throughout the West 8ank. The Segrega-
tIon WaII has IsoIated ¤¤ sprIngs on Its western
(I.e. IsraeII} sIde. In the eastern area borderIng
the ]ordan RIver, a regIon that may aIso be
bIocked by the SegregatIon WaII In the !uture,
there are 1oç artesIan weIIs and ¤o sprIngs
that are used by PaIestInIans IIvIng In IocaIItIes
Iocated wIthIn thIs sIIce. There Is no doubt that
the SegregatIon WaII wIII sever PaIestInIans !rom
Important water resources, at the very Ieast
makIng It more dI!ñcuIt to access these weIIs
and exacerbatIng aIready "dry" condItIons. £urther, It appears that thIs exercIse
o! controI Is nonnegotIabIe. IsraeII o!ñcIaIs have IndIcated that the equItabIe
sharIng o! water Is a goaI PaIestInIans shouIdn't even dare dream o!. "I recognIze
needs, not rIghts," IsraeII water commIssIoner MeIr 8en MeIr noted In a meetIng
EthnIc roo!scapes: smaII
whIte water tanks and soIar
heatIng pIates are typIcaI
!or ]ewIsh areas, Iarge bIack
tanks sIgnI!y Arab areas
where they ensure basIc
water suppIy durIng !requent
shortages (photos: edItorIaI
team, 2oo6}
1¤o
l
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wIth PaIestInIan negotIators. "We are prepared to connect Arab vIIIages to IsraeI
as weII, but I want to retaIn sovereIgnty In hand."
To summarIze, IsraeI controIs, manages, and seIIs water to the PaIestInIans,
IncIudIng East ]erusaIemItes, on Its own terms and wIthout due regard !or theIr
needs. As a resuIt o! IsraeII poIIcIes, PaIestInIans utIIIze 2ç¤ mcm per year to
suppIy ¤.6 mIIIIon PaIestInIans In both the West 8ank and Caza StrIp (IncIudIng
]erusaIem} wIth theIr domestIc, IndustrIaI, and agrIcuIturaI needs. 8y comparIson,
6.8 mIIIIon IsraeIIs are utIIIzIng 1,8¤1 mcm per year. 8roken down per capIta, thIs
Is an annuaI dI!!erence o! three tImes.
CoIonIzatIon Is usuaIIy perceIved as a technIque, takIng shape at the sur!ace
o! contested terrItorIes. SettIements, road In!rastructures, !ences, and barrIers
are the vIsIbIe products o! the struggIe over terrItorIaI and demographIc controI.
Cn the other hand, the controI o! resources such as water remaIns InvIsIbIe at
ñrst and thus overIooked by the pubIIc as weII as IocaI and InternatIonaI medIa.
Yet as argued In thIs artIcIe, the controI over thIs "InvIsIbIe Iayer" not onIy InHu-
ences access, prIcIng poIItIcs, and IIvIng condItIons, but aIso has very concrete
physIcaI consequences, determInes the Iayout and posItIon o! settIements, and
InHuenced the pIannIng o! the SegregatIon WaII. CoIonIzatIon o! resources Is
addIng a thIrd dImensIon to the geopoIItIcs o! the MIddIe Eastern conHIct and a
]ust soIutIon over theIr dIstrIbutIon Is a precondItIon !or a IastIng peace.
1 AccordIng to the PaIestInIan AuthorIty, the ]erusaIem DIstrIct Is one o! 11 dIstrIcts o! the West
8ank coverIng an area o! ¤ç¤.6) square km. The ]erusaIem DIstrIct Is comprIsed o! a¤ IocaIItIes In
addItIon to two re!ugee camps (CaIandIya and Shu!at} and ¤a IIIegaI IsraeII settIements wIth an
estImated IsraeII settIer popuIatIon o! 288,oaa.
2 EdItor's note: SeparatIon £ence/WaII In ]erusaIem and the West 8ank.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
Casem AbdeI ]aber et. aI., LZaah^ci]ZLZhi7Vc`/LViZgFjVa^inVcY8]Zb^hign (PaIestIne: CMS
Itd., 1¤¤¤}.
7dhidcHjcYVn<adWZ, Cctober 18, 1¤¤8.
CIean DeveIopment MechanIsm (CDM}/MorgantI and The West 8ank MunIcIpaI ServIces Pro]ect,
"ComprehensIve PIannIng £ramework !or PaIestInIan Water Resources DeveIopment USAID and
PWA (Task a}," gZedgi[dgi]ZLViZgGZhdjgXZhEgd\gVb, MorgantI (1¤¤)a}.
Peter CIIeck, "8asIc Water RequIrements !or Human ActIvItIes: MeetIng 8asIc Needs," >ciZgcV"
i^dcVaLViZg 21 (2} (1¤¤6}.
IsraeII MInIstry o! £oreIgn A!!aIrs Report (1¤¤ç}.
Mohammad ]ass, "InternatIonaI £orum on £ood SecurIty under Water ScarcIty In the MIddIe East:
ProbIems and SoIutIons," LZhi7Vc`LViZg9ZeVgibZciGZedgi (2ooa}.
PaIestInIan HydroIogy Croup, LVH=Bdc^idg^c\GZedgi (2ooa}.
PaIestInIan Water AuthorIty (PWA} Report (1¤¤¤}.
PaIestInIan Water AuthorIty (PWA} Report (2oo¤}.
MaIIn £aIkenmark and CarI WIdstrand, "PopuIatIon and Water Resources: A DeIIcate 8aIance,"
EdejaVi^dc7jaaZi^c a) (¤} (Nov. 1¤¤2}.
Isam R. Shawwa, "The Water SItuatIon In Caza," In LViZg/8dcÄ^Xidg8ddeZgVi^dc#>hgVZa$EVaZhi^cZ/
>hhjZh^c8dcÄ^Xi!>hhjZh[dg8ddeZgVi^dc 2 (2}, ed. Cershon 8askIn, 2nd ed. (]erusaIem; IsraeI/PaI-
estIne Center !or Research and In!ormatIon [IPCRIj, 1¤¤¤}.
|rc|ec| Crenzgecgra||en
Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
1el Avlv
Jerµsalem
|alfa
|adera
Asnqeton
Beersneoa
Nazaretn
Dead 3ea
1el Avlv
Jerµsalem
|alfa
|adera
Asnqeton
Beersneoa
Nazaretn
Dead 3ea
* onliguily
Jerµsalem
Jerlcno
Betnlenem
|eoron
Pamallan
Naolµs
1µlkram
Betnlenem
Jerµsalem
Jerlcno
|eoron
Pamallan
Naolµs
1µlkram
Fragmenlalion
0 10 0 20 30 40 k||cme|ers
lsrae|| se|||emen|s
Checkpc|n|s
lsrae|| ma|n rcads
Os|c /rea C
(|u|| lsrae|| ccn|rc|)
Os|c /rea B
(|a|es||n|an c|v|| ccn|rc|, lsrae|| m||||arv ccn|rc|)
Os|c /rea /
(|u|| ccn|rc| c| |he |a|es||n|an /u|hcr||v)
lsrae|| c|||es
lsrae|| ma|n rcads
Vcvemen| |ns|de |he 1es| Bank |s based cn
|wc near|v ccmp|e|e|v segrega|ed rcad svs
|ems super|mpcsed cn each c|her. /||er |he
Os|c /cccrds and |he es|ab||shmen| c| ||m||ed
|a|es||n|an se||ru|e, lsrae| begun |c |nves| |n
bvpass rcads wh|ch ||nked |he mcs| |mpcr|an|
se|||emen|s w||h lsrae| prcper. Vcs| se|||ers ncw
nc |cnger needed |c dr|ve |hrcugh |a|es||n|an
|cwns and v|||ages, and were ab|e |c ma|n|a|n
a suburban |||es|v|e wcrk|ng |n lsrae| bu| ||v|ng
|n |he cccup|ed |err||cr|es. /||er |he a|/qsa ln||
|ada, |a|es||n|ans were barred c| manv c| |hese
rcads, en|rance and ex|| pc|n|s were sea|ed.
|a|es||n|an |ra|||c was |e|| |c use an c|d rcad
svs|em punc|ua|ed bv checkpc|n|s.
'·' ·J
¯.··'·'
|º.·' ·J .º' ¯··

194 ¦ 195 Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
Ccn||gu||v
|ragmen|a||cn
Enlry inlo Oslo areas ^ nol permilled
Enlry wilh |sraeli permils
Free access
Free access
Free access (in praclice access reslricled by
individual selllemenl securily arrangemenls)
Wesl 1erusalem Caza 3lrip |srael Easl 1erusalem
No access
Caza 3lrip |srael Wesl 1erusalem Easl 1erusalem
Enlry wilh lime-reslricled |sraeli permils
(granled only in exceplional circumslances)
Enlry wilh lime-reslricled |sraeli permils
Enlry wilh lime-reslricled |sraeli permils
No access
3elllemenls
(^rea * )
Wesl Bank
(^reas ^lB)
3elllemenls
(^rea * )
Wesl Bank
(^reas ^lB)
Checkpc|n|s
/ccess re|used
/ccess
Res|r|c||cns cn mcvemen| have beccme cne c|
|he mcs| e||ec||ve |cc|s used |n en|crc|ng lsrae||
cccupa||cn c| |a|es||n|an |err||crv. /s a ccnse
quence c| Os|csanc||cned |err||cr|a| |ragmen|a
||cn, |a|es||n|ans are expcsed |c a ccmp|ex and
ccns|an||vchang|ng reg|me c| |rave| perm||s
and checkpc|n|s, wh||e |hcusands c| se|||ers
|rave| |ree|v |c Jerusa|em and lsrae| cn bvpass
rcads. Tra|||c be|ween |he 1es| Bank and Caza
|s a| a ccmp|e|e s|ands||||, |ew |a|es||n|ans are
|ssued wcrk perm||s |cr lsrae|, cr access perm||s
|c wcrk, s|udv, seek hea||hcare and sc cn. lsrae||s
are barred bv |he lsrae|| /rmv |rcm en|er|ng |a|
es||n|an adm|n|s|erred |err||cr|es. Secur||v |ears
and a pers|s||ng /rab bcvcc|| preven|s mcs|
lsrae||s |rcm |rave| |c |he surrcund|ng /rab s|a|es.
Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
`.' ¯º'.'º
|º.·' oJ ¹..'.º
196 ¦ 197
|lzma
Anata
As-3awanra
Aoµ Dls
Vµknmas
3nelkn 3aad
Al-Uoeldlva
Al'Flzarlva
Vaale Adµmlm
|lzma
Anata
As-3awanra
Aoµ Dls
Vµknmas
3nelkn 3aad
Al-Uoeldlva
Al'Flzarlva
Vaale Adµmlm
0 1 2 3 4 5 k||cme|ers
0esp||e |he phvs|ca| |n||macv c| |a|es||n|an and
lsrae|| Jerusa|em, |he|r d|||er|ng urban svs|ems
are separa|ed bv |den||||ab|e phvs|ca| bu||er
spaces and barr|ers such as wa||s, |ences,
rcads, d|kes, s|cpes, p|an|a||cns cr va||evs. Th|s
arrav c| |rcn||er |vpc|cg|es cbs|ruc|s and ||m||s
v|sua| cr phvs|ca| ccn|ac|. 1h||e lsrae|| gcvern
men| ma|n|a|ns |he rhe|cr|c c| a 'un|||ed c||v,¨
||s p|ann|ng pc||c|es enccurage |he |ncreas|ng
|rac|ur|ng c| |he urban |andscape a|cng e|hn|c
|err||cr|a| ||nes, wh|ch he|ps |c ||m|| |a|es||n|an
grcw|h and a||cws |cr |he easv sever|ng c| a||
||nkages be|ween |he ccmmun|||es |n ||mes c|
secur||v a|er|s. The Separa||cn 1a||/|ence |s |he
mcs| ex|reme c| |hese |vpc|cg|es. l| nc| cn|v
separa|es lsrae||s |rcm |a|es||n|ans, bu| s||ces
|he |a|es||n|an scc|ceccncm|c and cu||ura| |abr|c
be|ween v|||ages annexed |n|c lsrae|| Jerusa|em,
and |he|r 1es| Bank h|n|er|ands.
Checkpc|n|s
|ub||c green
1as|e |ands
Tcpcgraphv
Rcads
|ences
Separa||cn |ence/1a||
rcu|e sub|ec|ed |c |ur|her ccmp|e||||cn
Separa||cn |ence/1a||
Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
¯.'.º
|.º·' 2JJ')
198 ¦ 199
30"
40"
60"
80"
100"
120"
140"
160" 40"
30"
40"
60"
80"
100"
120"
140"
160" 40"
0 1 2 3 4 5 k||cme|ers
Checkpc|n|
V|n| bus hubs
|a|es||n|an |rave| rcu|e (examp|e)
Separa||cn 1a||/|ence
lsrae|| |rave| rcu|e (examp|e)
1h||e lsrae|| se|||ers ccn||nue |c use |he |as|
ar|er|a| h|ghwav svs|em c| Rcad 60/Rcad 1,
wh|ch ccnnec|s Jerusa|em w||h |he ncr|hern and
scu|hern par|s c| |he 1es| Bank, |h|s rcu|e's
cen|ra| Jerusa|em sec||cn has been c|csed |c
1es| Bank |a|es||n|ans s|nce 2000. Barr|ng
med|ca| emergenc|es cr rare|v|ssued wcrk
perm||s, |he|r access |c |he c||v |s den|ed. Th|s
dccumen|ed examp|e c| |he rcu|e be|ween
Be|h|ehem and Rama||ah shcws hcw |a|es||n
|an |rave||ers are |crced |c |ake a |eng|hv de|cur
acrcss |he h|||v deser| mcun|a|ns, a rcu|e |re
quen||v |n|errup|ed bv m||||arv checkpc|n|s. The
|crma| cver|and bus svs|em has cc||apsed and
pr|va|e veh|c|es are c||en prch|b||ed, mak|ng
|n|crma| pr|va|e |crd |rans|| dr|vers a ||ex|b|e and
cheap |rave| a||erna||ve wh|ch ||nks severa| |rans
pcr|a||cn hubs a|cng |he rcu|e.
Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
¯·o'·. ¹.·.' ¯'º
|.º·' 2JJ')
200 ¦ 201
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
Tempcrarv checkpc|n|s
lsrae|| rcads
|a|es||n|an rcads
The mcrphc|cgv c| rcad pa||erns |n Sur Baher
and |ar |cma |nd|ca|es bc|h cu||ura| d|||erences
be|ween lsrae||s and |a|es||n|ans and |he|r
asvmme|r|ca| access |c pub||c rescurces. The
se|||emen| |s served bv a ccnven|en| |nner c||v
h|ghwav, a ||near svs|em, wh|ch |nc|udes s|gnage
and h|erarch|ca| ccn|rc| svs|ems and re||es cn a
h|gh |eve|s c| p|ann|ng and ma|n|enance.
ln ccn|ras|, |he rcad svs|em |n Sur Bah|r evc|ved
cver cen|ur|es |n para||e| w||h |he chang|ng
needs c| |he |cca| v|||ages. /s an cpen cap|||arv
rcad svs|em, || re||ec|s c|cse ||nkages be|ween
|he ccmmun|||es and |he|r agr|cu||ura| h|n|er
|ands. l| |s ncnh|erarch|ca| and can be ex|ended
and ad|us|ed w||h ease. The |ack c| s|gnage,
s|dewa|ks, and repa|r re||ec| a |ack c| mun|c|pa|
|nves|men|. The ||m||ed pc|n|s c| crcsscver
be|ween lsrae|| and |a|es||n|an rcad svs|ems are
|nd|ca||ve nc| cn|v c| |ears and men|a| barr|ers
d|v|d|ng |he ccmmun|||es, bu| a|sc a||cw easv
ccn|rc| |hrcugh lsrae|| m||||arv checkpc|n|s.
Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
¯·J º'º
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
202 ¦ 203
Jerµsalem
Jerµsalem
90''
60''
120''
30''
270''
60''
90''
Jerµsalem
Jerµsalem
300''
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
Veasur|ng |rave| speed and e|||c|encv c| car
access |nd|ca|es |he |undamen|a| qua|||a||ve
d|||erences be|ween lsrae|| and |a|es||n|an rcad
svs|ems.
lsrae|| |rave| rcu|e (examp|e)
Trave| ||me Sur Bah|r
(30 seccnds |n|erva|s)
Trave| ||me |ar |cma
(30 seccnds |n|erva|s)
Tempcrarv checkpc|n|s
|a|es||n|an |rave| rcu|e (examp|e)
Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
¹.·.' oJº
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
204 ¦ 205
/ccess
S|cpes
Trees
Re|a|n|ng wa||s
Bu||d|ngs
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
Se|||emen| and v|||age have a d|||eren|, even
cppcs|||cna| re|a||cnsh|p |c |he surrcund|ng
|andscape, wh|ch |s |nd|ca||ve c| cu||ura| d|||er
ences and |he dvnam|cs c| |he ccn|||c|. / heavv
re|a|n|ng wa|| svs|em has been des|gned |c
prc|ec| |he |n|rcver|ed se|||emen| c| |ar |cma,
whcse rcunded per|me|er evckes |he m||||arv
|cg|c c| m|n|m|z|ng ccn|ac| w||h |he cu|s|de.
/ s|ng|e access rcad guarded bv a pc||ce s|a||cn
ccnnec|s |he se|||emen| w||h ||s surrcund|ngs.
Engagemen| w||h |he |andscape |s reduced |c
pancp||c v|ews, made pcss|b|e bv s|aggered
bu||d|ng arrangemen|s. ln ccn|ras|, Sur Bah|r's
bcundarv |s h|gh|v permeab|e, prcv|d|ng numer
cus access pc|n|s |cr v|||agers |rave|||ng |c
|he|r agr|cu||ura| |and hc|d|ngs. The d|s||nc||cn
be|ween bu|||up area and |andscape |s b|urred.
Vcb||||v and lmmcb||||v
¯.'.º
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
206 ¦ 207
Ccncep| and ccpvr|gh|
T|m R|en|e|s, |h|||pp V|sse|w||z
Scurces
|rc|ec| Crenzgecgra||en (ln|erna||cna| |eace and Cccpera||cn
Cen|er l|CC Jerusa|em, Beza|e| /cademv c| /r| and 0es|gn Jeru
sa|em, 0n|vers||v c| |he /r|s Ber||n, ET| Sw|ss |edera| lns|||u|e
c| Technc|cgv Zur|ch), ;YPSH[LYHS:[\KLU[>VYRZOVWZ (Jerusa|em,
20032005).
0n||ed Na||cns, O|||ce |cr |he Cccrd|na||cn c| |uman||ar|an
/||a|rs (OC|/), *SVZ\YL4HWZ (2005).

4
6
5
<
4
,
5
;
:
5
6

4
(
5

:

3
(
5
+
:
wherever Israe|| and Pa|est|n|an urban fragments
cc|||de, a hcst cf frcnt|er spaces ex|sts-terr|tcr|es
cf fear and anx|ety, hcst||e w||dernesses, and buffer
zcnes that sh|e|d each ccmmun|ty frcm the cther.
D|ven a c|cser |cck, these s|tes revea| amb|va-
|ence. Ccntrad|ctcry e|ements cf trad|t|cna| agr|cu|-
tura| |andscape and |ts decay are |uxtapcsed w|th
green areas crchestrated as parks cr mcnuments.
1he rura| has been rep|aced by the suburban, the
agr|cu|tura| by the deccrat|ve. Darbage dumps and
neg|ected c||ve grcves a|ternate w|th pcckets cf a
h|gh|y eng|neered and aesthet|c (yet cften equa||y
deserted) |andscape. 1h|s m|crc-|andscape m|rrcrs
the spat|a| qua||ty cf the spraw||ng Jerusa|em ccn-
urbat|cn at |arge. Its d|sccnt|nu|t|es embcdy the
tens|cns and ccntrad|ct|cns cf a |andscape that has
been urban|zed rap|d|y under ccnd|t|cns cf |ntense
ccnf||ct. 1hey are symptcms cf a h|dden f|ght cver
|dent|ty, cwnersh|p, and aesthet|c dcm|nat|cn cf an
ctherw|se bana|-seem|ng suburban |andscape.
WVg^c\a^[Z
8>I>:H!B>A>I6GNK>DA:C8:!6C9I=:EDA>I>8H
D;G:EG:H:CI6I>DC
Derek Cregory
The questIon "In what way does the IIvIng beIng have Ianguage?" corresponds
exactIy to the questIon "In what way does bare II!e dweII In the poIIs?" (CIorgIo
Agamben, 1¤¤8:8}
The excIusIonary matrIx by whIch sub]ects are !ormed requIres the sImuIta-
neous productIon o! a domaIn o! ab]ect beIngs. .The ab]ect desIgnates here
precIseIy those "unIIvabIe" and "unInhabItabIe" zones o! socIaI II!e whIch are
nevertheIess denseIy popuIated by those who do not en]oy the status o! the
sub]ect, but whose IIvIng under the sIgn o! the "unIIvabIe" Is requIred to cIr-
cumscrIbe the domaIn o! the sub]ect. (]udIth 8utIer, 1¤¤¤:¤}
DG>:CI6A>HB!D7?:8I>K:H!6C9D7?:8IH
Edward SaId IdentIñed two moments In the operatIons o! modern CrIentaIIsm.
In the ñrst, "the CrIent" Is con]ured as a space o! the exotIc and the bIzarre, the
monstrous and the pathoIogIcaI: "a IIvIng tabIeau o! queerness." In the second,
"the CrIent" Is summoned as a space to be dIscIpIIned through the !orce!uI pro]ec-
tIon o! the order that the ñrst presumes It to Iack: "!ramed by the cIassroom, the
crImInaI court, the prIson, the IIIustrated manuaI" (SaId, 1¤)8:a1, 1o¤}. I want to hIgh-
IIght the contInuIng connectIon between epIstemoIogIcaI vIoIence-In partIcuIar
the epIgraph that, wIth exquIsIte Irony, pre!aces SaId's crItIque: Marx's admonItIon
that "[Tjhey cannot represent themseIves; they must be represented"-and the
corporeaI vIoIence o! the "war on terror."
The US-Ied wars In A!ghanIstan and Iraq, and theIr opportunIstIc extensIons
In occupIed PaIestIne and eIsewhere, cIaIm to pro]ect mIIItary vIoIence !rom the
space o! reason Into spaces o! unreason. ThIs cartography Is sustaIned through
three ImagInatIve geographIes that make those other spaces "Cther" by mappIng
them In hIghIy partIcuIar and partIaI ways.
IjhWj[]o RegIster Space
BeYWj_d] techno-cuIturaI abstract, geometrIc
?dl[hj_d] poIItIco-cuIturaI wIId, savage
;nY[fj_d] poIItIco-]urIdIcaI paradoxIcaI, topoIogIcaI
These renderIngs have such acuteIy materIaI consequences that they can
be descrIbed as per|ormances o| space. The second and thIrd strategIes reIn!orce
one another to produce precIseIy those "unIIvabIe" and "unInhabItabIe" zones
that ]udIth 8utIer IdentIñed so prescIentIy. "InvertIng" works prImarIIy In a
poIItIco-cuIturaI regIster to produce a wIId and savage Iandscape staIked by
maraudIng bands o! barbarIans. "ExceptIng" works prImarIIy In a poIItIco-
]urIdIcaI regIster to produce a paradoxIcaI space, whose contortIons can onIy
be conveyed through a topoIogy, the haunt o! "shadowy 'thIrd thIngs' Iodged
between anImaI and human," pIaced by the !orce o! Iaw outsIde the protectIons
o! the Iaw (CIIroy, 2oo¤:261-)6}.
These tropes are commonpIace In the sphere o! CrIentaIIsm where so much
o! the "war on terror" Is orchestrated. 8ut how can such maps show the cItIes
on whIch CrIentaIIsm's martIaI !ury Is !ocused? I! cItIes are the pIvots o! cIvI-
IIzatIon, as a Iong tradItIon o! Western poIItIcaI thought InsIsts, then how can
mIIItary attacks on KabuI and Candahar, East ]erusaIem and ]erIcho, 8aghdad
and 8asra, be sustaIned wIthout compromIsIng the very cartography o! vIoIence
on whIch the "war on terror" Is based? How can the exIstence o! such pIaces be
made to commensurate wIth theIr habItatIon by barbarIans and "thIrd thIngs"?
The answers, I suggest here, turn on the ñrst strategy, whIch Iocates cItIes IIke
these wIthIn an abstract, geometrIc space that makes them not onIy become
mIIItary ob]ectIves but aIso objects. To understand how thIs works, It Is necessary
to examIne how thIs strategy, IIke the other two, actIvates a serIes o! pro!oundIy
coIonIaI dIsposItIons.
8>I>:H!8DC;A>8IH!6C98DADC>6A>HBH
The hIstory o! cItIes Is aIso, In part, the hIstory o! war. The two-the destruc-
tIon o! the one by the other-have marched In Iockstep throughout recorded
hIstory. Ryan 8Ishop and Cregory CIancey have IdentIñed an abrupt break In
the bIeak tattoo !rom MesopotamIa to modern Iraq, however, !rom a worId
In whIch "whoIe cItIes were destroyed and theIr InhabItants sIaughtered" to
one In whIch "urban sackIng was sporadIc and constraIned" (8Ishop and CIancey,
2oo¤:6a}. ThIs rupture, they say, was brought about by the NapoIeonIc wars. In
turn, I wouId argue that thIs Is an excessIveIy generous readIng mInImIzIng
revoIutIonary £rance's repeated assauIts on cItIes. It turns a partIcuIarIy bIInd
eye to 8onaparte's butchery at ]a!!a In March 1)¤¤, an epIsode bookended by
the bIoody reprIsaIs taken by the occupyIng £rench army agaInst Insurgents In
CaIro In Cctober 1)¤8 and agaIn In AprII 18oo. £or SaId, o! course, the £rench
occupatIon o! Egypt marked the threshoId o! a dIstInctIveIy modern !orm o!
CrIentaIIsm, and In !act 8Ishop and CIancey concede that "Europeans contInued
to raze A!rIcan and AsIan cItIes," but "the destructIon o! cItIes became a show
at the perIphery" In spaces pItched outsIde the space o! the modern. Monsters
were Ioose In the demì-monde and wouId onIy be cowed by spectacuIar dIs-
pIays o! vIoIence. These coIonIaI Iessons were eventuaIIy repatrIated to the
Western metropoIIs, and then Iater reexported to the gIobaI South !or, as the
authors observe, "the coIonIaI cIty was the paradIgm !or the cIty-as-target that
has domInated the mIIItary ImagInatIon In the twentIeth century" (8Ishop and
CIancey, 2oo¤:68}. 8y IdentI!yIng three ways In whIch the contemporary strategy
o! "IocatIng" reactIvates that coIonIaI paradIgm, I want to show that thIs has
contInued Into the twenty-ñrst century.
212
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No-man's-Iands
I6G<:IH6C9I=:<:DEDA>I>8HD;K:GI>86A>IN
EyaI WeIzman has shown how the IsraeII encIrcIement, occupatIon, and dIspos-
sessIon o! PaIestInIan Iands has been e!!ected through what he caIIs a "poIItIcs
o! vertIcaIIty," (WeIzman, 2oo2} and Stephen Craham has both generaIIzed and
radIcaIIzed thIs as a "geopoIItIcs o! vertIcaIIty" (Craham, 2ooa:12-1¤}. Craham
means thIs to convey the US predIIectIon !or hIgh-IeveI war!are waged on cItIes
In A!ghanIstan and Iraq. DurIng the ñrst phase o! the attack on A!ghanIstan
In 2oo1, !or exampIe, news management worked to restrIct reportIng on the
ground. The Intent was to make those heId responsIbIe !or the attacks on the
Pentagon and the WorId Trade Center appear as nothIng more than IocatIons on
a grId, Ietters on a map: notatIons In an abstract space. Weeks be!ore they took
to the skIes, pIIots had Hown sortIes over "A!ghanIstan," a hIgh-resoIutIon three-
dImensIonaI vIrtuaI space, produced through a mIssIon rehearsaI system caIIed
Topscene that enabIed pIIots to vIsuaIIze theIr approaches to desIgnated targets.
It was so "II!e-IIke" (or death-IIke, dependIng on your poInt o! vIew} that
"A!ghanIstan" was vIrtuaIIy InterchangeabIe wIth A!ghanIstan. TIme and tIme
agaIn, the medIa merged wIth the mIIItary In theIr reIñcatIon o! thIs techno-
cuIturaI ImagInary. In the weeks precedIng the InvasIon o! Iraq, !or exampIe,
press and teIevIsIon reports were domInated by sateIIIte Imagery and the
reductIon o! 8aghdad to a cIty o! targets. "Cet a sateIIIte-eye's vIew o! 8aghdad,"
U8A Today InvIted vIsItors to Its websIte. The Washìngton Iost's InteractIve
Instructed vIewers to "roII over the numbers to see what targets were hIt on
whIch day; cIIck to read more about the targets."
AerIaI bombardment orIgInated In coIonIaI war!are, but these contempo-
rary strategIes are coIonIzIng In a much more InsIdIous sense. They depend
on abstractIons to produce the IIIusIon o! an authorIzIng master-sub]ect who
asserts, through the unyIeIdIng geometrIes o! IInear perspectIve, both vIsuaI
mastery and vIoIent possessIon. They depIoy a dIscourse o! ob]ectIvIty-so that
eIevatIon secures the hIgher Truth-and a dIscourse o! ob]ect-ness that reduces
the worId to a serIes o! ob]ects In a vIsuaI pIane. 8ombs and mIssIIes then raIn
down on coordInates and Ietters: on K-A-8-U-I but not on the cIty o! KabuI, Its
Innocent InhabItants terrorIzed and theIr homes shattered by another round In
the Incessant wars, choreographed by superpowers !rom a sa!e dIstance. The
resuIt-!erventIy desIred and care!uIIy orchestrated-Is optIcaI detachment.
"Remote as they are !ar !rom 'targets'," Zygmunt 8auman observes, "scur-
ryIng over those they hIt too !ast to wItness the devastatIon they cause and
the bIood they spIII, the pIIots-turned-computer-operators hardIy ever have the
chance o! IookIng theIr vIctIms In the !ace and to survey the human mIsery they
have sowed" (8auman, 2oo1:11-28}. ]ust IIke Mr. 8arrow who ventured Into "the Iand
o! the 8ushmen" In the earIy 1¤th century and reported sIghtIng not the 8ushmen
but mereIy "scratches on the !ace o! the country," so do these Images reveaI scars
on the !ace o! the country but never scars on the !aces o! those In]ured and kIIIed
there (Pratt, 1¤8ç:11¤-a¤}.
The varIous vIewIng pubIIcs produced by thIs voyeurIstIc spectacIe are
themseIves compIIcIt In the process o! e!!acement. The week Saddam's statue
was toppIed In the center o! 8aghdad, new maps o! the cIty were pubIIshed by
newspapers and magazInes. "Targets" were repIaced by "neIghborhoods," and It
turned out that these were InhabIted not by tyrants, torturers, and terrorIsts-as
one mIght have expected-but by doctors, archItects, shopkeepers, chIIdren: peopIe
very much IIke you and me. How IoudIy wouId the war-drums have sounded
had maps IIke these spIraIed through the pubIIc sphere In the months and weeks
be!ore "shock and awe" was unIeashed?
<:DB:IG>:H6C9I=:EDA>I>8HD;JG76CL6G;6G:
In hIs InHuentIaI medItatIons Cn War, pubIIshed In 18¤2, CIausewItz argued that
"the geometrIcaI eIement" was IndIspensabIe at the tactIcaI IeveI but had been
greatIy exaggerated at the IeveI o! strategy. Urban war!are con!ounds these dIs-
tInctIons, however, and the "war on terror" has mobIIIzed a serIes o! geometrIc
ImagInarIes to structure Its operatIons In "urbanIzed terraIn" (a term-o!-art
that cra!tIIy reproduces those geometrIc emphases}. In September 2oo2, the US
]oInt ChIe!s o! Sta!! Issued theIr Doctrìne |or ]oìnt Urban Cperatìons. The prospect
o! an ImmInent InvasIon o! Iraq had produced nIghtmare scenarIos o! urban
war!are: unIIke A!ghanIstan, Iraq Is denseIy urbanIzed and the IraqI regIme
InsIsted It wouId take the ñght to the streets. Cn the pages o! the Doctrìne, the
cIty appeared as an ob]ect-space-a space o! enveIopes, hard structures, and
networks-that posed a serIes o! geometrIc chaIIenges to be met by geometrIc
responses. AIthough much has been made o! the cIose cooperatIon between the
US mIIItary and the IsraeI De!ense £orces, the horrI!yIng US assauIts on £aIIu]ah
In AprII and November 2ooa mobIIIzed the most soIId o! geometrIes, IeveIIng
vast areas o! the cIty. In contrast, a senIor ID£ (IsraeII De!ense £orces} o!ñcer In
TeI AvIv toId me (aIso In November 2ooa} that the key to urban war!are was a
more !orensIc "deconstructIon" o! "the spatIaI grammar o! the Arab cIty"-and
hIs modeIs were DerrIda and DeIeuze.
Here, too, the ground Is prepared usIng sImuIatIons. There are cIose coIIabora-
tIons wIth HoIIywood set desIgners and £X-technIcIans to construct mock "Arab
cItIes" !or troops to rehearse theIr roIes, and coIIaboratIons wIth vIdeogame
desIgners and ñImmakers to produce vIrtuaI scenarIos. £or exampIe "one square
mIIe o! tIghtIy-nested buIIdIngs," whIch, accordIng to an executIve !rom game
company £orterra Systems, Is "remInIscent o! 8aghdad.whIch Army soIdIers
aII over the worId [canj roam sImuItaneousIy." Pro]ects IIke these dIssoIve the
boundarIes between the mIIItary and the pubIIc. IuII 8pectrum Warrìor emerged
out o! these coIIaboratIons and Is avaIIabIe In both commercIaI and mIIItary ver-
sIons so that, as one ]ournaIIst noted, you can now waIk Into a games store "and
get a taste o! what It Is IIke to manage troops under Arab ñre" (Thompson, 2ooa;
SIagIe, 2ooa}. Not surprIsIngIy, In the weeks be!ore the InvasIon o! Iraq, AmerIcan
and 8rItIsh medIa reproduced the same ImagInary (a beta-versIon, as It were}
wIth remarkabIe ñdeIIty: "InsIde IraqI cItIes, mIIItary operatIons wouId be vastIy
more compIIcated. £rom sewers to roo!tops, cItIes are muItIIayered, IIke three-
dImensIonaI chessboards, creatIng endIess opportunItIes !or ambushes and
snIpers. 'Urban war!are Is cIose, personaI and brutaI,' says an Army report.
'TaII buIIdIngs, sewer and storm draIns, aIIow unobserved shI!tIng o! !orces, and
streets become kIII-zones'" (Tyson, 2oo¤}.
21a
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Monuments
No-man's-Iands
Here, too, graphIcs dramatIzed the IIkeIy scenarIos o! urban war!are. In end-
Iess cutaways and £Iash presentatIons, US troops were shown movIng purpose-
!uIIy through a sheII-torn Iandscape o! buIIdIngs, streets, and aIIeys. Yet In most
cases, the onIy human ñgures to be seen were those o! the troops themseIves.
HeIIcopter gunshIps swooped Iow over the streets and aIIeys, tanks raIsed theIr
barreIs and swIveIed theIr turrets, patroIs ñred round a!ter round. There were
expIosIons, smoke, Hames-but no sIgn o! IraqI troops, Insurgents, or even a
cIvIIIan popuIatIon.
ThIs hoIIowIng-out o! the cIty has two rhetorIcaI e!!ects. £Irst, It repeats the
!amIIIar coIonIaI gesture o! Terra NuIIìus, but transposes It to the cIty, whIch
sImIIarIy becomes a vacant space awaItIng possessIon. The cIty's very emptIness
works to convey a rIght to be there to those who represent It thus. Second, It
decorporeaIIzes the cIty, whIch becomes a space, permeated wIth vIoIence, yet
wIthout a body In sIght. I! the cIty can be so readIIy reduced to a space o! ob]ects,
It Is scarceIy surprIsIng that death Is made to dIsappear Into "coIIateraI damage."
A67NG>CI=H6C9I=:<:D<G6E=>:H
D;B>A>I6GND88JE6I>DC
The "war on terror" permIts no cIInIcaI dIstInctIon between mIIItary o!!ensIves
and mIIItary occupatIons, but mIIItary occupatIon cannot be conducted In the
Ianguage o! targets and geometrIes aIone. The cIty must stIII be represented
as a spatIaIIzed ob]ect. Cne o! the ñrst tasks assIgned to the engIneers who
accompanIed the NapoIeonIc expedItIon to Egypt was to draw up a detaIIed
map o! CaIro (and one o! the ñrst ob]ectIves, o! the Insurgents, was to sack the
house o! the engIneers and make o!! wIth theIr surveyIng Instruments}. 8ut
mIIItary occupatIon makes It pIaIn that cItIes are more than ob]ect-ñeIds, and
mIIItary research organIzatIons have had to come to terms beIatedIy wIth the
peopIe who IIve In them. A steady stream o! mIIItary-technIcaI con!erence pres-
entatIons !rom 2ooo through 2oo2 compIaIned that whIIe "cIvIIIan popuIatIons
can have a pro!ound e!!ect on a crowded battIe space," exIstIng mIIItary sImuIa-
tIons provIde "IIttIe representatIon" o! them. 8ut "representatIon" was made to
carry a partIcuIar charge. SeveraI research groups are currentIy workIng on the
deveIopment o! crowd modeIIng capabIIItIes !or the US mIIItary, !or exampIe,
and theIr graphIcs work Is state-o!-the-art; yet theIr generatIve assumptIons
mImIc the shop-worn behavIoraI geography o! the 1¤)os. The cIty Is ImagIned
and anImated as a serIes o! physIcaI paths and ob]ect-tracks.

There Is IIttIe
or no recognItIon o! the cIty as a cuIturaI space, permeated wIth meanIng and
e!!ect, so that the sImuIatIons provIde a techno-cuIturaI echo o! SaId's epIgram:
"They cannot represent themseIves; they must be represented." Those who
IIve In these cItIes are not aIIowed a cogent voIce o! theIr own, but are reduced
to crowds and mobs. Even research dIrected toward creatIng "artIñcIaIIy InteI-
IIgent vIrtuaI characters that can Interact wIth humans usIng naturaI Ianguage,"
who "wIII understand the sItuatIon" and "act as members o! the IocaI popuIa-
tIon," reIIes on an abstract behavIoraI modeI rather than a substantIve cuIturaI
geography. The dI!!erence between the two Is consIderabIe, as the CEC o!
£orterra Systems reveaIs when he !antasIzes about a worId In whIch "!rIendIy
1
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IraqIs couId Iog on and take part In a vIrtuaI mob scene, compIete wIth abuse
hurIed In ArabIc" (Verton, 2ooç}.
There are some sIgns that the mIIItary has !oIIowed contemporary urban
theory Into Its own cuIturaI turn, recognIzIng however -as that same ID£ o!ñcer
toId me-"the need to conduct cuIturaI voyages Into dI!!erent terrItorIes," In
order to conceptuaIIze "the IogIc o! the Cther." In 2ooa, the Combat StudIes InstI-
tute Inaugurated Its serIes o! "CccasIonaI Papers on the CIobaI War on Terror-
Ism" wIth an extended essay on mIIItary operatIons and the MIddIe Eastern cIty
(there's apparentIy onIy one o! them} (DIMarco, 2ooa}. The survey, by the author
o! the U8 Army's IìeId ManuaI ¸-o6 on Urban Cperatìons, opens wIth a revIew o!
severaI descrIptIve urban modeIs that, whIIe technIcaIIy Iess sophIstIcated than
computer anImatIons, at Ieast do not reduce cItIes to grIds and IattIces. Instead,
there Is consIderabIe emphasIs on the pIaces through whIch cuIturaI meanIngs
are actIvated and negotIated, and on the protocoIs through whIch they are estab-
IIshed. There are dIscussIons on the sacred geometry o! the mosque and the con-
duct o! Its weI!are actIvItIes wIthIn the IocaI communIty; the neIghborhood and
the codes through whIch prIvacy Is maIntaIned; and the home as a pIace whIch
"no person [shouIdj enter unInvIted."
8ut these cuIturaI a!!ordances turn out to be mere preIImInarIes to theIr abrupt
reversaI. Mosques must be monItored and may be "IsoIated" !rom the communIty
("as a Iast resort"} by "shapIng operatIons." NeIghborhoods are mazes o! narrow
streets, aIIeys, and cuIs-de-sac-dI!ñcuIt to navIgate and even harder to enter
by surprIse. 8ut these same characterIstIcs "make IsoIatIng specIñc ob]ectIves
!rom reIn!orcement and preventIng the escape o! targeted enemy !orces easIer."
SImIIarIy, "e!!ectIve popuIatIon controI technIques" can be ImpIemented through
"weII-pIaced checkpoInts," and armored buIIdozers can "maxImIze mounted move-
ment" through these cIose quarters. Inward-!acIng courtyard homes "are more
secure !rom rapId seIzure and search," but thIs sImpIy "changes the TTP (tactIcs,
technIques and procedures} !or those charged wIth attackIng, de!endIng, seIzIng or
searchIng these types o! resIdences" (DImarco, 2ooa:2¤, ¤2, ¤6-)}.
The resuIt Is a sort o! DoppeIgànger geography, In whIch cIaIms !rom more or
Iess conventIonaI urban studIes are reversed by the prIorItIes o! mIIItary occu-
patIon. Any cIty wouId be made strange by such an anaIysIs, but Arab cItIes are
made doubIy strange. They are rendered as InherentIy deceptIve, pIaces where
nothIng Is ever as It seems, opaque spaces that conceaI as much as they reveaI,
IabyrInths desIgned to trap the unwary. Those who InhabIt them are thus axIomat-
IcaIIy aIIen, IrredeemabIy other, because even In "normaI" cIrcumstances these
are not normaI cItIes.

They speak not onIy !rom posItIons o! power and prIvI-
Iege but !rom a sIngIe (and sInguIar} space o! reason. There Is a teIIIng passage
towards the end o! the survey, where poverty Is sutured to poIItIcaI radIcaIIsm and
resIstance. "Insurgents use the grIevances o! the urban poor to garner recruIts,
support and sanctuary," so that "a key to counterIng terrorIsts and Insurgents
based among the urban poor Is removIng theIr grIevances" (DIMarco, 2ooa:ç¤, 6o}.
True to the tradItIons o! coIonIaIIsm, It Is poverty, Ignorance, and manIpuIatIon
by maIcontents that provokes Insurgency; mIIItary occupatIon can never see
ItseI! as a IegItImate cause !or rebeIIIon.
218
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No-man's-Iands
8>I>:H!8>K>A>O6I>DCH!6C98>K>A>6CH
These varIous modaIItIes dIrect urban war!are to two hIdeous ends. Cn one
hand, they severeIy reduce and even annuI the "rIght to the cIty" that has
been ceIebrated by European and AmerIcan poIItIcaI theory !or centurIes. The
apotheosIs o! thIs terrIbIe pro]ect o! reducIng cItIes to targets Is urbIcIde, whIch
destroys the materIaI basIs !or urban II!e (Craham, 2ooa:1¤2-21¤}. Cn the other hand,
these modeIs pare back the IIves o! those who somehow survIve In these sheII-
torn and bomb-bIasted Iandscapes, to what CIorgIo Agamben caIIs "bare II!e." At
best, they are a spectraI presence, traces that HIcker across the geometrIcIzed
spaces o! the cIty, avatars In the vIrtuaI spaces o! sImuIatIons: spaces produced
and per!ormed under the sIgn o! theIr coIonIaI masters, who observe but rareIy
IIsten. TheIr deaths are not onIy uncounted-who can !orget the caIIous cIaIm
that "We don't do body counts"?-but aIso unaccountabIe. They are pIaced out-
sIde Ianguage, outsIde poIItIcaI representatIon, and theIr voIces, IIke theIr bodIes,
have no pIace In these monotonIc, abstract spaces (Agamben, 1¤¤ç}. Abstract they
may be, but these spaces have a very precIse and racIaIIzed geography. £or the
Pentagon has IdentIñed the "broken cItIes" o! the gIobaI South as the "key
battIespace o! the !uture." As the "war on terror" pursues Its enemy Into these
cItIes o! deadIy nIght, then, as MIke DavIs suggests "[Tjhe poor perIpherIes o!
deveIopIng cItIes wIII be the permanent battIeñeIds o! the twenty-ñrst century..
NIght a!ter nIght, hornet-IIke heIIcopter gunshIps staIk enIgmatIc enemIes In the
narrow streets o! the sIum dIstrIcts, pourIng heIIñre Into shantIes or HeeIng cars.
Every mornIng the sIums repIy wIth suIcIde bombers and eIoquent expIosIons. I!
the empIre can depIoy CrweIIIan technoIogIes o! repressIon, Its outcasts have the
gods o! chaos on theIr sIde" (DavIs, 2ooaa}.
AgaInst thIs bIeak prospect, I want to InsIst on the connectIons between cItIes,
cIvIIIzatIons, and cIvIIIans, and to pIace my !aIth In somethIng other than the
gods o! chaos. Part o! my argument, It shouId be cIear, concerns how these cItIes
are represented In anaIytIcaI and experIentIaI terms. 8ut we must aIso Iook to
the representatIon o! the peopIe that IIve In them In poIItIcaI and IegaI terms.
The cIvIIIan Is a ñgure o! recent date (and not onIy In mIIItary sImuIatIons}. In
EngIIsh, the word orIgInaIIy-and IronIcaIIy-meant one who studIed cIvII Iaw, but
the Cx!ord EngIIsh DIctIonary traces Its "!ashIonabIe" meanIng as "a nonmIII-
tary person" to the Iate 18th and especIaIIy 1¤th centurIes, when the term was
cIoseIy tIed to 8rItaIn's coIonIaI enterprIse In IndIa. In InternatIonaI Iaw, whose
geneaIogIes are no Iess Invested In coIonIaIIsm and ImperIaIIsm, the ñgure Is
o! even more recent date. In 18¤¤, the conventIon wIth respect to the Iaws and
customs o! war on Iand (Hague I}, (rea!ñrmed In Hague IV, 1¤o)} prohIbIted the
bombardment o! unde!ended towns; the ruIes o! aerIaI war!are, dra!ted at the
Hague In 1¤2¤, proscrIbed "[AjerIaI bombardment !or the purpose o! terrorIzIng
the cIvIIIan popuIatIon, o! destroyIng or damagIng prIvate property not o! mIII-
tary character, or o! In]urIng noncombatants." In 1¤¤8, the Ieague o! NatIons
unanImousIy a!ñrmed that the bombIng o! cIvIIIan popuIatIons was !orbIdden
by InternatIonaI Iaw and caIIed !or new reguIatIons to protect them; and In
1¤a¤, the £ourth Ceneva was addressed expIIcItIy to "the protectIon o! cIvIIIan
persons In tIme o! war."
Some poIItIcIans InsIst that these IegaI protectIons are out o! date because
that they have no purchase In the "war on terror." I am convInced, on the contrary,
that they do; and gIven the coIonIaI tempIates, whIch !rame so much o! Its mIIItary
vIoIence, thIs Is scarceIy surprIsIng. 8ut the Iaw Is not a deus ex machIna, chaotIc
or otherwIse. It Is (and must be} the sIte o! poIItIcaI struggIe. £or, I! the gray
zones o! the "war on terror" contInue to expand then, IIke the !ate !oreshadowed
by £oucauIt !or that other InventIon o! recent date, the human sub]ect, the ñgure
o! the cIvIIIan may soon be e!!aced as weII. As I compIeted thIs essay, I dIscovered
that enterIng "cIvIIIan" In CoogIe's search engIne generated, as Its ñrst entry, the
webpage !or Iraq 8ody Count.
1 See !or exampIe, Petty (2ooa: a8¤-a¤¤}, Nguyen (2ooç: çç-6a}. £or a comparIson wIth cognItIve-
behavIoraI modeIIng In geography, see the dIscussIon on the 'theater ñre probIem' In WoIpert m
ZIIIman (1¤6¤: ¤1-1oa} "The sequentIaI expansIon o! a decIsIon-makIng modeI In a spatIaI context."
2 DIMarco acknowIedges that many cItIes In the regIon have substantIaI modern (read: "normaI"}
dIstrIcts, but he argues that these neIghborhoods pose mIIItary chaIIenges no dI!!erent !rom those
o! any other modern cIty: !orce can be brought to bear on them quIckIy and dIrectIy. The burden
o! hIs anaIysIs thus !aIIs on the "tradItIonaI" cIty, onIy to Ieap over the modern rIngs o! deveIop-
ment towards the perIurban "squatter settIements and shanty-towns."
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
CIorgIo Agamben, Homo 8acer: 8overeìgn Iower and ßare Iì|e, trans. DanIeI HeIIer-Roazen (Stan-
!ord: Stan!ord UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤8}.
Zygmunt 8auman, "Wars o! the CIobaIIzatIon Era," £uropean ]ournaI o| 8ocìaI Theory a (2oo1}.
Ryan 8Ishop and Cregory CIancey, "The CIty-as-Target, or PerpetuatIon and Death," In IostcoIonìaI
Urbanìsm: 8outheast Asìan Cìtìes and CIobaI Irocesses, eds. Ryan 8Ishop, ]ohn PhIIIIps, and WeI WeI
Yeo (New York: RoutIedge, 2oo¤}.
]udIth 8utIer, ßodìes that Matter: Cn the Dìscursìve Iìmìts o| 8ex (New York: RoutIedge, 1¤¤¤}.
MIke DavIs, "The Pentagon as CIobaI SIumIord," http://www.tomdìspatch.com/ìndex.mhtmI?pìd
=i¸86, accessed AprII 1¤, 2ooa.
MIke DavIs, "PIanet o! SIums: Urban InvoIutIon and the In!ormaI ProIetarIat," New Ie|t Revìew 26
(2ooa
MIke DavIs, "The UrbanIzatIon o! EmpIre: MegacItIes and the Iaws o! Chaos," 8ocìaI Text 22 (a}
(2ooa}.
It. CoI. IouIs A DIMarco, "TradItIons, Changes and ChaIIenges: MIIItary CperatIons and the MIddIe
Eastern CIty," Combat 8tudìes Instìtute, CccasìonaI Iapers (CIobaI War on Terrorìsm) 1 (Ieavenworth:
Combat StudIes InstItute Press, 2ooa}.
PauI CIIroy, "'Where Ignorant ArmIes CIash by NIght': Homogeneous CommunIty and the PIanetary
Aspect," InternatìonaI ]ournaI o| CuIturaI 8tudìes 6 (2oo¤}.
Stephen Craham, "VertIcaI CeopoIItIcs: 8aghdad and A!ter," Antìpode ¤6 (2ooa}.
Stephen Craham, "ConstructIng UrbIcIde by 8uIIdozer In the CccupIed TerrItorIes," In Cìtìes, War
and Terrorìsm: Towards an Urban CeopoIìtìcs, ed. Stephen Craham (Cx!ord: 8IackweII, 2ooa}.
Derek Cregory, The CoIonìaI Iresent: A|ghanìstan, IaIestìne, Iraq (Cx!ord: 8IackweII, 2ooa}.
C. H. Nguyen, £. D. McKenzIe, and M. D. Petty, "Crowd 8ehavIor ArchItecture ModeI CognItIve
DesIgn," In Iroceedìngs o| the 2ooç Con|erence on ßehavìor Representatìon ìn ModeIìng and 8ìmuIatìon
(ßRIM8), UnIversaI CIty, CA., May 2ooç.
MIkeI Petty, et aI,. "DeveIopIng a Crowd £ederate !or MIIItary SImuIatIon," In Iroceedìngs o| the
8prìng 2ooa 8ìmuIatìon InteroperabìIìty Workshop (8IW), ArIIngton, VA, AprII 2ooa.
Mary-IouIse Pratt, "'Scratches on the £ace o! the Country': Cr What Mr. 8arrow Saw In the Iand
o! the 8ushmen," CrìtìcaI Inquìry 12 (1¤8ç}.
Edward SaId, CrìentaIìsm (Iondon: PenguIn, 1¤)8}.
Matt SIagIe, "Urban War!are on a Sound Stage," Cß8News.com, December 2o, 2ooa.
CIIve Thompson, "The MakIng o! an X-8ox WarrIor," New York Tìmes, August 22, 2ooa.
Ann Scott Tyson, "8Iock to 8Iock Combat," Chrìstìan 8cìence Monìtor, ]anuary 1), 2oo¤.
Dan Verton, "SImuIatIng £aIIu]ah," ComputerworId (]anuary ¤1, 2ooç}.
EyaI WeIzman, "The PoIItIcs o! VertIcaIIty," Cpen Democracy at www.opendemocracy.net. 2oo2.
]. WoIpert and D. ZIIImann, "The SequentIaI ExpansIon o! a DecIsIon-MakIng ModeI In a SpatIaI
Context," £nvìronment and IIannìng 1, (1¤6¤}.
22o
l
221
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
Xdadc^oVi^dcWn^bV\^cVi^dc
DCI=:E6A:HI>C>6C67H:C8:;GDBI=:A6C9H86E:

Issam Nassar
WhIIe debate on the waII that IsraeI Is erectIng around the PaIestInIan communI-
tIes o! the West 8ank has taken varIous !orms-IegaI, economIc, humanItarIan,
and poIItIcaI-one by-product o! the waII has yet to be serIousIy examIned: the
e!!ect It has on one's ImagInatIon o! the Cther. The Issue o! seeIng, or, In our
case, not seeIng the Cther may not be o! enormous consequence In the short
run, but there Is no doubt In my mInd that It wIII
have serIous Iong term e!!ects. A!ter aII, ñghtIng
an obscure, InvIsIbIe enemy demonIzed by pun-
dIts and poIItIcIans aIIke, entaIIs Iess guIIt and
III-!eeIIng on the part o! the attackIng soIdIers
regardIng the paIn they InHIct In the course o!
modern war!are. In thIs essay, I trace a hIstory
o! "unseeIng" the PaIestInIans as a means to
deny theIr cIaIms to the Iand.
The ñrst Instance o! PaIestInIan vIsuaI
absence In modern tImes "appears" In the ñrst
photographs taken o! PaIestIne In the 1¤th cen-
tury, shortIy a!ter photography was Invented. The ñrst photographers came to
PaIestIne !rom Europe In December 18¤¤. In the decades that !oIIowed, dozens o!
European (and other} photographers Imaged PaIestIne quIte extensIveIy. A strIk-
Ing !eature o! these earIy European photographIc representatIons o! PaIestIne Is
that the country's natIve popuIatIon rareIy appears In them. Instead o! an Inhab-
Ited space wIth vIIIages, towns, and a socIaI, cuIturaI, poIItIcaI, and economIc II!e,
PaIestIne was reduced to an empty Iandscape that corresponded wIth the storIes
o! the CId and the New Testaments. £or some reason, thIs process o! "bIbIIñca-
tIon" necessItated IeavIng the IocaI popuIatIon outsIde the !rame.
The absence o! PaIestInIans !rom most o! these photographs attests to the
!act that they were aIso absent, on some IeveI, !rom the European conscIousness
o! theIr photographers. PaIestIne was reduced to a backdrop upon whIch the
bIbIIcaI story couId be substantIated, rather than recognIzed as a reaI pIace In the
reaI worId-attestIng to reaI hIstorIes other than the ]udeo-ChrIstIan narratIve.
The AmerIcan photographer Edward I. WIIson, who photographed PaIestIne In
the 188os, corroborates thIs poInt. In an artIcIe In 8ZcijgnBV\Vo^cZ, WIIson actu-
aIIy stated that the peasants he encountered near the Sea o! CaIIIee were "repuI-
8oaz - In re!erence to the
bIbIIcaI ñeId o! 8oaz In the
]erusaIem-8ethIehem area
(unknown photographer, The CoI-
IectIon o! the IIbrary o! Congress,
USA}
sIve [andj entIreIy out o! harmony wIth the character o! the Iand." (DavIs, 1¤¤6:8)}
It Is InterestIng to note that even photographers who were !avorabIy Impressed
by the peopIe o! PaIestIne avoIded IncIudIng them In theIr photographs. The Scot-
tIsh photographer ]ohn Cramb wrote o! hIs dIsappoIntment at not beIng abIe to
photograph the women o! 8ethIehem, whom he !ound quIte strIkIng. ReportIng
on hIs 186o ]ourney to PaIestIne, he wrote: "The women o! 8ethIehem are gener-
aIIy !aIr and aIways beautI!uI. Every traveIer remarks that. SIncereIy dId I regret
the arrangement that denIed me the pIeasure o! brIngIng home wItnesses to the
correctness o! my ]udgment. 8ut I was not expected to spend my tIme on such
sub]ects, though I now thInk It a pIty that I was so scrupuIous In the dIscharge o!
my duty" (Cramb, 1861:¤88}.
It seems that, IIke Cramb, other photographers
thought theIr buyers wouId resent havIng photo-
graphs o! Important hoIy sItes "desecrated" by the
presence o! Arabs, Turks, and ]ews (NIr, 1¤8ç:1¤ç}. ThIs
"amazIng abIIIty to dIscover the Iand wIthout dIs-
coverIng the peopIe" (DoumanI, 1¤¤2:)}, may very weII
have paved the way !or the popuIar Image o! PaIes-
tIne as "a Iand wIthout a peopIe," ostensIbIy IyIng
In waIt !or "a peopIe wIthout a Iand"-as the ZIonIst
sIogan went.
WIth tIme, PaIestInIans began to appear In
photographs as exotIc CrIentaIs (sheIks, harems,
8edouIns, cIergy, etc.} and as contemporary IIIustra-
tIons o! bIbIIcaI ancestors. In both cases, the !ramIng eye extracted the photo-
graphed sub]ect !rom hIstory and pIaced hIm or her In a context more reIevant to
Europe's reIatIon to PaIestIne than to the IIved reaIIty o! the depIcted. Peasants
were captIoned wIth angIophIIe bIbIIcaI names and cIassIñed Into bIbIIcaI catego-
rIes to whIch European spectators couId reIate (SamarItans, ]ews, Mohammed-
ans, Saracens, etc.}. When the "ethnographIc" dIvIde was not empIoyed, "bIbIIcaI
careers" were Introduced and Images o! ñshermen, shepherds, and carpenters
began HoodIng the tourIst markets.
In other words, the European hIstorIcaI ImagInatIon cast a 1¤th century PaIes-
tIne In a ñrst century IIght, thus pavIng the way-through photography, traveIogs,
and Iater cInema-!or the coIonIzatIon, or better yet "recIamatIon," o! the Iand by
Europe and Its agents. AIthough thIs ImagIng o! PaIestIne and Its InhabItants was
IargeIy ChrIstIan In nature, It was adopted by secuIar European ]ews as weII. 8y
the turn o! the 2oth century, the ZIonIst Movement was a !uIIy estabIIshed poIItIcaI
organIzatIon whIch had heId severaI worIdwIde (read: Western} con!erences, and
estabIIshed numerous IdeoIogIcaI settIements throughout PaIestIne.
The ZIonIst ImagInatIon o! PaIestIne Introduced new sets o! PaIestInIan Images.
PaIestInIans came In and out o! portrayaIs o! the Iand In earIy ZIonIst photogra-
phy and cInema. SometImes the PaIestInIan was part present as a shepherd-
a wouId-be prototypIcaI ancIent IsraeIIte. Cn other occasIons, the PaIestInIan was
aItogether absent or represented as a hapIess natIve IncapabIe o! seI!-represen-
tatIon. As the conHIct between ]ewIsh settIers and IndIgenous Arabs IntensIñed,
Empty Street In ]eru-
saIem's CId CIty (ErIc
Matson, cIrca 1¤oo, The
CoIIectIon o! the IIbrary o!
Congress, USA}
222
l
22¤
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
the essentIaIIzatIon o! PaIestInIans took on new dImensIons such as prImItIvIsm-
Images that brIng to mInd WhIte North AmerIcan settIers' depIctIons o! NatIve
"IndIans." Cver tIme, PaIestInIans were trans!ormed Into sIgnIñers o! senseIess
vIoIence, crueIty, and terrorIsm.
It Is Important to bear In mInd the coIonIaIIst-settIer nature o! the ZIonIst
pro]ect, at Ieast as !ar as the PaIestInIans are concerned. ]ewIsh ImmIgrants to
PaIestIne were not expected, nor dId they expect, to IIve among and mIngIe wIth
the IocaI popuIatIon. Instead, they ]oIned excIusIve ]ewIsh coIonIes In PaIestIne
where natIves were out o! sIght (and out o! mInd}, save !or the occasIonaI passIng
shepherd. It shouId be o! no surprIse then, that the buIk o! the ImmIgrants who
made up the NZh]jk (pre-State ]ewIsh settIement} contInued to nurture the dom-
Inant European notIons they had about PaIestIne
upon arrIvIng there. When the PaIestInIans
reaIIy dId start to vanIsh !rom the Iandscape as
a resuIt o! the 1¤a8 war, many members o! the
NZh]jk hardIy notIced what was happenIng to
theIr aIready "InvIsIbIe" neIghbors.
The events o! 1¤a8, whIch the PaIestInIans
caII Va"CV`WV (the Catastrophe} are centraI to the
PaIestInIan hIstorIcaI narratIve. DespIte the !act
that Va"CV`WV re!ers to countIess IncIdences o!
death, destructIon, expuIsIon, and exIIe, PaIestIn-
Ians con]ugate It In the sInguIar, as though It stood !or a sIngIe event. In 1¤a8 the
PaIestInIans "dIsappeared"-more than two-thIrds o! the popuIatIon was expeIIed
!rom over aoo towns and vIIIages-most o! whIch were subsequentIy ruIned-
makIng the earIy photographIc Images o! PaIestIne as "a Iand wIthout peopIe"
Iook IIke a seI!-!uIñIIIng prophecy.

As !ar as the PaIestInIans were concerned,
PaIestIne was Iost a!ter 1¤a8: the vIIIage was erased !rom the map, the cIty was
coIonIzed and Its name o!ten changed, the house was someone eIse's, and the
!ruIt trees were Iocked behInd barbed wIre !ences. The dIsappearance o! PaIes-
tIne was aIso an Issue In areas that remaIned under Arab controI: East PaIestIne
became the "West 8ank" and was Incorporated Into the HashemIte KIngdom o!
]ordan, and Caza and Its envIrons became the "Caza StrIp" under EgyptIan ruIe.
The "dIsappearance" o! PaIestIne and the resuItant "Ioss" o! PaIestInIan Iden-
tIty at the hands o! the newIy-estabIIshed State o! IsraeI, dId not necessarIIy mean
that the ]ewIsh popuIatIon o! the state was !uIIy aware o! what had occurred.
Indeed, It wouId have been "unnaturaI" had the PaIestInIan catastrophe been !uIIy
notIceabIe, sInce the PaIestInIans were IargeIy absent !rom the ZIonIst purvIew
to begIn wIth. The !act that IsraeI enacted poIIcIes and Iaws that deIegItImated
and outIawed expressIons o! PaIestInIan natIonaI IdentIty made thIs bIInd-spot
o! IsraeII conscIousness aII the more acute.
The IsraeII negatIon o! the exIstence o! PaIestInIans as a peopIe wIth poIItIcaI
rIghts Ied the state to support tradItIonaI, reactIonary eIements wIthIn the PaI-
estInIan communIty. Those PaIestInIans who remaIned InsIde the terrItory that
became the Sate o! IsraeI (some 1ço,ooo In 1¤a8} were renamed "IsraeII Arabs"
and categorIcaIIy !ragmented Into a number o! reIIgIous and communaI group-
8egIn Road cuttIng through
the vIIIage o! 8Ir NabaIa
(photo: edItorIaI team, 2ooç}
Ings. A!ter the 1¤6) IsraeII occupatIon o! the West 8ank and Caza StrIp, the PaI-
estInIan popuIatIon was caIIed "the Arab resIdents o! the admInIstered terrIto-
rIes o! ]udea, SamarIa and Caza." The IsraeII poIIcy o! encouragIng "tradItIonaI"
as opposed to poIItIcaI IeadershIp was consIstent wIth the European coIonIaI
vIew-whIch the IsraeIIs adopted whoIesaIe-that Arabs, as natIves, were IncapabIe
o! practIcIng democracy.
Cn the rhetorIcaI IeveI, IsraeI !ound It use!uI to hIghIIght the Arab IdentIty
o! the PaIestInIans, especIaIIy o! the PaIestInIan re!ugees In the surroundIng
Arab states. TurnIng pan-Arab dIscourse on Its head, I! the re!ugees were sImpIy
"Arabs," then they were aIready In the Arab worId-where they "beIonged"! TakIng
thIs skewed IogIc even !urther, IsraeII propagandIsts argued that Arabs were not
natIve to PaIestIne, but had mIgrated there as Iate as the 1¤¤os, thanks to the eco-
nomIc growth spurred by ZIonIst ImmIgratIon, Investment, and deveIopment.
MeanwhIIe, the PaIestInIans, both as IndIvIduaIs and as a natIonaI movement
In !ormatIon, were rIsIng !rom the ashes o! the 1¤a8 trauma o! dIspossessIon
and dIspersIon. It wouId take another two decades be!ore "PaIestInIan" wouId
become a "IegItImate" poIItIcaI IdentIty represented by the PIC (a process that
entaIIed a great deaI o! InternaI and externaI debate}.
CraduaIIy, thIs reemerged PaIestInIan IdentIty gaIned InternatIonaI IegItImacy
and was IegaIIy recognIzed by the State o! IsraeI wIth the sIgnIng o! the CsIo
DecIaratIon o! PrIncIpIes In 1¤¤¤. The "peace process," wIth aII Its !auIts and deñ-
cIencIes, dId make PaIestInIan natIonaI and poIItIcaI symboIs present In the eyes
o! the IsraeII pubIIc. The prevIousIy outIawed PaIestInIan Hag was decrImInaI-
Ized, and PaIestInIan cuIturaI, poIItIcaI, and economIc natIonaI InstItutIons were
estabIIshed In the occupIed terrItorIes. ThIs IegItImIzatIon was perhaps the most
posItIve o! aII the agreement's provIsIons, whIch otherwIse reHected the weakened
posItIon o! the PaIestInIan natIonaI movement. A!ter a serIes o! poIItIcaI and
mIIItary de!eats: the expuIsIon o! the PIC !rom Iebanon In the earIy 1¤8os, the
coIIapse o! the SovIet UnIon In the Iate 1¤8os, the IraqI de!eat In the ñrst CuI!
War, and the decIIne o! the ñrst IntI!ada popuIar uprIsIng In the earIy 1¤¤os-the
PaIestInIans had IIttIe bargaInIng power Ie!t.
However, the "peace process" Iaunched at CsIo !aIIed, and IsraeII settIements
proII!erated both durIng the process and sInce. The PaIestInIan resIdents o! the
occupIed terrItorIes, who were recognIzed as a peopIe wIth (certaIn} poIItIcaI
rIghts, !ound themseIves conñned to a !ew besIeged 8antustans whIIe "bypass
roads" (hIghways reaIIy} buIIt at the heIght o! the process to connect the settIe-
ments wIth IsraeI, now enabIe IsraeIIs to traveI throughout the Iand wIthout havIng
to encounter a sIngIe PaIestInIan. These bypass roads, coupIed wIth the "cIosure"
barrIng PaIestInIans !rom enterIng IsraeI, have rendered the PaIestInIans InvIsIbIe
once more, whIch, It seems, makes attackIng them that much easIer. Are we wIt-
nessIng 1¤a8 aII over agaIn?
It's hard to say. There are, however, some sImIIarItIes. £or one, keepIng PaI-
estInIans out o! sIght and out o! mInd; !or the ñrst tIme In decades, there Is no
serIous dIscussIon o! a vIabIe PaIestInIan !uture. Rather, IsraeIIs are debatIng the
"peace!uI expuIsIon" o! PaIestInIans. CoIned "trans!er," thIs debate has a !ootIng
In academIc, poIItIcaI, and ]ournaIIstIc cIrcIes. Cne mIght argue that the !ence/waII
22a
l
22ç
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
currentIy under constructIon around the PaIestInIan communItIes o! the occupIed
terrItorIes Is a manI!estatIon o! the Idea o! "trans!er," a remInIscence o! sorts !or
"a Iand wIthout peopIe"-especIaIIy when some o! the waIIs have been paInted
wIth ImagInary pastoraI Iandscapes voId o! peopIe, when In !act they conceaI
popuIated PaIestInIan urban centers. The waII not onIy keeps IsraeIIs, and espe-
cIaIIy PaIestInIans, !rom movIng about !reeIy, It hIdes present-day PaIestIne !rom
the IsraeIIs on theIr sIde o! the waII, and hIstorIcaI PaIestIne !rom the PaIestIn-
Ians on theIr sIde o! the waII. ThIs Is not to suggest that IsraeIIs wIII !orget the
PaIestInIans aItogether, but that nonseeIng Is a deñnIte step towards psychIcaIIy
denyIng and repressIng somethIng's exIstence. 8y barrIng PaIestInIans !rom
accessIng theIr !ormer homes In IsraeI (and barrIng IsraeII cIvIIIans !rom accessIng
PaIestInIan re!ugee camps, !or exampIe}, IsraeIIs wIII not have to reckon wIth the
consequences o! 1¤a8.
The questIon IsraeIIs are not askIng themseIves Is: "What does thIs waII
hIde?" Were we to ImagIne the estabIIshment o! a PaIestInIan poIItIcaI entIty, no
matter Its parameters, thIs entIty wouId undoubtedIy open unto the Arab worId
at Its eastern borders. When thIs happens, hope!uIIy sooner than Iater, wIII the
!ence/waII separate the PaIestInIans !rom the worId, or IsoIate the IsraeIIs !rom
theIr surroundIng envIronment In the MIddIe East?
1 An earIIer versIon o! thIs essay appeared In GZbVee^c\i]ZGZ\^dc/@jaijgjcYEda^i^`^c>hgVZa$
EVa~hi^cV, C.K books 2/oa, £oIIo VerIag, VIenna, 2ooa
2 I am borrowIng the Image o! a PaIestIne that dIsappeared as opposed to havIng been occupIed
!rom EIIas Sanbar In hIs book £aIasteen 1¤a8 aI-Taghyeeb, transIated Into ArabIc by KazIm ]Ihad
(8eIrut: aI-Mousasa aI-Arabuyah III-DIrasat w aI-Nashr, 1¤8)}.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
]ohn Cramb, "PaIestIne In 186o; Cr, A Photographer's ]ournaI o! a VIsIt to ]erusaIem," I]Z7g^i^h]
?djgcVad[E]did\gVe]n, No. X (November 1, 1861}.
8eshara DoumanI, "RedIscoverIng Cttoman PaIestIne: WrItIng PaIestInIans Into HIstory," ?djgcVa
d[EVaZhi^cZHijY^Zh XXI, (2} (WInter, 1¤¤2}.
Issam Nassar, PhotographIng ]erusaIem: I]Z>bV\Zd[i]Z8^in^cC^cZiZZci]8ZcijgnE]did\gVe]n
(8ouIder: East European Monographs, 1¤¤)}.
Yeshayahu NIr, I]Z7^WaZVcYi]Z>bV\Z (PhIIadeIphIa: UnIversIty o! PennsyIvanIa Press, 1¤8ç}.
DavId Ron, 6gVWhVcY>hgVZa[dg7Z\^ccZgh (New York: WrIters m Readers Pub., 1¤¤¤}.
RaIph Schoenman, I]Z=^YYZc=^hidgnd[O^dc^hb (Santa 8arbara: VerItas Press, 1¤88}.
Edward I. WIIson, "In ScrIpture Iands," quoted In ]ohn DavIs, I]ZAVcYhXVeZd[7Za^Z[ (PrInceton:
PrInceton UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤6}.
Xdbbdc\gdjcYh
i]ViZmXajYZ
AmIr Paz-£uchs, E!rat Cohen-8ar
The Irony expressed In Robert £rost's BZcY^c\LVaa IIne: "good !ences make
good neIghbors," seems to have been Iost on many readers who have opted to
take It IIteraIIy. PresumabIy, these readers thought that £rost was suggestIng a
counter-IntuItIve and, thus, thought-provokIng Idea: that a !ence, whIch appears
to separate, may actuaIIy bond by aIIowIng partIes on both sIdes to deveIop
theIr autonomous II!estyIes and Interact on mutuaIIy agreed grounds. It Is now
accepted that £rost was, In !act, mockIng the rhetorIc that ratIonaIIzes dIvIsIon
and segregatIon as pre!erabIe to unIty and soIIdarIty. Indeed, the openIng IIne o!
the poem, "SomethIng there Is that doesn't Iove a waII," Is key to understandIng
Its ñnaI phrase, quoted above.
It Is Important to contInuousIy caII Into questIon the motIvatIons behInd the
physIcaI constructIons that make up our IIved envIronments. ]ust as good !ences
may not make good neIghbors, the current sItuatIon In East ]erusaIem shows us that
common grounds, In the !orm o! natIonaI parks, normaIIy envIsaged as encourag-
Ing InterpersonaI and IntercommunaI connectIons, can be cynIcaIIy expIoIted as a
means to dIsen!ranchIse communItIes and advance spatIaI domInatIon.
Such an assertIon shouId be made wIth cautIon, as It may pIay Into a conserva-
tIve worIdvIew whIch IdeaIIzes prIvate property and posIts that property as such
can not be commonIy heId. ThIs vIew has been popuIarIzed as "the tragedy o! the
commons" (HardIn, 1¤68}. Re!utIng such cIaIms Is an Important "progressIve move"
(Wu and Turner, 2ooa} because common property, at Ieast IdeaIIy, creates a IegaI pIat-
!orm !or access to aII IndIvIduaIs, IrrespectIve o! race, cItIzenshIp, ñnancIaI abIIIty,
and so !orth. PrIvate property rIghts re!er to a "bundIe o! rIghts" that IncIude, ^ciZg
Va^V, the owner's abIIIty to IImIt access to, and controI the use o!, theIr property
by means o! practIces whIch, were a state agency to do so, It wouId be accused o!
bIatant dIscrImInatIon on the a!orementIoned grounds. Hence, !rom one's prIvate
property rIghts, It Is possIbIe to In!er a strong power to excIude. Indeed, It has
been argued that "excIudabIIIty. Is a conceptuaIIy necessary !eature o! [thej proper-
ty cIaIm" (Crear, 2oo¤:¤)}. I! unchecked, the power o! excIusIon couId be threatenIng to
"!undamentaI vaIues o! communIty and democracy" (Cray and Cray, 1¤¤¤:1ç} and Iead
to the concIusIon that common property Is a contradIctIon In terms.
In a more sophIstIcated readIng, however, rIghts o! use may be dIstInguIshed
!rom ownershIp, and the ownershIp o! Iand may be sub]ect to the rIghts o! com-
mon use. (CIrIacy-Wantrup and 8Ishop, 1¤)ç:)1ç} It shouId be made cIear that common
property Is not "everybody's property." Moreover, "contrary to wIdespread
226
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22)
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
beIIe!, common Iands are prIvate and not pubIIc property" (]uergensmeyer and WadIey,
1¤)a:¤)6}. However, pubIIc authorItIes may desIgnate certaIn Iands as common,
thereby restrIctIng the owner's abIIIty to excIude others !rom hIs/her Iand and,
IntentIonaIIy or not, creatIng the physIcaI grounds !or InteractIon and IncIusIon.
ExcIusIon Is, perhaps, "the ma]or socIaI phenomenon o! our day" (RosanvaIIon
2ooo:a6}. UntII quIte recentIy, It was not uncommon !or munIcIpaIItIes to empIoy
Iaws that mandated racIaIIy segregated zonIng patterns (DubIn, 1¤¤¤:)aa-))8}. The
recognItIon that the IegaIIy en!orced physIcaI separatIon o! IndIvIduaIs o! dI!!erent
races, ethnIcItIes, or reIIgIons Is Incongruous wIth IIberaI thought has necessItat-
ed the modIñcatIon o! such practIces.

Some authors have suggested InterpretIng
socIaI excIusIon as unequaI access to rIghts, and socIaI IncIusIon poIIcIes as a way
to reduce dIsparItIes (Core, 1¤¤ç:22}.
Wary o! the degree to whIch socIaI excIusIon practIces may or may not be
accepted I! submItted to pubIIc scrutIny, they have been cIoaked quIte brIIIIantIy
In the cIty o! ]erusaIem by poIIcIes normaIIy meant to brIng IndIvIduaIs and com-
munItIes together. In recent years, the Nature and Parks AuthorIty (NPA} has
worked hand In hand wIth the ]erusaIem MunIcIpaI CouncII to pIan and procIaIm
new natIonaI parks In and around PaIestInIan East ]erusaIem. 8e!ore thIs e!!ort
began, open areas In East ]erusaIem were desIgnated as "green areas," and,
apart !rom the area surroundIng the waIIs o! the CId CIty, whIch was deemed
an area o! unIque hIstorIcaI, archeoIogIcaI, and scenIc vaIue, no area was desIg-
nated as a natIonaI park. The shI!t came wIth the pIannIng o! the Emek TzurIm
natIonaI park on the western sIope o! Mount Scopus. DespIte admInIstratIve and
IegaI ob]ectIons on the part o! the resIdents o! the SheIkh ]arrah and WadI ]oz
neIghborhoods, the area was procIaImed a natIonaI park In 2oo1. ThIs success
encouraged the NPA and the ]erusaIem MunIcIpaIIty to take the scheme to other
neIghborhoods. A pIan !or a natIonaI park on the eastern sIope o! Mount Scopus,
between IssawIya and A-Tur, Is currentIy under consIderatIon by the IocaI PIan-
nIng CommIttee (a necessary IegaI hurdIe prIor to procIamatIon}.
SImIIarIy, there Is a decIared Intent to pIan a natIonaI park In the AI-8ustan
neIghborhood o! SIIwan, a PaIestInIan vIIIage at the south-eastern edge o! the CId
CIty. ThIs area, currentIy buIIt, Is home to over 1,ooo peopIe. The procIamatIon o! a
natIonaI park In the neIghborhood wouId necessItate the demoIItIon o! scores o!
homes, and procedures !or the destructIon o! 88 houses are underway (¤6 demoII-
tIon orders have aIready been submItted !or authorIzatIon} on the pretext o! IIIegaI
constructIon, a phenomenon to be eIaborated upon !urther on. What expIaIns thIs
sudden proII!eratIon o! natIonaI parks?
Cver the past ¤8 years, sInce IsraeI occupIed East ]erusaIem and Its vIcInIty In
1¤6) and subsequentIy annexed It to the MunIcIpaIIty o! West ]erusaIem, demo-
graphIc concerns have domInated ]erusaIem's deveIopment poIIcIes. The prIncIpIe
at work has been that a sIgnIñcant ]ewIsh ma]orIty

be maIntaIned. To reaIIze
thIs ob]ectIve, new ]ewIsh neIghborhoods were buIIt In East ]erusaIem, whIIe
no sImIIar provIsIons-IncIudIng the expansIon o! exIstIng neIghborhoods-were
made to PaIestInIans In East ]erusaIem, Iet aIone In West ]erusaIem. ]erusaIem's
deveIopment poIIcIes have gIven IncentIve !or ]ews to come to, or remaIn In, the
cIty, whIIe PaIestInIans have been encouraged to Ieave It.
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The !act that pIannIng Is regarded as a neutraI tooI shrouded In a pro!essIonaI
]argon o! "concerns" has made It possIbIe !or pIanners to serve, wIttIngIy or
unwIttIngIy, a deveIopment poIIcy guIded by ethnIc, natIonaI, and reIIgIous domI-
natIon. What makes deveIopment possIbIe or ImpossIbIe Is the desIgnatIon o!
Iand. ApproprIate pIannIng baIances varIous Interests and, guIded by communIty
needs, desIgnates Iand !or housIng and common use In accordance wIth predIctIons
!or popuIatIon growth. InapproprIate pIannIng "may be empIoyed as a 'subtIer'
devIce In pursuIt o! segregatIon" (DubIn, 1¤¤¤:)62} or !orced mIgratIon.
£rom the outset, IsraeII pIannIng In East ]erusaIem has chosen to desIgnate
IImIted space !or PaIestInIan housIng whIIst IeavIng consIderabIe space !or common
grounds or "green zones." ThIs has been accompIIshed In one o! two ways. £Irst,
a!ter exproprIatIng some 2ç% o! the Iand In East ]erusaIem !or the constructIon
o! ]ewIsh neIghborhoods, onIy about ço% o! the remaInIng PaIestInIan Iands were
pIanned at aII, and the remaInIng "unpIanned" areas de!auIted to theIr 8rItIsh
Mandate era desIgnatIons as open rustIc or agrIcuIturaI Iandscapes. Second, the
areas that were pIanned aIso IncIuded sIzabIe "green areas"-weII beyond the
communIty's needs. Thus, In the current pIans !or East ]erusaIem, about ¤ç% o!
the Iand Is desIgnated !or preservatIon as "open Iandscape" and In one extreme
case, the neIghborhood o! ]abaI Mukaber, the area desIgnated as "green" reaches
aImost )o% (8Imkom, 2ooç}.
Due to the demographIc aIms they are meant to advance, It Is not surprIsIng
that these common grounds have remaIned undeveIoped, wIth no IandscapIng
to speak o!. Nor have they !uIñIIed theIr purpose o! preventIng the expansIon o!
PaIestInIan housIng. Due to basIc housIng needs, "IIIegaI" constructIon Is ram-
pant In East ]erusaIem: there are an estImated 1ç,ooo housIng unIts buIIt wIthout
permIssIon. ParadoxIcaIIy, sweepIng restrIctIons on resIdentIaI deveIopment
have undermIned the possIbIIIty o! preservIng the green areas that warrant It.
The tendentIous agendas guIdIng pIanners have Ied them to Iose sIght o! the need
to dIstInguIsh between vaIuabIe common grounds and areas that couId be desIg-
nated !or resIdentIaI use. In IIght o! the munIcIpaIIty's !aIIure to meet Its !ormaI
ob]ectIve o! preservIng common grounds !or the beneñt o! the generaI pubIIc,
and Its !aIIure to reaIIze Its In!ormaI ob]ectIve o! reducIng the PaIestInIan popu-
IatIon o! ]erusaIem, It has come up wIth a new mechanIsm !or securIng ]ewIsh
natIonaI, ethnIc, and reIIgIous hoId on the Iand: the NPA.
The NatIonaI Parks, Nature Reserves, and MemorIaI SItes Act (1¤¤8} provIdes
that once a pIan desIgnatIng an area as a natIonaI park has been certIñed, no
constructIon In the area wIII be permItted wIthout the authorIzatIon o! the NPA.
Cnce the saId area has been procIaImed a natIonaI park (by the MInIster o! Inte-
rIor}, aII other desIgnatIons or uses o! the area are overrIdden, though property
rIghts heId prIor to the procIamatIon, remaIn In tact.
The NPA Is vested wIth consIderabIe powers. As noted, any constructIon In
the desIgnated area requIres permIssIon !rom the NPA. Moreover, once a proc-
IamatIon Is made by the mInIster o! InterIor, the NPA en]oys addItIonaI powers,
IncIudIng the abIIIty to remove "unIaw!uI" resIdents (who may be property
owners} !rom the area. The NPA may charge entrance !ees that IImIt access to
those IndIvIduaIs and !amIIIes (IncIudIng property owners} who can a!!ord to buy
2¤o
l
2¤1
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
the entry tIcket. IastIy, the actIvItIes that these IndIvIduaIs and !amIIIes may
undertake are restrIcted. The dIrector o! the NPA may appoInt overseers wIth
poIIce powers, IncIudIng the power to detaIn, search, seIze, destroy, and Inter-
rogate. These "Inspectors" wouId be entrusted wIth ensurIng that "IIIegaI" acts,
whIch mIght harm the natIonaI park, are not commItted. Such acts range !rom
destructIon o! park property to postIng a sIgn, !rom pIckIng vegetatIon to graz-
Ing, and are punIshabIe wIth as much as three years In prIson. Such extreme
powers may be deemed necessary to preserve Iandmarks o! unIque hIstorIcaI,
archeoIogIcaI, archItecturaI, or scenIc vaIue-whIch Is what natIonaI parks are
categorIcaIIy supposed to do. It Is questIonabIe, however, I! they can be ]ustI-
ñed as a means to preserve urban green areas whose soIe purpose Is to prevent
housIng constructIon.
NeIghborhood parks and open spaces are an Important !eature o! any cIty.
They constItute the physIcaI grounds !or InteractIon between dog owners, ]oggers,
senIor cItIzens, chIIdren at pIay, tourIsts, and so !orth. The decIsIon to desIgnate
an area as green, notwIthstandIng the !act that It may be prIvate property, Is not
uncommon. In doIng so, the property owner's rIght o! controI and use are (usu-
aIIy} taken Into account. At tImes, the munIcIpaIIty may choose to use Its power
o! emInent domaIn. SImpIe put, thIs Is "the Inherent power o! a governmentaI
authorIty to take prIvateIy owned property, especIaIIy Iand, and convert It to
pubIIc use, sub]ect to reasonabIe compensatIon !or the takIng." (8Iack's Iaw DIctIon-
ary, 1¤¤¤:ça1} Such takIng Is exercIsed when It Is IIkeIy to be permanent, e.g. !or
the pavIng o! roads and, In the case o! natIonaI parks, when the owner re!uses to
devote the ground to acceptabIe uses (Sax, 1¤)):2a¤}. However, exproprIatIon usuaIIy
entaIIs compensatIon.
The decIsIon to desIgnate an area as a park may conHIct wIth an owner's
property rIghts. I! prIvate property Is conceptuaIIy IInked to excIusIon, an author-
Ity may decIde that certaIn goods cannot be heId as prIvate property because
the socIaI cost o! excIusIon Is too hIgh: [CjIaIms o! 'property' may sometImes be
overrIdden by the need to attaIn or !urther more hIghIy rated socIaI goaIs. the
Iaw o! human rIghts. the !urtherance o! constructIve InteractIon, purposIve
dIaIogue and decent (or 'moraI'} communaI IIvIng" (Cray, 1¤¤1:281}.
However, both premIses: that the munIcIpaIIty has the communIty's best
Interest In mInd, and that compensatIon Is due and thus granted, are Inopera-
tIve when It comes to the desIgnatIon o! PaIestInIan Iands In East ]erusaIem as
natIonaI parks. £Irst, the Issue o! compensatIon: the generaI ruIe, under sectIon
1¤) o! the PIannIng and ConstructIon Act (1¤6ç}, Is that the owner o! Iand devaI-
ued by pIannIng, and not by exproprIatIon, Is entItIed to compensatIon, sub]ect
to sectIon 2oo. SectIon 2oo states that Iand wIII not be deemed harmed by a
pIan I! the damage to It Is not unreasonabIe under the cIrcumstances, makIng It
un]ust to compensate the owner.
In East ]erusaIem much o! the Iand Is desIgnated as "green," makIng It dI!ñcuIt
to demonstrate devaIuatIon In a compensatIon cIaIm.

£urthermore, ownershIp
Is notorIousIy compIex In East ]erusaIem. The 8rItIsh Iand SettIement CrdInance
(1¤28} sought to IImIt the phenomenon o! coIIectIve ownershIp (bjh]V}-the
most common !orm o! ownershIp In 1¤th century PaIestIne-sInce It Ied to !rag-
mented Iand hoIdIngs. However, onIy ç,2oo,ooo dunums (1 dunum = 1ooo square
meters} were settIed under thIs system, IncIudIng most ]ewIsh-owned Iand
(Peretz, 2ooo:18}. IsraeI adopted thIs IncompIete Iand regIstry and had no Incen-
tIve to Impose a modern bureaucracy that wouId !acIIItate IegaI cIaIms on an
IndIvIduaI basIs. The resuIt Is that most o! East ]erusaIem's prIvate Iand has not
been IegaIIy regIstered through the Iand regIstry o!ñce, a !act that keeps many
property owners !rom beIng abIe to undertake IegaI constructIon pro]ects on
theIr Iands, and wIII IIkeIy Impede theIr abIIIty to seek compensatIon upon !uture
redesIgnatIon.
The process takIng pIace In East ]erusaIem today Is rather exceptIonaI. The
IocaI authorIty Is, upon Its own InItIatIve, !oregoIng controI o! Iands wIthIn Its
]urIsdIctIon, despIte the !act that these couId bear sIgnIñcant tax revenues,
shouId they be rezoned as resIdentIaI or commercIaI dIstrIcts. The assumptIon Is
that a natIonaI authorIty wIII be Iess attentIve to the needs o! the IocaI commu-
nIty than a IocaI authorIty wouId be. When trans!errIng PaIestInIan Iands to an
IsraeII natIonaI authorIty, the ]erusaIem MunIcIpaI CouncII Is dIspIayIng Hagrant
dIsregard !or the weII-beIng o! Its PaIestInIan resIdents.
£ew thIngs couId be more InsensItIve and excIusIonary than the conñscatIon
o! Iand In and around PaIestInIan East ]erusaIem !or the purpose o! natIonaI
parks. SectIon 1 o! the NatIonaI Parks, Nature Reserves, and MemorIaI SItes Act
expIaIns that a natIonaI park Is an area desIgnated, ^ciZgVa^V, to ".memorIaIIze
vaIues that are o! hIstorIcaI, archeoIogIcaI, archItecturaI or scenIc Importance."
(sectIon 1} I! we understand natIonaIIsm as a constructed, rather than "naturaI,"
IdentIty (]ackson and Penrose, 1¤¤¤:11}, the ratIonaIe !or brIngIng the NPA Into the
pIcture couId not be more transparent. NatIonaI parks In IsraeI ceIebrate and
reIn!orce IsraeII "IdentIty" and "tradItIon," and the natIonaI park pIanned !or SII-
wan-IncIudIng the house demoIItIons It wIII entaII-Is a prIme exampIe. The !act
that In West ]erusaIem, where there Is cIear ]ustIñcatIon !or procIaImIng natIonaI
parks, cIty o!ñcIaIs repeatedIy cave In to reaI-estate Interests, demonstrates that,
where IsraeII sovereIgnty Is not In questIon, capItaIIsm supercedes "vaIues o!
hIstorIcaI, archeoIogIcaI, archItecturaI or naturaI Importance." Where the conHIct
Is at Its most acute, pIannIng Is the re!uge o! the patrIot. ThIs, I! anythIng, Is the
true tragedy o! the commons.
1 To the extent that physIcaI barrIers whIch encumber the IncIusIon o! peopIe wIth dIsabIIItIes In
the socIaI envIronment had to be addressed. See, e.g., the 6bZg^XVcl^i]9^hVW^a^i^Zh6Xi PI 1o1-
¤¤6; the >hgVZa^:fjVaG^\]ih[dgEZdeaZl^i]9^hVW^a^i^Zh6Xi (2oo¤}; HC] )o81/¤¤ 7dioZgk#BVXXVW^b"
GZjiBjc^X^eVa8djcX^a ço(1} 1¤.
2 £rom the occupatIon o! East ]erusaIem In 1¤6) to the present, the share o! the ]ewIsh popuIa-
tIon In ]erusaIem decIIned !rom )a% to 6)%. CrIgInaIIy, the government decIded on a mInImum
ratIo o! )o%-¤o% In !avor o! the ]ewIsh popuIatIon. ThIs barrIer has been bypassed and, at the
moment, seems unreaIIstIc. See HiVi^hi^XVaNZVgWdd`[dg?ZgjhVaZb'%%'"'%%( (]erusaIem InstItute
!or IsraeII StudIes, December 2oo¤} www.]IIs.org.II/maIn-ñndIngs-eng.pd!
¤ Another argument agaInst compensatIon Is that natIonaI parks protect the envIronment and thus
prevent harm to the "naturaI hiVijhfjd o! the envIronment" ?jhik#BVg^cZiiZ8djcin 2o1 N.W.2d
)61, )68 (1¤)2}; see CIrcIacy-Wantrup and 8Ishop )26.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
8Imkom, 8dbbZcih[dgi]Z?ZgjhVaZbAdXVaEaVc'%%% (!orthcomIng, 2ooç}, www.bImkom.org.
SIeg!rIed CIrIacy-Wantrup and RIchard 8Ishop, "'Common Property' as a Concept In NaturaI
2¤2
l
2¤¤
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
Resources PoIIcy," CVijgVaGZhdjgXZh?djgcVa 1ç, (1¤)ç}.
]on DubIn, "£rom ]unkyards to CentrIñcatIon," B^ccZhdiVAVlGZk^Zl )), (1¤¤¤}.
:a^h]Vgk#GZ\^dcVaEaVcc^c\8dbb^iiZZ!8ZcigVa9^hig^Xi, CIvII AppeaI a¤¤o/¤o, a)(¤}, 1¤¤o.
:jXa^Yk#6bWZg, 2)2, U.S., (1¤26}.
CharIes Core, "IntroductIon," In HdX^Va:mXajh^dc, eds. Cerry Rodgers, CharIes Core, and ]ose
£IgueIredo (Ceneva: IIC, 1¤¤ç}.
KevIn Cray, "Property In ThIn AIr," 8VbWg^Y\ZAVl?djgcVa ço, (1¤¤1}.
KevIn Cray and Susan Cray, "PrIvate Property and PubIIc ProprIety," In EgdeZginVcYi]Z8dchi^"
iji^dc, ed. ]anet McIean (Cx!ord: Hart PubIIshIng, 1¤¤¤}.
Anna Crear, "A TaIe o! the Iand, the InsIder, the CutsIder and Human RIghts," AZ\VaHijY^Zh 2¤,
(2oo¤}.
Carrett HardIn, "The Tragedy o! the Commons," HX^ZcXZ 162, (1¤68}.
Peter ]ackson and ]an Penrose, "PIacIng Race and NatIon," In 8dchigjXi^dchd[GVXZ!EaVXZVcY
CVi^dc, eds. Peter ]ackson and ]an Penrose (Iondon: UCI Press, 1¤¤¤}.
]uIIan ]uergensmeyer and ]ames WadIey, "The Common Iand Concept: A 'Commons' SoIutIon to a
Common EnvIronmentaI ProbIem," CVijgVaGZhdjgXZh?djgcVa 1a, (1¤)a}.
Don Peretz, "ProbIems o! Re!ugee CompensatIon" In >ciZgcVi^dcVa8dc[ZgZcXZdcEVaZhi^c^VcGZ[j\ZZh,
(UNESCC, 26 AprII 2ooo}, http://domIno.un.org/UNISPAI.NS£/}/¤!2doe281!b!¤8ç)8ç2ç 66¤eçooç
aed1)?CpenDocument.
PIerre RosanvaIIon, I]ZCZlHdX^VaFjZhi^dc (PrInceton: UP PrInceton, 2ooo}.
]oseph Sax, "HeIpIess CIants: The NatIonaI Parks and the ReguIatIon o! PrIvate Iands," B^X]^\Vc
AVlGZk^Zl )ç (1¤))}.
DIana Wu and RobIn Turner, "RecognIzIng and EradIcatIng RacIsm In EnvIronmentaI Commons"
(paper submItted to the InternatIonaI AssocIatIon !or the Study o! Common Property, 2ooa},
www.Iascp2ooa.org.mx/downIoads/papera¤1.pd! .
i]Z]ZVgid[i]ZbViiZg
RacheI Ieah ]ones
A pro!essor o! hIstory !rom 8ayIt Va-Can took hIs !amIIy !or a pIcnIc In a
quIet pInewood near CIv`at ShauI, !ormerIy known as DeIr YassIn. It was not
too coId to be In the shade and not too warm to buIId a ñre, so the pro!es-
sor passed on to hIs son campIng skIIIs he had acquIred In the army. They
arranged three square stones In a U, to bIock the wInd, IeavIng access on
the !ourth sIde. They stacked broken branches on top o! twIgs on top o! dry
pIne needIes. He Iet hIs son put a match to It. [.j The pro!essor dId not taIk
o! the vIIIage, orIgIn o! the stones. He dId not taIk o! the vIIIage schooI, now
a psychIatrIc hospItaI, on the other sIde o! the hIII. He ImagIned that he and
hIs !amIIy were havIng a pIcnIc, unreIated to the vIIIage, en]oyIng Its grounds
outsIde hIstory.
Cz SheIach, PIcnIc Crounds: a NoveI In £ragments
Cne day I happened upon It. In the mIddIe o! a no-man's-Iand-a rough dIamond
shaped vaIIey carved !rom two wouId-be "green IInes" that spIIt at the source
In ]abaI aI-Mukaber and come together agaIn In Abu Tor-a maze. I knew what
It remInded me o!, In !act, I thought It was the
reaI thIng, aIbeIt too poIIshed. SuspIcIous, I con-
tacted the pIanners (or the pIanters}: the ]ewIsh
NatIonaI £und (]N£}. The ]N£ o!ñcIaI In charge
o! pIannIng IdentIñed the area as the "£orest
o! Peace," and re!erred me to the now-retIred
regIonaI dIrector responsIbIe !or creatIng the
park and desIgnIng Its varIous attractIons.
The "£orest o! Peace," reIayed the !ormer
regIonaI dIrector, was conceIved and pIanned as a chIIdren's !orest by and !or
"the chIIdren o! IsraeI." ApparentIy, chIIdren around the (Western} worId donat-
ed !unds !or Its pIantIng and constructIon, receIvIng In exchange certIñcates o!
merIt !or pIayIng theIr part In makIng the desert bIoom.
The park was desIgned wIth an "InternatIonaI orIentatIon," expIaIned Its pIan-
ner, "on the eve o! ]erusaIem's ¤ooo year annIversary." It was meant to serve
tourIsts !rom abroad as weII as the resIdents o! the cIty. Aware that the park was
pIanted In an area between a ]ordanIan boundary and an IsraeII boundary, the
ob]ectIve was to turn thIs PaIestInIan "no-man's-Iand" Into "every-body's-Iand."
Road sIgn (photo: RacheI Ieah
]ones, 2ooç}
2¤a
l
2¤ç
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
ConceptuaIIzed as an InterpIay between past and !uture, each "attractIon"-
and the park Is !uII o! these-was desIgned as a tIme tunneI wIth eIght "gates"
that !unctIon as a Iookout poInt unto a worId o! content. These IncIude: "£ore-
!athers" (e.g. a vIew o! Mount MorIah where,
speakIng o! chIIdren, It Is saId Abraham Intended
to sacrIñce hIs son Isaac}, "]udges," "Prophecy,"
"Return to ZIon," "the NatIonaI Home," "IsraeII
SovereIgnty," "the UnIñcatIon o! ]erusaIem" (e.g.
a vIew o! Mount Scopus where the Hebrew UnI-
versIty o! ]erusaIem stood severed !rom West
]erusaIem between 1¤a8-1¤6)} and "Peace." UnI-
versaI themes Indeed.
At the center o! thIs theme park a "Museum
o! the ChIId" was to be erected, where "the story
o! the Iand o! IsraeI" wouId be toId through Its
chIIdren: Abraham the chIId, Muhammad the
chIId, etc. 8ut thIs, perhaps the more InternatIonaI
portIon o! the park, was never compIeted, as the
eruptIon o! the second IntI!ada stopped the How o!
tourIsts to IsraeI and the How o! ]ews to East ]erusaIem-where the !orest Is Iocated.
8ut what about the maze? "PeopIe come to a park," contInued the pIanner,
"!or three reasons": to get away and change envIronment, to rest and recreate, to
en]oy the wonders o! the pIace. Cne such wonder Is a Iarge red ]ungIe-gym pyra-
mId. "We wanted to re!erence worIdwIde Imagery, IIke that o! Egypt," expIaIned
the pIanner. The phIIosophy guIdIng pIannIng !or chIIdren, he added, Is to provIde
a materIaI basIs that wIII stImuIate kIds to transcend tIme and pIace, or In Iay
terms: make-beIIeve. So what about the maze? "I had nothIng to do wIth pIan-
nIng the maze," the pIanner ñnaIIy admItted, "a dI!!erent department dId, and I
have no Idea what It's !or."
The "£orest o! Peace" Is !requented, as !ar as I couId teII, onIy by PaIestInIan
pIcnIckers. What dId the maze remInd them o!? RuIns. What dId they understand
!rom It? That IsraeIIs IIke ruIns. No more, no Iess. What kInd o! ruIns dId they
remInd them o!? ]ust ruIns, any oId ruIns. What dId they remInd me o!? Destroyed
PaIestInIan vIIIages-the kInd IsraeII pIanners o! natIonaI parks and !orests grew
up pIcnIckIng on throughout the country, and not onIy on the rubbIe o! the vIIIage o!
DeIr YassIn across town. The kInd the anonymous pIanner o! thIs maze must have
thought hIs or her chIIdren needed In order to have the uItImate pIcnIc experIence.
A!ter aII, how couId we have a pIcnIc wIthout en]oyIng Its grounds "outsIde" hIstory?
And what dId I ñnd at the end o! the maze, at the heart o! the matter? A car-
ouseI. What can you see !rom the carouseI? SpInnIng !ragments o! make-beIIeve
PaIestInIan vernacuIar archItecture; stone waIIs, adorned wIth tradItIonaI ventI-
IatIon hoIes that whIrI the past Into a contInuous present, and round agaIn.
1 San £rancIsco: CIty IIghts 8ooks, 2oo¤. ReprInted wIth permIssIon o! author and pubIIsher.
£orest o! Peace, ]erusaIem
(photos: RacheI Ieah ]ones, 2ooç}
^beg^hdcZYWnYgZVbh
HJG76=>G6C9=6G=DB66H>B6<>C:9
6C968IJ6AA6C9H86E:H
Naama MeIshar and YehotaI ShapIra
And In a sIumber o! trees and stone
ImprIsoned In her dream
Is the cIty whIch dweIIs aIone
And a waII Is In her heart.
Shemer, 1¤)a
These IInes o! "]erusaIem o! CoId," a canonIcaI Hebrew popuIar song, were wrItten
by NaomI Shemer be!ore the 1¤6) IsraeII occupatIon o! the eastern part o! the
cIty. In thIs essay, we wIII argue that IsraeI's settIement poIIcy In East ]erusaIem
cannot be expIaIned pureIy by exposIng the underIyIng geopoIItIcaI agenda o!
controI over the cIty's terrItory and demography. Cver and above strategIc and
mIIItary consIderatIons, we want to brIng to IIght the deap-seated dream whIch
ImprIsons the cIty. ThIs dream-as In Shemer's verse-equaIIy comes to II!e
through the ImpIementatIon o! pIannIng poIIcIes.
³

IIkewIse, when dreams move Into thIs reaIm o! truth, they become a kInd o!
"phantasm." PIato's use o! the Creek word "phantasma" heIps us to expIaIn the
creatIon o! Iandscape and experIence. In the aIIegory o! the cave, PIato descrIbes
a group o! peopIe ImprIsoned In a cave !rom chIIdhood. 8ehInd them a ñre gIows,
and sInce they cannot turn theIr heads to see It, they perceIve the shadows on the
waII In !ront o! them as reaIIty. These gIancIng shadows are named "phantasmas"
by PIato. The !etters that tIe hIs prIsoners are pre]udIces, !ears, and IdeoIogIes,
whIch prevent them !rom seeIng reaIIty.
ThIs essay wIII expIore how IsraeII phantasms shape Iandscapes In the
ImpIementatIon o! pIannIng poIIcy and through daIIy II!e, thus preventIng any
possIbIIIty o! sustaInabIe exIstence. In phantasm-drIven pIannIng, Iandscapes
pIay a roIe In the spatIaI coIIIsIon o! east and west ]erusaIem, enHamIng the
natIonaI conHIct whIIe economIcaIIy and cuIturaIIy weakenIng both IsraeIIs and
PaIestInIans. £amIIIarIty wIth these phantasms and the manner In whIch they
are embodIed may enabIe reaI contact and recIprocaI, unmedIated perceptIons
o! reaIIty. As such, we wIII !ocus on IsraeII phantasms and how they Impact
IsraeII pIannIng and everyday II!e.
To begIn, the Iandscape Is more than spatIaI syntax IncorporatIng a set
o! symboIs, or a representatIon o! hIerarchIcaI socIaI reIatIons, but an actuaI
cuIturaI process (MItcheII, 1¤¤a:1}. "Iandscape does not sImpIy mIrror or dIstort
2¤6
l
2¤)
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
'underIyIng' socIaI reIatIons," wrItes Seymoure, "but needs to be understood as
enmeshed wIthIn the processes whIch shape how the worId Is organIzed, expe-
rIenced and understood, rather than read as Its end product" (Seymoure, 2ooo: 21a}.
These Iandscapes-In-!ormatIon partIcIpate In a two-way process: they construct
sub]ects, who then go on to reshape the Iandscapes, thereby reIn!orcIng theIr
means o! IdentIty vaIIdatIon.
ThIs essay addresses the Iandscapes o! two neIghborhoods-Har Homa, turned
aImost overnIght !rom a wooded hIII (]abaI Abu ChneIm} Into a crowded settIe-
ment, whIch Is contInuIng to spread eastwards;
³
and Sur 8ahIr, prevIousIy a ruraI
agrIcuIturaI vIIIage whose buIIdIng cuIture has changed over hundreds o! years
!rom habItated caves to homes sItuated on !amIIy Iands In urban densIty.
³

A6C9H86E:H6C9>HG6:A>EA6CC>C<>CHJG76=>G
Two IsraeII government pIans are currentIy In the works !or Sur 8ahIr. The ñrst
Is the nonstatutory CutIIne PIan !or Southeast ]erusaIem, and the second Is an
amendment o! the DetaIIed Statutory CIty PIan !or Sur 8ahIr.
ª
We shaII address
the !ormer, whIch wIII aIso Impact the Iatter.
The CutIIne PIan proposes neIghborhood tourIsm deveIopment, IncIudIng
bIcycIe paths connected to the wIder ]erusaIem system, Iarge numbers o! bed
and break!ast In-home unIts, and an emphasIs on open-space deveIopment
(KImeIdor!, ]uIy 1o, 2ooç}. "It Is ImpossIbIe that the same ruIes that appIy to the pIan-
nIng o! open areas In the IsraeII buIIdIng !abrIc wIII appIy to the !abrIc and cuIture
o! the PaIestInIan neIghborhood," the CutIIne PIan's Iandscape archItect teIIs us
(KrugIIac, September ), 2ooç}. She argues that the PaIestInIan resIdents have a need to
get out In the open wIth the whoIe extended !amIIy, advocatIng severaI Iarge (sIx
dunam [1 dunum = 1ooo square metersj} parks IncorporatIng a varIety o! actIvItIes
!or dI!!erent age groups. She goes on to note, "We have Iocated areas o! thIs sIze
In the neIghborhood that are InterestIng as dWhZgkVi^dced^cihdkZgadd`^c\lVY^h
[emphasIs oursj. These areas are not !ree o! ownershIp but they are !ree o! use."
£urther, KrugIIac Is under the ImpressIon that Sur 8ahIr representatIves thought
compensatIon couId be negotIated I! these areas were approprIated !or pubIIc use
(PaIestInIans usuaIIy do not accept compensatIon schemes as part o! theIr re]ec-
tIon o! IsraeI's occupatIon o! these areas}. AccordIng to the CutIIne PIan, these
parks overIookIng lVY^h wIII be connected to a regIonaI pedestrIan path system,
whIch wIII preserve tradItIonaI lVY^ agrIcuIture and connect Sur 8ahIr and Har
Homa. The pIannIng !or thIs lVY^ path system Integrates IocaI agrIcuIturaI com-
merce, as a means o! strengthenIng the communIty and encouragIng women to
engage In home-based economIc actIvIty.
These pIanners truIy !eeI that they have acted pro!essIonaIIy and !or the beneñt
o! the resIdents. £urther proo! o! thIs was vIsIbIe at a meetIng o! the pIannIng
team !or the CutIIne PIan !or Southeast ]erusaIem whIch took pIace on the ]une
6, 2ooç. Here the creators o! the CutIIne PIan conveyed theIr pro!essIonaI opInIon
that It shouId be possIbIe !or Sur 8ahIr resIdents to buIId beyond the ]erusaIem
RIng Road (where IocaI Iandowners had InItIated the Independent pIannIng
scheme No. ¤8¤8 by AyaIa RoneI !or exIstIng buIIdIngs, and No. 88)6 by MetropoIIs
pIanners !or dense new buIIdIngs}, whIch Is wIdeIy perceIved as a means o! IIm-
ItIng constructIon In thIs area.
³
The expansIon beyond the road wouId be crucIaI,
sInce housIng In Sur 8ahIr Is dIvIded among !amIIIes who do not trade In Iand,
subsequentIy puttIng at a dIsadvantage !amIIIes stuck wIth Iand !aIIIng outsIde
(east} o! the RIng Road. NevertheIess, these opInIons were re]ected by archItect
and cIty engIneer UrI ShItreet. He accepted and approved onIy exIstIng buIIdIngs
that had been re]ected by the RegIonaI CommIttee.
The phrase "a cIty dweIIs aIone," coIned by ShItreet, Is the phantasm on
whIch he bases pIans to deñne the eastern boundary o! the buIIt-up terrItory
o! Sur 8ahIr as sIttIng smack agaInst the eastern RIng Road. 8eyond that road,
accordIng to hIs vIsIon, there wIII be onIy open Iandscape areas. The 8IbIIcaI
verse !rom whIch thIs phrase Is borrowed says, "the []ewIshj peopIe shaII dweII
aIone. and shaII not be reckoned among the natIons" (Numbers, 2¤:¤}. Many
houses east o! the desIgnated pIannIng IIne have been Issued wIth demoIItIon
orders.
ª
Heaps o! debrIs stagnate throughout the neIghborhood, rIsIng as paIn!uI
Iandmarks o! the one-sIded nature o! governmentaI and pIannIng InvoIvement.
Some o!ñcIaIs contend that It wIII be possIbIe In the !uture to aIIow buIIdIng to
the east o! the RIng Road, but thIs eventuaIIty shouId be postponed untII the
terrItory deIImIted by thIs road Is more denseIy popuIated. ThIs Is proposed as a
means o! "educatIng" resIdents Into the housIng densIty, characterIzIng an urban
proñIe. Thus pIannIng poIIcy Is appIIed to Sur 8ahIr, Instead o! rIsIng out o! that
communIty's needs and aspIratIons.
Cn thIs Iandscape, the bIcycIe routes and bed and break!ast unIts stand out
In theIr IrreIevance. They are derIved !rom the phantasms o! "peace" and a
"unIñed cIty." Hassan Abu AsIah, head o! the VIIIage DeveIopment CommIttee,
compares these enterprIses-In IIght o! the exIstentIaI housIng shortage In East
]erusaIem neIghborhoods-to the act o! seIectIng attractIve paInt !or the banIster
o! a buIIdIng whose !oundatIons have yet to be IaId. Sur 8ahIr resIdents IabeI the
pIan dIscrImInatory In that It does not resoIve theIr desperate need !or housIng.
CurrentIy aImost no tourIsts come to thIs neIghborhood, partIcuIarIy ]ewIsh
vIsItors. Even so, another pIanner on the munIcIpaI team descrIbed the vIIIage
representatIves as "smIIIng" when the tourIst enterprIse was presented. The
vIIIagers' poIIteness and the pIanners' mIsreadIng o! thIs reactIon Is IndIcatIve,
once agaIn, o! the pIanners' IImIted understandIng o! the resIdents' reaI needs.
The CutIIne PIan onIy Increases the neIghborhood's buIIdIng capacIty by 11% and
does not reIIeve the ImmedIate dIstress caused by a Iack o! buIIdIng permIts.
The phantasm o! "peace" ImpIIcIt In the CutIIne PIan bIurs the !act that hIk-
Ing (ItseI! a kInd o! cIvIIIan surveyIng } Is maInIy a deepIy IdeoIogIzed IsraeII
]ewIsh pastIme (SeIwyn, 1¤¤8: 12}.
'
The specter o! ]ewIsh hIkers cIImbIng the wadIs
Into Sur 8ahIr, buyIng PaIestInIan agrIcuIturaI products aIong the way, Is unre-
aIIstIc In the current poIItIcaI sItuatIon. Are the vIIIage resIdents Interested
In thIs prospect? Such a pIannIng vIsIon !urther !ortIñes IsraeII tendencIes o!
becomIng "acquaInted" wIth PaIestInIan cuIture soIeIy on the cuIInary IeveI,
and reIn!orces the exotIcIzatIon o! PaIestInIans and PaIestInIan socIety.
IronIcaIIy, "It wouId have been possIbIe to carry out a Ie!t-wIng 'Peace Now'
demonstratIon at a conventIon o! MInIstry o! HousIng pIanners," archItect and
Iandscape pIanner !or Har Homa, EIIsh Hausman, observed on ]uIy 1¤, 2ooç.
2¤8
l
2¤¤
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
Hausman descrIbed the pIanners' sIghs o! reIIe! when the authorItIes Instructed
them to !reeze theIr pIannIng commIssIons !or the ]ewIsh settIements In the
CccupIed TerrItorIes. The reason gIven !or theIr partIcIpatIon was prosaIc: "There
was no aIternatIve; we had to except these ]obs In order to keep our ñrms." Thus
the desIre to maIntaIn socIaI and economIc hegemony drIves these pIanners to
cooperate wIth dIscrImInatIve coIonIaI pIannIng that contradIcts theIr supposed
moraI vaIues.
ª
(As ]ewIsh AshkenazI IsraeIIs who do not IIve In the area under
dIscussIon, we too are aware o! our contested posItIon.
°
}
In !act, Iandscape archItect KrugIIac had not actuaIIy dIscussed the possIbIIIty
o! exproprIatIng the Iands wIth the Iandowners themseIves. Un!ortunateIy !or
Iandowners, some o! them had InItIated and paId !or an Independent pIannIng
scheme o! theIr own (PIan No. 1o1¤¤ by AyaIa RoneI}. "ThIs InItIatIve aIIocated prIvate
Iand !or pubIIc needs accordIng to the quantItatIve standards dIctated by the
IsraeII authorItIes," says archItect RoneI. "8ut once they had seen thIs pIan, the
CutIIne PIan creators made sure that theIr Iand use aIIocatIons [such as the hIIItop
parksj were Inserted Into the prIvate pIan" (RoneI, 2ooç}. In the ñnaI anaIysIs, the
panorama observatIon poInts constItutIng the basIs o! thIs park system were an
InsurmountabIe obstacIe to the ImpIementatIon o! an agreed-upon and sustaInabIe
pIan InItIated by the cItIzens themseIves.
£urthermore, the constItutIve panorama perspectIve ("IookIng out" over the
wadIs} does not bear In mInd these Iandscapes' symboIIc meanIngs !or the resI-
dents o! Sur 8ahIr. The Iandscape as seen !rom Sur 8ahIr Is IncessantIy changIng.
Heavy machInery Is busIIy erectIng another sectIon o! IsraeI's SeparatIon WaII,
³º

thereby dIsconnectIng Sur 8ahIr !rom neIghborIng PaIestInIan communItIes and
!rom Iands owned by Its resIdents, as weII as addIng an arbItrary huIkIng IsraeII
presence to the Iandscape. £urthermore, as seen !rom Sur 8ahIr, Har Homa
constructIon actuaIIy appears as another waII. The !acades o! the structures are
unI!orm and successIve, wIth openIngs resembIIng narrow sIIts beIow !ourteen-
story-hIgh buIIdIngs protrudIng IIke sentIneIs. The entIre Har Homa system rIses
as one !rom the topography, !ounded on an unbroken strIp o! sIx-meter-hIgh
supportIng waIIs that sever the neIghborhood !rom the surroundIng envIron-
ment. WIth the next stages o! Har Homa constructIon to the east, the neIgh-
borhood's sIze wIII be quadrupIed. The gaze o! the eIevated homes o! present
and !uture Har Homa wIII capture the !acIng southern vIew !rom Sur 8ahIr. Har
Homa Iandscape characterIstIcs vIsIbIe !rom Sur 8ahIr IncIude pavements shaded
by pIants, weII-maIntaIned roads, and orderIy parkIng spaces. 8ut the observer
knows that none o! these exIst In hIs neIghborhood. Thus, the CutIIne PIan dIc-
tates that the resIdents o! Sur 8ahIr wIII spend theIr IeIsure tIme encounterIng the
aggressIve ]ewIsh wedge, whIch !or them Is a Iandscape o! ongoIng domInatIon,
exproprIatIon, and dIscrImInatIon.
A6C9H86E:H6C9>HG6:A>EA6CC>C<>C=6G=DB6
Har Homa's archItecture and open space system Is spatIaIIy orIented outwards,
towards dIstant Iandscapes. £rom the neIghborhood garden pIots, It Is possIbIe to
vIew 8eIt ]aIa, Sur 8ahIr, 8eIt Sahur, and the expanse o! the desert. The neIgh-
borhood's centraI pubIIc space Is a grandIose gesture towards the vIew. It Is a
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strIp runnIng vertIcaIIy, dIssectIng Har Homa's radIaI constructIon around the
mountaIn. A doubIe symmetrIcaI staIr system, remInIscent o! the HIghts o!
staIrs !ound In ItaIIan RenaIssance gardens, !orms a vertIcaI axIs connectIng the
bottom o! the neIghborhood, at the !oot o! the mountaIn, wIth a pre-Har Homa,
stone PaIestInIan house buIIt next to a cave on the mountaIntop.
The resIdents, IIke the contractors, wIsh to maIntaIn thIs gaze to !araway
Iandscapes and are apprehensIve that the vIew wIII be bIocked !oIIowIng the
neIghborhood's expected eastern expansIon. ResIdent Csnat shared her !eeIIngs
wIth us, "[8je!ore comIng here I IIved In a vIIIage; It Is Important !or me to have
a vIew. We can see out to the sectIon between Sur 8ahIr and 8eIt Sahur, and to
HerodIan. Cne pays !or that vIew, !or the desert Iandscape."
It Is our argument that the centraIIty o! the Iandscape vIew comes at the
expense o! everyday weII-beIng. Har Homa's southwest garden pIot Is buIIt
wIth a strong ),ç% IncIInatIon In most areas to enabIe the open vIew. The IncII-
natIon mInImIzes the garden's recreatIonaI possIbIIItIes, and chIIdren cannot
pIay baII here sInce the baII aIways roIIs down the sIopIng grass towards the road.
"These garden pIots are annoyIng, they are crowded and there Is not
enough room to move around here," Csnat toId us as she ran around the pIay-
ground a!ter her In!ant daughter. "The pIayground Is unsuItabIe !or the IIttIe
ones and there are not enough grassy areas, basketbaII courts, or bIcycIe paths.
The chIIdren pIay !ootbaII In the Iarge apartment baIconIes or In the prIvate
courtyards o! the ground Hoors."
The domInance o! thIs "gaze" at the expense o! the open envIronment
Is aIso vIsIbIe In the organIzatIon o! the centraI open space. The heIght dI!-
!erence between Its !oot and head Is sIxty-!our meters, creatIng a gross
IncIInatIon o! ¤)%, whIch creates hostIIe condItIons !or the pIannIng o! a
centraI garden (Raz, 2ooo:22}. £urthermore, the grand open area Is dIssected
horIzontaIIy by !our neIghborhood roads and vertIcaIIy by eIght hIgh support-
Ing waIIs, resuItIng In a number o! Hat narrow IeveIs. The doubIIng o! the
HIght o! staIrs has caused an addItIonaI, InternaI horIzontaI dIssectIon o! each
terrace. Sports !acIIItIes and wIde grasspIots have no pIace In thIs terraced,
open space. The dramatIc and expensIve desIgn gesture Is uItImateIy no more
than a coIIectIon o! smaII garden pIots, IeavIng the neIghborhood-contrary
to the MInIstry o! HousIng's InstructIons-wIthout any sIgnIñcant open areas
(Ierman, 2ooo:1oo; Raz, 2ooo:¤8}.
³³
Csnat, IIke many o! her neIghbors, Ieaves Har
Homa to use parks In the cIty, a choIce whIch, In e!!ect, aIIenates her neIgh-
borhood. Her act expresses a protest at the Ine!!ectuaI pIannIng, but aIso
trans!orms her home Into a suburb.
The constant and ever-present outward gaze dIstances Har Homa resIdents
!rom IIves takIng pIace outsIde theIr compound-IIke neIghborhood, turnIng the
neIghbors Into a Iandscape drawIng vIsIbIe onIy through observatIon corrIdors.
Csnat's opInIon about thIs detachment expIIcates the ever-present phantasm
o! "waIIs"-theIr orIgIns and how they are perpetuated. "We can't go reaIIy !ar
downhIII," she says. "When we came here there was an army troop beIow us.
There are no waIks In the lVY^, even though we are the type o! peopIe who hIke
a Iot. Sur 8ahIr does not Interest us as a pIace to vIsIt."
2a2
l
2a¤
Monuments
No-man's-Iands
The phantasm o! ]ewIsh "ancestraI rIghts" to the Iand Is constructed by
desIgnIng unsuItabIe open spaces !acIng-and domInatIng over-what Is per-
ceIved as an ancIent Iandscape representIng the storIes o! the 8IbIe. ThIs gaze
!urther enHames the natIonaI conHIct over rIght o! possessIon and natIve owner-
shIp (MItcheII, 1¤¤a:28-2¤}. YoeI 8erkowItz, Har Homa resIdent and edItor o! the IocaI
paper, decIared In a newspaper IntervIew, "[Wje are ]erusaIem's sa!ety beIt. It Is
a type o! mIssIon; we are here wIth IntentIon and purpose" (WIner, May 1ç, 2ooa}.
VIsuaI unIñcatIon In Har Homa Is based on the phantasm o! the "IsraeII
meItIng pot" (the "gatherIng o! the dIasporas" or "@^WWjio<Vajndi"}, whIch
prevents representatIons o! muItIcuIturaIIsm wIthIn the natIonaI boundarIes.
The resIdents o! Har Homa beIong to many dI!!erent ]ewIsh ethnIc groups,
among them MIzrahIm. StIII, the open pubIIc spaces IncIude no representatIons
o! customary non-AshkenazI archItecture and pre!erabIe vegetatIon such as
!ruIt trees or herbs. ReIIgIous MIzrahI ]ews' use o! aromatIc pIants In Saturday
evenIng HavdaIah
³³
ceremonIes Is Ignored In the pubIIc IandscapIng. £urther,
poverty In desIgn varIatIon characterIzes Har Homa's two gardens, whIch
empIoy IdentIcaI buIIdIng materIaIs, and recreatIonaI equIpment made by the
same commercIaI company. The goaI o! unI!yIng ]ewIsh ethnIc groups natIon-
aIIy, In order to gIrd them agaInst the PaIestInIan Cther, domInated the pIan-
nIng o! pubIIc housIng In the 1¤ços and 1¤6os (KaIIus and Iaw-Yone, 2ooo:161}.
³³
ThIs
move has now been reenIIsted In archItecturaI practIces and prIvate enterprIse
aIong the expandIng IsraeII !rontIer.
I=:K>:L:G6C9I=:K>:L:9
Spaces and Iandscapes In Har Homa and Sur 8ahIr deveIop separateIy but
sImuItaneousIy, accordIng to theIr reIatIve InHuence, and In response to the
neIghborIng space. "A cIty dweIIs aIone" Is the phantasm used to maIntaIn
]erusaIem's "green beIt" perIphery, whIch equaIIy serves to deny Sur 8ahIr o!
the rIght to decent housIng and envIronmentaI seI!-determInatIon. Some IsraeII
pIanners mean weII, but are actuaIIy cooperatIng wIth a dIscrImInatory o!ñcIaI
mechanIsm, and have no awareness o! the phantasms on whIch they base theIr
bIueprInts. TheIr desIgns remaIn detached !rom the dI!ñcuIt every day, dea! to
resIdents' protests, and voId o! the mutuaI partIcIpatIon and IearnIng requIred
!or neIghborIy reIatIons.
In Sur 8ahIr, the crowded vIIIage center Is spreadIng to the hIIIy ranges,
and Its agrIcuIturaI hInterIand has become homogeneous, IncorporatIng onIy
oIIve groves. These groves are IncreasIngIy essentIaI !or the !uture, promIsIng
both Iand market vaIues and Iand natIonaI vaIues. 8ut It Is thIs same Iandscape
whIch Is used by the observer !rom Har Homa to constItute the phantasm o!
"ancestraI Iand," I.e., ]ewIsh Iand currency constructed !rom the past. The
Har Homa experIence o! exaItatIon through the dIstant gaze comes at the
expense o! avaIIabIe, su!ñcIent, everyday open spaces. The Importance o! the
docIIe hIIIy Iandscape seen !rom Har Homa, evIdenced both In archItecturaI
structures and resIdents' prIorItIes, stands In dIrect opposItIon to Har Homa's
aggressIve gesture In the vIew seen !rom Sur 8ahIr and other area neIghbor-
hoods and vIIIages.
Thus, the phantasm o! "ancestraI Iandscape" turns the Iandscape vIewed !rom
Har Homa Into a vaIIdatIon tooI o! the settIIng act. The Ideas transmItted by thIs
dIstancIng contradIct the actuaI scene, that o! a PaIestInIan peopIe wIth hIstorIc
roots In the Iand who have deveIoped theIr own vIIIages, and vaIIdated theIr
ownershIp through theIr very exIstence In the area.
Nowadays PaIestInIans pIant oIIve trees In the lVY^h as an InexpensIve means
o! provIng ownershIp. In the garden pIots o! Har Homa, oIIve trees are pIanted
!or ornamentatIon and as a ]ewIsh symboI. PaIestInIan wrIter Ra]a Shehadeh has
crItIqued the trans!ormatIon o! the oIIve tree Into a phantasm-IIke symboI In
PaIestInIan cuIture as a resuIt o! IsraeII coIonIzatIon. "SometImes when I waIk
through the hIIIs. unconscIousIy en]oyIng the !eeI o! the hard earth underneath
my !eet, o! the smeII o! thyme, o! the hIIIs and trees around me-I catch myseI!
IookIng at an oIIve tree. As I observe It, It changes Its nature and becomes a
symboI, the symboI o! the hVbYZZc [stead!ast onesj, the symboI o! our Ioss. £rom
that moment on, the tree has been stoIen !rom me" (Shehadeh, 1¤82:¤1}.
Perhaps It wIII be possIbIe to return that whIch has been robbed-a !ertIIe
pIace unmarked by phantasms o! conHIct. ThIs can onIy happen through an
awareness o! the mutuaI gaze, an understandIng o! the presence o! phantasms
In the creatIon o! dIstant and cIose Iandscapes, and a new vIew o! dI!!erence as a
chance !or cuIturaI dIversIty and acknowIedgement.
1 We do not Intend here to depoIItIcIze the dIscourse on settIements In East ]erusaIem, nor argue
!or the naIvete o! the pIanners. Rather, we beIIeve that understandIng these phantasms can heIp
to expIaIn how archItects cooperate wIth a dIscrImInatory pIannIng poIIcy by engagIng In an
apparentIy depoIItIcIzed dIscourse on pIannIng whIch masks these agendas.
2 Har Homa Is home to 1o,ooo resIdents. IsraeI, In Its natIonaI e!!ort to create a ]ewIsh demo-
graphIc ma]orIty In a "unIted" cIty and thus precIude a PaIestInIan capItaI there, deveIops wedges
o! ]ewIsh settIement on exproprIated PaIestInIan Iand. In the case o! Har Homa, ¤o% o! the neIgh-
borhood Iands were exproprIated !rom ]ews; 1o% had been purchased by the ]ewIsh NatIonaI
£und (]N£} be!ore 1¤a8, and the rest was PaIestInIan prIvate and absentee property. The pIans !or
Har Homa were dra!ted In onIy 18 months (KoIker, August ¤o, 2ooç}. Its constructIon, was the
sub]ect o! an Intense PaIestInIan and InternatIonaI campaIgn.
¤ C!ñcIaI pIannIng In Sur 8ahIr has created a severe housIng shortage !or Its 12,ooo resIdents, IIke
that In other PaIestInIan neIghborhoods.
a 6gVWVh"Hj»V]gV9ZiV^aZYHiVijidgn8^inEaVcCd#'+-(V enabIes ¤).ç% constructIon per dunam (two
housIng unIts}. NearIy )o% o! the Iands are categorIzed as open Iandscape areas, and 61.a % as
areas that otherwIse cannot be use !or buIIdIng (Ir ShaIem, 1¤¤¤: ¤8-a1}. Another reIevant pIan
Is Hjg7V]^g9ZiV^aZYHiVijidgn8^inEaVc"'(%'V and '(%'W, prepared In the 1¤8os and approved
In 1¤¤¤. The pIan enabIes constructIon (two storIes hIgh} on ço % o! each dunam In the vIIIage
center, and 2ç % In the hInterIands. The neIghborhood resIdents consIder both pIans dIscrImInatory
and InapproprIate !or theIr reaI demographIc needs.
ç The Internet sIte o! the AuthorIty !or the DeveIopment o! ]erusaIem wrItes: "The Eastern RIng
Road that wIII bypass the cIty !rom the east wIII serve as an urban-metropoIItan road and as an
Interurban road !or the beneñt o! the ]erusaIem metropoIItan resIdents."
6 These number In the dozens, accordIng to the commIttee's estImatIon.
) Around ]erusaIem, PaIestInIans are !orced to waIk a great deaI around the mIIItary checkpoInts
and barrIers that deter them !rom reachIng ]erusaIem !or work, study, and medIcaI treatment.
8 Many other IsraeII archItects choose not to pIan settIements In the occupIed terrItorIes.
¤ 6h]`ZcVo^b, ]ews orIgInatIng !rom CentraI and Eastern Europe countrIes, shaped ZIonIsm be!ore
It was reaIIzed, and was the domInant group In IsraeI !rom the begInnIng o! the twentIeth cen-
tury. ThIs eIIte group subordInates aII other ethnIc, reIIgIous, natIonaI, and cIass groups IIvIng
In Har Homa and Sur 8ahIr: PaIestInIans, ]ews that ImmIgrated to IsraeI !rom Arab and MusIIm
countrIes (B^ogV]^b}, orthodox reIIgIous ]ews (=VgZY^b}, and RussIan ImmIgrants.
1o The serIes o! waIIs, barbed wIre, !ences, patroI roads, and Iookout towers that comprIse IsraeI's
SeparatIon WaII runs rIght through East ]erusaIem, puttIng key physIcaI Interests and open Iand
on the IsraeII sIde o! the boundary, and Iarge PaIestInIan popuIatIons (even those carryIng ]erusa-
Iem IdentIty cards} on the West 8ank sIde.
2aa
l
2aç
Monuments
No-man's-Iands

11 It Is aII the more necessary owIng to the neIghborhood's dIstance and detachment !rom the cIty,
beIng connected to the cIty by one road, "an 'Areb-reIn Road' that creates not a cIty but a set-
tIement, whIch does not contaIn urban II!e" says C!er KoIker Har Homa master pIan archItect
(IntervIew, August ¤o, 2ooç}. A neIghborhood o! thIs sIze has to have a ten to twenty dunams
open neIghborhood space, whIch has to IncIude many Iand uses as sports !acIIItIes and Iawns
(Ierman, 2ooo:1oo; Raz, 2ooo:¤8}.
12 A ]ewIsh ceremony that marks the transItIon !rom the Sabbath to the workday, and !rom the hoIy
to the secuIar.
1¤ IsraeII ]ews o! Iow socIaI-economIc status were drIven to settIe In !rontIer settIements, such as
Musrara, MIshkanot ShaananIm, KatamonIm, CIIo, and MaaIe AdumIm.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
Ir ShaIem, B^ogV]NZgjh]VaV»^bBVihVkI^]cjc^¸H`^gVH]ZaId]c^»di7ZB^ogV]NZgjh]VaV»^bP:Vhi
?ZgjhVaZb!VEaVcc^c\8dcY^i^dc"GZk^Zld[i]ZBVhiZgEaVch^c:Vhi?ZgjhVaZbR (]erusaIem: 8tseIem,
1¤¤¤}.
EIIsha Hausman, IntervIew wIth the authors, ]uIy 1¤, 2ooç.
RacheI KaIIus and Hubert Iaw-Yone, "Ha8aIt HaIeumI vHa8aIt HaIshI: Ta!qId HaShIkun HaTsIburI
bIItsuv HaMerhav" ["NatIonaI Home/PersonaI Home: The RoIe o! PubIIc HousIng In the ShapIng o!
Space"j, I]ZdgnVcY8g^i^X^hb 16, (2ooo}.
AvIshaI, KImeIdor!, IntervIew In the o!ñce o! Naama MaIIs wIth authors, ]uIy 1o, 2ooç.
C!er KoIker, IntervIew wIth the authors, August ¤o, 2ooç.
RIna KrugIIac, IntervIew wIth the authors, September ), 2ooç.
Edna Ierman and RaphaeI Ierman, EaVcc^c\7g^ZÃc\[dgAVcY6aadXVi^dc[dgEjWa^XCZZYh (TeI AvIv:
The InstItutIon !or Research and DeveIopment o! EducatIon and WeI!are InstItutIons, 2ooo}.
Naama MeIshar, "£ragIIe CuardIans: Nature Reserves and £orests £acIng Arab VIIIages," In 8dc"
higjXi^c\VHZchZd[EaVXZ/6gX]^iZXijgZVcYi]ZO^dc^hi9^hXdjghZ, ed. H. YacobI (AIdershot: Ashgate,
2ooa}.
W. ]. Thomas MItcheII, "ImperIaI Iandscape," In AVcYhXVeZVcYEdlZg, ed. W. ]. T. MItcheII (ChIcago:
UnIversIty C! ChIcago Press, 1¤¤a}.
Erez Raz and EIn-Dor DaIIt, BZYVY^bk=Vc]VndiaVH]iV]^bEij]^b>gVc^n^bPJgWVcDeZcHeVXZh/
8ViZ\dg^Zh!>cYZmZhVcYEaVcc^c\<j^YZa^cZhR (TeI AvIv: Teva va DIn, 2ooo}.
AyaIa RoneI, IntervIew wIth the authors, 2ooç.
Tom SeIwyn, "Iandscape o! IIberatIon and ImprIsonment: Towards an AnthropoIogy o! the IsraeII
Iandscape," In I]Z6ci]gdedad\nd[AVcYhXVeZ/EZgheZXi^kZhdcEaVXZVcYHeVXZ, eds. ErIc HIrsch
and MIchaeI C'HanIon (Cx!ord. CIarendon Press, 1¤¤ç}.
Susanne Seymour, "HIstorIcaI CeographIes o! Iandscape," In BdYZgc=^hidg^XVa<Zd\gVe]^Zh, eds.
8rIan Craham and CatherIne Nash (Iondon: Iongman Press, 2ooo}.
Ra]a Shehadeh, =V9ZgZ`]=VH]a^h]^iPI]ZI]^gYLVnR (]erusaIem: Adam, 1¤82}.
NaomI Shemer, H]^gZnCVdb^H]ZbZgPHdc\hd[CVdb^H]ZbZgR (]erusaIem: The ]ewIsh Agency,
1¤)a}. [Hebrewj.
Stuart WIner, "8eyond the WaII," ?ZgjhVaZbEdhi, May 1¤, 2ooç.

*
6
5
-
9
6
5
;
(
;
0
6
5
,
?
*
/
(
5
.
,
In Jerusa|em, space |s d|v|ded |ntc that cf °the se|f"
and °the cther," °us" and °them," resu|t|ng |n |s|ands
cf cu|tura| ccnta|nment and scc|a| exc|us|cn. wher-
ever pcss|b|e, the crcss|ng cf ethn|ca||y def|ned
bcundar|es |s avc|ded. ßut a ccmp|ete phys|ca| d|s-
engagement |s equa||y |mpcss|b|e: areas cf ccntact
and entang|ement |nc|ude |nvc|untary enccunters
between Pa|est|n|ans and Israe|| sc|d|ers at m|||-
tary checkpc|nts, but a|sc mcre bana| meet|ngs.
Dppcrtun|sm suppcrts a frag||e web cf eccncm|c
re|at|cnsh|ps between Jews and Arabs. 1he prcx|m-
|ty cf ccntrast|ng scc|a| cu|tures and rescurces, the
asynchrcn|sm cf Arab and Jew|sh re||g|cus hc||days,
as we|| as the ccmparat|ve sa|ary gap have created
eccncm|c pcss|b|||t|es fcr bcth. Desp|te a backdrcp
cf fear, hate, and susp|c|cn, there are casua| and
|nccnsp|cucus enccunters at wcrk, |n hcsp|ta|s,
cr shcpp|ng ma||s, wh|ch cffer the cppcrtun|ty tc
escape pc||t|ca| pcstur|ng and dec|arat|cns abcut a
un|ted/cccup|ed Jerusa|em.
XVa^WVc^cfVaVcY^nV
IDL6G96C6C6ANH>HD;68=:8@ED>CI
Tamar 8erger
At an InternaI checkpoInt In Saxony, MIchaeI KohIhaas' caIamItous trIp Is
prompted by a mIssIng traveI permIt. KohIhaas, Innocent and honest, becomes
a suIcIde terrorIst o! sorts, a!ter hIs Iong and arduous ]ourney cuImInates In
revenge. CouId It have been otherwIse? MartIn Iuther's character In the noveI
beIIeves that KohIhaas shouId have !orsaken hIs quest !or InñnIte ]ustIce and
re!uses to pardon hIm, though he does act on hIs behaI!. And KIeIst? As !or
KIeIst, KohIhaas couId not have done otherwIse; the souIs o! men Interest hIm,
not moraI-poIItIcaI questIons.
An IsraeII soIdIer at the CaIandIya checkpoInt, armed and equIpped !rom
head to toe, straIghtens the peopIe In IIne. Indeed, the peopIe have IIned up as
requIred, but not In a straIght IIne. DIscIpIIne and order-the soIdIer uncon-
scIousIy reenacts hIs mIIItary traInIng-are the backbone o! obedIence. And the
KohIhaases usuaIIy obey. They maIntaIn an approprIate dIstance !rom the soI-
dIers who check theIr IDs and permIts; they respond to the IIttIe head nods, hand
gestures, or hoIIers that command them to approach; they open theIr bags and
bundIes and boxes; they keep quIet, hushIng theIr restIess, !rIghtened chIIdren;
and o!! they go.
Everyday thousands o! PaIestInIans cross CaIandIya checkpoInt, whIch
connects ]erusaIem wIth RamaIIah and the northern West 8ank: workers,
schooIchIIdren, teachers, merchants, peddIers, porters, pro!essIonaIs, shoppers,
students, cIvII servants, cIerks, cra!tsmen, doctors, patIents, and so !orth. At
rush hour, the IIne stretches Into the hundreds. They arrIve In £ord TransIts, yeI-
Iow taxIs, and buses. They cross a dIstance o! severaI hundred meters !rom one
end o! the checkpoInt to the other, on !oot. ReguIatIons at the checkpoInt change
!rom tIme to tIme, sometImes at mIdday, wIth no earIy warnIng.
£or a Iong tIme, those wIshIng to cross were requIred to have specIaI permIts
In order to do so, and sometImes even an extra specIaI permIt to vaIIdate an
exIstIng one. At tImes, one's address and age were enough to guarantee sa!e
passage. ChangIng ruIes are buIIt Into the checkpoInt.
CaIandIya checkpoInt was erected In March 2oo1, severaI months a!ter the
outbreak o! the aI-Aqsa IntI!ada. A coupIe o! soIdIers were statIoned to Inspect
passIng cars. A !ew weeks Iater, It was deserted, onIy to be manned agaIn-thIs
tIme by more soIdIers cIad wIth watchtowers, concrete bIocks, and pIastIc
dIvIders to manage tra!ñc. 8y the end o! 2oo1, the checkpoInt had spread across
a !ew hundred meters, and IncIuded ñve Ianes, a hIgh !ence separatIng vehIcIes
!rom pedestrIans, and snIper posItIons. SInce then, It has trans!ormed exten-
sIveIy-at tImes even requIrIng Its dIsmantIIng (physIcaIIy that Is, never !unc-
tIonaIIy} In order to revamp It. In Its present state, It has seven narrow eIectrIc
rotatIng passages that enabIe unprecedented controI over the peopIe who move
through them. Soon, the checkpoInt wIII be Integrated Into the eIaborate compIex
o! !ences and waIIs runnIng up and down and across the West 8ank.
£Ichte wrote about "InternaI boundarIes." These beIng the ñrst, orIgInaI,
and naturaI boundarIes o! states, I.e., o! those who share a common Ianguage
and are ]oIned to each other by InvIsIbIe naturaI bonds that constItute them as
an InseparabIe whoIe. £Ichte's natIonaIIst conceptIon o! the romantIcaIIy organIc
Is typIcaIIy 18th century. (SInce then, natIonaIIsm has been severeIy under-
mIned-deterIorated accordIng to some, restored accordIng to others-whIIe
other !rameworks, both wIder and narrower, both socIaI and cuIturaI, have
deveIoped aIongsIde It (or Instead o! It}. These !rameworks beIng new and
dI!!erent varIants o! the same whoIe to whIch £Ichte re!ers.
In one sense, CaIandIya checkpoInt Is an externaI border: It stands a !ew kIIo-
meters south o! ]erusaIem's northern munIcIpaI IIne. ThIs Is In the !ormaI sense by
way o! a unIIateraI decIsIon on the part o! an occupyIng power markIng a wouId-be
natIonaI boundary. 8ut thIs border Is empty o! reaI content, vIoIence and ImposI-
tIon asIde, because It brutaIIy undermInes the naturaI or "InternaI border," as
£Ichte wouId have It. CaIandIya separates men, women, and chIIdren !rom theIr
homes, !amIIIes, workpIaces, schooIs, cIInIcs, stores, and !avorIte ca!es.
Why was the munIcIpaI IIne drawn exactIy there? The IogIc Is the same as
the nIhIIIstIc IogIc o! the settIements: one that exproprIates, uproots, ImprIsons,
deports, negates, erases. The very IogIc that Ieads-In pIaces where It Is ImpossIbIe
to make PaIestInIans physIcaIIy vanIsh-to the severance o! mIxed areas Into sepa-
rate ]ewIsh and PaIestInIan spaces.
The IocatIon o! CaIandIya checkpoInt-at the southern edge o! the northern
West 8ank on the way to the settIements o! C!ra, 8eIt EI, and SebastIa-expresses
desIre. IsraeI's desIre !or Iand, !or Its Hebrew past, !or unendIng genesIs; a basIc
ZIonIst desIre. The DecIaratIon o! Independence-the textuaI dIstIIIatIon o! decades
o! ZIonIst practIce-expresses It cIearIy. In a gIant Ieap over two thousand years
o! vIvId ]ewIsh experIences In varIous Iands back to a brIe! moment In tIme when
the Hebrew peopIe en]oyed terrItorIaI sovereIgnty In theIr Iand, they ascended,
buIIt, created, and made the desert bIoom, as the prImaI, constructIvIst, modernIst
termInoIogy epItomIzed by the term "pIoneers" wouId have It.
8ut between the good-oId-Iand and Its remasterIng, stand the PaIestInIans
(hence the need to redeem It}-Its keepers !or hundreds o! years who worked It,
buIIt on It, waIked upon It. "I traveIed to the Iand o! IsraeI, and waIked upon Its
sands. And here, the ñrst man I came across who greeted me wIth "SaIaam AIeI-
kum!" was an Arab. WIth a bIack beard ]ust IIke my !ather's. So I got to thInkIng:
a man IIke thIs has been here !or many a generatIon," wrote Avoth Yeshurun.
And here, where the vIoIent InvasIon o! a !oreIgn body resuIts not onIy In
domInatIon over the exIstent, but Is aIso an encounter o! sorts, I wouId IIke us to
pause !or a moment.
2ço
l
2ç1
Con!rontatIon
Exchange
The checkpoInt beIongs, I! you wIII, to the !amIIy o! Inbetween pIaces. Inbe-
tween pIaces are characterIzed by the IImInaI, the borderIy, the nonpIace, the
hybrId-though none o! these descrIbe Inbetweeness In !uII.
It Is IImInaI (In VIctor Turner's sense} In that It Is IntermedIary, It Ieads !rom
one state to another, and yet has dIstInctIve attrIbutes o! Its own. Though the
checkpoInt Iacks one o! IImInaIIty's most saIIent !eatures: Its IIberatIng dImensIon.
The checkpoInt Is a border sIte. £Irst, because o!ñcIaIIy-aIbeIt unIIateraIIy-It
demarcates (more or Iess} the northern boundary o! (annexed} ]erusaIem. Second,
because o! Its duaIIty o! IncIusIon and excIusIon, It sImuItaneousIy undermInes
and conñrms IdentIty. 8ut border aIone Is an Insu!ñcIent descrIptIon o! the
checkpoInt.
The checkpoInt Is a nonpIace (or heterotopIa, no-pIace}, In that It renders
mechanIcaI the process that takes pIace there, In the anonymIty It produces
(crossers are no more than ID cards, document bearers}, and In the tIght surveII-
Iance It entaIIs. Though the concept o! the nonpIace (In aII Its varIants} does not
poInt at a sIngIe source o! authorIty and power, but rather at a £oucauIdIan dI!!u-
sIon o! power, and at the checkpoInt, power reIatIons are per!ectIy cIear.
The checkpoInt Is, arguabIy, a rather hybrId pIace. The term hybrIdIty, bor-
rowed !rom bIoIogy, deñnes the state o! exIstence o! two separate yet Interde-
pendent IdentItIes. In other words, a state o! "aIso and aIso" rather than "eIther/
or" or "and/and." It Is not the pIuraIIsm o! separates, nor Is It the excIusIon o!
bInarIes, but a mutuaI osmosIs that does not !orsake dIstInctIve IdentItIes aIto-
gether. In nature, It Is a state o! comIng Into beIng, o! non-permanence.
CIaImIng hybrIdIty In the context o! the checkpoInt may appear strange: !or
what better exampIe Is there o! a cIassIcaI coIonIaIIst bInary: ruIer vs. ruIed,
power!uI vs. powerIess, !oreIgn vs. IocaI, mIIItary vs. cIvIIIan?
However, a deeper Iook reveaIs a more compIex pIcture. It turns out that
both sIdes are enmeshed, reHected In each other-!ar more than It wouId appear.
HybrIdIty ñnds expressIon In the compIIcated reIatIons between soIIdIty and
HuIdIty at the checkpoInt, both physIcaI and socIaI. SoIIdIty and HuIdIty constI-
tute what I caII the "hybrId !ocus" o! the checkpoInt, the pIace !rom whIch the
eIaborate reIatIons !ound In It stem.
DespIte the vaIIdIty o! thIs deñnItIon, and the !act that, In my vIew, one can
empIoy It wIthout IosIng sIght o! oppressIon, deñnIng the checkpoInt as an Inbe-
tween pIace-a broader more generaI deñnItIon-enabIes us to dIscuss the above
characterIstIcs, both physIcaI and socIaI.
It Is very dI!ñcuIt to descrIbe a checkpoInt. As a pIace o! passage, It Is evasIve
by nature. It Is InherentIy Impermanent. It Is moduIar, HexIbIe, and ad]ustabIe
accordIng to dI!!erIng mIIItary-operatIonaI needs, aII o! whIch cIarI!y to the PaI-
estInIans wIth seemIng randomness how provIsIonaI theIr IIves are.
In terms o! !unctIon and structure, aII checkpoInts are the same. TheIr basIc
!orm Is IInear, markIng a course o! passage !rom one poInt to another, and a !ew
permanent statIons where one Is routIneIy stopped and checked. The Ianes are
demarcated by concrete raIIIngs, and at tImes are partIy covered. ThIs IInearIty Is
o!ten broken by a perpendIcuIar IIne, that o! the checkpoInt: a row o! ImprovIsed
horseshoe-shaped concrete cubIcIes, where the checker who checks the crossers'
IDs Is statIoned. I shouId add that the process descrIbed Is not mereIy physIcaI,
but aIso emotIonaI, a graduaI approach to saIvatIon.
CheckpoInts are made out o! massIve yet movabIe materIaIs, nameIy concrete
and steaI. Contrasted wIth thIs massIveness, one ñnds the amorphousness o!
mud, puddIes, dust, dIrt, garbage, barbed wIre, tIn rooñng.
£urther down the checkpoInt, are the peddIers. SeIIIng theIr goods at Impro-
vIsed stands made o! pIywood and corrugated tIn, o!!erIng anythIng !rom !aIa!eI
to pouItry at the Iarger checkpoInts. An area PaIestInIans caII "the duty !ree,"
these stands are reestabIIshed as reguIarIy as they are brutaIIy dIsmantIed.
No checkpoInt has cIearIy deñned boundarIes. DI!!use and dynamIc, they
overIap wIth theIr surroundIngs In myrIad ways. TheIr outer boundary Iength-
wIse Is marked by the end o! the IIne o! cars IeadIng up to them, a IIne that can
stretch hundreds o! meters, or the edges o! the makeshI!t markets they spawn.
Nor are theIr horIzontaI boundarIes very cIear.
They can be hermetIcaIIy seaIed or open to varyIng degrees o! human "How."
They permIt as much as they prohIbIt. They can be a pIace o! humIIIatIon,
revenge, sadIstIc crueIty, recruItment o! coIIaborators, but aIso o! subversIon and
dIsdaIn, !or gettIng to know the enemy, !or traInIng suIcIde bombers.
The ñrst thIng notIceabIe at CaIandIya checkpoInt Is the mayhem and move-
ment. The honkIng trucks, the rattIIng dIeseI taxIs, the waIIIng ambuIances, the
speedIng mIIItary ]eeps, the tra!ñc ]ams, the stream o! pedestrIans and peddIers,
the checkpoInt IIne ItseI!. ThIs Is the !undamentaI dIssonance In a pIace where
dIscIpIIne and order are the core concerns.
I wIII not expand on the bInary hIerarchIcaI nature o! the checkpoInt at thIs
stage, assumIng thIs Is cIear to anyone who has eyes wIth whIch to see and ears
wIth whIch to hear. Indeed, at the heart o! the checkpoInt stands an occupyIng,
oppressIve, armed, threatenIng soIdIer In the way o! an occupIed, oppressed, dIs-
empowered cIvIIIan.
The structure o! the checkpoInt, as descrIbed above, makes thIs reIatIonshIp
cIear. At the checkpoInt, power-drunk arbItrarIness, IndI!!erence, crueIty, humIII-
atIon, and vIoIence reIgn supreme over obedIence, InsuIt, In]ury, and anger. The
terms "!ascIst temptatIon," "IazIness," "vIcIousness," "denIaI o! humanIty," and
"speakIng In the pIuraI" drawn !rom AIbert MemmI's ImpressIve coIonIaIIst
dIctIonary, are redeñned day In and day out at CaIandIya.
Cne wouId suppose that !or the PaIestInIans thIs means sub]ugatIon and sur-
vIvaI. A deeper Iook at the checkpoInt aIso reveaIs a certaIn degree o! agency, a
pIace o! PaIestInIan power and IsraeII weakness, a pIace o! resIIIence, even deñ-
ance. The PaIestInIans de!y the brutaIIty o! the checkpoInt wIth theIr very pres-
ence-passIve In appearance, pacIñst In practIce, seI!-controIIed and cIvII, as they
traverse a threatenIng, humIIIatIng obstacIe that !orces them to contend wIth
great physIcaI duress (terrIbIe coId In wInter, raIn, puddIes, mud, heat In sum-
mer, dust, etc.}. A pIace meant to InstIII !ear and resIgnatIon, but they neIther
gIve up nor gIve In.
They take roundabout routes, sneak across the checkpoInt, or InsIst on tryIng
theIr Iuck head on. Some are caught, theIr IDs are conñscated, and are punIshed
wIth Iong detentIons, but they keep comIng back.
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The checkpoInt gIves expressIon to other modes o! resIstance: armed struggIe
(settIng o!! an expIosIve devIce} and vIoIent struggIe (stonIng a ]erusaIem
munIcIpaI garbage truck}. ThIs IncIudes chIId stone-throwers, though It must be
noted that the Iatter's encounters wIth the army come In waves, usuaIIy a!ter an
actIon taken by IsraeI, such as the assassInatIon o! Hamas Ieader Ahmad YassIn,
the kIIIIng o! CaIandIya Re!ugee Camp resIdent Ara!at IbrahIm Yaaqub whIIe drInk-
Ing hIs mornIng co!!ee, or the constructIon o! a waII around the south-western
sIde o! the camp. The army's reactIon Is IethaI at worst and vIcIous at best: tear
gas, rubber buIIets, IIve ammunItIon. £Ive chIIdren In the camp have been kIIIed
by ID£ (IsraeII De!ense £orces} ñre In the current IntI!ada. 8ut the kIds are not
a!raId. They provoke the soIdIers, approachIng them wIthIn meters, caIIIng to
them In mImIcry, "Come on! Iet's see I! you're a man!"
MImIckIng (In HomI 8habha's sense}, and thus aIso resIstant, Is the behavIor
o! the TanzIm actIvIsts who strut through nearby CaIandIya Re!ugee Camp In ID£
unI!orms, so authentIc-IookIng, that the onIy thIng whIch dIscIoses theIr true
IdentItIes are the bIack masks hIdIng theIr !aces.
And then there are the other kIds, the chewIng-gum and trInket seIIers,
who haI! hustIe haI! IoIter, crossIng the checkpoInt thIs way and that, runnIng
between the soIdIers Iegs, ImItatIng them to theIr !aces, gettIng chased away but
reappearIng tIme and agaIn.
ResIstant are aIso the mockIng expressIons on the !aces o! a group o!
exhausted Iaborers comIng home !rom work, who watch a cIuster o! awkward
equIpment-Iaden soIdIers waddIe IIke ducks back !rom a man-hunt In the nearby
quarry, returnIng empty-handed. Now, at the end o! the day, the Iook on theIr
!aces Is reIaxed, resIIIent.
ResIIIent are the brIbes o!!ered to soIdIers-a phone card, dope, cIgarettes.
ResIIIent are aIso the peddIers, contInuousIy expeIIed, who return to vend the
Iatest !ashIons, !resh produce, or coId re!reshments to passersby.
And no Iess resIstant are the £ord TransIt drIvers who organIze ad hoc to reg-
uIate the mayhem o! the checkpoInt, makIng It possIbIe to !unctIon more or Iess
"normaIIy" In a pIace whose gV^hdcY¼ZigZ Is runnIng Inter!erence In the normaIcy
o! II!e (Rema HammamI o! 8IrzeIt UnIversIty descrIbes the deveIopment o! thIs
In!ormaI system at the Surda checkpoInt north o! RamaIIah}.
ResIstance, though perhaps not that whIch Is vIoIent, Is by and Iarge unorgan-
Ized. It Is measured In Its cumuIatIve e!!ect, and adds up to undermIne the sharp
dIstInctIon between sIdes. It brIngs to mInd MIcheI de Certeau's dIstInctIon between
strategy, whIch Is the domaIn o! the power!uI who possess a pIace and perspectIve
o! theIr own (e.g. a watchtower or the sItes o! a rIHe} and tactIcs, whIch Is the "art
o! the weak," those who are IImIted by the gIvens o! pIace and tIme.
The soIdIer, !or hIs part, Is not onIy exertIng !orce, he Is aIso !ortI!yIng hIm-
seI!. The concrete waIIs, the !ences, the gates, ImprIson hIm as weII. HIs state-
o!-the-art gear Is aIso cumbersome and restrIctIve. HIs eIght hours o! duty
get hIm soaked to the bones on a wInter's day, and cause hIm to stInk to hIgh
heaven under the bIIsterIng sun, somethIng hIs "sub]ects" conñrm by hoIdIng
theIr breath as they pass hIm by. The soIdIer sees hIs IIkeness reHected back to
hIm In two senses: as hIs counterparts In age, cIass, Iook, and as the ob]ects o!
hIs oppressIve actIons. The onIy way to settIe thIs InternaI conHIct Is to deny
and harden; to repress !eeIIngs, to negate a!ñnItIes. 8ut as that whIch has been
denIed tends to do, It IIngers ]ust beneath the sur!ace.
The dIsruptIon o! the bInary aIso has to do wIth the spectrum o! peopIe who
cross CaIandIya. The soIdIer wItnessIng a sIIver-haIred pro!essor !rom 8IrzeIt
pass be!ore hIm, or a RamaIIah pedIatrIcIan wIth hIs medIcaI bag, or a student at
aI-Cuds UnIversIty wearIng the Iatest tIght ]eans, cannot but-due to age, cIass or
Iook-!eeI somewhat In!erIor to them. He has to work hard to restore hIs percep-
tIon o! them as a nondIstInct mass o! "PaIestInIans." TheIr sIgnIñers deconstruct
the great PaIestInIan "monoIIth" In hIs head, evokIng Instead the compIexItIes o!
the IsraeII experIence, wIth whIch he Is aII too !amIIIar.
In Shakepeare's I]ZIZbeZhi, CaIIban-"a savage and de!ormed sIave," says to
hIs master, Prospero, the expeIIed Duke o! MIIan: "You taught me Ianguage, and
my proñt on't / Is I know how to curse. The red pIague rId you! / £or IearnIng me
your Ianguage."
It Is the begInnIng o! the 1)th century, and postcoIonIaI thought must waIt
!or Its predecessor, coIonIaI thought, to sprout, grow, and HourIsh. 8ut CaIIban's
words-a!ter rIddIng them o! theIr EurocentrIc undertones-!ormuIate the power
o! the oppressed; a power at the heart o! whIch IIes, among other thIngs, the
adoptIon o! the oppressor's tooIs so as to undermIne hIm, and the unavoIdabIe
a!ñnIty between oppressor and oppressed that no degree o! denIaI can undermIne.
Prospero's mIght and magIcaI powers, It must be remembered, stemmed !rom
CaIIban's knowIedge.
SInce autumn 2ooa, when the above text was wrItten, a new checkpoInt
was conceIved aIongsIde the oId one. Due to be compIeted In autumn 2ooç, It
wIII contInue to !unctIon as the maIn poInt o! passage between ]erusaIem and
the northern West 8ank. WhIIe the new checkpoInt !ar exceeds Its predecessor
In sIze, mass, and order, InterestIngIy It Is no Iess provIsIonaI In structure and
materIaI. It IInks up to the maze o! !ences and waIIs Intended to "]udaIze" the
area around ]erusaIem by severIng the cIty !rom Its eastern envIrons and annexIng
maxImum Iand and mInImum peopIe. 8Iockade, su!!ocatIon, provIsIonaIIty. We
are doomed, so It seems, to IIve thIs way !or years to come.
2ça
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Exchange
dci]Z^bedgiVcXZd[i]j\h
I=:BDG6A:8DCDBND;68=:8@ED>CI
Rema HammamI
£or aImost three years, !rom March 2oo1 through December 2oo¤, the ñnaI Ieg
o! a commute between 8IrzeIt UnIversIty and RamaIIah, both Iocated ]ust north
o! ]erusaIem, meant a one- to two-kIIometer waIk across the Surda checkpoInt.

Commuters wouId dIsembark !rom transIt vans that ]ammed both ends o! the
no-drIve zone. SkIrtIng rubbIe and concrete bIocks, they trIpped down the vaIIey,
hoIdIng theIr breath as they passed the IsraeII soIdIers, be!ore ñnaIIy trudgIng
up the IncIIne to the vans on the other sIde. Thousands made the waIk every
day. In the mornIng, the How o! !ashIonabIy dressed students on theIr way to
the unIversIty crossed the How o! vIIIagers headIng Into RamaIIah !or work and
the servIces that can onIy be !ound In a cIty. In the a!ternoon, the pattern wouId
repeat In reverse. Re!reshments and grocerIes couId be purchased aIong the way
!rom peddIers or makeshI!t stands caIIed "the duty !ree."
Cn the worst days, trIgger-happy soIdIers suddenIy prohIbIted pedestrIan
tra!ñc, IeavIng students and vIIIagers stranded on the opposIte sIde o! work or
home. More commonIy, soIdIers wouId drop In at the checkpoInt !or a !ew hours
to toy wIth the droves o! waIkIng commuters, stoppIng aII-or a seIect !ew-!or
IntermInabIe IdentIty card and baggage checks. C!ten they wouId "organIze" the
drIvers and peddIers by rammIng theIr vans or stands wIth theIr ]eeps. In those
three years at the Surda checkpoInt, three PaIestInIans were shot to death by the
IsraeII mIIItary, another two dIed In accIdents among the crush o! vans, at Ieast
one man dIed o! a heart attack as he was wheeIed across on a stretcher, two
babIes were born behInd a rubbIe mound, and untoId numbers o! young men were
beaten by soIdIers, o!ten In !uII vIew. No one has counted the numbers In]ured at
the !utIIe demonstratIons staged to cIear the checkpoInt away.
DurIng the same 2oo1-2oo¤ perIod, the UN C!ñce o! the CommIssIoner !or
HumanItarIan A!!aIrs documented the near-constant presence o! more than 6oo
army checkpoInts and roadbIocks strangIIng communItIes throughout the West
8ank.

8ut In the Iast 18 months o! Its exIstence, Surda, o!ten the soIe poInt
o! transIt !or goods and West 8ank cItIzens and enterIng and IeavIng the cIty,
became a strategIc nexus wIthIn thIs Iarger web o! cIosures. Surda aIso became
a magnet !or dIspossessed workers !rom throughout the West 8ank, seekIng to
earn a good IIvIng !rom the thousands o! commuters passIng through the check-
poInt every day.
<:II>C<I=:G:
DurIng the second ^ci^[VYV (!rom 2ooo}, neIther the PaIestInIan AuthorIty nor poIIt-
IcaI groups have provIded the popuIatIon wIth the !rameworks o! mass organIzIng
that were so crucIaI to cIvIc resIstance In the 1¤8)-1¤¤¤ IntI!ada. Instead, the mIII-
tary thrust o! resIstance organIzatIons has prImarIIy condemned the ma]orIty to
the roIe o! audIence. At the same tIme, IsraeI's use o! coIIectIve punIshment durIng
2ooo-2ooa, resuItIng 6o% o! the popuIatIon IIvIng In poverty, has been more totaI,
and more savage. 8ut coIIectIve punIshment gIves rIse to coIIectIve experIence and
meanIng. CheckpoInts, IronIcaIIy, have become the "pubIIc spaces" o! thIs IntI!ada;
It Is at pIaces IIke Surda where most PaIestInIans have a constant and dIrect con-
!rontatIon as members o! the coIIectIve wIth the IsraeII occupatIon. It Is at, and In
reIatIon to, checkpoInts that the socIety has deveIoped new meanIngs o! resIstance
and ad hoc !orms o! cIvIc organIzatIon. The emergent IdeoIogy o! cIvIc resIstance
Is a varIatIon on the oId natIonaIIst theme o! hjbjY, or stead!astness. In the 1¤)os,
hjbjY meant re!usIng to Ieave the Iand despIte the hardshIps o! occupatIon; now
It connotes somethIng more proactIve. Its new meanIng, !ound In the common
re!raIn, "Va"]VnViaVo^bi^hiVb^gg" ("II!e must go on"} Is about resIstIng ImmobII-
Ity, re!usIng to Iet the army's Iockdown o! one's communIty precIude schooI or
work. The coIIectIve memory o! how years o! generaI strIkes durIng the ñrst IntI-
!ada backñred, heIpIng to destroy busInesses and the educatIon o! a generatIon
o! schooIchIIdren, has Ied schooIs, unIversItIes, and workpIaces to adopt "stay-
Ing open" as theIr raIIyIng cry. In so doIng, they heIped estabIIsh the coIIectIveIy
understood, but IndIvIduaIIy achIeved, daIIy resIstance o! sImpIy gettIng there.
CheckpoInts do not mereIy thwart mobIIIty; they aIso create Immense chaos.
It Is not sImpIy that goods cannot reach the market, or students theIr schooIs,
but that the cIrcuIts are shattered through whIch socIaI reIatIons How, whIch
make commerce and educatIon possIbIe. InItIaI attempts to recreate these cIrcuIts
are IndIvIduaI and ad hoc, but over tIme, In!ormaI systems begIn to emerge. In
PaIestIne, In the absence o! mass organIzatIons, networks o! In!ormaI sector
workers have stepped Into the gap. Thus, the unIIkeIy symboIs o! the new stead-
!astness are not "natIonaI InstItutIons," but rather the subproIetarIat £ord van
drIvers, whose semIcrImInaI bravado Is summed up by ubIquItous NIke "No £ear"
stIckers embIazoned on theIr rear wIndshIeIds. DerIded even now as a menace
on the roads, these drIvers exempII!y the uprIsIng's ethIc o! gettIng through any-
thIng, by any means, to anywhere. ThIs same thuggIsh hypermascuIIne subcuIture
has provIded the In!ormaI systems, whIch have made "gettIng there" possIbIe.
ThuggIshness (oVg»Vc^nnV} has become a crucIaI !orce !or everyday resIstance and
organIzIng at checkpoInts-not ]ust to deaI wIth crowds and tra!ñc ]ams but aIso
to deaI wIth the thuggIshness o! soIdIers, gIven Immense operatIonaI Ieeway In
deaIIng wIth the cIvIIIan popuIatIon.
I=J<H6<6>CHI8=6DH
PaIestInIan mass transIt Is domInated by prIvateIy owned £ord vans that can
IegaIIy carry seven passengers and are IIcensed to work on a set route under a
IocaI taxI o!ñce. WIthIn a week o! the Surda roadbIock's appearance, the army
aIso bIocked the two possIbIe detour routes !or vans traveIIng between 8IrzeIt
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and RamaIIah (whIch became known as aI-]awwaI and aI-Mahkama checkpoInts}.
So van drIvers bIazed new traIIs across nearby agrIcuIturaI tracks, but the terraIn
wouId not aIIow !or the creatIon o! a ñnaI detour route Into RamaIIah. The £ords
were !orced to drop o!! and pIck up passengers at whIchever end o! Surda check-
poInt they had reached, Instead o! compIetIng the route. £or months even thIs
system remaIned ad hoc, because the road was o!ten "haI! open," wIth soIdIers
aIIowIng one Iane !or both dIrectIons o! tra!ñc. The massIve tra!ñc ]ams that
ensued ñnaIIy Ied many commuters to waIk through the checkpoInt, rather than
waIt senseIessIy !or hours In a vehIcIe.
The system was In totaI dIsarray. WhIIe regIstered £ords contInued to assembIe
at theIr o!ñcIaI stands at the end o! each route, Independent cowboys were show-
Ing up to spIrIt away the IIcensed drIvers' passengers and IIveIIhoods. The 8IrzeIt
drIvers, the Iargest group o! drIvers In the area, eventuaIIy acquIesced to the new
reaIIty and began to group at the checkpoInt, theIr oId organIzer Abu Ahmad at the
heIm. 8ut the checkpoInt remaIned a IawIess !rontIer. They needed a thug.
ZIad, In hIs Iate ¤os, Is a drIver !rom 8IrzeIt vIIIage. IIke most men hIs age, he
had worked In constructIon InsIde IsraeI untII the permIt system Imposed durIng
the 1¤¤os !orced hIm to Iook !or work cIoser to home. WIth the compensatIon pay
!rom hIs !ormer IsraeII boss, he bought a secondhand, eIght-seat Mercedes and
began to !erry passengers on the 8IrzeIt vIIIage unIversIty IIne. When the road-
bIocks appeared, ZIad seIzed the new sItuatIon and began to work the o!!-road
lVY^h (ArabIc !or "canyon"} and tracks !orged between besIeged vIIIages. It was
dangerous and grueIIng, but the money to be made was !ar better than that on hIs
reguIar route. Then a better opportunIty arrIved. Courted by the 8IrzeIt drIvers to
organIze theIr IIne, ZIad ñrst went to ]aIazun re!ugee camp, ]ust over the hIII !rom
the checkpoInt, to soIIcIt the backIng o! IocaI £atah actIvIsts. WIth theIr heIp and
hIs own brand o! persuasIon, the How o! £ords gaIned some rhythm.
The RamaIIah sIde o! the checkpoInt posed dI!!erent probIems as the number
o! vans had to be Increased. To meet the need, drIvers stepped In, whose IIcensed
routes had been severed eIsewhere. Cn the RamaIIah sIde o! the checkpoInt, the
RamaIIah governor and the munIcIpaIIty was abIe to wIeId some cIout. He appoInted
two organIzers, one !or the vans and another !or prIvate taxIs. Then the check
poInt aI-]awwaI was seaIed, and the drIvers who had been servIng that checkpoInt,
the ma]orIty !rom ]aIazun camp, descended upon the RamaIIah sIde o! Surda. The
new competItIon snarIed tra!ñc and heated tempers. ("You know, In ]aIazun-weII,
we have our own way o! deaIIng wIth thIngs," saId Abu aI-Abed, the aI-]awwaI
organIzer !rom ]aIazun.} EventuaIIy, the governor hammered out a deaI between
the warrIng drIvers, settIng a quota o! vans !rom each vIIIage (but gIvIng the hIghest
quota to ]aIazun} and puttIng the oId organIzer Abu aI-Abed In charge.
ZIad and Abu aI-Abed were abIe to take controI o! eIther sIde o! the Surda
roadbIock because they had tough reputatIons, but aIso because they had IocaI
weIght and backIng (hence the governor's caIcuIated decIsIon and ZIad's quest
!or the rIght support}. The hard-nosed character o! both Is typIcaI !or the cuIture
o! resIstance, whIch has made re!ugee camps the !ront IIne o! each IntI!ada and
produced the coIIectIve abIIIty to ñght and wIn tur! wars wIth neIghborIng com-
munItIes-In thIs case over the IImIted resources o!!ered by a checkpoInt.
2
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<GDLI=>C9JHIGN
CheckpoInts have caused crushIng ]obIessness, yet sImuItaneousIy created the
one growth area o! the economy. £or 1ç,ooo shekeIs (S¤,çoo}, an unempIoyed
youth can buy a used £ord and expIoIt the pubIIc's need !or transportatIon,
unhIndered by the weakened PaIestInIan NatIonaI AuthorIty. A maIn roIe o!
ZIad and Abu aI-Abed was to keep these un!aIr pIayers away, or, as tIme went
on, to aIIow them a smaII quota when extra vans were needed at the end o!
rush hour.
ControIIIng drIvers wIth permIts couId o!ten be more compIIcated. The
Surda checkpoInt bIocked the road at a narrow poInt between a steep hIIIsIde
and a drop to the vaIIey beIow. It was a great chaIIenge to squeeze enough
vans onto eIther sIde o! the checkpoInt to handIe the thousands o! commut-
ers, whIIe at the same tIme aIIowIng the vans to Ioad, turn, and move out
quIckIy wIthout creatIng grIdIock, partIcuIarIy at rush hour. DrIvers were
o!ten tempted to bypass the queue o! up to 1ço vans In order to get theIr turn
sooner and thus make more runs, a practIce descrIbed as "steaIIng a turn."
I! controIIIng the vans was a baIancIng act between beIng tough on drIvers
but keepIng them workIng, copIng wIth the soIdIers was much more tenden-
tIous. Vans and taxIs were !orced Into a constant game o! cat and mouse wIth
army patroIs. CccasIonaIIy, when no soIdIers were In sIght, drIvers needIng
to get theIr cars to the other sIde wouId drIve at breakneck speed through the
rock-strewn openIngs Ie!t !or the excIusIve use o! army ]eeps. Those caught
rIsked beIng beaten or havIng theIr cars smashed. The Iucky ones wouId onIy
have theIr keys and IdentIñcatIon cards conñscated !or the day. The soIdIers
eventuaIIy Iearned that ZIad and Abu aI-Abed were responsIbIe !or organIzIng
the drIvers. "When they wouId take the keys and IDs and Ieave the drIvers
wIthout work, they couIdn't be bothered to Iook !or the owner," commented
ZIad. "So they wouId come and throw [the conñscated Itemsj on me, because
I know aII the drIvers."
It was more omInous !or the organIzers when soIdIers trIed to ImpIIcate
them In the soIdIers' own obsessIon wIth pushIng the drIvers back !rom the
rubbIe mounds that marked the no-drIve zone-conHIctIng wIth the drIvers'
Interest In scoopIng up exhausted pedestrIans. When !aced wIth the soIdIers'
demands that he !orce the drIvers' back, Abu aI-Abed wouId sImpIy dIsappear
!rom the scene. ZIad has a sImIIar story. "A soIdIer caIIed me over and saId
to teII the drIvers to move up. I saId to hIm, 'IIsten, do I work !or you as an
empIoyee?'" The soIdIer conñscated ZIad's ID. "It was wInter and I sat In the
raIn !or three hours. The soIdIer teIIs me, 'Now you've been taught a Iesson.'
I toId hIm, 'NevertheIess, you caII me agaIn, I'm not goIng to answer. It's not
my ]ob.'" 8oth ZIad and Abu aI-Abed pre!erred the soIdIers to go about theIr
busIness dIrectIy.
=JB6CEDL:G
TransportatIon across the no-drIve zone was aIso needed !or goods and !or
peopIe who couIdn't waIk. DurIng the perIod when one Iane was open, trucks
carryIng IsraeII goods to PaIestInIan markets couId get permIts to drIve
26o
l
261
Con!rontatIon
Exchange
through. 8ut even be!ore Surda was !uIIy cIosed to vehIcIes In the summer o!
2oo2, the smaII busInesses, !armers, schooIs, buIIders, traveIers wIth Iuggage, and
unIversIty students returnIng !rom the hoIIdays aII needed a soIutIon. It arrIved In
the !orm o! porters wIth three-wheeIed wooden pushcarts.
Among workers, porterage Is consIdered one step above beggIng. The ma]orIty
o! Iong-term porters workIng In the RamaIIah market come !rom the vIIIages
around Hebron, the poorest area o! the West 8ank, and sIeep at the market
throughout the week. ComparatIveIy, workIng at Surda was a modest step up.
8ut, once agaIn, wIth the cIosure o! aI-]awwaI checkpoInt, guys !rom ]aIazun
showed up wIth carts. The orIgInaI hand!uI o! HebronItes couId not de!end theIr
terrItory agaInst the ñve men !rom ]aIazun, but wIth greater human tra!ñc now
passIng through Surda, there was work enough to go around.
A sampIe o! what porters carrIed across the checkpoInt on one summer
mornIng suggests how crucIaI they were: meat !rom the sIaughterhouse In
8IrzeIt, !resh muIberrIes, packaged !oods !or a supermarket, gIasses and pIates
!or a houseware shop, !abrIc !or a taIIor, Iuggage, wood, cans o! whIte paInt, a
gIass showcase, a stone-cuttIng machIne, a car engIne-not to mentIon the day's
edItIon o! aI-Cuds newspaper. The How o! meat, wood, and vegetabIes Into the
cIty crossIng the stream o! IndustrIaI and consumer goods goIng to the vIIIages
attested to the Interdependence between RamaIIah and Its hInterIand-a reIatIon-
shIp the checkpoInt nearIy shattered. 8ut porters aIso !errIed peopIe across-
chIIdren too smaII to waIk the two kIIometers, yet too Iarge to be carrIed; the
sIck and eIderIy whose wheeIchaIrs couIdn't navIgate the rubbIe; sIx dIaIysIs
patIents !rom the vIIIages; and, on severaI occasIons, peopIe wounded at the
checkpoInt ItseI!. That porters were aIIowed to operate at a number o! checkpoInts
bespeaks the army's sordId IogIc o! permIssIbIe mobIIIty. WheeIs were aII rIght,
as Iong as they weren't motorIzed.
;DJGA:<H
8ut the moraI economy o! the porters, who were reIatIveIy accommodatIng
to newcomers, began to take Its toII. At one poInt, theIr numbers had reached
¤ç. To compensate !or decIInIng Income, they doubIed the !are !rom ñve to ten
shekeIs. When the no-drIve zone doubIed In Iength, they doubIed the rate agaIn.
Commuters and merchants started to compIaIn and the governor Intervened.
£aIIIng Income hIt the marrIed porters hardest; a wooden pushcart cost onIy
6oo shekeIs and too many peopIe were gettIng Into the busIness. Three o! the
oIder marrIed porters !rom ]aIazun decIded to take a chance on the IogIc o!
permIssIbIe mobIIIty and Invested In a horse and carrIage.
Horse-drawn carts had been trIed and turned back by the soIdIers at the aI-
Mahkama checkpoInt, and at ñrst, the same thIng happened at Surda. ShrewdIy,
the porters-cum-carrIage drIvers waIted !or the pIatoon to change, sInce the new
soIdIers wouId be none the wIser. WIth the horse-drawn cart, Moustapha and hIs
partners knew they couId corner the market on the mornIng transport o! sheep
carcasses !rom the 8IrzeIt sIaughterhouse destIned !or butcher shops In RamaIIah.
"The meat needed seven pushcarts. That's )o shekeIs. WIth the horse, we couId
carry It In one Ioad !or 2o shekeIs."
Two months Iater, most o! the oIder marrIed porters were workIng horses and
a number o! !armers !rom nearby vIIIages had aIso moved In. The orIgInaI horse-
men had carrIed mostIy heavy, unmanageabIe Ioads such as buIIdIng materIaIs
and Iarge machInery and had not deepIy damaged the porters' market. 8ut, once
agaIn, Increased numbers Ied to decIInIng Income, thIs tIme on an InItIaI Invest-
ment o! some S1,)oo. It was onIy a matter o! tIme be!ore one unIversaIIy-derIded
carrIage drIver began to carry peopIe, cuttIng deepIy Into the porters' trade.
Then In ]uIy 2oo¤, everyone was swept out o! busIness by the openIng o! the
Surda and EIn Areek checkpoInts-the grand achIevement o! the US-sponsored
"road map." When Surda was cIosed agaIn to tra!ñc ñve weeks Iater, the horsemen
and the porters negotIated an agreement, aIded by the new conñguratIon o! buII-
dozed mounds markIng the no-drIve zone. It was agreed that a customer wouId
be o!!ered the optIon o! crossIng the checkpoInt In a horse-drawn cart wIth other
rIders !or sIx shekeIs, but onIy to traverse the dIstance between the two mounds.
£or ten shekeIs, a customer couId take a pushcart around the mounds, thus mov-
Ing hIs goods aII the way !rom a van on one sIde to a van on the other. The porters
had IIttIe Ieverage to extract thIs deaI; the horsemen's generosIty came !rom the
responsIbIIIty they !eIt towards theIr reIatIves, !rIends, or neIghbors.
6A>B>C6AODC:
In the ñnaI perIod when Surda was the hub o! movement between the north and
south West 8ank, there were roughIy 2ç porters, 18 carrIage drIvers, as many as
aoo vans, and another ¤o smaII taxIs workIng the checkpoInt. In addItIon, there
were the peddIers, whose numbers averaged about ¤o In good weather, and as
many as )o durIng Ramadan. Cn any gIven day, up to çao peopIe were makIng a
IIvIng o!! Surda. That number does not take Into account the servIce sector that
sprang up to !eed and quench the thIrst o! the checkpoInt workers-the co!!ee
vans, cIgarette seIIers, drInk seIIers, kebab stands, and bIacksmIths !or the horses.
ThIs new market was not Iost on the communItIes a!!ected by the checkpoInt.
The Cctober 2oo¤ recIosure hIt them hard, whIIe provIdIng a boon to checkpoInt
workers. "I got sIck o! It," remembers Mousta!a. "The work was goIng weII, but
I was ready to drop It because there wasn't a person passIng who dIdn't say
'ExpIoIter! You're the ones that are keepIng the checkpoInt cIosed.'" Abu aI-Abed
sums up the probIem: "WIth the checkpoInt there was su!!erIng !or everyone,
but you had 1o% beneñtIng and ¤o% IosIng."
The checkpoInt had taken men !rom the margIns and provIded them wIth
pubIIc roIes that were centraI to the socIety's survIvaI. 8ut the checkpoInt
workers, whIIe equaIIy vIctIms o! the sanctIons regIme, had !ound a way to turn
that source o! dIspossessIon Into a IIveIIhood. In addItIon, theIr abIIIty to work
at the checkpoInt was dependent, I! not on the soIdIers' permIssIon, at Ieast
upon theIr IndI!!erence. Porters and van drIvers uItImateIy became caught In a
IImInaI posItIon between the IInes o! oppressor and oppressed, expIoIter and
expIoIted, that were so cIearIy drawn at the checkpoInt.
WhIIe the workers dId not want to cooperate or be seen to be cooperatIng
wIth the soIdIers' dIrty work, at the same tIme, they couId not a!!ord to openIy
con!ront them. In the ñrst 18 months o! the checkpoInt's exIstence, be!ore the
262
l
26¤
Con!rontatIon
Exchange
Iabor In!rastructure had deveIoped, the unIversIty organIzed three Iarge demon-
stratIons agaInst the checkpoInt. Each resuIted In the army sImpIy worsenIng the
exIstIng regIme. StIII, spontaneous demonstratIons were pIanned by students and
young men, whose constant harassment brought them to a breakIng poInt. These
moments o! coIIectIve resIstance created deep dIIemmas !or checkpoInt workers.
HurIed stones and rampagIng soIdIers threatened not onIy bodIes, but vans,
peddIer stands, and stock. The checkpoInt mIght be compIeteIy seaIed-not even
aIIowIng pedestrIans to cross-!or an a!ternoon or even a !ew days. Cn these
days, workers compIaIned that kIds IettIng o!! steam were damagIng the coI-
IectIve Interest. "NothIng Is goIng to happen to the ]eep-It Is protected," noted
ZIad, 8ut "the next thIng you know, the soIdIers are ñrIng buIIets, breakIng more
wIndshIeIds." The cIass dI!!erence between demonstratIng students !rom the
unIversIty, and the subproIetarIat o! van drIvers and porters, accentuated the
Iatter's contentIon that mIddIe cIass kIds, who "do not know how to ñght prop-
erIy anyway," were sImpIy creatIng a mess !or traveIers or the workIng poor.
8ut ZIad's wIIIIngness to sIt In the raIn !or three hours, rather than gIve the
soIdIer rIghts over hIm, attests to the workers' everyday resIstance. C!ten these
were IndIvIduaI con!rontatIons when soIdIers stepped over an InvIsIbIe IIne, o!
what workers saw as permIssIbIe, wIthIn the ruIes o! domInator and domInated.
ExampIes IncIude the heroIc story o! the co!!ee vendor who kept choosIng to Iet
soIdIers destroy hIs stand wIth a ]eep rather than provIde them wIth !ree co!!ee,
or the young van drIver who, !or the sake o! the rest, went and punched a soIdIer
who had cursed theIr mothers. More sIgnIñcant resIstance couId be !ound In Iess
dramatIc, but tenacIous everyday subversIon o! the checkpoInt regIme ItseI!. At
nIght, checkpoInt workers steaIthIIy pushed concrete bIocks a !ew more Inches
apart to make way !or horse carrIages, or trampIed the edges o! new mounds
o! rubbIe so porter carts couId pass. Through need and IngenuIty, In a myrIad
o! ways, they recIaImed the space o! the checkpoInt, !rom beIng a sIte o! pure
oppressIon and brutaIIty, Into one where IIveIIhoods, socIaI II!e, and even socIa-
bIIIty couId be recovered.
1 EdItors note: thIs essay Is a shortened versIon o! the orIgInaI pubIIshed In B^YYaZ:VhiGZedgi 2¤1,
Summer 2ooa. It Is part o! the author's wIder research on the Impact o! checkpoInts; we have
IncIuded It here as IndIcatIve o! the checkpoInt regIme whIch currentIy dIssects aII o! the occupIed
terrItorIes, IncIudIng ]erusaIem.
2 The Caza StrIp was sub]ected to a sImIIar checkpoInt regIme, aIbeIt one spannIng wIder spaces
and not penetratIng the Iarge urban areas In whIch the PaIestInIan AuthorIty operated.
¯·. ·J `ºº.'
|rc|ec| Crenzgecgra||en
viewofurBhirsseenfrov HrHov
viewofHrHov sseenfrov urBhir
"They live crammed together,
you know, all the extended
lamily packed in one house "
Shalom, age 28
"There isn't any
commercial center"
Tsvika, age 28
"Most ol the buildings over there
are empty! l mean, they built more
buildings than they need"
Muhammed, age 28
"And they are still building"
lsmail, age 31
"lt is well organ quality lor rich
people, but the people are not
high class· they get govern·
ment subsidies to buy llats"
Omar, age 2?
"1ews used to get
their cars lixed there
belore the lntilada"
Shalom, age 28
viewofurBhirsseenfrov HrHov
viewofHrHov sseenfrov urBhir
"They live crammed together,
you know, all the extended
lamily packed in one house "
Shalom, age 28
"There isn't any
commercial center"
Tsvika, age 28
"Most ol the buildings over there
are empty! l mean, they built more
buildings than they need"
Muhammed, age 28
"And they are still building"
lsmail, age 31
"lt is well organ quality lor rich
people, but the people are not
high class· they get govern·
ment subsidies to buy llats"
Omar, age 2?
"1ews used to get
their cars lixed there
belore the lntilada"
Shalom, age 28
iew of 3ur Bahir as seen from Har Homa
iew of Har Homa as seen from 3ur Bahir
"lt's all houses stacked up
next to each other. They
don't have roads"
Zev, age 32
"l don't know how many
they are - l don't go there"
Klir, age 31
"This whole area was
a natural lorest once"
Pacheli, age 29
"The lsraeli army has soldiers
camping in the valley"
Omar, age 33
"They have services in the
center ol the neighborhood
and they have everything
they need"
Sami, age 3?
"There are approx. 4,000
people· they will reach
1,000,000!!"
Passem, age 35
"l like this kind ol
architecture. lt is
done well"
Fauzy, age 35
"very rich American 1ews
buy these apartments"
Said, age 22
"lt's all houses stacked up
next to each other. They
don't have roads"
Zev, age 32
"l don't know how many
they are - l don't go there"
Klir, age 31
"This whole area was
a natural lorest once"
Pacheli, age 29
"The lsraeli army has soldiers
camping in the valley"
Omar, age 33
"They have services in the
center ol the neighborhood
and they have everything
they need"
Sami, age 3?
"There are approx. 4,000
people· they will reach
1,000,000!!"
Passem, age 35
"l like this kind ol
architecture. lt is
done well"
Fauzy, age 35
"very rich American 1ews
buy these apartments"
Said, age 22
"l don
they a
"very r
buy th
266 ¦ 267 |ear and /sser||cn
·.'º
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
Res|den|s c| Sur Bah|r descr|be |he|r v|ew
c| |ar |cma
Res|den|s c| |ar |cma descr|be |he|r v|ew
c| Sur Bah|r
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
The gaze acrcss a narrcw va||ev |s |he cn|v
means c| ccn|ac| be|ween mcs| v|||agers and
se|||ers, and bc|h |ar |cma and Sur Bah|r are
|hus par| c| an amb|va|en| and ccmp|ex game
c| h|deandseek. The mcnumen|a| |cr|ress||ke
pcs|ur|ng c| |ar |cma seeks |c |nduce |ear
and respec|, wh||e ||s s|ree|s and pub||c spaces
rema|n she||ered |rcm |he perce|ved hcs|||e sur
rcund|ngs. Sur Bah|r's res|den|s express |he|r
ccn|emp| |cr |he|r ne|ghbcr bv |urn|ng |he|r back
cn |ar |cma, d|scard|ng dcmes||c and bu||d|ng
rubb|e cr d|scarded cars |n |he cpen space as ||
|c spc|| |he v|ew. Camcu||aged |n |he h|||v |erra|n
c| scu|heas| Jerusa|em, evervdav |||e |n |he
v|||age rema|ns she||ered |rcm |he gaze c| |he
se|||er, bu||d|ng |nspec|cr, sc|d|er, cr pc||ceman.
\ºc' ·J |.ºc'
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
268 ¦ 269 |ear and /sser||cn
/reas v|s|b|e |rcm |ar |cma
/reas v|s|b|e |rcm Sur Bah|r
Exemp|arv v|ewpc|n| |n |ar |cma
Exemp|arv v|ewpc|n| |n Sur Bah|r
µr Banlr
1sµr Banlr
3µr Banlr
1sµr Banlr
|ar |o/ a
Jaoal Aoµ Gnnal/
|ar |o/ a
Jaoal Aoµ Gnnal/
3µr Banlr
1sµr Banlr
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
The gaze acrcss a narrcw va||ev |s |he cn|v
means c| ccn|ac| be|ween mcs| v|||agers and
se|||ers, and bc|h |ar |cma and Sur Bah|r are
|hus par| c| an amb|va|en| and ccmp|ex game
c| h|deandseek. The mcnumen|a| |cr|ress||ke
pcs|ur|ng c| |ar |cma seeks |c |nduce |ear
and respec|, wh||e ||s s|ree|s and pub||c spaces
rema|n she||ered |rcm |he perce|ved hcs|||e sur
rcund|ngs. Sur Bah|r's res|den|s express |he|r
ccn|emp| |cr |he|r ne|ghbcur bv |urn|ng |he|r
back cn |ar |cma, d|scard|ng dcmes||c and
bu||d|ng rubb|e cr d|scarded cars |n |he cpen
space as || |c spc|| |he v|ew. Camcu||aged |n |he
h|||v |erra|n c| scu|heas| Jerusa|em, evervdav
|||e |n |he v|||age rema|ns she||ered |rcm |he
gaze c| |he se|||er, bu||d|ng |nspec|cr, sc|d|er
cr pc||ceman.
'·''
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
270 ¦ 271 |ear and /sser||cn
l||um|na|ed m|nare|s
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
J
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
272 ¦ 273 |ear and /sser||cn
Scund |s an cmn|presen| med|um, wh|ch crcss
es phvs|ca| cr men|a| barr|ers c| segrega||cn.
The scundscape c| |ar |cma and Sur Bah|r |us
es bc|h rea||||es |n|c an uncannv and ccmp|ex
whc|e, amp||||ed bv |he echces |n |he narrcw
va||ev. The scund c| |he T\LaaPU (|cudspeaker)
pene|ra|es a| ||mes c| praver |rcm a|| s|des |n|c
|he pr|va|e ||a|s c| |ar |cma. The shcc||ng
range c| |he lsrae|| m||||arv sends echc|ng nc|ses
|hrcugh Sur Bah|r's va||evs and |he scund c|
veh|c|es and heavv ccns|ruc||cn cn bc|h s|des
|crm permanen| backgrcund nc|se. /| n|gh|,
vcung v|||agers |urn cn /rab|c pcp mus|c |u||
vc|ume as |hev cru|se |hrcugh |he ncman's
|and be|ween se|||emen| and v|||age.
Ccns|ruc||cn mach|nes
Vuezz|n
V||||arv shcc||ng range
/rab mus|c (car rad|c)
Cars
The lransfer (disengagemenl) won'l work
Cush Kalif forever
Cush Kalif forever
Keep lhe neighbourhood clean!
^ 1ew does nol evicl a 1ew
^ 1ew does nol evicl a 1ew
Hamas
Falah
The nalion is Cush Kalif
We have love and il will win
Cod Day
We're fed up wilh your corruplion
| am also relaled
Cush Kalif and lhe 3homron
| am also relaled
Cush Kalif and lhe 3homron
Har Homa:
3hmuel's Wall
Fala
1erusalem is lhe capilal of lhe Paleslinian slale,
regardless of who accepls and who refuses
1erusalem is ours, Marlyr Muhammad Eid
Pemeber ^llah
Yassir ^rafal
1erusalem is ours
^nd for lhose who fear ^llah, he prepares a way oul
Whalever blessing you have il's from ^llah
May you be well every year
1erusalem is ours
Hamas
^llah is greal
3haron is here
Hamas
Hamas
There is no Cod bul ^llah
The name and place: Hamas
and lhe Brolherhood
Palesline ^llah is greal
Marlyr Muhamm
Palesline
1erusalem is a bride whose dowry is blood
Hamas - Falah
Lel lhe flags of viclory be raise
Pegards lo every
Dealh lo foreign collaboralors
Falah
* ongralulalions
^llah - Muhammad
^llah is greal
Hamas
1ihad
1erusaelm is ours
Menlion ^llah, praise be lo ^llah
We swear lo follow lhe marlyrs
Keep cleanliness
^llah
Praise be lo ^
^llah
Hamas will r
Clory be lo ^llah
3larl regislerin
Pemember ^llah
Menlion ^
|s
|n lhe blood of w
^llah -
^ lhousand salulalions lo 3heikh ^hmad Yassin
Pamadan is benevolenl
The lransfer (disengagemenl) won'l work
Cush Kalif forever
Cush Kalif forever
Keep lhe neighbourhood clean!
^ 1ew does nol evicl a 1ew
^ 1ew does nol evicl a 1ew
Hamas
Falah
The nalion is Cush Kalif
We have love and il will win
Cod Day
We're fed up wilh your corruplion
| am also relaled
Cush Kalif and lhe 3homron
| am also relaled
Cush Kalif and lhe 3homron
Har Homa:
3hmuel's Wall
The lransfer (disengagemenl) won'l work
Cush Kalif forever
Cush Kalif forever
Keep lhe neighbourhood clean!
^ 1ew does nol evicl a 1ew
^ 1ew does nol evicl a 1ew
Hamas
Falah
The nalion is Cush Kalif
We have love and il will win
Cod Day
We're fed up wilh your corruplion
| am also relaled
Cush Kalif and lhe 3homron
| am also relaled
Cush Kalif and lhe 3homron
Har Homa:
3hmuel's Wall
Fala Fala
1erusalem is lhe capilal of lhe Paleslinian slale,
regardless of who accepls and who refuses
1erusalem is ours, Marlyr Muhammad Eid
Pemeber ^llah
Yassir ^rafal
1erusalem is ours
^nd for lhose who fear ^llah, he prepares a way oul
Whalever blessing you have il's from ^llah
May you be well every year
1erusalem is ours
Hamas
^llah is greal
3haron is here
Hamas
Hamas
There is no Cod bul ^llah
The name and place: Hamas
and lhe Brolherhood
Marlyr Muhamm
Palesline
1erusalem is a bride whose dowry is blood
Hamas - Falah
Lel lhe flags of viclory be raise
Pegards lo every
Dealh lo foreign collaboralors
Falah
* ongralulalions
^llah - Muhammad
^llah is greal
Hamas
1ihad
1erusaelm is ours
Menlion ^llah, praise be lo ^llah
We swear lo follow lhe marlyrs
Keep cleanliness
^llah
Praise be lo ^
^llah
Hamas will r
Clory be lo ^llah
3larl regislerin
Pemember ^llah
Menlion ^
|s
|n lhe blood of w
^llah -
^ lhousand salulalions lo 3heikh ^hmad Yassin
1erusalem is lhe capilal of lhe Paleslinian slale,
regardless of who accepls and who refuses
1erusalem is ours, Marlyr Muhammad Eid
Pemeber ^llah
Yassir ^rafal
1erusalem is ours
^nd for lhose who fear ^llah, he prepares a way oul
Whalever blessing you have il's from ^llah
May you be well every year
1erusalem is ours
Hamas
^llah is greal
3haron is here
Hamas
Hamas
There is no Cod bul ^llah
The name and place: Hamas
and lhe Brolherhood
Palesline ^llah is greal Palesline ^llah is greal
Marlyr Muhamm
Palesline
1erusalem is a bride whose dowry is blood
Hamas - Falah
Lel lhe flags of viclory be raise
Pegards lo every
Dealh lo foreign collaboralors
Falah
* ongralulalions
^llah - Muhammad
^llah is greal
Hamas
1ihad
1erusaelm is ours
Menlion ^llah, praise be lo ^llah
We swear lo follow lhe marlyrs
Keep cleanliness
^llah
Praise be lo ^
^llah
Hamas will r
Clory be lo ^llah
3larl regislerin
Pemember ^llah
Menlion ^
|s
|n lhe blood of w
^llah -
^ lhousand salulalions lo 3heikh ^hmad Yassin
Pamadan is benevolenl Pamadan is benevolenl
ah swears revenge
mad Eid, 1ihad
ed on lop of our village houses
y marlyr and prisoner in lhe occupier's prisons - Falah
Clory be lo ^llah
Clory be lo ^llah
h is grealesl
Welcome
|slamic 1ihad
^llah
h is greal
respond lo lhe assasinalion of 3heikh ^hmad Yassin
ng lo ensure your voling righls
Pamadan is benevolenl
^llah ^llah
Your good lidings, oh ^qsa, will appear in blood
|n lhe name of ^llah lhe beneficenl and mosl merciful
|n lhe name of ^llah lhe mosl beneficenl,
lhe mosl merciful
Peace and blessings on lhe prophel
Hamas
|f silence is inevilable, lel's be
silenl and lel lhe bullel lalk -
Falah movemenl
lamic resislance Hamas
who wielded knives
Welcome
The slreel war has begun againsl you collaboralors - Falah
Tormenl upon collaboralors
Muhammad 1erusalem is ours
ah swears revenge ah swears revenge
mad Eid, 1ihad
ed on lop of our village houses
y marlyr and prisoner in lhe occupier's prisons - Falah
Clory be lo ^llah
Clory be lo ^llah
h is grealesl
Welcome
|slamic 1ihad
^llah
h is greal
respond lo lhe assasinalion of 3heikh ^hmad Yassin
ng lo ensure your voling righls
Pamadan is benevolenl
^llah ^llah
Your good lidings, oh ^qsa, will appear in blood
|n lhe name of ^llah lhe beneficenl and mosl merciful
|n lhe name of ^llah lhe mosl beneficenl,
lhe mosl merciful
Peace and blessings on lhe prophel
Hamas
|f silence is inevilable, lel's be
silenl and lel lhe bullel lalk -
Falah movemenl
lamic resislance Hamas
who wielded knives
Welcome
The slreel war has begun againsl you collaboralors - Falah
Tormenl upon collaboralors
Muhammad 1erusalem is ours
mad Eid, 1ihad
ed on lop of our village houses
y marlyr and prisoner in lhe occupier's prisons - Falah
Clory be lo ^llah
Clory be lo ^llah
h is grealesl
Welcome
|slamic 1ihad
^llah
h is greal
respond lo lhe assasinalion of 3heikh ^hmad Yassin
ng lo ensure your voling righls
Pamadan is benevolenl
^llah ^llah
Your good lidings, oh ^qsa, will appear in blood
|n lhe name of ^llah lhe beneficenl and mosl merciful
|n lhe name of ^llah lhe mosl beneficenl,
lhe mosl merciful
Peace and blessings on lhe prophel
Hamas
|f silence is inevilable, lel's be
silenl and lel lhe bullel lalk -
Falah movemenl
lamic resislance Hamas
who wielded knives
Welcome
The slreel war has begun againsl you collaboralors - Falah
Tormenl upon collaboralors
Muhammad 1erusalem is ours
Palesline
Har Hom
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
|c||||cs and evervdav |||e are |used as pc||||ca|
gra|||||, s||ckers and pcs|ers are spraved cr g|ued
|n pub||c spaces. 0ec|ara||cns and messages,
whe|her v|c|en|, aggress|ve, rac|s|, de||an|, cr
even scep||ca|, are wr|||en |n |ebrew cr /rab|c,
a|m|ng |c ra||v |he |cca| pcpu|a||cn. 1h||e gra|||||
d|sp|aved |n Sur Bah|r |s predcm|na|e|v a|med
aga|ns| |he lsrae|| cccupa||cn and |n suppcr| c|
a |a|es||n|an cap||a| |n Jerusa|em, gra||||| |n |ar
|cma |arge|v de|ends |he a|ms c| |he lsrae||
se|||er mcvemen|.
´.·'''
. ¯·'. =·. =· 2JJ')
274 ¦ 275 |ear and /sser||cn
lsrae|| gra|||||
|a|es||n|an gra|||||
FLOODLlGHT
lllumination ol open
areas at night
vlDEO CONTPOL
FLYlNG CHECKPOlNTS
Periodic control ol
Palestinian trallic
SOLDlEPS, POLlCE,
SECÜPlTY COMPANlES
Stationary control ol public
spaces and surroundings
POLlCE PATPOLS
Frequent police
patrols along major
roads
MOBlLE PHONES
Passing·on warnings ol
patrols or road closures
MOSOÜES AND
COFFEE HOÜSES
Permanent inlormation
exchange
SHOP KEEPEP
lnlormal stationary
observers
lSPAELl PATPOL POÜTE
lSPAELl PATPOL POÜTE
PEDESTPlANS
FLOODLlGHT
lllumination ol open
areas at night
vlDEO CONTPOL
FLYlNG CHECKPOlNTS
Periodic control ol
Palestinian trallic
SOLDlEPS, POLlCE,
SECÜPlTY COMPANlES
Stationary control ol public
spaces and surroundings
POLlCE PATPOLS
Frequent police
patrols along major
roads
MOBlLE PHONES
Passing·on warnings ol
patrols or road closures
MOSOÜES AND
COFFEE HOÜSES
Permanent inlormation
exchange
SHOP KEEPEP
lnlormal stationary
observers
lSPAELl PATPOL POÜTE
lSPAELl PATPOL POÜTE
PEDESTPlANS
Feorµarv22,2004
LloertvBellPark
7oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Aµgµst19,2003
Cafe|lllel,GermanColonv
6oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Feorµarv8,2002
Fast1alolotoromenade
1staooedtodeatn
Varcn21,2002
KlngGeorge3treet
2oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Varcn9,2002
VomentCafe
Aza Ben-Valmon3treets
10oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Jµlv31,2002
|eorewUnlversltv
Voµnt3cooµs
5oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Octooer17,2001
|vatt|otel
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Varcn2,2002
BeltYlsraelnelgnoornood
11oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Novemoer9,2005
FastJerµsalem
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Vav9,2004
AoµDls,Al-Oµdsdlstrlct
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Jµne6,2004
OalandlvaCneckoolnt
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Decemoer9,2003
Atarot,neartnealroort
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
3eotemoer14,2003
Atarot,alroortarea
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Feorµarv22,2004
LloertvBellPark
7oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Aµgµst19,2003
Cafe|lllel,GermanColonv
6oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Feorµarv8,2002
Fast1alolotoromenade
1staooedtodeatn
Varcn21,2002
KlngGeorge3treet
2oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Varcn9,2002
VomentCafe
Aza Ben-Valmon3treets
10oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Jµlv31,2002
|eorewUnlversltv
Voµnt3cooµs
5oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Octooer17,2001
|vatt|otel
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Varcn2,2002
BeltYlsraelnelgnoornood
11oersonskllledovsµlcldeoomolng
Novemoer9,2005
FastJerµsalem
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Vav9,2004
AoµDls,Al-Oµdsdlstrlct
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Jµne6,2004
OalandlvaCneckoolnt
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
Decemoer9,2003
Atarot,neartnealroort
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
3eotemoer14,2003
Atarot,alroortarea
1oersonkllledovgµnflre
0 100 200 300 400 500 me|ers
The mcs| drama||c c|ashes c| |he lsrae|||a|es
||n|an ccn|||c| have un|c|ded |n |he urban rea|m,
wh|ch has rad|ca||v changed |he prcduc||cn and
use c| urban space cn bc|h s|des. Be || |hrcugh
lsrae|| m||||arv |ncurs|cns cr |arge|ed m|ss||e
assass|na||cns, cr |hrcugh |a|es||n|an su|c|de
a||acks, |he ccn|||c| can erup| a| anv mcmen|
anvwhere, c|a|m|ng |he ||ves c| c|v|||an bvs|anders.
Omn|presen| |ear has |ed |c |he |n|rcduc||cn c|
|argesca|e secur||v measures |n lsrae|| c|||es and
cu|s|de everv pub||c area cr |ns|||u||cn. |a|es||n
|ans ||ve |n pers|s|en| |ear c| |a|||ng un|n|ended
v|c||m |c lsrae|| m||||arv cpera||cns cr se|||er
a||acks. S|nce |he beg|nn|ng c| |he a|/qsa
ln|||ada, v|c|en| dea|hs |nc|ude.
3,345 |a|es||n|ans k|||ed bv lsrae|| secur||v |crces,
44 |a|es||n|ans k|||ed bv lsrae|| c|v|||ans,
683 lsrae|| c|v|||ans k|||ed bv |a|es||n|ans c| wh|ch
228 (ma|n|v se|||ers) were k|||ed |n |he cccup|ed
|err||cr|es and 455 became v|c||ms c| su|c|de
a||acks |n lsrae|.
309 members c| |he lsrae|| secur||v |crces were
k|||ed |n c|ashes w||h |a|es||n|ans.
`''··º
|.º·' 2JJJ2JJ')
278 ¦ 279 |ear and /sser||cn
lsrae|| casua|||es
|a|es||n|an casua|||es
Ccncep| and ccpvr|gh|
T|m R|en|e|s, |h|||pp V|sse|w||z
Scurces
B'|se|em The lsrae|| ln|crma||cn Cen|er |cr |uman R|gh|s |n
|he Occup|ed Terr||cr|es, 0ZYHLSPJP]PSPHUZRPSSLKI`7HSLZ[PUPHUZPU
0ZYHLS, h||p.//www.b|se|em.crg/eng||sh/s|a||s||cs/Casua|||es.asp
(Jerusa|em, 2006).
B'|se|em The lsrae|| ln|crma||cn Cen|er |cr |uman R|gh|s |n |he
Occup|ed Terr||cr|es, 7HSLZ[PUPHUZRPSSLKI`0ZYHLSPZLJ\YP[`MVYJLZ
PU[OL6JJ\WPLK;LYYP[VYPLZ, h||p.//www.b|se|em.crg/eng||sh/s|a
||s||cs/Casua|||es.asp (Jerusa|em, 2006).
|rc|ec| Crenzgecgra||en (ln|erna||cna| |eace and Cccpera||cn
Cen|er l|CC Jerusa|em, Beza|e| /cademv c| /r| and 0es|gn Jeru
sa|em, 0n|vers||v c| |he /r|s Ber||n, ET| Sw|ss |edera| lns|||u|e
c| Technc|cgv Zur|ch), ;YPSH[LYHS:[\KLU[>VYRZOVWZ (Jerusa|em,
20032005).

*
6
5
-
9
6
5
;
(
;
0
6
5
,
?
*
/
(
5
.
,
In Jerusa|em, space |s d|v|ded |ntc that cf °the se|f"
and °the cther," °us" and °them," resu|t|ng |n |s|ands
cf cu|tura| ccnta|nment and scc|a| exc|us|cn. wher-
ever pcss|b|e, the crcss|ng cf ethn|ca||y def|ned
bcundar|es |s avc|ded. ßut a ccmp|ete phys|ca| d|s-
engagement |s equa||y |mpcss|b|e: areas cf ccntact
and entang|ement |nc|ude |nvc|untary enccunters
between Pa|est|n|ans and Israe|| sc|d|ers at m|||-
tary checkpc|nts, but a|sc mcre bana| meet|ngs.
Dppcrtun|sm suppcrts a frag||e web cf eccncm|c
re|at|cnsh|ps between Jews and Arabs. 1he prcx|m-
|ty cf ccntrast|ng scc|a| cu|tures and rescurces, the
asynchrcn|sm cf Arab and Jew|sh re||g|cus hc||days,
as we|| as the ccmparat|ve sa|ary gap have created
eccncm|c pcss|b|||t|es fcr bcth. Desp|te a backdrcp
cf fear, hate, and susp|c|cn, there are casua| and
|nccnsp|cucus enccunters at wcrk, |n hcsp|ta|s,
cr shcpp|ng ma||s, wh|ch cffer the cppcrtun|ty tc
escape pc||t|ca| pcstur|ng and dec|arat|cns abcut a
un|ted/cccup|ed Jerusa|em.
d[[ZVg!XdciVXi!ZciVc\aZbZci
IrIt Rogo!!
8orders, to paraphrase ]acques DerrIda, serve to estabIIsh the IImIts o! the pos-
sIbIe. There!ore, whIIe borders that have been expanded, stretched, revIsed, or
Interrupted may produce a temporary sense o! satIsñed achIevement wIth regard
to an expanded ñeId o! possIbIIItIes, In reaIIty they contInue to estabIIsh those
IImIts, aIbeIt behInd sIIghtIy redrawn IInes. Every actIvIty surrounded by a border-
IIne, be It natIonaI IdentIty or dIscIpIInary IdentIñcatIon, puts a paraIIeI IogIc o!
dIvIsIon and contaInment Into practIce. There has been much cuIturaI, artIstIc,
and theoretIcaI productIon surroundIng borders-most o! It !ocused on tryIng to
InhabIt the border In a way that re!uses dIvIsIons between Its mythIcaI status
and Its pragmatIc e!!ects, whIch, o! course, characterIze the actIvIty o! every
border. However, !or aII Its pIay!uIness and strategIc Irreverence, none o! thIs
work has been abIe to eradIcate the IImItIng !unctIon o! the border, to unraveI It
conceptuaIIy and destIgmatIze Its cuIturaI and cIvIc a!!ects.
In thInkIng about borders, It seems Important to expIore an array o! terms and
concepts that work agaInst the dIvIsIon and contaInment Inherent to any border-
IIne, terms through whIch we mIght go beyond the xenophobIc or provIncIaI to
toIerance and acceptance. I wouId much rather expIore the possIbIIItIes contaIned
In thInkIng o! ourseIves as caught up In an endIess process o! "contact," mak-
Ing It dI!ñcuIt to reproduce the hIstorIcaI perIodIzatIons or cuIturaI/geographIcaI
dIvIsIons, whIch, when breached, dramatIze InsuIar poIItIcs In order to promote a
sense o! threat. SImpIe hIstorIcIzIng o!ten procIaIms that thIs or that group arrIved
amongst us at thIs or that hIstorIcaI moment as a dIrect resuIt o! a rupture, con-
HIct, or dIsaster. Thus, the InHuence o! thIs cuIture on that cuIture Is dated !rom
the moment a partIcuIar and dramatIc encounter took pIace, and we are provIded
wIth a ]ustIñcatIon or a IegItImIzIng narratIve !or Its occurrence; we are assured
that It onIy happened because somethIng extraordInary took pIace.
ConverseIy, we mIght say that we have aIways been In contact, aIways been
deepIy entangIed; that Mar Thomas was convertIng HIndus to ChrIstIanIty on the
MaIabar Coast In the ñ!th century, that Arab navIgators were chartIng the IndIan
Ccean In the eIgth century, that spIces and dIseases and Ianguages were shIpped
back and !orth, to and !rom Europe !rom the 12th century onward, that traveIers
have aIways toId taIes o! !araway pIaces, that the beat o! A!rIcan drums under-
scored worId musIc Iong be!ore we had numbers to name our centurIes. It wouId
seem that the perIodIzatIons, whIch counter pose more recent arrIvaIs In reIatIon
28o
l
281
Con!rontatIon
Exchange
to natIve popuIatIons who have seemIngIy "aIways been there," aIm to constItute
a rupture or a surprIse, and that these, In turn, aIm to ensure that we perceIve
contact as paIn!uI, as an InvasIon that wIII somehow shI!t the terms o! our IIves.
8DCI68I
I do not have a workIng deñnItIon !or "contact." What I do have are expIora-
tIve Ideas about why someone IIke me mIght be attracted to the concept In Its
dI!!erent !ormuIatIons, as weII as to the possIbIIItIes It un!oIds. In re!errIng to
myseI!, It Is not my geographIcaI bIography that Is o! reIevance, but rather my
InteIIectuaI one, !or what Interests me are anaIytIcaI modeIs In whIch a condItIon
In the worId and the condItIons In our InteIIectuaI work coIIIde and dance. That
Is, the breachIng o! boundarIes occurs spatIaIIy, In the reaI spaces o! our worId,
as weII as In the cognItIve procedures and possIbIIItIes currentIy open to us. ThIs
expIoratIon wIII take the !orm o! a cIrcuItous route that shI!ts !rom notIons o!
"contact" to notIons o! "entangIement" to notIons o! the "terrorIstIc." Each o!
these concepts wIII take the !orm o! a breach In the boundarIes o! dIvIsIon and
contaInment.
We aII know there are vast arrays o! xenophobIc pre]udIces that re!use to
acknowIedge that Westerners-myseI! IncIuded-are not the arbIters and Inventors
o! eIther progress or modernIty, but sImpIy those who have the power to produce
themseIves as such. The counterpart o! thIs !ear!uI bInary o! "us" and "them,"
I.e. the desIre to be IncIusIve and weIcomIng, to romantIcaIIy embrace the dI!!er-
ences that arIse In our mIdst, Is equaIIy probIematIc In Its Iack o! reHexIvIty, !or It
assumes Western cuIture Is InñnIteIy eIastIc and expandabIe. 8ut contrary to Its
own seI! perceptIon as revIsIonary (here I wouId IncIude both cuIturaI InstItutIons
and anaIytIcaI crItIques}, the endIessIy expansIve IncIusIveness practIced by so
many Westerners Is actuaIIy premIsed on an uncrItIcaI notIon o! Western pIenItude,
on the untroubIed abIIIty to sImpIy add "others" wIthout IosIng a bIt o! one's "seI!,"
on the romantIc beIIe! that we can sImpIy add other hIstorIes to the narratIves o!
modernIsm and Its varIous crIses and coIIapses over the past ¤o years.
What Is so dIsturbIng about thIs addItIve modeI, besIdes the obvIous !act that
It Ignores the conHIct between hegemonIc and margInaIIzed cuItures, Is that It
Ieaves Intact the IIIusIon o! expansIve pIenItude at the heart o! the West's cuIturaI
pro]ect. There!ore, It assumes the possIbIIIty o! change wIthout Ioss, wIthout
aIteratIon, wIthout remappIng the navIgatIonaI prIncIpIes by whIch we have tradI-
tIonaIIy made our way through the cuIturaI terraIn.
Contact mIght !acIIItate gettIng around the bInary o! hostIIe and vIoIent
re!usaI to accept cuIturaI dI!!erence on the one hand, and Its overenthusIastIc
counterpart o! naIve embrace on the other. In thIs context, I empIoy the term
!oIIowIng Mary IouIse Pratt, who coIned the term "contact zones" to descrIbe
"socIaI spaces where dIsparate cuItures meet, cIash and grappIe wIth each other,
o!ten In hIghIy asymmetrIcaI reIatIons o! domInatIon and subordInatIon; coIonI-
aIIsm, sIavery, pIantatIon cuIture etc" (Pratt, 1¤¤2:6-)}. "Contact zone" Is adapted
!rom the IInguIstIcs' notIon o! "contact Ianguage," whIch re!ers to the ImprovIsed
Ianguages that deveIop among speakers o! dI!!erent natIve tongues who need
to communIcate wIth one another contInuousIy, usuaIIy In the context o! trade.
InItIaIIy caIIed "pIdgIn," these Ianguages came to be caIIed "CreoIe" when they
deveIoped natIve speakers o! theIr own-those born Into the hybrId tongue. IIke
"contact zone" socIetIes, such Ianguages were commonIy regarded In the West
as chaotIc, barbarous, and unstructured.
"Contact zone" Is an attempt to Invoke the spatIaI and temporaI copresence o!
sub]ects, prevIousIy separated by geographIc and hIstorIcaI dIs]uncture, whose
categorIes now Intercept. "Contact" emphasIzes "the InteractIve and ImprovI-
satIonaI dImensIons o! coIonIaI encounters whIch were prevIousIy descrIbed by
modeIs o! subordInatIon and domInatIon. It aIIows !or copresence, InteractIon,
InterIockIng understandIngs and practIces o!ten wIthIn radIcaIIy asymmetrIcaI
reIatIons o! power" (Pratt, 1¤¤2:6-)}. "Contact" has come to mean a !usIon o! hIgh
and Iow, here and there-In whIch It Is no Ionger possIbIe to separate out the
strands, or estabIIsh tradItIonaI hIerarchIes.

;JH:9I:GG>IDG>:H
An earIy exampIe o! !used terrItorIes operatIng as much psychIcaIIy as terrItorIaIIy
are PaIestIne-EY (EY stands !or Eretz YIsraeI, the Iand o! IsraeI}. ThIs was the
Iast and perhaps aIso the ñrst tIme the two entItIes were hyphenated In the post-
aI desIgnatIon o! the 8rItIsh Mandate. The 8rItIsh EmpIre, stretched to Its IImIts
by the Immense e!!orts o! WorId War II, started the decoIonIzatIon process wIth
Its wIthdrawaI !rom IndIa, but was essentIaIIy at a Ioss as to what to do wIth thIs
partIcuIar set o! natIves: on the one hand, ZIonIst zeaIots !ueIIed by modernIst
vIsIons o! socIaIIst natIon-buIIdIng coupIed wIth re!ugees/survIvors !rom the
war In Europe, and on the other hand, a regIonaI peopIe whose natIonaI IdentIty
spanned !rom Creater SyrIa to Egypt.
8rItaIn was, at the tIme, a new InterIoper In the Eastern MedIterranean,
havIng brought to an end an Cttoman ruIe o! some aoo years, a ruIe saId to have
decIIned the regIon Into benIgn negIect, treatIng It as nothIng more than provInce
wIth some Important trade routes and a !ew hoIy sItes, but wIth not much eIse
o! Interest-certaInIy not as a source o! revenue, or technoIogIcaI InnovatIon, etc.
ThIs perceIved state o! stagnatIon has been crItIcaIIy revIsIted by Cttoman schoIars
as a EurocentrIc depIctIon o! "CrIentaI IazIness" to ]ustI!y the coIonIaI takeover
o! the MIddIe East. NevertheIess, the 8rItIsh Mandate staged thIs conquest as a
"modern" order repIacIng a "premodern" one.
The moment I am re!errIng to, Is a moment In whIch everythIng was comIng
Into beIng, a DeIeuzIan "becomIng" In whIch an empIre was deñned as modern, a
PaIestInIan peopIe came Into poIItIcaI !ormatIon, and a ZIonIst state was con]ured
Into reaIIty. IookIng back !rom the 21st century, none o! the above are entItIes to
be vIewed wIth nostaIgIc, except perhaps the hyphen between the words PaIestI-
na-EY. That hyphen stands !or the moment when con!used 8rItIsh poIIcy aIIowed
!or a !usIon-at the IeveI o! a IInguIstIc sIgn-o! these two entItIes. In hIndsIght, It
stands !or that whIch Edward SaId had Iong caIIed !or: a secuIar bInatIonaI state
In an area InhabIted by both peopIes. Instead, we have an ongoIng war between
two concepts: borders estabIIshed and reestabIIshed daIIy by an exIstIng state,
and ambIent !ear mobIIIzed by an aspIrIng state, In order to counter these bor-
ders' cIaIms to ImmutabIIIty.
282
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Con!rontatIon
Exchange
What Is It, then, that re!uses and denIes the IegItImacy o! "contact," as both
theory and condItIon o! entangIed IIved reIatIons? What provIdes the stoppages
and bIockages that keep "contact" !rom comIng Into beIng? CbvIousIy, borders
and boundarIes are hIgh on the IIst o! the operatIonaI IogIcs we must counter, In
order to produce "contact" as our IIved reaIIty.
6B7>:CI;:6G
£rom Its InceptIon as a state, IsraeI has InsIsted on estabIIshIng ItseI! wIthIn
boundarIes, namIng them, movIng them, negotIatIng In the name o! borders that
one !orgets !rom one week to the next. IsraeII pubIIc rhetorIc Is IncuIcated wIth
an endIess array o! borders that have become the haIImark o! border hysterIa.
These state borders aIso serve as a IIne o! dIvIsIon between so-caIIed "IegaIIty"
and "IIIegaIIty," and thus produce a terrorIstIc breach-an act whIch punctures
the sacred sphere o! the Iaw, and Is there!ore posItIoned outsIde o! It as "out-
Iawed." In turn, the State o! IsraeI as an aggressIve occupyIng power becomes
the wouId-be vIctIm o! IncursIons Into Its seI!-procIaImed spatIaI IntegrIty.
In a sItuatIon where !ears can no Ionger be contaIned to borders, borders
themseIves become !ear; not that whIch contaIns It, guards agaInst It, segregates
Its aggregate components-but the materIaI o! !ear ItseI!. In pIaces o! extreme
conHIct, borders are reconstItuted daIIy. ReHectIng yesterday's agreements or
good wIII, they move wIth astonIshIng speed at the ñrst sIghtIng o! that whIch
needs contaInIng at a moment's notIce. 8orders are movabIe !easts o! !ear, and
IncreasIngIy Impotent e!!orts are made at stavIng o!! that !ear by armIng, !or-
tI!yIng, and ñxIng borders. As ]ean Iuc Nancy wrItes, "nowhere then Is there
war and everywhere there Is tearIng apart, crumpIIng down, cIvIIIzed vIoIence
and the brutaIItIes that are mere carIcatures o! ancIent, sacred vIoIence. War Is
nowhere and everywhere, reIated to any end wIthout any Ionger beIng reIated to
ItseI! as supreme end" (Nancy, 2ooo:1o8}.
I:GGDG>HI>8
At present, It seems Important to InsIst on boundary-!ree entangIements In
whIch we cannot spIIt Into orIgIns and hybrIds, but rather begIn to understand
that we have aIways been part o! a per!ormatIve mIxIng. Those who have studIed
decoIonIzatIon, antI-coIonIzatIon, and transnatIonaI mIgratIon know that the
hIstory o! the terrorIstIc weII precedes the abrupt "break" the UnIted States and
Its aIIIes have trIed to create In the a!termath o! ¤/11. There!ore, the ñnaI notIon I
want to Invoke In a theoretIcaI attempt to provIde possIbIIItIes !or unthInkIng the
IogIc o! boundarIes, dIvIsIon, and contaInment, Is the notIon o! the "unbounded."
ThIs Is reIated to the notIon o! ambIent !ear and the !act that borders cannot
do aII that they are mobIIIzed !or. The terrorIstIc, beIng neIther an act o! terror-
Ism nor the "war on terrorIsm," constItutes a breach In the domInant-whose
own vIoIence Is masked by a set o! IntrIcate and artIcuIate IogIcs that operate
In the name o! "!reedom," "democracy," "gIobaIIzatIon," etc. The terrorIstIc can
be thought o! not as a serIes o! vIoIent acts, not as a moment o! rupture or the
artIcuIatIon o! dIsen!ranchIsement, but as the possIbIe productIon o! a breach
that mIght aIIow !or a counter IogIc to emerge.
L6AAE6E:G;G6<B:CIH
The Inadequacy o! borders at restraInIng or stavIng o!! the new !orms o! mobIIe
threat currentIy termed "terrorIsm," has become gIarIngIy obvIous In the wake
o! recent "terrorIstIc" acts In varIous parts o! the worId. The aIm o! terrorIsm,
argues NIkos PapastergIadIs, Is "to dIsperse !ear Into the whoIe envIronment: to
make anxIety ubIquItous and unIocatabIe" (PapastergIadIs, 2oo¤:2-¤}. A!ter ¤/11, !ear
o! the Cther couId not be contaIned wIthIn a sIngIe terrItorIaI entIty or conñned
to a pIace o! orIgIn. £ear was ambIent, and InItIaIIy the war was not to be !ought
agaInst an enemy wIth a conventIonaI army, but agaInst the concept o! terror.
The orIgInaI AmerIcan code name !or the battIe was "CperatIon InñnIte ]ustIce,"
Iater substItuted to "EndurIng £reedom" because as MusIIm cIerIcs poInted out,
onIy Cod couId execute InñnIte ]ustIce. The boundIessness o! the "war on terror-
Ism" had chIIIIng ImpIIcatIons, not onIy !or the ambIguItIes o! pIace and IdentIty
In gIobaI poIItIcs, but because a worId wIth InñnIte terror ImpIIes that vIgIIance
and war wIII never end.
At the end o! the con!erence "CItIes o! CoIIIsIon" !or whIch thIs paper was
dra!ted In 2ooa, a!ter severaI days In West ]erusaIem, I vIsIted RamaIIah, where
the casuaI presence o! posters, produced IargeIy by the aI-Aqsa Martyrs' 8rIgades,
!unctIon IIke an urban waII paper o! terrorIstIc detrItus. The saturated presence
o! these posters struck me as one o! those moments that transIate the grandI-
osIty evoked by the word "terrorIsm" to mInute gestures o! engagIng the pos-
sIbIe, whIch I thInk o! as "potentIaIIty" (Agamben, 1¤¤¤:1))-18a}. In "potentIaIIty"
we are poIsed on the cusp o! "I Can/I Cannot," suspended between the possIbIe
and the ImpossIbIe wIthout reachIng an Impasse. Here, !ear Is transIated Into
muItIdImensIonaI daIIy reaIIty, !ar !rom the rhetorIcaI bombast that has constI-
tuted Western poIItIcs sInce ¤/11. WIthIn thIs spatIaI !ramIng, the murderous
IntentIons attrIbuted to the gestures and messages that appear on those post-
ers, become, once they are transIated back Into context, the everyday Ianguage
o! resIstance. As In "potentIaIIty," the gesture's meanIng Is not dependent on
Its outcome, but rather on Its drIve. Instead o! the spatIaI poIarIzatIon o! bor-
ders, we ñnd on RamaIIah's streets the spatIaI compIexIty o! muItI!unctIonaIIty,
a space that Is at once cIvIc, mobIIIzed, and commercIaI; the space o! poIItIcaI
entangIement, In whIch the IegaI and IIIegaI cohabItate.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
]anet Abu-Iughod, 7Z[dgZ:jgdeZVc=Z\Zbdcn/I]ZLdgaYHnhiZb&'*%"&(*%69 (Cx!ord UnIversIty
Press, 1¤¤1}.
CIorgIo Agamben, "Cn PotentIaIIty," In EdiZci^Va^i^Zh/8daaZXiZY:hhVnh^cE]^adhde]n (Stan!ord
UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤¤}.
]erry H. 8entIey, DaYLdgaY:cXdjciZgh/8gdhh8jaijgVa8dciVXihVcY:mX]Vc\Zh^cEgZ"BdYZgcI^bZh
(Cx!ord UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤¤}.
Mary IouIse Pratt, >beZg^Va:nZh/IgVkZaLg^i^c\VcYIgVch8jaijgVi^dc (Iondon and New York:
RoutIede, 1¤¤2}.
]ean Iuc Nancy, 7Z^c\H^c\jaVgEajgVa, (Stan!ord UnIversIty Press, 2ooo}.
NIkos PapastergIadIs, "AmbIent £ears and the New AuthorItarIanIsm" (unpubIIshed Iecture, 2oo¤,
courtesy o! the author}.
28a
l
28ç
Con!rontatIon
Exchange
i]Zhd[iZgh^YZd[Xdaa^h^dc
Yaakov Carb
I was drIvIng wIth SamIr, a PaIestInIan taxI drIver !rom East ]erusaIem, past a
smaII !amIIy hoteI In West ]erusaIem, whose ad hoc synagogue my !ather some-
tImes attended. The hoteI remInded SamIr o! a certaIn perIod In hIs II!e. It began
when he was stopped by a =VgZY^ (]ewIsh uItra-orthodox} woman near Sabbath
Square. She sat In the back. They taIked. Then they ]oked. Then he booked Into
thIs hoteI. "I came out o! the shower, and she was on the couch. We started !ooIIng
around. Then I aImost had a heart attack-her head came o!! In my hands!"
As opposed to most reIIgIous women, who sImpIy cover theIr haIr In pubIIc, In
the strIctest uItra-orthodox communItIes women shave theIr heads, over whIch
they wear a scar! or a wIg-whIch Is what had come o!! In SamIr's hands. He
wasn't expectIng thIs. "She was baId, Yaakov, compIeteIy baId! 8ut what a bomb-
sheII. We carrIed on, and reaIIy IIked each other, so we met agaIn, and then agaIn,
quIte reguIarIy. £or haI! a year we kept meetIng. I started to get scared that her
peopIe wouId ñnd out and come a!ter me, so I broke It o!!. 8ut she was great."
I was new to ]erusaIem when I heard thIs story In the Iate 1¤¤os, and dIscounted
It as a deIIght!uI and outrageous anomaIy. As I contInued to IIve In the cIty, how-
ever, I kept hearIng and seeIng thIngs that crossed the ethnIc, reIIgIous, and natIon-
aI IInes many o! us have come to hate. These storIes were no Ionger anomaIous but
evIdence o! a hIdden shared II!e. Away !rom the posturIng and poIItIcaI decIara-
tIons about a unIted/occupIed ]erusaIem, everyday passIons, kIndnesses, mIschIe!,
and creatIvIty weave us together-more than anyone dares to acknowIedge. I share
some o! these storIes because they are what make II!e In ]erusaIem IIvabIe, even
en]oyabIe, !or me. 8ut I aIso want to suggest that they are IndIcatIve o! a dI!!erent
kInd o! II!e, the kInd that has been, Is, and couId be possIbIe.
My storIes center around East ]erusaIem taxI drIvers (and SamIr In partIcuIar}
who Introduced me to thIs mIxed-up worId where two ]erusaIems come together.
Cver haI! the taxI drIvers In West ]erusaIem are East ]erusaIemItes, mostIy
operatIng Arab-owned cabs. Indeed, severaI o! the Iarger companIes are Arab-
owned or co-owned-a ]ewIsh partner havIng been added to IubrIcate reIatIons
wIth the authorItIes.
ThInk about It. What other opportunIty do young PaIestInIan men have to
cIrcuIate unobstructed around the cIty? There are none more mobIIe than those
who make a IIvIng by roamIng. And not ]ust In West ]erusaIem. They swIng back
and !orth !rom West to East (eat Iunch; gIve the wI!e a II!t; pray at the mosque},
e!!ortIessIy crossIng the IInes that govern most peopIe. And there are aIso Iong
dIstance trIps to other parts o! IsraeI and the West 8ank (settIers o!ten pre!er
Arab drIvers who know how to "handIe" themseIves In the CccupIed TerrItorIes}.
What other PaIestInIans move through ]ewIsh space unhIndered, In command,
on duty? Who eIse spends theIr 1o, 12, 1a hour days conversIng wIth ]ews In an
unstructured, anonymous, and IntImate way, bracketed by the cIean start and
cIear ñnIsh o! a gIven rIde-I! both partIes so wIsh? Where eIse does the Arab In
such encounters possess a modIcum o! authorIty-behInd the wheeI, o!ten o! a
Iate-modeI Mercedes !ew passengers couId a!!ord?
You have to be pretty "together" to be an East ]erusaIem taxI drIver. Your
Hebrew must be good I! you are to thrIve (and I! good enough to pass !or a North
A!rIcan or MIddIe Eastern ]ew-aII the better}. You need to pass the taxI drIver
certIñcatIon course, get a commercIaI IIcense, have an accountant, and stay out
o! troubIe. The Iatter can be dI!ñcuIt when a hard-to-pIease cIIent's compIaInt
to the MInIstry o! TransportatIon pIaces you under the presumptIon o! guIIt,
because o! your duaI ethnIc and occupatIonaI In!erIorIty. Many drIvers own theIr
vehIcIes-a bIg capItaI Investment that !eeds one or more !amIIIes. These are kept
runnIng, In top shape, o!ten 2a hours a day In two 12-hour or three 8-hour shI!ts.
Among ]ews, a taxI drIver Is seen as someone who Iacks aIternatIves, whereas It
Is a !aIrIy weII respected ]ob In East ]erusaIem.

8GDHH>C<A>C:H
I began wIth SamIr and hIs uItra-orthodox Iover not (]ust} as prurIent gossIp
about a communIty assumed to be "above such thIngs," but because there Is
somethIng so hope!uI about a sImpIe human !rustratIon reachIng across bound-
arIes-!ar across boundarIes-to be met.
IronIcaIIy, In such cases, It Is precIseIy dIstance whIch Is at pIay: uItra-orthodox
men and women regard daIIIances wIth non-]ews as Iess sIn!uI. Indeed, as some
uItra-orthodox men expIaIn to theIr taxI drIvers on the way to the red IIght
dIstrIct o! North TeI AvIv, the DIamond Exchange In Ramat Can, or the "escort
InstItutes" o! South ]erusaIem, the ]ewIsh prohIbItIon on extramarItaI sex does
not appIy I! theIr partners are non-]ews. I doubt they suspect the extent to whIch
theIr wIves and sIsters are en]oyIng thIs IoophoIe (and !or !ree!}, or wouId appre-
cIate SamIr's de!t recycIIng o! theIr TaImudIc IogIc as he pIay!uIIy Introduces thIs
exemptIon to uItra-orthodox !emaIe passengers who may not be aware o! thIs
ñner poInt o! reIIgIous Iaw.
Another drIver aIso toId o! endIng hIs a!!aIr wIth a reIIgIous ]ewIsh woman,
Indeed one IIvIng In a hardcore poIItIcaI settIement near ]erusaIem. ThIs was not
!or !ear, however. "A!ter a whIIe, when I saw how serIous It was gettIng, I toId
her that It was not !aIr that I go home to my wI!e at the end o! the day and she
goes back to an empty house. I toId her she had to ñnd a man she couId marry.
She protested, but I encouraged her, and eventuaIIy she dId. She stIII caIIs me aII
the tIme, to taIk, or !or advIce. We've stayed !rIends."
ThIs was reIayed to me by way o! expIanatIon !or a caII that came In on the
speakerphone whIIe I was In the taxI: a consuItatIon about vIsItIng !amIIy that
]ust couIdn't waIt. I can vouch: thIs was a reaI reIatIonshIp, respect!uI, mature,
not sIeazy. Cthers are more usurIous, I am sure, but that runs both ways.
286
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Con!rontatIon
Exchange
SettIng asIde the ethIcs o! these InñdeIItIes, there Is a Iot o! cIandestIne con-
sensuaI cross-natIonaI mIngIIng goIng on In ]erusaIem. I doubt there Is a reason-
abIe IookIng PaIestInIan drIver on the road !or more than a coupIe o! years who
has not been approached by an uItra-orthodox or other ]ewIsh woman at some
poInt In hIs career (and more than a !ew have acquIesced}. 8ecause ]ewIsh Iaw
prohIbIts one !rom beIng aIone wIth an aduIt non-!amIIy member o! the opposIte
sex, thIs Is the onIy chance uItra-orthodox women, many o! whom marry In theIr
Iate teens or earIy 2os, have o! InteractIng In!ormaIIy wIth men. And, apparentIy,
they take advantage o! It when needed. 8ut It's not ]ust ]ewIsh women. Some-
tImes the passenger Is an Arab woman, though an a!!aIr wIthIn the PaIestInIan
communIty Is much more rIsky, sometImes even !ataI.
I ]oked wIth SamIr once about how many ]ewIsh kIds he may have unknow-
IngIy sIred, and that one o! them, now oId enough to be In the army, couId stop
hIm at a checkpoInt. We Iaughed, wonderIng I! they wouId recognIze each other.
What we were reaIIy IaughIng at, o! course, was the messy muddIe beneath ]eru-
saIem's sur!ace.
SamIr's son Is o! a more casuaI generatIon than hIs !ather: ]eans, T-shIrt,
sungIasses. He has hIs !ather's charm, but o! IsraeII, not ]ordanIan vIntage. He
o!ten stayed wIth hIs RussIan ImmIgrant gIrI!rIend In the ]ewIsh town o! 8eth
Shemesh, untII he entered Into an arranged marrIage wIth an East ]erusaIem gIrI.
RecentIy, I stopped wIth hIm to buy some soda at an East ]erusaIem shop where
a wIId maIe ñnch In a cage was chIrpIng away. The owner expIaIned that he was
tryIng to "marry" It wIth two domestIcated !emaIe canarIes. I! a !emaIe IIkes the
ñnch's voIce, she wIII start nestIng, and the two can be put Into the same cage. I!
they have o!!sprIng, the HedgIIngs wIII Iearn theIr wIId !ather's tunes and zest !or
sIngIng, but InherIt theIr domestIcated mother's much stronger voIce-whIch Is
what makes them so vaIuabIe, aIbeIt In!ertIIe. A !emaIe ñnch, I am toId (by men},
wIII never accept a maIe canary. You cannot put them In the same cage, and she
wouId never, "In a thousand years," Iet hIm mount her.

The ñnch, a natIve spe-
cIes whIch the Iaws !orbIds to capture or own, Is expensIve, around a thousand
shekeIs, and a maIe's vaIue Is Increased by hIs proven abIIIty to produce hybrId
o!!sprIng. I asked SamIr's son how you say "hybrId" In ArabIc. 7VcYj`, he toId
me wIth reIIsh.
The cheap trIck o! startIng wIth sex to address ruptures In ]erusaIem's
oppressIve dIvIdIng IInes shouId not downgrade or sensatIonaIIze the phenom-
enon. There are more sedate and sanctIoned !orms o! mIngIIng as weII: socIaI
vIsIts, exchanged !avors, Ioans, ]oInt busIness ventures. It starts wIth askIng the
PaIestInIan gardener I! he wants a gIass o! water or a cup o! tea, or two cowork-
ers at the bus company apprecIatIng each other's styIe, and then . . . humans are
humans, a!ter aII.
8ut I! I dId start wIth mIngIIng across gender IInes

, Iet me be provocatIve:
beneath the vIoIence, dIstrust, and ethnIc encIavIng, Is there not some racIaI !ear
(on both sIdes} o! what mIght happen In thIs cohabIted cIty (and country} I! the
barrIers !eII? We'd be aII over each other! AII the dIetary, temporaI, and other pur-
pose!uI asynchronIzatIons o! ]ewIsh Iaw, whIch seem desIgned to make socIaI mIxIng
dI!ñcuIt, no Ionger guIde the ma]orIty o! the ]ewIsh popuIatIon. StrategIsts o! ]ewIsh
2
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survIvaI worry about the demographIc threat In IsraeI and the assImIIatIon threat
abroad. 8ut what I! the barrIers were reduced to a poInt that aIIowed !or assImIIa-
tIon wIth !eIIow SemItes rIght here In our own back yard?

Cur pasts were HuId, and I suspect our !utures couId be too. Years a!ter meet-
Ing hIm, a !rIend !rom East ]erusaIem mentIoned In passIng that hIs ancestors
were SyrIan ]ews who converted to IsIam when they moved to Hebron durIng the
tIme o! SaIadIn. I was amazed, he was nonchaIant. "Yes, sometImes when I do
somethIng stupId or make an astute ñnancIaI decIsIon my !rIends tease me and
caII me a ]ew." I mentIoned thIs to another !rIend, a ]ordanIan orIgInaIIy !rom the
Hebron area, who knows HebronIte !amIIIes weII. "That's rIght," he conñrmed,
"the ShweIks have done weII !or themseIves In busIness," and then he IIsted o!!
the names o! severaI other PaIestInIan !amIIIes known to be !ormerIy ]ewIsh. "In
!act," he contInued, "my great grandmother on my mother's sIde Is ]ewIsh, you
know. She was a ]ewIsh gIrI orphaned In some battIe, whom my great grand!ather
adopted and Iater marrIed. Whenever he got annoyed wIth her he wouId caII her
W^ciNV]djY (daughter o! a ]ew}. It was onIy years Iater that I Iearned that thIs
was not ]ust an epIthet."
EA6N>C<L>I=A>C:H
IInes are a very serIous thIng In ]erusaIem. The separatIon barrIer Is as bIunt
and concrete as you can get. I! government Inspectors (these days PaIestInIan
cItIzens o! IsraeI !rom Abu Chosh} ñnd you In a home In EzarIya or Ar-Ram,
rather than at your decIared address wIthIn the munIcIpaI IInes, as IIttIe as a
kIIometer away, you can Iose your ]erusaIem ID, I.e. your abIIIty to work, vIsIt
!amIIy, or cIaIm the natIonaI Insurance beneñts you have been payIng Into !or
years. £ears are reaI: ]erusaIemItes do get stabbed, shot, bIown up, arrested, and
tortured. I've seen my !rIends' kIds cower the ñrst tIme they heard me speak
Hebrew In theIr East ]erusaIem homes ("Dad, why Is the soIdIer here?"}. At the
heIght o! the bus-bombIng perIod, wIth the kIn o! three schooImates burIed,
my 12 year oId nIece matter-o!-!actIy asked her mother to heIp her dra!t a wIII
("What's better, Yaakov, that I teII her not to or heIp her do It?"}
The abIIIty to pIay wIth, and thus so!ten, these !acts o! II!e Is what I want to
taIk about.
SamIr aIso had a Iover In a settIement near ]erusaIem. Cnce, hIs coIIeague
dropped hIm o!! there a!ter her husband Ie!t !or work. ComIng back some hours
Iater, SamIr had to take a bus. ThIs was at the heIght o! the bus-bombIng perIod.
SamIr Is dark and mustachIoed. 8oardIng the bus, he greeted the drIver wIth a
smIIe "to put hIm at ease." The bus, haI! !uII, Iooped through the settIement to
pIck up peopIe be!ore headIng to ]erusaIem. At the ñrst stop a!ter SamIr got on,
many peopIe got o!!. At the next stop, the remaInder got o!!. As the bus Ie!t the
settIement !or ]erusaIem, onIy SamIr and the drIver remaIned. So he went and
chatted wIth the drIver, suggestIng that the bus company hIre hIm to rIde the bus
reguIarIy, sInce aII the !ear!uI passengers who got o!! had aIready paId theIr !are,
and wouId need to pay agaIn when they got on the next bus. SamIr toId me thIs
story, because at thIs tIme ]ews were aIso hesItant to get Into taxIs wIth Arab
drIvers. Cnce, a!ter a potentIaI cIIent's quaIms were dIspeIIed by the !act that
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I was aIready seated In the cab, I o!!ered to rent SamIr my reassurIngIy AshkenazI
!ace and rIde aIong durIng hIs shI!ts.
NonsensIcaI suggestIons, o! course, but somehow a way !or peopIe to taIk
about !ears and pIace ourseIves on the same sIde o! these concerns,.
8oth reIn!orcIng and erodIng such pre]udIces, Akram, another !rIend !rom
Hebron, gave me a haI!-serIous standIng o!!er a!ter the ñrst coupIe o! bus-
bombIngs. "I! you ever get on a bus and see an angry Arab man wIth a coat,
get o!! rIght away and take a taxI, take even two taxIs, I wIII pay !or It." It was
ImpossIbIe !or Akram to come to my weddIng, as the cIosure was In !uII e!!ect,
but I was touched when he o!!ered to send money to hIre extra guards at the
event. (In !act, SamIr showed up earIy to cIrcIe the perIphery "and make sure
the grounds were properIy secured"}.
CperatIng an Arab-owned and aImost entIreIy Arab-sta!!ed taxI company In
an IncreasIngIy edgy and venge!uI West ]erusaIem Is trIcky busIness. The )o or so
Arab drIvers at the statIon I use, aII communIcate wIth each other over the radIo
In Hebrew, and have Hebrew work names wIth addresses to match. "AmI !rom
£rench HIII" mIght be Amer !rom ad]acent IsawIya; "Avraham !rom East TaIpIot"
Is assumed to be more paIatabIe than "IbrahIm !rom Sur 8ahIr," across the vaIIey.
I once overheard a radIo conversatIon (In Hebrew}, In whIch a pseudo-named
Arab dIspatcher sent a pseudo-named Arab drIver to pIck up a reaI-named ]ew-
Ish cIIent, and toId hIm to gIve the woman a !aIr prIce. "C! course," the drIver
saId, usIng the phrase ]ews sometImes use to express brotherIy Iargesse, "`jaVcj
nZ]jY^b" (We're aII ]ews!}
Cnce SamIr took the wI!e o! RabbI Aryeh DerI !rom theIr Har No! home to a
meetIng. (DerI was then the poIItIcaI Ieader o! the Shas party whose North A!rI-
can and MIddIe Eastern ]ewIsh eIectoraI base had shaken up IsraeII poIItIcs}. She
needed a phone to check the address, and SamIr, who apprecIated DerIs boIdness
and consIdered hImseI! a H]Vhc^` o! sorts, had a coIor stIcker o! DerI on the HIp
paneI o! hIs mobIIe phone. "What's thIs?" DerI's wI!e asked when he handed her
the phone. "Cur RabbI," he answered, deadpan, usIng the Hebrew InsIder term o!
a!!ectIonate de!erence. They Iaughed together, across IInes, at IInes.
More caIcuIatIngIy, when checkpoInts were Iess strIngent, PaIestInIan drIvers
wouId put rIght-wIng stIckers on theIr cars to Increase theIr chances o! gettIng
waved through quIckIy (I ImagIned, perhaps wrongIy, that they must have had
some satIs!actIon at the hIdden meanIng o! sIogans IIke "Hebron: Curs AIways
and £orever"}. At the tIme o! wrItIng, there are those who tIe the orange antI-
Caza-dIsengagement rIbbons on theIr antennas, to Increase theIr chances o!
pIckIng up cIIents who are a!raId o! Arab drIvers. (ThIs !or some reason, unIIke
the stIckers, Is !rowned upon by some PaIestInIan drIvers as "goIng too !ar"}.
WIth hIs Iooks, SamIr, who works at a statIon sta!!ed by both Arabs and ]ews,
couId never pass as a ]ew, and wouId not, there!ore, thInk o! tryIng. He uses
humor rather than camouHage to reassure hIs cIIents. C!ten by makIng theIr
!ears expIIcIt: "Come on, get In, ordInarIIy I wouId kIdnap you and take you to
RamaIIah, but I don't have tIme thIs evenIng."
He has aIso been known to make good use o! ]ewIsh !ears. Cne day, he had a
bIg seI!-satIsñed smIIe when I got In hIs cab: "You'II never guess what happened.
There's a round I do every nIght pIckIng up workers !rom a !actory. And there's
a shortcut I take In CIvat ShauI. It's a one-way street goIng the wrong way. CnIy
1ç meters, but It saves ten mInutes. I have two passengers In the car. A poIIce
car sIgnaIs !or me to stop. I thInk to myseI!, 'I can't a!!ord a 1ooo shekeIs ñne
and 1o penaIty poInts on my IIcense.' As the poIIce o!ñcers approach I teII my
passengers In ArabIc, 'HoId tIght, I need to pIay a IIttIe here, everythIng wIII be
CK.' They're reguIar cIIents !rom East ]erusaIem, workers whom I take home. So
I meet the poIIce haI!way and say so!tIy, 'Cuys, I saw your patroI and came rIght
to you. You've got to heIp me. These two passengers got In, and I have a !unny
!eeIIng about them. PIease check them out.' [ThIs was ]ust a!ter a weII-pubIIcIzed
IncIdent In whIch a suIcIde bomber reached hIs destInatIon by taxIj. So the poIIce
check theIr IDs. They come back to me and say, 'It's CK, they've checked out
ñne.' I say, 'Are you sure? It's your responsIbIIIty!' They thank me !or my vIgI-
Iance, shake my hand, and wIsh everyone were as aIert as I am-a modeI cItIzen.
And o!! we went."
"I wasn't a!raId that they'd rough up my passengers, they were poIIcemen
In bIue unI!orms, not border patroI thugs. I saId to myseI!, 'the ñne wouId be
1ooo shekeIs. I! the passengers get beaten, I'II gIve them haI! that sum, say
2ço each.'"
WhIIe SamIr Is an expert at dIspeIIIng peopIe's !ears, even InvertIng them
to hIs own beneñt, hIs eIdest son was the Iucky beneñcIary o! an entIreIy uncaI-
cuIated InversIon. SamIr was In hIs IsIamIc perIod when the chIId was born,
and wanted to caII hIm KhomeInI. When he went to regIster the boy at the East
]erusaIem branch o! the MInIstry o! InterIor, where the IInes between mInIstry
o!ñcIaIs and H]VWV` (CSS, CeneraI SecurIty ServIces} o!ñcers are rather bIurry,
he was toId he couId not regIster such a name. He argued wIth the CSS o!ñcers,
and In the end reached a compromIse: he wouId name hIs son Iran. He dId not
reaIIze It at the tIme, but Iran Is very sImIIar to Eran, a common ]ewIsh IsraeII
boy's name, and was even speIIed the same. So the chIId grew up wIth a name In
hIs ID card, whIch enabIed hIm to mIngIe wIth ]ews more !reeIy than most. SamIr
recaIIs how upset Eran/Iran(KhomeInI} was when hIs hIs ]ewIsh !rIends were
dra!ted, and he couId not ]oIn them, especIaIIy the ones enIIstIng In commando
unIts. "When they came home !rom theIr bases !or the ñrst tIme," SamIr's son
toId me proudIy, "they Iet me hoId theIr guns and showed me how they worked."
Cver tIme, however, he saw Iess and Iess o! them.
HDL=6I4
What do they amount to, these storIes? Some IrreIevant humanIstIc weeds
sproutIng at the edges o! the unreIentIng concrete o! occupatIon? Do they ]ust
bareIy ease the brutaIIty o! ethnIc, reIIgIous, and natIonaI dIvIsIons, or do they
actuaIIy reveaI (or Iay the ground !or} somethIng dI!!erent, somethIng more
Important?
I myseI! sometImes get annoyed at the theoretIcaI romantIcIzatIon o! "everyday
resIstance," and wonder at the poIItIcaI e!ñcacy o! peasants who !art whIIe bowIng
at the passIng Iord. Why teII these storIes, as charmIng as they mIght be? A!ter aII,
don't the exceptIons descrIbed prove that dIstance and separatIon are the ruIe?
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Perhaps I am naïve, but these storIes strIke me as the hIdden ruIe o! everyday
coexIstence and hybrIdIzatIons, temporarIIy occIuded by cIrcumstance. Maybe
SamIr had to break o!! hIs a!!aIr, but somewhere In Mea SharIm there Is a woman
who remembers hIm, and perhaps not ]ust wIth guIIt. And !or the 1oo broken
a!!aIrs there wIII be ten !ond memorIes, and perhaps one coupIe who IIve out
theIr ruIe, as AIegra 8eIIow and ]abara RahII dId when they met In the Mahane
Yehuda market and eIoped In 1¤2¤, at the heIght o! ]ewIsh-Arab tensIons, eventu-
aIIy movIng to EIn Karem, IeavIng behInd heartbroken parents, but aIso a chaIn
o! descendents !rom East and West ]erusaIem who share a mother, grandmother,
and great-grandmother.
I have not asked SamIr whether he thInks these everyday breaches amount
to anythIng. I doubt It wouId be a productIve IIne o! questIonIng. 8ut perhaps
somethIng he toId me IndIcates hIs attItude. "There's thIs one ]ewIsh drIver at
our statIon that hates Arabs. I don't know why. He ]ust hates us. 8ut he IIkes
me. He doesn't know why. He says to me, 'SamIr, I don't know why I IIke you,
but I IIke you.' So Iast nIght when he saId thIs, I responded, 'It doesn't matter
whether you IIke me or hate me, because eIther way, we've taken your work.'
I was ]okIng wIth hIm. I saId, 'TeII me, dId you occupy East ]erusaIem or dId we
occupy you?' He seemed ba!Hed. I asked, 'Can you sIeep wIth an Arab woman?'
'No.' 'Do you waIk around the Arab markets !reeIy?' 'No.' I toId hIm, 'I shop
on ]a!!a street, I go wherever I want. I eat In your restaurants, sIeep wIth your
women, and take your work. I thInk It was we who occupIed you In 1¤6).'
"Ch," says another PaIestInIan drIver to whom I reIayed thIs conversatIon,
"Those are ]ust SamIr's phIIosophIes."
You decIde.
1 ThIs dIsparIty Is actuaIIy a probIem because saIarIes !or unskIIIed ]obs In West ]erusaIem are sIg-
nIñcantIy hIgher than saIarIes !or skIIIed ]obs In East ]erusaIem. CI!ted young men are tempted to
pre!er the !ormer, overtraInIng !or the Iatter. Women, however, do carry on studyIng, and It Is not
uncommon !or a husband to have bareIy ñnIshed hIgh schooI whIIe hIs wI!e hoIds an academIc
degree.
2 CertaInIy, there are Iess Arab (especIaIIy MusIIm} women who marry ]ewIsh men. However, sInce
I Interact mostIy wIth PaIestInIan men and not PaIestInIan women, I don't know what storIes
women teII each other.
¤ Same-gender mIngIIng across natIonaI IInes are another, more compIIcated phenomenon, deservIng
o! Its own treatment. The cIty's gay bar, recentIy torched, Is perhaps the one genuIneIy natIonaIIy-
mIxed bar In the cIty. I am toId that !or many years there was tacIt re!uge !rom persecutIon gIven
to PaIestInIan gay men ]oInIng theIr IsraeII Iovers.
a You wIII aIways hear o! mIxed coupIes In any Iarge town, ]ewIsh or Arab. I am aIways pIeasantIy
surprIsed by the Iow-key acceptance o! these.
ç The re!erence Is to an epIgraph In: ]ames Scott, 9db^cVi^dcVcYi]Z6gihd[GZh^hiVcXZ: HIdden
TranscrIpts (New Haven: YaIe UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤o}.
6 Moshe AmIrav who IntervIewed !amIIIes on both sIdes teIIs the story In: AmIrav et aI, :^c@VgZb/
KdnV\Zidi]Z:cX]VciZYK^aaV\Z (]erusaIem: Keter, 2ooa}.
^ciZ\gVi^dc!hZ\gZ\Vi^dc!
VcYXdcigda
;JC8I>DC6A:K:GN96N?:L>H="6G67G:A6I>DCH=>EH
>C?:GJH6A:B

MIchaeI Romann
The contested cIty o! ]erusaIem Is no doubt an extreme case o! a poIarIzed urban
envIronment. IsraeI consIders ]erusaIem unIñed In poIItIcaI terms, yet PaIestIn-
Ians have re]ected the 1¤6) en!orcement o! IsraeII Iaw, ]urIsdIctIon, and admInIs-
tratIon over East ]erusaIem and contInue to boycott key IsraeII poIItIcaI InstItu-
tIons. DaIIy reaIIty, In turn, reHects the persIstent socIaI, economIc, and spatIaI
dIvIsIons between the ]ewIsh and Arab communItIes. DI!!erent ethnIc IdentItIes
are cIearIy marked and there Is no space aIIowed !or a mIxed ]ewIsh-Arab Iden-
tIty. Indeed, !ar-reachIng patterns o! segregatIon between members o! the two
communItIes a!!ect aImost aII aspects o! everyday II!e. At the same tIme, daIIy
(maInIy economIc} InteractIon and exchange are aIso common. ThIs Is partIcu-
IarIy the case In the Iabor and consumer markets; It reIates to certaIn busIness
transactIons, and Is most apparent where ]ews and Arabs share pubIIc servIces.
SeveraI questIons arIse In vIew o! thIs dIverse reaIIty. £Irst, to what extent
have the two sectors undergone actuaI or !unctIonaI IntegratIon? Second, where
do the two communItIes Interact and what do those InteractIons Iook IIke?
IIkewIse, where are the communItIes segregated and what Is segregatIon's
appearance? £InaIIy, to what extent can these patterns be attrIbuted to poIItIcaI
antagonIsm, dI!!erent cuIturaI norms or economIc InequaIItIes? PrecIseIy because
East and West ]erusaIem were entIreIy separate between 1¤a8 and 1¤6), we have
a unIque opportunIty to trace and evaIuate the processes o! IntegratIon In the
cIty's InstItutIonaI and economIc domaIns.
]ust a!ter the SIx Day War In 1¤6), a ñrst survey o! the ImpIIcatIons o! socIaI
and economIc reunIñcatIon was conducted (Romann, 1¤68}. £oIIow-up surveys
were conducted durIng the Iate 1¤)os and earIy 1¤8os, consIderIng the graduaI
process o! IntegratIon and adaptatIon between these two IargeIy dIstInct economIc
arenas (Romann, 1¤8a}. The Importance o! poIItIcaI and cuIturaI (more so than
economIc} components In these changIng patterns o! InteractIon soon became
apparent. AccordIngIy, subsequent research was dIverted, and In addItIon to
anaIyzIng empIoyment opportunItIes, commodIty prIces and the IIke, ñeId
observatIons were Incorporated Into the research. ThIs evIdence ranged !rom
comparIng the contents o! tourIst shops or the conduct o! taxI drIvers In the
two cIty sectors, to anaIyzIng reIatIons between ]ewIsh and Arab empIoyees
In a ]ewIsh hospItaI or In the common munIcIpaI sIaughterhouse o! ]erusaIem
(Romann m WeIngrod, 1¤¤1}.
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It Is suggested here that the extreme case o! ]erusaIem as a poIarIzed cIty
Is expressed not onIy In patterns o! segregatIon, but aIso In specIñc modes o!
IntegratIon. In partIcuIar, ethnIc IdentIty Is a determInant !actor, reHected by
specIñc and varyIng modes o! Intergroup versus Intragroup InteractIons. There
are two overaII expIanatIons !or thIs. £Irst, ]ews and Arabs aIIke strIve to controI
theIr terrItorIaI and economIc assets, but are aIso anxIous to preserve the
ethnIc "IdentIty" o! theIr economIc entItIes by !oIIowIng cuIturaI norms. Second,
theIr respectIve abIIItIes In thIs regard are IargeIy determIned by !undamentaIIy
unequaI poIItIcaI and economIc power reIatIons, whIch are uItImateIy expressed
In asymmetrIc patterns o! transactIons across the ethnIc dIvIde.
H:<G:<6I>DCK:GHJH>CI:<G6I>DC
DespIte the o!ñcIaI IsraeII rhetorIc o! ]erusaIem as a unIñed cIty, the predomInant
condItIon Is one o! segregatIon. SpatIaI segregatIon Is not conñned to ]ewIsh ver-
sus Arab resIdentIaI quarters, as Is generaIIy the case In ethnIcaIIy mIxed cItIes,
but Is !arther manI!ested In separate but paraIIeI busIness centers. The ]ewIsh
and PaIestInIan sectors maIntaIn paraIIeI pubIIc transport !acIIItIes and separate
chambers o! commerce, as weII as dozens o! other pro!essIonaI organIzatIons,
!rom hoteIIer assocIatIons to bIood banks. £InaIIy, a basIc dIstInctIon between the
two sectors persIsts In the IegaI sphere, sInce IsraeII Iaw and munIcIpaI decrees
(such as certaIn Iabor and buIIdIng reguIatIons} have not been !uIIy appIIed to
East ]erusaIem. The exIstence o! dI!!erent commercIaI hoIIdays and the use o!
Hebrew versus ArabIc on shop sIgns In the two cIty regIons Is one among many
vIsIbIe IndIcatIons o! separatIon.
At the same tIme, daIIy encounters and InteractIons between ]ews and Arabs
are IIkewIse muItIpIe and vIsIbIe, especIaIIy regardIng the Iabor market, where
about one-haI! o! the entIre Arab work !orce o! East ]erusaIem reguIarIy crosses
over to empIoyment In the ]ewIsh sector. WhIIe they are maInIy empIoyed In
manuaI occupatIons or constructIon, Arabs aIso occupy certaIn cIerIcaI or pro-
!essIonaI posItIons In ]ewIsh hoteIs, hospItaIs, and varIous munIcIpaI and pubIIc
servIces Iocated In West ]erusaIem. In addItIon, Arabs o!ten cross over to West
]erusaIem !or specIaIIzed pro!essIonaI or pubIIc servIces (IegaI advIce or medI-
caI care, !or exampIe}. Ma]or shoppIng centers emergIng on the ]ewIsh sIde are
equaIIy and vIsIbIy !requented by Arab customers.
]ews, !or theIr part, used to vIsIt the Arab sIde In great numbers, partIcuIarIy
the tourIst attractIons Iocated In the PaIestInIan part o! the CId CIty. In addItIon,
Arab shops and workshops In East ]erusaIem were an accessIbIe aIternatIve on
weekends and ]ewIsh hoIIdays when shops In West ]erusaIem are cIosed. DurIng
the ñrst IntI!ada and successIve perIods o! vIoIence In ]erusaIem, a phenomenon
was apparent. Whereas ]ewIsh vIsIts to "the other sIde" dramatIcaIIy decIIned
due to heIghtened !ears, Arabs, by contrast, contInued to !requent West ]erusa-
Iem despIte the rIsks InvoIved and PaIestInIan caIIs to boycott IsraeII markets.
8esIdes these more obvIous economIc InteractIons across the ethnIc dIvIde,
other Iess vIsIbIe or quantIñabIe exchanges deveIoped on an entrepreneurIaI
IeveI between ñrms and InstItutIons. 8usIness reIatIonshIps are common, where
mostIy ]ewIsh estabIIshments suppIy the greater part o! commodItIes and
busIness servIces to the Arab sector. Arab workshops, !or theIr part, are o!ten
engaged as subcontractors by ]ewIsh constructIon and manu!acturIng IndustrIes.
These exchanges extend !rom the ñnancIaI worId to the underworId.
In sum, overaII economIc InteractIon reHects accessIbIIIty and the reIatIve
advantages o!!ered by each sector. Yet, no sImpIe dIstInctIon can be drawn
between areas o! IntegratIon and aspects o! segregatIon. Separate duaI Iabor
markets In each regIon persIst aIongsIde extensIve empIoyment reIatIons.
DespIte extensIve exchanges o! goods and servIces, Arabs do not usuaIIy
advertIze In ]ewIsh newspapers and vIsa versa. In !act, !unctIonaI InteractIons
between the ]ewIsh and Arab sectors rareIy reHect the !uII potentIaI o! economIc
opportunIty and spatIaI proxImIty.
BD9:HD;7:=6K>DG
As a generaI ruIe, where Inter-sectoraI reIatIons have been estabIIshed, they can
be characterIzed as "Iow IeveI" InteractIons, In that they tend to avoId aspects o!
vIsIbIIIty and permanence. No !ormaI, vIsIbIe and bIndIng partnershIps between
]ewIsh and Arab entrepreneurs were observed. The IntegratIve sIgnIñcance o!
extensIve Arab empIoyment In the ]ewIsh sector Is moderated by the !act that
reIatIveIy !ew Arabs have rIsen to whIte-coIIar work or management posItIons
over ]ewIsh workers. ]ewIsh IndIvIduaIs and ñrms !requentIng Arab shops or
engagIng Arab workshops can be equaIIy deñned as "Iow IeveI" InteractIons, due
to theIr occasIonaI and temporary nature.
EconomIc reIatIons between the two sectors are o!ten assocIated wIth partIcuIar
modes or terms o! exchange. In partIcuIar, a kInd o! "ethnIc prIce !actor" Is usuaIIy
ImpIIed In both Iabor and consumer InteractIons. ]ews engage Arab occasIonaI
Iabor, or acquIre Arab products and servIces In East ]erusaIem, under the ImpIIcIt
condItIon that they are cheaper compared to avaIIabIe ]ewIsh aIternatIves. The
dI!!erence InvoIved mIght vary. Some ]ews wIII not buy a paIr o! shoes In the Arab
market I! they are onIy 1o% cheaper; others, however, wIII !requent car repaIr
shops or even East ]erusaIem dentIsts, sInce they charge !ar Iess than the norm
In West ]erusaIem. ThIs was !urther exempIIñed by the !act that Arab workers
engaged In sImIIar occupatIons In both sectors-as unskIIIed Iabor, drIvers, or hoteI
waIters-are wIIIIng to accept !ar Iower wages and socIaI beneñts wIthIn the Arab
sector compared to those they receIve In the ]ewIsh sector. Indeed, ethnIc IdentIty
Is aIways an IntervenIng and reIevant !actor to the modes o! exchange.
MutuaI InteractIons In the busIness communIty o!ten requIre an IntermedIary
or "broker." Arab entrepreneurs use assocIatIon wIth a ]ewIsh ñrm, or engage
]ewIsh pro!essIonaIs-engIneers, archItects and partIcuIarIy Iawyers-to obtaIn
contracts In the ]ewIsh sector or appeaI to IsraeII o!ñcIaIs. In one reveaIIng
exampIe, Arab IndIvIduaIs saId they pre!erred to take theIr drIvIng Iessons wIth
]ewIsh drIvIng schooIs In order to Increase theIr chances vIs-a-vIs the IsraeII
IIcensIng authorItIes. A reIated mode o! exchange mIght be caIIed "dIsguIsed
reIatIonshIps"-many busIness transactIons are conducted In such a manner that
onIy one partner Is pubIIcIy exposed when operatIng In hIs or her respectIve
sector. CamouHage Is essentIaI when Arab manu!actured goods-such as textIIes,
shoes, sweets, or paper and pIastIc products-are marketed In the ]ewIsh sector.
2¤6
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Products are generaIIy dIstrIbuted under "IsraeII" IabeIs or neutraI EngIIsh brand
names and rareIy dIscIose theIr orIgIn. ]ewIsh entrepreneurs wIIIIng to open a
busIness or, more partIcuIarIy, seekIng to acquIre Iand In the Arab sectIon aIso,
as a generaI ruIe, engage an Arab straw man or empIoy camouHage tactIcs.
Some basIc asymmetrIes In wIIIIngness and modes o! InteractIon were aIso
observed. £or exampIe Arabs reguIarIy traveI on ]ewIsh buses on routes where
Arab buses are aIso avaIIabIe, whereas ]ews aIways avoId takIng an Arab bus
even I! thIs Is the best optIon. ComparIng the types o! tourIst Items exhIbIted
In East and West ]erusaIem souvenIr shops Is ]ust as In!ormatIve. In the Arab
sector, aIongsIde ChrIstIan and MusIIm reIIgIous ob]ects, aII manner o! ]ewIsh
reIIgIous and natIonaIIst Items, rangIng !rom decoratIve stars o! DavId to "ZIonIst"
guIdebooks and posters, are In !uII dIspIay. There are no comparabIe Arab or
ChrIstIan symboIs to be !ound In West ]erusaIem shops, aIthough many non-
]ewIsh tourIsts !requent thIs part o! the cIty. IIkewIse, whereas East ]erusaIem
Arab stores are abundantIy stocked wIth the !uII range o! ]ewIsh-produced goods,
most Arab products do not ñnd theIr way Into ]ewIsh retaII markets (one exam-
pIe beIng Arab cIgarettes produced In East ]erusaIem, but not dIstrIbuted In the
]ewIsh sectIon o! the cIty}. EquaIIy reveaIIng Is that aIthough Arab entrepreneurs
are wIIIIng on prIncIpIe to open shops In West ]erusaIem, partIcuIarIy now that
]ewIsh customers have become !ear!uI o! crossIng Into the Arab sector, thIs has
never materIaIIzed. There are no IegaI or o!ñcIaI restrIctIons InvoIved, but rather
a kInd o! socIaI excIusIon practIced by the ]ewIsh sector. CeneraIIy, where pureIy
!unctIonaI InteractIons are concerned, Arabs are more o!ten wIIIIng to conduct
reIatIons wIth ]ews than vIce versa.
I=:GDA:D;>9:CI>IN
In an attempt to conceptuaIIze !unctIonaI reIatIons between ]ews and Arabs, It Is
use!uI to re!er to ]erusaIem's economIc entItIes as havIng dIstInct ethnIc IdentI-
tIes. As we have seen, these dIstInctIons remaIn totaI and unequIvocaI. Thus,
ethnIc IdentIty can be appIIed not onIy to IndIvIduaIs and neIghborhoods, but
aIso to practIcaIIy aII ñrms, InstItutIons, and products. It shouId be emphasIzed
that such dIstInctIons reIate to the ob]ectIve "InternaI" quaIItIes o! these entItIes,
rather than sub]ectIve IdentIñcatIon by outsIde observers. £oreIgners, or even
]erusaIemItes, cannot aIways "teII" the ethnIc IdentIty o! a ]ewIsh or Arab pas-
serby. StIII, each passerby possesses an unequIvocaI IdentIty agreed upon by both
]ews and Arabs.
IookIng Into the questIon o! how such IdentIty Is determIned, we shouId ñrst
examIne how paraIIeI ]ewIsh and Arab economIc entItIes dI!!er !rom one another.
EmpIrIcaI observatIon suggests that there are severaI such "dI!!erentIatIng varI-
abIes," whIch couId be deñned In turn as "sectoraI IdentIty attrIbutes." These can
be cIassIñed under the !oIIowIng broad categorIes: IdentIty o! ownershIp, IdentIty
o! customers, IocatIon, IdentIty or orIgIn o! Input and output, patterns o! produc-
tIon and busIness norms, and ñnaIIy, IegaI status.
A !ew exampIes wIII IIIustrate these dIstInctIons. A ]ewIsh busIness Is, as a
ruIe, ]ewIsh-owned. It wIII mostIy serve ]ewIsh customers and be Iocated In West
]erusaIem or eIsewhere In a ]ewIsh neIghborhood (whereas an Arab estabIIsh-
ment wIII be Arab-owned, servIng Its respectIve customers and be Iocated In the
Arab sector o! East ]erusaIem}. ]ewIsh and Arab estabIIshments wIII generaIIy
dI!!er wIth respect to the IdentIty o! theIr empIoyees and the orIgIn o! capItaI
and mIght be dIstInguIshed by the kInd o! products or servIces they provIde.
EconomIc entItIes o! the two sectors !urther dI!!er, as aIready observed, wIth
respect to empIoyment condItIons, pro!essIonaI a!ñIIatIon, cIosIng days and
Ianguage spoken at work. ]ewIsh ñrms wIII generaIIy conduct transactIons by
means o! IegaI contracts and make extensIve use o! the bankIng system, whereas
Arab ñrms pre!er mostIy verbaI agreements and cash payments. £InaIIy, aII o!
the above dI!!erences are o!ten IegaIIy authorIzed or Imposed through IIcensIng,
pro!essIonaI or busIness operatIon requIrements, or even IdentIty markIngs.
]ewIsh and Arab taxIs, !or exampIe, both !reeIy cIrcuIate throughout the cIty but
are nevertheIess dIstInguIshabIe by dI!!erent IdentIñcatIon numbers.
CbvIousIy, economIc entItIes In one sector do not necessarIIy possess aII o!
the reIated attrIbutes. In addItIon, these varIous attrIbutes are not equaIIy sIgnIñ-
cant. SpecIñcaIIy, the orIgIn o! customers and Input In productIon are not crucIaI
!actors. Arab estabIIshments whIch serve maInIy ]ews, or ]ewIsh enterprIses
empIoyIng mostIy Arabs, do not Iose theIr respectIve IdentItIes as a consequence.
8y contrast, ownershIp and IocatIon are determInIng !actors, barrIng a number
o! In!ormatIve exceptIons. East ]erusaIem pubIIc schooIs have been admInIstered
("owned"} sInce 1¤6) by the ]ewIsh munIcIpaIIty, but have maIntaIned theIr Arab
IdentIty because they contInued to teach the ]ordanIan (and Iater PaIestInIan}
schooI currIcuIum. In a sImIIar veIn, ]ewIsh estabIIshments Iocated In the Arab
zone, such as ]ewIsh medIcaI cIInIcs, maIntaIn theIr ]ewIsh IdentItIes In the same
way that an Arab taxI cIrcuIatIng In a ]ewIsh zone remaIns Arab. As such, Ioca-
tIon does not constItute an "InternaI" IdentIty marker. The massIve IocatIon o!
resIdents or economIc actIvItIes !rom one sIde on the "opposIng" sIde Is seen to
change the IdentIty o! the terrItory, not o! the entItIes themseIves.
ComparatIveIy, attrIbutes such as "patterns o! productIon" and "IegaI status"
represent unequIvocaI determInIng !actors. What basIcaIIy dIstInguIshes between
]ews and Arabs are spoken Ianguage, consumptIon norms, and other cuIturaIIy-
reIated behavIoraI patterns vIsIbIe In the modes o! operatIon o! an economIc
estabIIshment. It Is InconceIvabIe that a pIace o! busIness whIch uses excIusIveIy
Hebrew and Is aIways cIosed on ]ewIsh hoIIdays wouId be part o! the Arab sector.

SImIIarIy, sInce IegaI status Is o!ten seIectIveIy appIIed on ethnIc, cuIturaI, or
poIItIcaI grounds, It equaIIy dIstInguIshes between the two sectors. In poIarIzed
]erusaIem, even !oreIgn-owned InstItutIons (IIke ChrIstIan hospItaIs or the two
paraIIeI YMCA estabIIshments} can be generaIIy attrIbuted a "]ewIsh" or "Arab"
IdentIty, maInIy In accordance to theIr patterns o! operatIon.
¹IG6CH68I>DCHº>C>9:CI>IN
£unctIonaI InteractIons between the two sectors necessarIIy requIre the "gIvIng
up" o! some aspects o! IdentIty and the adoptIon o! attrIbutes heId by the other
group. Thus, exchange can be carrIed out theoretIcaIIy on aIternatIve IeveIs
through ownershIp wIth a busIness partnershIp or organIzatIonaI merge; through
!actors o! productIon, where an estabIIshment o! one sector Is sustaIned by the
2¤8
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Iabor, capItaI, goods, or servIces !rom the other; through consumptIon, where
estabIIshments serve consumers !rom the other sector; and ñnaIIy through
IocatIon, where economIc entItIes !rom one sIde Iocate on the "other sIde."
It appears that, sInce the varIous IdentIty attrIbutes dI!!er In sIgnIñcance, both
sectors pre!er to conduct theIr reIatIonshIps by InvoIvIng those attrIbutes that
Ieast compromIse theIr IdentIty. More specIñcaIIy, precIseIy because dependence
on the other sector's customers or !actors o! productIon does not endanger InstI-
tutIonaI ethnIc IdentIty, InteractIons are conducted on those IeveIs. 8y contrast,
because InteractIons InvoIvIng ownershIp or IocatIon necessarIIy ImpIy gIvIng up
sectoraI economIc or spatIaI assets, these are essentIaIIy avoIded. In terms o! the
natIonaI conHIct, preservatIon o! IdentIty Is a prIorIty.
I=:GDA:D;EDL:GG:A6I>DCH
The asymmetrIc patterns o! reIatIonshIp between the ]ewIsh and Arab sectors
can be attrIbuted to the !act that the two sectors !ace an uneven degree o! choIce
versus necessIty regardIng theIr InteractIons. Whenever exchange does occur,
Arabs are the ones who generaIIy need to pursue It, as compared to ]ews who
exercIse a greater degree o! choIce In thIs respect.
ThIs Is partIcuIarIy evIdent where patterns o! InteractIon are determIned by
InstItutIonaI ]urIsdIctIon. SInce 1¤6), Arabs have been dependent on the ]ewIsh
sector !or most state and munIcIpaI servIces. 8ecause o! Its much smaIIer scaIe
and more IImIted deveIopment, the PaIestInIan sector aIso reIIes heavIIy on the
]ewIsh sector !or essentIaI economIc !unctIons, such as empIoyment opportunI-
tIes, most manu!actured goods, and specIaIIzed servIces. 8y contrast, ]ewIsh
ñrms and consumers, even when appIyIng to the Arab sector, generaIIy have
choIces avaIIabIe In both sectors. Thus, the domInant ma]orIty sector generaIIy
has "ñrst choIce" In choosIng domaIns o! IntegratIon versus segregatIon, as weII
as the !orm and IeveI o! InteractIons. The ]ewIsh sector Is In a posItIon to encour-
age Iabor and consumptIon, whIIe opposIng the IocatIon o! Arab busInesses or
the marketIng o! certaIn Arab products wIthIn Its terrItory. ]ewIsh enterprIses
can choose to empIoy Arab Iabor dIrectIy or IndIrectIy, and thus save on capItaI
Investments and socIaI beneñts. Arabs, on the other hand, are obIIged and wIIIIng
to take up any ]ob o!!ered by the ]ewIsh sector, market the whoIe range o! ]ewIsh
products, and more o!ten put up wIth "Iow IeveI" !orms and terms o! transactIon.
Ma]orIty-mInorIty patterns are aIso reHected In behavIor. Most Arabs have
become acquaInted wIth Hebrew, whIIe very !ew ]ews Iearned to speak ArabIc.
Arab youngsters !rom East ]erusaIem schooIs have been !ound to know West
]erusaIem !ar better than the other way round. Arabs o!ten must remaIn com-
pIeteIy IsoIated aII day In the mIdst o! a pureIy ]ewIsh zone (ImagIne a sIngIe
Arab maIntenance worker In a ]ewIsh resIdentIaI quarter or an IsoIated Arab
patIent In a ]ewIsh hospItaI}. ]ews wouId rareIy ñnd themseIves In a sImIIar sItu-
atIon. It Is In thIs context that the behavIor o! ]ews and Arabs regardIng trans-
portatIon can be Interpreted. £oIIowIng 1¤6), the two paraIIeI pubIIc transport
systems were aIIowed to preserve theIr respectIve concessIon areas. 8ut whIIe
the Arab companIes remaIned restrIcted to pureIy Arab zones, the ]ewIsh company
was authorIzed to extend Its IInes to aII requested destInatIons In East ]erusaIem.
As a resuIt, ]ews can aIways take theIr own transportatIon mode; traveIIng on
an Arab bus Is an un!amIIIar and seemIngIy dangerous endeavor. Arabs, who are
o!ten have to traveI aIone on a ]ewIsh bus have a Iower "deterrence barrIer" and
are wIIIIng to use ]ewIsh buses even In East ]erusaIem.
I=:HIGJ<<A:;DG8DCIGDA6C9>9:CI>IN
Access to poIItIcaI power and economIc resources enabIes the ]ewIsh ma]orIty
to extend Its controI and better preserve Its coIIectIve IdentIty, as compared to
the subordInate Arab mInorIty. ThIs Is agaIn reHected by the evoIvIng patterns
o! !unctIonaI InteractIons Imposed by the ]ewIsh sector. Thus, massIve Arab
empIoyment or pubIIc servIces provIsIon does not a!!ect, as we recaII, ]ewIsh
sectoraI IdentIty but rather en!orces controI. ]ewIsh terrItorIaI controI Is preserved
as Iong as Arabs cross over on a daIIy basIs but do not Iocate theIr busInesses
permanentIy on the ]ewIsh sIde.
At the same tIme, the ]ewIsh admInIstratIon compromIsed regardIng PaIes-
tInIan coIIectIve and cuIturaI IdentIty, generaIIy aIIowIng preservatIon o! norms
and InstItutIons. Indeed, In the contested cIty o! ]erusaIem, both partIes have
!aced essentIaI dIIemmas-poIItIcaI goaIs versus desIrabIe InteractIons wIth the
other sIde. 8ut here agaIn, the optIons reHect uneven power reIatIons. WhIIe the
IsraeII authorItIes abstaIned !rom !uIIy appIyIng IsraeII ruIe over Arab norms and
coIIectIve IdentIty, they couId be uncompromIsIng regardIng varIous Issues o!
dIrect poIItIcaI, terrItorIaI, and economIc controI. The PaIestInIans, !or theIr part,
were obIIged to abandon some o! theIr stated poIItIcaI goaIs !or controI, partIcu-
IarIy In terms o! !unctIonaI economIc reIatIons wIth the ]ewIsh sector. ThIs was
demonstrated durIng the ñrst IntI!ada In the Iate 1¤8os wIth Its emphasIs on
endIng cooperatIon wIth the IsraeII authorItIes and the ]ewIsh sector. PaIestInIan
attempts to resIgn !rom cIvII servIce ]obs In the IsraeII admInIstratIon or to boycott
IsraeII products !aIIed In practIce due to exIstIng ma]orIty-mInorIty economIc
reIatIons. In !act It was the ]ews, who couId and dId more o!ten "dIsengage"
themseIves than the other way round.
1 Cn the other hand, dI!!erent cuIturaI norms sometImes o!!er compIementary opportunItIes !or
mutuaI exchange. TradItIonaI MusIIm women rareIy vIsIt ]ewIsh commercIaI centers, whIIe young
Arab coupIes o!ten meet In West ]erusaIem ca!es and cInemas, precIseIy because they are unabIe
to do so In East ]erusaIem.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
MIchaeI Romann, HVfg@]ZkgVi^"@Va`Va^h]ZaNZgjh]VaVn^b=VB^j]ZYZiP6c:Xdcdb^XVcYHdX^VaHjg"
kZnd[GZjc^iZY?ZgjhVaZbR (]erusaIem: The MaurIce £aIk InstItute !or EconomIc Research In IsraeI,
1¤68}.
MIchaeI Romann, NV]Vh=V<dbaZZcWZc=VBV\og=VNZ]jY^k=V6gVk^W^NZgjh]VaVn^bPI]Z>ciZg"
GZaVi^dch]^ehWZilZZci]Z?Zl^h]VcY6gVWHZXidgh^c?ZgjhVaZbh^cXZ&.+,R (]erusaIem: The ]erusaIem
InstItute !or IsraeI StudIes, 1¤8a}.
MIchaeI Romann, =Vh]eVVi=V>ci^[VYVVaNV]VhVnNZ]jYZZb"6gVkZZbW^NZgjh]VaVn^bPI]Z>beVXi
d[i]Z>ci^[VYVdc?Zl^h]"6gVWGZaVi^dch^c?ZgjhVaZbR (]erusaIem: The ]erusaIem InstItute !or IsraeI
StudIes, 1¤¤2}.
MIchaeI Romann and AIex WeIngrod, A^k^c\Id\Zi]ZgHZeVgViZan/?ZlhVcY6gVWh^c8dciZbedgVgn
?ZgjhVaZb (PrInceton UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤1}.
¤oo
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Con!rontatIon
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X^ind[g^[[gV[[
8GDL9H!EJ7A>8HE68:!6C9C:LJG76CH:CH>7>A>I>:H
>CL6G"I>B:?:GJH6A:B&.&,"&.'&
SaIIm TamarI
8etween the tIme o! ]erusaIem's surrender to CeneraI AIIenby's vIctorIous army
by the Cttoman Covernor Izzat 8ey and Mayor HusseIn aI-HusseInI (December
1¤1)} and the commencement o! the 8rItIsh Mandate (1¤2o}, PaIestIne experI-
enced three years o! admInIstratIve and IegaI Hux.

AIthough 8rItIsh IntentIons
!or the country were aIready deñned by commItments to theIr £rench aIIIes (In
the Sykes PIcot Memorandum}, and to the ZIonIst movement (as per the 8aI!our
DecIaratIon}, these commItments dId not ImmedIateIy transIate Into cIear poIIcIes
on the ground. The buIk o! the 8rItIsh mIIItary estabIIshment In PaIestIne was
eIther hostIIe or ambIvaIent towards the prospect o! a ]ewIsh natIonaI home on
the grounds that It vIoIated 8rItIsh promIses to SherI! HusseIn and hIs SyrIan
aIIIes, or-more ImportantIy-because It provoked PaIestInIan-SyrIan yearnIng
!or Independence and InvIted InstabIIIty (HuneIndI, 2oo¤}. 8ut agaInst those IocaI
admInIstrators and ñeId o!ñcers who were cIearIy opposed to a ]ewIsh natIonaI
home there stood a IegIon o! phIIosemItes

and supporters o! ZIonIsm, ìncIudìng
CeneraI Storrs, mIIItary commander o! ]erusaIem (Segev, 2ooo}.
Cne o!ten !orgets that the 8rItIsh Mandate over PaIestIne occupIed bareIy
three decades o! the country's modern hIstory. In schoIarIy IIterature and In
PaIestInIan popuIar ImagInatIon, the Mandate has acquIred a coIossaI (I! not mythI-
caI} reputatIon In the moIdIng o! modern PaIestInIan socIety and Its destIny. A
quIck IIst o! Its o!t-cIted achIevements (and dIsasters} wouId make thIs poInt: the
creatIon o! modern InstItutIons o! government, IncIudIng a new cIvII servIce and
poIIce !orce and a centraIIzed natIonaI bureaucracy In ]erusaIem; modernIzatIon
o! the Iand code and taxatIon system; creatIon o! a IegaI corpus to repIace (and
suppIement} Cttoman codes; conductIng o! a natIonaI census (1¤22 and 1¤¤1}
and the creatIon o! the popuIatIon regIstry; estabIIshment o! the rudImentary
!eatures o! cItIzenshIp and Icons o! un!uIñIIed sovereIgnty (currency, stamps,
passports}; deveIopment o! a modern secuIar educatIonaI system; and ñnaIIy, the
constructIon o! an In!rastructure o! roads and communIcatIon system, IncIudIng
a broadcastIng authorIty-PaIestIne RadIo (1¤¤1}. A ma]or consequence o! these
admInIstratIve changes was the separatIon o! PaIestIne !rom greater SyrIa. AII o!
thIs happened In three short decades (Iess I! we deduct the InItIaI years, whIch
were years o! mIIItary ruIe} and Is shadowed by the Mandate's other ma]or
Iegacy: IayIng the grounds !or partItIon and the creatIon o! the state o! IsraeI
(WassersteIn, 1¤¤ç}.
8>IND;G>;;G6;;6C9E6G6H>I:H
The 8rItIsh are addItIonaIIy remembered as archItects o! PaIestIne's urban pIannIng,
thereby estabIIshIng the modernIty o! urban space. ThIs essay wIII questIon that
Iegacy, probIematIzIng the certItude wIth whIch a IIne has been drawn between
two pIannIng eras, that o! the Cttomans and that o! the 8rItIsh. A cIoser Iook at
the perIod through the memoIrs o! WasI! ]awharIyyeh presents a rather dI!!erent
narratIve. ]awharIyyeh's memoIrs !or the years !oIIowIng WorId War I-coverIng
the Mandate perIod-sIgnIñcantIy convey the spIrIt o! emancIpatory antIcIpa-
tIon that enguI!ed ]erusaIem (and PaIestIne} durIng these crItIcaI three years o!
mIIItary ruIe. ]awharIyyeh hImseI! was maturIng as a musIcaI per!ormer, and
had reached an age where he was abIe to reHect on the !uture o! PaIestIne and
]erusaIem through the momentous events that he wItnessed. He aIso occupIed
a strategIc vantage poInt In these events as an entertaIner !or members o! the
cIty's notabIe eIIte, and as a rankIng 8rItIsh cIvII servant In the country's capItaI.
The memoIrs o! RonaId Storrs (1881-1¤çç}, based on hIs Ietters and dIary, are at
once eIegant, In!ormed, and acuteIy perceptIve concernIng PaIestIne's Cttoman
and IsIamIc herItage. As such, they constItute an exceIIent exposItIon o! the IdeoI-
ogy behInd the hegemonIc IIberaI coIonIaI dIscourse. Storrs' memoIrs crIsscross
!ruIt!uIIy wIth ]awharIyyeh's wItty comments on the actIvItIes o! the Pro-]erusaIem
SocIety-Storrs' pet program !or the preservatIon o! the cIty's pubIIc monuments
and archItecture. The two narratIves, ]awharIyyeh's and Storrs', present us wIth two
dIvergent dIscourses-one natIve, the other coIonIaI-on ]erusaIem's modernIty.
ConventIonaI wIsdom goes that the precedIng Cttoman EmpIre made no contrI-
butIon to urban pIannIng In the Ievant, and that It was the 8rItIsh who Introduced
the concept to PaIestIne. Here Is what Ruth Kark suggests on the sub]ect: "UntII
the end o! the Cttoman perIod, there was no overaII pIannIng o! the buIIt-up area
In ]erusaIem. The SubIIme Porte and the IocaI authorItIes IImIted theIr operatIons to
supervIsIon. £or securIty reasons a Iaw prohIbIted the constructIon o! any edIñce
beyond a dIstance o! 2,çoo cubIts (about 1.a km} !rom the waII o! a cIty. 8ecause
o! thIs restrIctIon, Acre !aIIed to expand beyond Its waIIs untII the turn o! the cen-
tury, and had the Iaw been strIctIy obeyed In ]erusaIem as weII, the !ate o! that cIty
wouId have been sImIIar" (Kark, 1¤¤1:ç8-ç¤}.
8ut these Cttoman Iaws "were not strIctIy appIIed." The maIn provIncIaI centers
o! the Cttoman Ievant (Damascus, 8eIrut, ]a!!a, and AIeppo} dI!!ered In the extent
to whIch pubIIc spaces were pIanned. ]erusaIem receIved pIannIng guIdeIInes o!
sorts a!ter the passage o! the Cttoman MunIcIpaIItIes Iaw In 18)), whIch reguIated
buIIdIng permIts, buIIdIng materIaIs, and the heIght o! buIIdIngs (KhamaIsI and
NasraIIah, 2oo¤:2¤8}. HIstorIan HaIa £attah notes how "[tjhe Increased attentIon paId
to the urbanIzatIon o! ]erusaIem, the spread o! communIcatIons and the growth
o! the popuIatIon !orced the Cttomans' hand, so to speak. In the mIddIe o! the 1¤th
century, the admInIstratIve redeveIopment o! ]erusaIem was a key aspect o! the
Cttoman centraIIzatIon o! PaIestIne. As a resuIt o! the InstItutIon o! munIcIpaI and
admInIstratIve councIIs, ]erusaIem's poIItIcaI II!e was revItaIIzed" (£attah, 1¤¤¤}.
Cttoman urban expansIon schemes and cIty buIIdIng reguIatIons exIsted, but
they were eIther haphazard or overwheImed by constructIon actIvItIes undertaken
by autonomous reIIgIous endowments, prIvate partIes, or InternatIonaI deveIopers.
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Kark suggests that even though "overaII pIans !or the cIty o! ]erusaIem dId exIst
durIng the Cttoman perIod.they were not ImpIemented, even partIaIIy, untII
1¤2o" (1¤¤1:ç¤}. 8ut It was on the basIs o! that Cttoman vIsIon that many succes-
sIve 8rItIsh pIannIng schemes durIng the postwar transItIonaI perIod (1¤1)-1¤2o},
and the earIy Mandate, were buIIt (KhamaIsI and NasraIIah, 2oo¤:2¤6}. It was agaInst
thIs background that RonaId Storrs Introduced In 1¤18 the Pro-]erusaIem SocIety
"to preserve the cIty's antIquItIes, deveIop modern cuIturaI !unctIons such as
museums, IIbrarIes, theatre, etc., and !oster the educatIon and weI!are o! the
cIty's InhabItants" (CItIer, n.d.:¤1}. Storrs was abIe to assembIe an ImpressIve array
o! the cIty's ruIIng eIIte to constItute the councII o! the socIety. These IncIuded:
]erusaIem Mayor Musa KazIm aI-HusseInI; the 8rItIsh dIrector o! antIquItIes;
Mu!tI KamII aI-HusseInI (and subsequentIy Ha] AmIn}; the two chIe! rabbIs; the
Creek orthodox, IatIn and ArmenIan patrIarchs; the AngIIcan bIshop; and IeadIng
members o! the communIty (Storrs, 1¤¤):¤22}. Cne Is struck agaIn here by Storrs'
vIsIon o! PaIestInIan socIety as composed o! con!essIonaI eIements ]oIned to the
IocaI arIstocracy (ayan}-a perspectIve that cIashed !rontaIIy wIth the emergIng
natIonaI movement and Its secuIarIzed InteIIIgentsIa.
AIthough Storrs was the key ñgure behInd thIs Idea and Its executIon, dIs-
cussIon o! ]erusaIem's earIy pIannIng cannot Ignore the partIcIpatIon o! two
InnovatIve urbanIsts !rom the Mandate perIod, WIIIIam MacIean and CharIes
Ashbee. MacIean, then town pIanner o! AIexandrIa and Khartoum, was InvIted
by Storrs In 1¤18 to Introduce the ñrst modern master pIan !or ]erusaIem, whIch
he accompIIshed In a record two-month perIod. HIs Iater achIevements were
groundbreakIng. MacIean's pIan "prohIbIted new constructIon wIthIn the bound-
arIes o! the CId CIty, mandated that the area around the waIIs be kept cIear, and
ordered the IeveIIng o! structures abuttIng the waII !rom the outsIde. New buIId-
Ings, permItted onIy to the west and north o! the CId CIty, wouId rIse to a maxI-
mum heIght o! eIeven meters so as not to compete wIth the skyIIne o! the Mount
o! CIIves. ]erusaIem was to be buIIt o! stone; IndustrIaI structures were banned"
(Roman, 2oo1}. In aImost aII o! theIr !eatures, these reguIatIons were Cttoman In
orIgIn and 8rItIsh In ImpIementatIon.
In terms o! a conceptuaI paradIgm !or oId/new ]erusaIem's urban !uture,
however, It was CharIes Ashbee who provIded the vIsIon. Ashbee (186¤-1¤a2},
a dIscIpIe o! WIIIIam MorrIs, beIonged to a generatIon o! socIaIIst romantIc
thInkers who !ound themseIves In the servIce o! the 8rItIsh coIonIaI enterprIse.
AIthough he was brought In by Storrs to survey and revIve IocaI handIcra!ts, hIs
actuaI contrIbutIon was !ar more substantIaI (Storrs, 1¤¤):¤2¤-¤26}. C!ñcIaIIy, Ashbee
heId the posItIon o! cIvIc advIsor o! the cIty untII 1¤22. In addItIon he was the
secretary and maIn coordInator o! the Pro-]erusaIem CouncII, the Pro-]erusaIem
SocIety's admInIstratIve board. In these roIes and through hIs cIose assocIatIon
wIth InHuentIaI Storrs, Ashbee was deepIy InvoIved In proposIng soIutIons to
"the cIty's modern probIems whIIe conservIng Its ancIent hoIy sIghts and unIque
character" (CItIer, n.d.:¤1}.
Ashbee combIned a romantIc vIsIon o! the cIty's "orIentaI IdeaI" wIth a prac-
tIcaI down-to-earth approach to the unIque predIcament o! ]erusaIem. In the
SocIety's 1¤2o annuaI report, he deñned the cIty's unproductIve base ("rI!!ra!!
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and prIests," to recaII Storrs} as the pIanner's maIn probIem. He attempted
to overturn thIs "parasItIc" occupatIonaI structure through the revIvaI (and
IntroductIon} o! tradItIonaI cra!ts among the cIty's trades: weavIng, tIIIng (wIth
ArmenIan ceramIc experts brought In !rom KutahIa}, and gIassbIowIng (orIgI-
naIIy !rom Hebron}. Among the pro]ects undertaken and ñnIshed In thIs perIod
were the renovatIon o! Suq aI-CattanIn (the Cotton Market} In the CId CIty; the
tIIIng, aIongsIde Waq! (MusIIm endowment} authorItIes, o! the Dome o! the
Rock; the restoratIon o! the ancIent waII ramparts buIIt by SuIeIman aI-CanunI;
and the CItadeI. AII o! these pro]ects Incorporated apprentIceshIps based on the
guIId system. Storrs aIso set up an annuaI academy o! the ñne arts at the CIta-
deI, whIch heId exhIbItIons on MusIIm art, PaIestInIan cra!ts, and town pIannIng
(Storrs, 1¤¤):¤26-¤2)}.
8y sheer coIncIdence, ]awharIyyeh, who was toIIIng at the same perIod In the
CentraI RegIstry o! the MIIItary Covernment, caught the attentIon o! CoI. Storrs.
]awharIyyeh's oud (Iute} per!ormances endeared hIm to the governor, who had
become !ond o! orIentaI musIc a!ter hIs Iong stay In Egypt. Storrs then seconded
]awharIyyeh to work as Ashbee's assIstant In the Pro-]erusaIem CouncII.
In hIs posItIon as secretary to Ashbee, ]awharIyyeh reIates an IncIdence o!
conHIct between the archItecturaI vIsIon o! the Pro-]erusaIem SocIety and the
]erusaIem MunIcIpaIIty. In 1¤o1, the Cttomans had constructed a cIock tower
InsIde ]a!!a Cate durIng the tenure o! Mayor £aIdaIIah aI-AIamI to commemorate
the 2çth annIversary o! SuItan AbduI HamId II's reIgn. The tower was desIgned
In the 8aroque styIe by ]erusaIem archItect PascaI A!!endI Saroñm, the munIcIpaI
archItect at the tIme (]awharIyyeh, 2ooa:a¤}. When Ashbee became secretary o!
the Pro-]erusaIem SocIety, he decIded to remove the cIock tower, sInce, accord-
Ing to ]awharIyyeh, "It dId not ñt weII wIth the Image o! the hIstorIcaI waII."

The tower was removed overnIght despIte protests !rom munIcIpaIIty o!ñcIaIs.
]awharIyyeh, however, concurred wIth Ashbee's aesthetIcs: "The desIgn was an
eIaborate hybrIdIty o! styIes, and remInded me o! AbdeI Wahhab's £ranco-Arab
musIc, aIthough I must say that It shouId have been moved to another IocatIon,
perhaps In the vIcInIty o! the new munIcIpaIIty by 8arcIays 8ank" (2ooa:a¤}. Years
Iater, ]awharIyyeh made a wooden modeI o! the removed cIock tower and the
ad]oInIng pIaza (aIso destroyed}, !or the beneñt o! those who wanted to see what
Cttoman ]erusaIem Iooked IIke on the eve o! the Mandate (]awharIyyeh, 2ooa:ço}.

]awharIyyeh's dIarIes thus heIp us to rethInk these changes In the urban Iand-
scape o! ]erusaIem, not onIy as the IIved experIence o! a contemporary observer,
but aIso as a brIdge rather than a rupture between Cttoman and EngIIsh ruIe.
HIs observatIons undermIne the notIon that the Cttoman regIme and the 8rItIsh
regIme were opposItes-one representIng orIentaI despotIsm, the other modernIty.
Here the presumed creatIon o! these InstItutIons o! coIonIaI modernIty Is seen
not as an InnovatIon agaInst the "decrepIt" Cttoman system, but as an eIabora-
tIon on the !oundatIons o! Cttoman re!orms (secuIar educatIon, the cIvII servIce,
constItutIonaI re!orm, urban pIannIng}. In certaIn areas, 8rItIsh poIItIcaI pIans
constItuted retrogressIon o! the Cttoman system. ThIs was the case, !or exam-
pIe, wIth the con!essIonaIIzatIon o! quarters In the CId CIty, and enhancement
o! reIIgIon as a marker o! natIonaI IdentIty. ]awharIyyeh remInds us that many
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o! the ceIebrated re!orms o! the Mandate admInIstratIon were aIready In pIace
be!ore and durIng WorId War I. 8ut the tragedIes o! the war, and conscrIptIon's
poIsonIng o! the reIatIonshIp between the Cttoman ruIers and theIr Arab sub]ects
In SyrIa and PaIestIne, subsequentIy erased these !eatures o! Cttoman modernIty
!rom PaIestInIan coIIectIve memory.
NaturaIIy, the 8rItIsh admInIstratIon Is recaIIed as the conscIous Instrument
(through the 8aI!our DecIaratIon} !or the !oundatIons o! PaIestInIan dIspIacement
In 1¤a8, and much o! ]awharIyyeh's narratIve Is permeated wIth thIs under-
standIng (sInce he was wrItIng In a Iater perIod}. The hIndsIght IargeIy expIaIns
hIs ambIvaIence about ]erusaIem's IIberatIon !rom the Cttoman yoke, even as
]erusaIemItes were dancIng In the street, and as he and hIs brother KhaIII were
burnIng theIr TurkIsh mIIItary unI!orms (Mana', 2oo¤, 2ç¤-a}.
SeveraI wrIters have been abIe to retrospectIveIy examIne those years as a
perIod o! ma]or restructurIng In PaIestInIan and SyrIan socIety. Cne contemporary
observer re!ers to the radIcaI Impact that popuIatIon movement and the war
economy had on the normatIve aspects o! daIIy II!e: vIIIagers reguIarIy comIng to
the cIty; young women attendIng schooI and removIng theIr veIIs; the emergence
o! ca!e cuIture; and the decIIne o! reIIgIosIty In NabIus and ]erusaIem (8arghoutI,
2oo1:1¤2-¤}. A derIvatIve deveIopment o! these normatIve changes was the decIIne
o! IocaI a!ñnItIes and the strengthenIng o! SyrIan and Arab natIonaIIsm.
8=6DH>CI=:HIG::IH
]awharIyyeh recaIIs these three transItIonaI years as days o! chaos-both In the
country as a whoIe and In hIs prIvate II!e, as I! one condItIon mIrrored the other.
8ut the "chaos" Is aIso seen here as a perIod o! creatIve anarchy.
In hIs personaI II!e, those were ]awharIyyeh's "precIous" years o! bacheIor-
hood be!ore he settIed down. They were aIso marked by the death o! hIs patron,
the mayor o! ]erusaIem, HusseIn E!!endI aI-HusseInI, a!ter whIch ]awharIyyeh
descrIbes hIs condItIon as one o! "vagabondage" (tasharrud}: "I roamed around
the cIty as I! In a trance. I wouId spend aII nIght partyIng, and then sIeep aII
day, then spend another evenIng In neIghborIng vIIIages o! ]erusaIem. I paId no
attentIon to anybody or anythIng, and wouId onIy go home to change my cIothes,
sIeepIng mostIy at my !rIends' homes untII my body was compIeteIy depIeted
!rom IntoxIcatIon. Cne day I am ceIebratIng In the 8ab Hatta neIghborhood, and
In the next mornIng I am havIng a pIcnIc wIth the !amIIIes o! the top notabIes
(ayan} In the cIty. Then I wouId have a "sessIon" wIth some o! ]erusaIem's gang-
sters (zuran and qabadayat} In a cIty aIIey" (]awharrIyeh, 2ooa:2¤}. 8ut these epIsodes
o! hedonIsm, IastIng most o! 1¤18 and part o! the !oIIowIng year, reHected a
mood, whIch enguI!ed the cìty as a whoIe. ]awharIyyeh depIcts numerous epIsodes
o! pubIIc ceIebratIons o! !reedom In the CId CIty streets, marked by musIcaI
processIons and open consumptIon o! aIcohoI. In one such !antasIa InvoIvIng
hundreds o! reveIers, the ceIebrants started In Damascus Cate, moved out o! the
CId CIty through Musrara, to the RussIan Compound, back Into the CId CIty !rom
]a!!a Cate, to the AustrIan HospIce, onIy to ñnaIIy end up In the SheIkh RIhan
neIghborhood o! MahaIIat aI-SaadIyya (2ooa:a1-2}. "Why dId we have these orgIes
o! ceIebratIon the IIkes o! whIch we have not seen sInce then?" he asks. Then
proceeds to answer hImseI!: "The peopIe were hungry !or a moment o! reIease,
a!ter the years o! humIIIatIon, dIsease, hunger, and dIspersaI durIng the war
and Cttoman despotIsm. When the 8rItIsh arrIved we began to have a breath o!
!reedom. Un!ortunateIy our ]oy was short IIved, !or they brought us catastrophe
whIch was severaI tImes more dIsastrous than the TurkIsh yoke" (2ooa:a1-2}.
These outbursts o! street merrIment were echoed durIng the years o! mIIItary
government In the mushroomIng o! IocaI ca!es and ca!e-bars. They were pIaces
where ]erusaIemItes couId meet at IeIsure, IIsten to gramophone musIc, drInk
araq and cognac, and smoke an arghIIeh. Two outstandIng ca!es !rom thIs perIod
were Maqha aI-Arab In EIn Karem (owned by Abu aI-Abed Arab} whIch stayed
open aII nIght, and the ]awharIyyeh ca!e bar (owned by WasI!'s brother}-whIch
!eatured IIve entertaInment by vIsItIng musIcIans !rom CaIro, AIexandrIa, and
8eIrut (2ooa:aa-ç}.

A>B>C6AHE68:6C9B>A>I6GNGJA:
The ]awharIyyeh memoIrs shed sIgnIñcant IIght on the crItIcaI postwar years,
when poIItIcaI ambIguIty about the !uture dIrectIon o! PaIestIne prevaIIed. These
were the years o! cuIturaI IImInaIIty In PaIestIne, when the Cttoman system had
coIIapsed mIIItarIIy but the coIonIaI system had not yet been ushered In. "We
IIved In a state o! Ignorance," Storrs Iater con!essed, "and my word was the Iaw"
(Storrs, 1¤¤):2)2-¤}. Under CeneraI Money's admInIstratIon, aII cIvII Iaws were sus-
pended In !avor o! the mIIItary admInIstratIon. SuddenIy, In PaIestIne, accordIng
to Mandate hIstorIan 8ayan aI-Hut, there were no Iawyers, no ]udges, no courts,
and no newspapers (aI-Hut, 1¤81:66}. The northern regIons o! PaIestIne remaIned
under Cttoman controI In 1¤18, and the 8rItIsh were mobIIIzIng resIstance In the
name o! SherI! HusseIn agaInst the encIrcIed Cttoman army. 8ut even a!ter Ctto-
man de!eat and ñnaI consoIIdatIon o! 8rItIsh ruIe, the borders between Trans-
]ordan, Iebanon, and SyrIa on one hand, and PaIestIne on the other, remaIned
"Cttoman," wIth HuId boundarIes and common cuIturaI outIook. WhIIe the IegaI
vacuum was ñIIed In the countrysIde by a reversIon to common Iaw (aI-qanun
aI-urñ} and trIbaI Iaw, condItIons In the Iarge cItIes aIIowed appoInted ]udges and
senIor admInIstrators (8rItIsh and PaIestInIan} consIderabIe Ieeway In appIyIng
the Iaw IocaIIy.
Another !eature o! thIs IImInaIIty was the porosIty o! the new borders wIth
Iebanon, Trans]ordan, SyrIa, and Egypt, whIch stIII reHected Cttoman Creater
SyrIa. In the summer o! 1¤22, ]awharIyyeh goes on an excursIon wIth hIs brother
KhaIII to SyrIa and Iebanon through the northern borders. The passage through
Ras aI-Naqura, whIch ten years Iater had become a !ormIdabIe !rontIer post, Is
hardIy recorded In the memoIrs; It was as I! one sImpIy passed !rom one dIstrIct
to another (]awharIyyeh, 2ooa:¤o}. Three years Iater, ]awharIyyeh repeats the trIp
wIth hIs wI!e VIctorIa, agaIn wIth bareIy any !ormaI procedures (2ooa:161}. The two
storIes IIIustrate the HuIdIty o! !rontIer areas on the eve o! the 8rItIsh and £rench
protectorates' deIIneatIon o! new state boundarIes, whIch consoIIdated notIons
o! cItIzenshIp, excIusIon, and separatIon. The new reguIatIons ended the perIod
when northern PaIestIne and southern Iebanon were consIdered a subregIon, a
physIcaI unIt wIth shared cuIturaI and socIaI attrIbutes.
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The phasIng-out o! thIs border HuIdIty corresponded to the growth and con-
soIIdatIon In PaIestIne o! the governIng apparatuses o! the coIonIaI state: the
army, the poIIce !orce, the cIvII servIce, and the new IegaI system. WIthIn every
sector o! the new state, the 8rItIsh had to baIance a system o! appoIntments
that took Into account both the natIve PaIestInIan popuIatIon, and the emIgrant
]ewIsh popuIatIon. 8ut whIIe natIve representatIon was IndIvIduaI and dIrect,
IncorporatIng socIaI status and con!essIon, ]ewIsh representatIon was medIated
through protracted negotIatIons wIth the ]ewIsh Agency and ZIonIst executIve.
DurIng the crucIaI !ormatIve stage o! 8rItIsh ruIe, when the new cIvII admInIs-
tratIon was InstaIIed In 1¤2o, ]ewIsh representatIon was overwheImIng, even
though ]ews constItuted Iess than 12% o! the popuIatIon. Segev wrItes that "[tjhe
PaIestInIan ]ews In senIor posItIons were promInent prIncIpaIIy durIng SamueI's
tenure. Together wIth the 8rItIsh ZIonIsts, they heId key posItIons In hIs admIn-
IstratIon, compIaIned IIeutenant CoIoneI Percy 8rameIy, the dIrector o! pubIIc
securIty In PaIestIne. In !act, 8rameIy wrote, SamueI's was a 'ZIonIst-controIIed
government' (Segev, 2ooo:16)}.
]awharIyyeh's two decades o! work In the Iand RegIstry provIdes a detaIIed
record o! how new Iaws were geared to !acIIItate the trans!er o! urban and ruraI
property to the ZIonIsts. ThIs process IncIuded the aboIItIon o! the tIthe and the
werko

(both were Cttoman Iand taxes whIch garnered state revenue wIthout regard
to quaIIty or productIvIty} and the InstItutIon o! the new graded Iand tax based on
Iand use, IocatIon, and quaIIty. £InaIIy, It IncIuded the expedItIng o! the Iand SettIe-
ment, whose maIn ob]ectIve was a comprehensIve cadastraI regIstratIon o! Iand
pIots to enhance and sImpII!y the operatIons o! the Tapu (Iand RegIstry}.
It Is paradoxIcaI, gIven hIs Iater natIonaIIst credentIaIs, that ]awharIyyeh was a
crItIcaI Instrument In thIs process o! Iand aIIenatIon, InItIaIIy unaware o! Its sIgnIñ-
cance, and certaInIy unwIIIIng to per!orm these tasks. 8ut ]awharIyyeh's rendItIon
o! the process was typIcaI o! these earIy hedonIstIc years: passIve resIstance by
deIayIng hIs work, bureaucratIc sabotage, and creatIon o! a ]ovIaI atmosphere o!
ceIebratIon In one o! the most crItIcaI departments o! the coIonIaI government.
HIs mundane anecdotes satIrIzIng the daIIy routIne o! the coIonIaI bureaucracy
draw a cumuIatIve pIcture o! the perIod's emergIng IImInaI IdentIty. Its maIn
!eatures were a IegaI vacuum ñIIed by admInIstratIve ñat; a hedonIstIc street
cuIture that ceIebrated the Ioss o! tyranny, but ñIIed It wIth new uncertaIntIes;
and porous borders that retaIned the texture o! an oIder contInuous IevantIne
(8hamì} cuIture. What "cemented" these eIements together was a strong sense o!
the IocaI-o! ]erusaIem as the center o! the country's shI!tIng boundarIes, and an
anchor agaInst the schemes engIneered by the new coIonIaI enemy amId a coIIec-
tIve nostaIgIa !or the "accursed" Cttomans.
1 ThIs Is a consIderabIy reduced versIon o! a Ionger IntroductIon to the MemoIrs o! ]awharIyyeh
]awharIyyeh (AI-Cuds aI-IntIdabIyyah ñI Mudhakarat aI-]awharIyyah}, 2ooa.
2 The re!erence here Is to a number o! coIonIaI o!ñcIaIs, IncIudIng ChurchIII, Ashbee, and possIbIy
Storrs, who heId exotIc vIews o! European ]ews, and adopted !avorabIe attItude to the Idea o!
"]ewIsh Return" to PaIestIne.
¤ Henry KendaII re!ers to the IncIdent: "permIssIon was tact!uIIy obtaIned to remove a hIdeous
cIock tower wIth dIaIs showIng the tIme accordIng to both Western and Arab reckonIng." He
cIaIms that the tower was erected to commemorate the ¤¤rd, not 2çth, annIversary o! AbduI
HamId's reIgn (KendaII, 1¤a8:8-1o}.
a £I!teen years Iater, Pro!essor T.£. MeIseI, the Hebrew UnIversIty archeoIogIst, vIsIted ]awharIyyeh
and wrote gIowIngIy about thIs modeI In an artIcIe pubIIshed In the PaIestIne Post.
ç £or more on thIs worId, see "]erusaIem's Cttoman ModernIty: The TImes and IIves o! WasI!
]awharIyyeh (TamarI, 2ooo}.
6 The werko was orIgInaIIy a Iand and reaI estate tax IevIed on zaamat (sìpahìs, or !eudaI estates}.
WIth the aboIItIon o! !eudaI estates the werko became a Iand tax Imposed by the state, together
wIth the tIthe. £or detaIIs see, Moses Doukhan, "Iand Tenure," In SaId HImadeh, EconomIc
CrganIzatIon o! PaIestIne, AmerIcan UnIversIty Press, 8eIrut, 1¤¤8:¤8-¤¤.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
Cmar SaIIh aI-8arghoutI, aI-MarahìI (8eIrut 2oo1}. UnpubIIshed manuscrIpt.
Moses Doukhan, "Iand Tenure," In £conomìc Crganìzatìon o| IaIestìne, ed. SaId HImadeh (8eIrut:
AmerIcan UnIversIty Press, 1¤¤8}.
HaIa £attah, "PIannIng, 8uIIdIng and PopuIatIng ]erusaIem In the Cttoman PerIod," www.jerusaIemìtes.
org/jerusaIem/ottoman//.htm, 1¤¤¤.
Sahar HuneIndI, A ßroken Trust: Herbert 8amueI, Zìonìsm and the IaIestìnìans, ArabIc edItIon
(8eIrut: InstItute o! PaIestIne StudIes, 2oo¤}.
8ayan NuwaIhId aI-Hut, aI-Cìyadat waI Mu'assasat aI-8ìyasìyya h IìIasteen, ioi/-ioa8 (Ieadershìp and
IoIìtìcaI Instìtutìons ìn IaIestìne, ioi/-ioa8) (8eIrut: Mu'assasat aI-DIrasat aI-£IIastInIyyah, 1¤81}.
InbaI 8en-Asher CItIer, "C R Ashbee's ]erusaIem Years: Arts and Cra!ts, CrIentaIIsm and 8rItIsh
RegIonaIIsm," In Assaph 8tudìes ìn the Arts ç, TeI AvIv UnIversIty. (Undated}.
]awharIyyeh ]awharIyyeh, AI-Cuds aI-Intìdabìya hI Mudhakarat aI-]awharìyyah, eds. SaIIm TamarI
and Issam Nasar (8eIrut: Mu'assasat aI-DIrasat aI-£IIastInIyyah, 2ooa}.
Ruth Kark, ]erusaIem Neìghborhoods: IIannìng and ßy-Iaws (i8çç-io¸o) (]erusaIem: The Magnes
Press, 1¤¤1}.
Henry KendaII, ]erusaIem Cìty IIan, Ireservatìon and DeveIopment Durìng the ßrìtìsh Mandate, ioi8-
ioa8 (Iondon: Her Ma]esty's StatIonary C!ñce, 1¤a8}.
Rassem KhamaIsI and RamI NasraIIah, The ]erusaIem Urban Iabrìc (]erusaIem: InternatIonaI Peace
and CooperatIon Center, 2oo¤}.
AdeI Mana', Tarìkh IìIasteen h Awakhìr aI-Ahd aI-Uthmanì i/oo-ioi8 (8eIrut: Mu'assasat aI-DIrasat
aI-£IIastInIyyah, 2oo¤}.
YadIn Roman, "]erusaIem's WaII," £retz Magazìne (£ebruary, 2ooo}.
Tom Segev, Cne IaIestìne CompIete (New York: MetropoIItan 8ooks, 2ooo}.
Na]atI SIdqI, Mudhakarat Najatì 8ìdqì (8eIrut: InstItute !or PaIestIne StudIes, 2oo1}.
RonaId Storrs, Crìentatìons (Iondon: NIchoIson and Watson, 1¤¤)}.
SaIIm, TamarI, "]erusaIem's Cttoman ModernIty: The TImes and IIves o! WasI! ]awharIyyeh,"
]erusaIem CuarterIy IìIe ¤ (2ooo}
Izzat Tannous, The IaIestìnìans: £yewìtness Hìstory o| IaIestìne Under the ßrìtìsh Mandate (Iondon
and New York: I. C. T. Company, 1¤88}.
8ernard WassersteIn, "The 8rItIsh Mandate In PaIestIne: Mythos and ReaIItIes," In MìddIe £ast
Iectures 1 (TeI AvIv: The Dayan Center !or MIddIe East and A!rIcan StudIes, 1¤¤ç}.
¤1o
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Crhan Esen
How mIght ]erusaIem's urban deveIopment have un!oIded I! ethnIc conHIct
between IsraeIIs and PaIestInIans had not become the domInant !actor, and the
resuItIng spatIaI segregatIon had not become the maIn !eature o! the buIIt envI-
ronment? Assume that, a!ter the Cttoman EmpIre and 8rItIsh Mandate, a ]ewIsh-
Arab/IsraeI-PaIestIne state o! two peopIes had deveIoped. Assume even !urther
that a bInatIonaI, Western-orIented, ñnancIaI and cuIturaI eIIte (sImIIar to that In
other parts o! the outgoIng and modernIzIng Cttoman EmpIre} heId poIItIcaI and
pIannIng IeadershIp roIes, whIIe the tradItIonaIIst sector o! ]ewIsh/PaIestInIan
socIety (]ust In the earIy twentIeth century} contInued theIr patterns o! II!e. Cr
that terrItorIaI Independence had not been aspIred !or or attaIned, and the a!ore-
mentIoned socIaI eIIte onIy exercIsed socIaI and IdeoIogIcaI domInance as carrIers
o! the Idea o! modernIty? How wouId the urbanIstIc careers o! thIs eIIte and others
have deveIoped, I!-In pIace o! the natIonaI dIchotomy between IsraeIIs and PaI-
estInIans-a more compIIcated mesh o! tensIon, dIvIdIng IInes, and hybrIdIzatIon
had arIsen? In short: what wouId have resuIted !rom ]ewIsh-PaIestInIan urbanIsm
In ]erusaIem I! dI!!erent processes In the cIty had prevaIIed?
Take the cIty o! IstanbuI as an anaIogy !or thIs specuIatIve exercIse. The
IntervIew wIth Meron 8envenIstI and SaIIm TamarI In thIs pubIIcatIon suggests
that, In the earIy modern tImes o! the wanIng Cttoman EmpIre be!ore the estab-
IIshment o! the natIon state, ]erusaIem and IstanbuI (as other centers o! the
Cttoman EmpIre} were comparabIe urban areas. How dId a cIty such as IstanbuI
deveIop sImIIarIy to ]erusaIem? 8oth dIssoIved theIr InherIted "Cttoman" dIver-
sIty under the augury o! competIng natIonaIIsms, Instead producIng new compIex
!orms o! segregatIon through mIgratIon and gIobaIIzatIon processes. In both cItIes,
hIstorIcaI ways o! thInkIng and the urbanIstIc attItudes o! an earIy modern eIIte
were reproduced Into new contexts-urban areas changed and trans!erred those
new Ideas Into conceptuaI desIgn. In that IIght, thIs essay

recounts the muItI-
Iayered socIoeconomIc and IdeoIogIcaI cycIes o! "segregatIon" and "re-amaIga-
matIon" o! IstanbuI In the 2oth century.
I=:¹H>BEA:9J6A>INºD;DA9I>B:H
Today's IstanbuI Is the sIte o! a cIear !auIt IIne between two "opposIng" partIes
wIthIn the mIddIe cIass. These two opposIng camps each deñne themseIves dI!-
!erentIy In theIr attItudes towards pubIIc space, theIr posItIon In the mass medIa,
and theIr vIew o! thIs IdeoIogIcaI battIeground. Cn one sIde o! the poIarIty are
groups comIng out o! the "edhi"\ZXZ`dcYj"

envIronment. These mIIIeus deveI-
oped graduaIIy !rom the waves o! provIncIaI mIgratIon that began 6o years ago,
and now theIr InhabItants ]eaIousIy cIIng to theIr acquIred economIc assets and
posItIons. We couId caII these peopIe the "rIsIng new mIddIe cIass." PoIItIcaIIy,
they seem to Iean towards a kInd o! re!ormIst conservatIsm, combInIng neo-IIber-
aIIsm wIth reIIgIous motIves.
Cn the other sIde o! the poIarIty Is the ,oId," ,estabIIshed" mIddIe cIass o!
IstanbuI. ThIs group couId be saId to represent "north IstanbuIness" as a compIex
combInatIon o! mentaIIty and coIIectIve actIon. The north IstanbuIItes thInk that
they aIone deserve the epIthet "cIvIIIzed" as heIrs to the oId, CccIdentaIIst mIddIe
cIass vaIues o! the earIy modernIzatIon perIod. A great part o! thIs group, however,
has been !orced to watch In desperatIon as better-skIIIed, new mIgrants conquer
the economIc and socIaI !ortresses whIch they attempted to scaIe In the 1¤¤os.
The rIsIng new mIddIe cIass !rom ruraI orIgIns, whIIe skIII!uIIy expIoItIng the
economIc rent mechanIsms o! theIr new urban surroundIngs, has expressed Its
cuIturaI orIgIns wIth growIng conñdence. They have begun to wear turbans and
hoId barbecue partIes and sacrIñce rItuaIs In urban pubIIc spaces, provokIng
negatIve !eeIIngs (even hatred} !rom the oId, educated mIddIe cIass, who were
not as skII!uI In approprIatIng and usIng urban pubIIc resources.
ThIs oIder cIass generaIIy represents the Iosers o! the 1¤¤os, and was gradu-
aIIy drIven to aImost reactIonary poIItIcaI stances. A!ter the 1¤¤os, In permanent
economIc crIsIs, the oId mIddIe cIass had dI!ñcuIty In ñndIng a pIace among the
"dynamIc" market !orces o! a growIng metropoIIs and consequentIy Iost theIr
posItIon. So they naturaIIy IdentI!y the new rIsIng mIddIe cIass wIth the savage,
"maña-IIke" aspects o! thIs new capItaIIsm. CuIturaIIy, the essentIaIIy eIItIst
north IstanbuIItes soIve the probIem o! separatIng themseIves !rom the newIy
weaIthy by coIIectIveIy IabeIIng aII edhi"\ZXZ`dcYj peopIe wIth the notIon o!
"kVgd!" (meanIng "outskIrts"} and thus IdentI!yIng them as outsIders.
The word \ZXZ`dcYj, InherIted !rom the 1¤ços, '6os and ')os and maInIy posI-
tIve, has graduaIIy !aIIen out o! use. In the 1¤¤os, the medIa dIscovered the kVgdh
and promoted the term In Its arguments about "dIstorted urbanIzatIon." The
kVgdh Is what Is not IstanbuI; It Is the IncarnatIon o! an un!oreseen urbanIzatIon.
The kVgdh, wIth Its chaos, Is ImpossIbIe to understand and penetrate. Those
who can buIId IIIegaIIy are ]ust as IIkeIy to per!orm aII kInds o! other subversIve
actIons. It Is obvIousIy notorIous, a pIace where X^k^iVh comes to an end and
where our securIty Is no Ionger guaranteed, It Is a no-go area.
ThIs kVgdh dIscourse reveaIs the coIIectIve unconscIous o! the oId mIddIe cIass,
who use the term to emphasIze the perceIved poverty o! the new settIements, and
theIr own desIre to avoId thIs !ate. TheIr dIscourse Is wIdeIy supported In the mass
medIa. Its ambIguous use as a term descrIbIng both poverty and the threatenIng
new mIddIe cIass Is possIbIe because edhi"\ZXZ`dcYj IstanbuIItes resIde In spaces
stIII-or once agaIn-IntertwIned wIth poverty. Such ñne poInts are Ignored by the
northern IstanbuIItes, whose embedded cuIturaI assumptIons negIect Important
socIoeconomIc and poIItIcaI dI!!erentIatIons wIthIn thIs mIIIeu.
In my artIcIe "IearnIng !rom IstanbuI" (2ooç}, I traced the mentaI and
sentImentaI roots o! thIs attItude back to the earIy perIod o! modernIzatIon In
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IstanbuI In the second haI! o! the 1¤th century. ThIs was when the ñrst spatIaI
ruptures between upper and Iower Income groups occurred. WIth the socIaI
eIIte's movement !rom the oId penInsuIa to Pera In the north o! the cIty, an
urban !racture opened up on the axIs o! CoIden Horn, whIch quIckIy became an
IdeoIogIcaI break. In thIs perIod, a sImpIe socIaI duaIIty emerged wIth decIpherabIe
spatIaI characterIstIcs.
I=:G>H:D;<6I:98DBBJC>I>:H6;I:GI=:&.-%h/
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DurIng the second move o! capItaI toward the north !rom 1¤ço to 1¤8o, the
upper and mIddIe cIasses o! the IndustrIaI-cIty-In-the-makIng settIed aIong the
axIs between TaksIm and EtIIer. It was exactIy In thIs IntermedIate era that the
bourgeoIsIe made themseIves out to be socIaIIy responsIbIe, neIther wIIIIng nor
needIng to IsoIate themseIves. "SocIaI Respect" was maIntaIned by the Iower
cIasses InhabItIng the cIassIcaI \ZXZ`dcYj areas (no Ionger !armers, but not yet
proIetarIans, they occupIed the threshoId between urban and ruraI}. Separate
cuItures created a conventIonaI !ramework wIth ñrm roIes, wIthIn whIch eve-
ryone moved com!ortabIy. In a socIety wIth productIon-based capItaI accumuIa-
tIon and vaIues, everyone "knew" hIs or her pIace; desIres were not un!urIed
as they were a!ter the 1¤8os. At thIs tIme the oId cuIturaI dIvIdIng IInes based
on IndustrIaI productIon Iost theIr vaIIdIty; wIth the new weaIth, the prevIous
borders dIssoIved.
A hIghIy vIsIbIe sectIon o! thIs new, monIed arIstocracy orIgInatIng mostIy
through success!uI ñnancIaI specuIatIon Is, to a Iarge extent, "uncuItIvated"
!rom the vIewpoInt o! the oId urban mIddIe cIasses. It Is seen as not yet capabIe
o! dI!!erentIatIng ItseI! through a separate "superIor cuIture"-that Is through a
cooI, dIstanced, bourgeoIs ("European"} cIass behavIor. In a socIety that has been
"de-eIItIzed," the InherIted northern IstanbuI dIscourse Is too weak to deveIop an
aItogether new cIass posItIon. So It remaIns !or the nouveaux rIches, who cannot
set themseIves apart through behavIor, to dIstInguIsh themseIves through materIaI
trappIngs: wIth ]eeps, bIack sungIasses, and settIement waIIs In the IatIn-AmerIcan
styIe.
The behavIor o! the Iower cIasses In re]ectIon o! thIs segregatIon seems InevI-
tabIe: tuggIng at and copyIng It, comIng cIose to It, and !urther necessItatIng
"hard" physIcaI segregatIon by the upper cIasses. CrIgIns, Ianguage, and behavIor
are dIstrIbuted through the medIa and consumed, provIdIng easy access. ReaIIty
shows starrIng members o! the Iower cIasses, and socIety shows where the new
"uneducated" upper cIasses put themseIves on dIspIay onIy serve to mIrror each
other. The new weaIth Is obvIousIy not a resuIt o! per!ormance and e!!ort, and
Is not su!ñcIentIy IegItImIzed; and both partIes know thIs onIy too weII. The new
rIch o! today are yesterday's next-door neIghbors. Thus, nothIng speaks agaInst
a possIbIe exchange o! roIes, except Iuck, good reIatIons, rIgor, and dIIIgence.
In the Iate 1¤¤os, the medIa Iandscape was Hooded by a popuIar genre: the
MahaIIe teIevIsIon serIes.

These programs represent an unprecedented, sound,
"tradItIonaI," IstanbuI mIcrocosmos. Even when InvoIved In neat, quotIdIan con-
HIcts, the poorer, petIt bourgeoIs cohabItants aIways behave nIceIy to each other,
maInIy out o! soIIdarIty. CId boroughs wIth sIngIe-!amIIy houses such as Kuzgun-
cuk, Samatya, etc.-reIatIveIy spared !rom the Inter!erIng hand o! the nVehVi

-
are seIected to portray IstanbuI be!ore 1¤aç-1¤ço. The story Is ambIguousIy set In
contemporary tImes, whIch Is aItogether an absoIuteIy ImprobabIe tIme/space/
actIon combInatIon. The camera hardIy moves; no undesIrabIe apartment !açades
enter the pIcture. It captures the ImagInary desIres o! a !ormer (and ImpossIbIe}
but harmonIous worId: what wouId It be IIke I! we and our cIty remaIned as we
were In our chIIdhood?
InterestIng enough, the gated communItIes make exactIy thIs In!antIIe dream
avaIIabIe !or purchase. The known pIoneer o! these settIements, Kemer Coun-
try, Is marketed precIseIy thus: on the one hand, IamentIng the harmonIous oId
MahaIIe, and at the same tIme, "seIIIng" Its re-estabIIshment vIa an expensIve,
guarded, homogenous communIty on excIusIve property. It Is !orgotten that 1ço
years ago, durIng theIr ñrst mIgratIon to the north, the very ancestors o! thIs
Kemer Country cIIenteIe, turned theIr backs once and !or aII on the hIstorIcaI
penInsuIa, and Its socIaIIy heterogeneous MahaIIes.
9>H8:GC>C<6EE6G:CI6C9G:6A9>K>H>DCH
The "compIIcated" duaIIty that prevaIIs In the cIty In the 2ooos Is composed o!
two dIssImIIar dIchotomIes: ñrst, a dIvIsIon sub]ectIveIy experIenced by dI!!erent
groups around the symboIs o! urban II!e and second, a conHIct derIved !rom the
materIaI productIon o! urban space.
The ñrst dIvIde derIves !rom the symboIIc InterpretatIon o! pubIIc space.
DescrIbed above, thIs IdeoIogIcaI quarreI revoIves around the II!estyIes o! the oId
and new mIddIe cIasses. 8oth groups gIve the ImpressIon that they are poIsed
to undermIne each other !or the sake o! a greater presence In pubIIc space; each
sIde's pubIIc presence, attItude, stance, materIaI, and patterns o! cuIturaI con-
sumptIon are apparentIy compIeteIy unbearabIe to Its socIopoIItIcaI opponent.
However, It seems that these two groups have grown cIoser together, and
have even become equaIs In the process o! producIng the buIIt envIronment. In
the area o! archItecture and methods o! reaI estate expIoItatIon, they Increas-
IngIy copy each other. In other words, the oId Iearn "the ways" !rom the new,
and the new Iearn "the ruIes" !rom the oId. Today, the productIon o! smaII-scaIe
nVehVi capItaI Is no Ionger dIstInctIveIy dI!!erent In eIther oId "apartment buIId-
Ings" or new "edhi"\ZXZ`dcYj" surroundIngs. The urban structures o! the oId
estabIIshed centraI dIstrIcts (!or Instance, 8esIktas or £atIh} and the ñrst wave o!
gecekondu dIstrIcts (!or Instance, ZeytInburnu or UmranIye} were both !ounded
wIth smaII-scaIe capItaI Investments and are no Ionger vIsuaIIy dI!!erent.
In the hIghIy-pubIIcIzed debate on conHIctIng II!estyIes In pubIIc space, socIaI
trends, Huxes, and amaIgamatIons are rather overIooked. 8oth mIddIe cIasses
!orm a Iarge ma]orIty o! the current urban popuIatIon and share a pubIIc space
that Is IncomparabIy wIdened and dIversIñed reIatIve to that o! 1¤8o. MobIIIty
wIthIn urban space Is now unprecedented. In the ñnaI anaIysIs, the bIpoIar oppo-
sItIon that emerges as harsh conHIct and IntoIerance In IdeoIogIcaI dIscourse Is
IIkeIy to eventuaIIy transcend ItseI! to create the core vaIues (derIved !rom these
new urban practIces} o! a "new IstanbuI conventIon" !or aII mIddIe cIasses.
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DC<D>C<6C9JCHI6I:9B6I:G>6AGJEIJG:H>CI=:8>IN
The second dIvIsIon reIates to the restructurIng o! the urban envIronment and
the roIe o! new and rIsIng capItaI Investment groups. ThIs phenomenon Is In
progress and Its dIvIsIons are Iess !uIIy artIcuIated, aIthough o!ten touched upon,
In the mass medIa. At Its start In the earIy 1¤¤os, new ma]or Investment groups
were estabIIshed In a cIty that had IargeIy been created through smaII-scaIe
Investments. The IsIets these groups produced were "pasted" on top o! the exIst-
Ing pattern. In the 2ooos, thIs change came to pubIIc notIce when the capItaI
companIes expanded theIr areas o! acquIsItIon. The ruptures that thIs process Is
sure to create wIII set the cIty's !uture agenda.
ThIs process Is marked by two trends; the ñrst beIng the creatIon o! new
urban spaces, assurIng the new upper Income groups' spatIaI socIaI segregatIon.
(ThIs trend HourIshed In the 1¤¤os, and Its consequences were wIdeIy dIscussed.}
The second trend, whIch emerged onIy a!ter the Iast economIc crIsIs In 2oo1-2,
Is the trans!ormatIon o! Iarge-scaIe constructIon and reaI estate Investment !or
mIddIe and Iower Income groups Into a ma]or means o! capItaI accumuIatIon.
RubrIcs such as "urban InnovatIon," "earthquake-proo! constructIon," and a
return to "archItecturaI IdentIty," are used to ]ustI!y a new capItaI accumuIatIon
process, In whIch !unds !rom the mIddIe cIasses are now beIng trans!erred to
ma]or constructIon companIes.
In the IstanbuI o! the 1¤¤os and 2ooos, cars have become a ma]or tooI !or
dI!!erentIatIng urban space. New kInds o! housIng, workIng, shoppIng, and enter-
taInment areas connect to each other through a network o! hIghways-spaces o!
new urban geography attached to the oId cIty map. The waIIs o! the sa!e "gated
communItIes" and the axa ]eeps, needed to progress through the "urban ]ungIe,"
both made the new cIass more vIsIbIe than the weaIthy eIItes o! the past, and
more obvIousIy separate !rom the rest o! socIety. Two dI!!erent pubIIc spaces
have thus deveIoped: one experIenced by car, the other by !oot. Each Is assocI-
ated wIth a dI!!erent dIscourse, and-graduaIIy-two separate communItIes.
ThIs new separatIon, though vIsuaIIy manI!est, was never the !ocus o! the
pubIIc agenda. Under the InHuence o! the medIa, It was normaIIzed wIthout beIng
sub]ect to crItIcaI dIscourse. Such phenomena as the use o! the turban or the
sacrIñce rItuaI In pubIIc space were emphasIzed In medIa coverage, whIIe the
probIematIcs o! a pubIIc space no Ionger accessIbIe to pedestrIans was hardIy men-
tIoned. The II!e o! the vehIcuIar-mobIIe, accessIbIe to the pubIIc onIy by undergoIng
securIty checks, was sometImes a background In TV !ootage, but otherwIse gradu-
aIIy drIven out o! the cognItIve cIty map. The new II!e avaIIabIe !or saIe Is socIaIIy
]ustIñed as an IndIvIduaIs' decIsIon to Invest In prIvate reaI estate. The nature o!
the pubIIc space thus created, however, Is the sub]ect o! more subtIe assocIatIons.
CouId It be that, !aIIIng to ñnd a Ianguage !or dIscussIng thIs new dIvIsIon, the
mIddIe cIasses, Instead, attack each other over superñcIaI II!estyIe debates?
HDB:8AJ:HIDG:I=>C@>C<?:GJH6A:B
The socIaI segregatIon wIthIn the northern sectIon o! the new cIty o! IstanbuI In
the 1¤th century took pIace aIong topographIc guIdeIInes: the "better," cosmo-
poIItan, and gIobaI socIety was estabIIshed "above" on the rIdge o! Pera and to
the north toward SIsII contInuIng aIong the so-caIIed "Crandes Rues." The equaIIy
ethnIcaIIy dIverse sImpIe !oIk, on the other hand, IIved down In the vaIIey (Esen,
2ooçb}. ThIs was durIng a tIme when IstanbuI and ]erusaIem shared the earIy
modern !ramework be!ore the demIse o! the muItIethnIc empIre. SImIIar to the
mIgratIon o! capItaI In IstanbuI to the north, the upper cIasses In contemporary
]erusaIem behaved sImIIarIy, IeavIng the CId CIty. At that tIme one couId speak
(In both cItIes} o! onIy a condItIonaI and IImIted ethnIc segregatIon. InspIred by
the £rench RevoIutIon, the Cttoman state !ought o!ñcIaI appearances o! premodern
segregatIon-I.e. rank based on ethnIcIty. These were to be reIIcs !ound onIy In
the oId part o! IstanbuI.
Hence, a new o!ñcIaI construct was propagated: a muItIethnIc, muItIreIIgIous
"Cttoman natIon." Modern new cItIes under the guIdance o! bureaucrats, as weII
as the InternatIonaIIy-networked trade and ñnancIaI eIIte antIcIpated reaIIzIng
thIs IdeaI. A reproductIon o! ethnIc-spatIaI segregatIon In the new Cttoman cIty
Is there!ore attrIbutabIe to synchronIstIc centrI!ugaI "natIonaIIst" tendencIes
wIthIn cIvII socIety, and not to o!ñcIaI poIIcy.
Premodern ethnIc-spatIaI condItIons were revIved In Interwar ]erusaIem
through regressIve 8rItIsh Mandate socIaI poIIcIes, whIch reverted the earIy
modernIzatIon process. Interwar IstanbuI, on the other hand, a shrInkIng cIty
now beyond gIobaI tendencIes, !eII under the InHuence o! a newIy created natIon
state wIth Its capItaI In Ankara. CertaIn groups, the Creeks above aII, whIch
had acquIred the status o! "natIonaI mInorIty," were aIready beIng dIsappeared.
Soon a!ter natIonaI Independence, an assImIIatIon and/or emIgratIon process
was supported by the state. 8y contrast, the newIy !ounded IsraeI pre!erred the
poIItIcs o! ostracIsm to coercIve assImIIatIon, to the extent that out-mIgratIon
(aIways and everywhere the ñrst choIce o! natIons In perIods o! estabIIshment!}
through expuIsIon was not reaIIy e!!ectIve.
As mentIoned earIIer, IstanbuI's new compIex dIvIdIng IInes were reproduced
as a resuIt o! mIgratIon processes. A symptomatIc attItude present sInce the
1¤¤os In certaIn north IstanbuI cIrcIes has been to Iament the emIgratIon o!
mInorItIes who somehow embodIed urban vaIues, whIIe sImuItaneous compIaIn-
Ing about ImmIgratIon !rom ruraI areas. The !ormer ethnIc heterogeneIty o! a
"manageabIe" Iarge cIty Is perceIved as coherency, as a Iost goIden age, whIIe
the newIy deveIoped metropoIItan compIexIty Is perceIved as threatenIng chaos.
(The IIst o! pubIIcIy stated desIres runs the spectrum !rom !orced deportatIon to
the reIntroductIon o! InternaI IdentIñcatIon cards, "IIke be!ore."} 8ut, the re!raIn
goes, the repubIIcan constItutIon, whIch guarantees !reedom o! choIce o! venue
o! settIement ("[gZ^o“\^\`Z^i!" or !reedom o! movement} as a !undamentaI human
rIght, "un!ortunateIy" does not ]ustI!y a IegaI apartheId regIme on the 8osporus.
Cne avaIIabIe soIutIon IIes In voIuntary IsoIatIon In gated communItIes, where
one can Invest In a guaranteed non-change o! the envIronment.
In IsraeI-PaIestIne, "EngIIsh" segregatIon poIItIcs were the terrItorIaI startIng
poInt !or the estabIIshment o! a natIon state-and consIstentIy extended there-
a!ter. The UnIted NatIons dIvIsIon In 1¤a8 created new ethnIc borders In the
]erusaIem area, redeñned by Iarge-scaIe popuIatIon dIspIacement. The so-caIIed
"reunIñcatIon" o! the cIty neIther revoked thIs tendency, nor dId It Iead to the
¤16
l
¤1)
Con!rontatIon
Exchange
deveIopment o! an ethnIcaIIy Integrated urban socIety. Cn the contrary: ]ewIsh
mIgratIon-through the deveIopment o! excIaves In the annexed eastern part o!
the cIty-Ied to the ZIonIst deveIopment o! new terrItorIes. ExactIy thIs process
reproduces the topographIc modeI o! earIy modern IstanbuI. ConsIderIng IsraeI's
InternatIonaI poIItIcaI ]ustIñcatIon as a buIwark o! Western cIvIIIzatIon, the coIn-
cIdentaI consuItatIon o! earIy modern IstanbuI as an urban roIe modeI Is perhaps
not so coIncIdentaI a!ter aII.
1 The !oIIowIng !our sectIons o! thIs essay are based on prevIousIy pubIIshed artIcIes: The sectIons
"The 'SImpIe DuaIIty' o! CId TImes," ''DIscernIng Apparent and ReaI DIvIsIons," and "CngoIng
(and Unstated} MaterIaI Ruptures In the CIty" uses cItatIons !rom the !oIIowIng pubIIcatIon:
Crhan Esen, "The TIghtrope WaIk o! the MIddIe CIass In a £ractured IstanbuI," In Art, CIty and
PoIItIcs In an ExpandIng WorId. WrItIngs !rom the ¤th InternatIonaI IstanbuI bIennIaI (IstanbuI:
IstanbuI £oundatIon !or CuIture and Arts, 2ooç} Isbn ¤)ç-)¤6¤-aç-6. The sectIon "The RIse o! the
Cated CommunItIes a!ter 1¤8os: SegregatIon |aV IstanbuI" uses cItatIons !rom unpubIIshed parts
o! the manuscrIpts !or: Crhan Esen, "IearnIng !rom IstanbuI," In SeI! ServIce CIty: IstanbuI, eds.
Crhan Esen and Ste!an Ianz, metroZones a, 8erIIn 2ooç.
2 In the artIcIe entItIed "IearnIng !rom IstanbuI" (2ooç}, the term edhi"\ZXZ`dcYj Is used In order
to descrIbe (a} the muItIstorIed buIIdIng type, whIch repIaces the oId conventIonaI \ZXZ`dcYj
(IIteraIIy "buIIt" or "Ianded" overnIght}, produced a!ter 1¤aç to soIve the housIng probIem, I.e.,
!or Its use vaIue, and became wIdespread In the urban perIphery. A!ter the 1¤8os, the muItIstorey
edhi"\ZXZ`dcYj buIIdIngs, produced !or theIr exchange vaIue on the reaI estate market, repIaced
these; (b} consequentIy, the urban envIronment where these buIIdIngs abound-the !ormerIy
perIpheraI \ZXZ`dcYj IocatIons wouId, a!ter the 1¤8os, become centraI areas o! the new metropoIIs;
(c} the socIoeconomIc reIatIons entaIIed by thIs kInd o! urbanIzatIon, and eventuaIIy, (d} the
cuIture produced wIthIn thIs context.
¤ The MahaIIe Is the smaIIest urban admInIstratIve unIt. It o!ten corresponds wIth the pubIIc's
perceptIon o! a certaIn area o! the cIty. CeneraIIy, It Is understood as a tradItIonaI, socIaI, and
aesthetIcaIIy Intact TurkIsh borough or neIghborhood.
a The nVehViX^ Is a smaII constructIon contractor. The word derIves !rom !rom nVe meanIng "do,"
hVi meanIng "saIes," and X^ the su!ñx !or a pro!essIon. A nVehViX^ Is there!ore a "do-er/saIesman."
He brIngs constructIon servIces to urban areas where \ZXZ`dcYjh, Instead o! sIngIe-!amIIy homes,
are constructed and renovated through hIs actIvItIes. As compensatIon he receIves a share o! the
buIIt apartments. UsuaIIy he works wIthout capItaI.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
Crhan Esen, "IearnIng !rom IstanbuI," In SeI! ServIce CIty: IstanbuI, eds. Crhan Esen and Ste!an
Ianz, metroZones SerIes a (8erIIn: 2ooç}.
Crhan Esen, "Pot o! 8abeI," In SeI! ServIce CIty IstanbuI (8erIIn, b books: 2ooç}.
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1he |ntense ccnf||ct has prcduced a c|ty that a|ters
|ts phys|ca| fcrm |n an acce|erated and pan|cked-
r|dden fash|cn. In Jerusa|em, rcads, wa||s, fences,
sett|ements, ne|ghbcrhccds, cr pr|vate hcuses can
be ccnstructed cr demc||shed v|rtua||y cver n|ght.
1he c|ty's pcpu|at|cn has a|mcst tr|p|ed s|nce 1967,
w|th the Jew|sh pcpu|at|cn grcw|ng by 135%, and
the Pa|est|n|an pcpu|at|cn |ncreas|ng by 233% dur-
|ng the same per|cd. ßut grcwth, mcdern|zat|cn,
and expans|cn are |nseparab|e frcm the strugg|e
fcr terr|tcr|a| and demcgraph|c ccntrc| between
twc nat|cns, wh|ch each def|nes Jerusa|em as |ts
cwn |eg|t|mate cap|ta| and symbc||c cu|tura| center.
ßeycnd the pc||t|ca| pc|ar|zat|cn and mutua| nega-
t|cn hcwever, a th|n and unccnsc|cus exchange
|s underway that |s man|fest |n the everyday. 1he
resu|t |s an un|ntent|cna| urban prcduct|v|ty-a ccm-
mcn cu|ture |ccated between the extremes cf tcta|
re|ect|cn, cn cne hand, and subt|e, unccnsc|cus
hybr|d|ty, cn the cther.
i]Zi]dgcVcYi]Z[adlZg
>CI=:EG>8@ANE:6G868I>D;6H>B67JH=6FG6
ZakarIa Mohammed
In the struggIe over Iand between the ]ewIsh ImmIgrants and the natIves o! PaIes-
tIne, symboIs pIayed an Important ruIe. The productIon and reInterpretatIon o!
these symboIs has been a crucIaI battIeñeId sInce the rIse o! the ZIonIst pro]ect
In PaIestIne, and contInues as such today. 8ecause the sub]ect o! the struggIe Is the
Iand ItseI!, there has been no way o! avoIdIng both partIes'
use o! the earth's naturaI eIements as IdeoIogIcaI symboIs.
Here we wIII make a case study o! the prIckIy pear cac-
tus, expIorIng how each sIde deveIoped symboIIsm around
the pIant-symboIIsm heavIIy Invested wIth specIñc hIsto-
ry and background. We wIII approach these Issues through
the works o! AsIm Abu Shaqra, a paInter among the PaIes-
tInIan Arab mInorIty that was not expeIIed !rom Its Iands
durIng the 1¤a8 creatIon o! IsraeI. Abu Shaqra was born
In the vIIIage o! Um aI-£ahIm In 1¤61, and passed away In
1¤¤o. He spent the Iast two years o! hIs II!e busy wIth one
maIn motI!: prIckIy pear cactI potted In vesseIs.
A growIng corpus o! IsraeII-PaIestInIan InterpretatIve
IIterature has arIsen out o! Abu Shaqra's potted cactus.
The battIe over the cactus as a natIonaI symboI centers
on Abu Shaqra's art. What does hIs symboI mean? Does
It orIgInate !rom a PaIestInIan background or a ]ewIsh
envIronment? Is It a PaIestInIan achIevement, or does It
beIong to IsraeII ]ewIsh cuIture? A heated battIe has been
pItched over Abu Shaqra and hIs tIny Howerpots.
The most extreme exampIe o! an IsraeII perspectIve
on Abu Shaqra's work Is represented by the wrItIngs o!
IsraeII crItIc SarIt ShapIra, as quoted by EIIIn CInton In
her contrIbutIon to the exhIbItIon cataIog, "AsIm Abu
Shaqra." The prIckIy pear cactus Is a ]ewIsh symboI,
ShapIra begIns, and Abu Shaqra's ]ourney towards It Is a ]ourney to the Cther
and not the seI!. Her argument Is that the prIckIy pear cactus symboIIzes the
IsraeII hVWgV (natIve-born IsraeII} and, !urther, that the hVWgV expresses a concept
o! "the coIIectIve IsraeII prototype." As such, ShapIra InsIsts on IsoIatIng Abu
Shaqra !rom hIs natIonaI mIIIeu and attrIbutIng hIs InsIghts to ]ewIsh IsraeII cuI-
ture. "Abu Shaqra's hVWgV Is an IdentI!yIng mark o! Ctherness," ShapIra expIaIns,
Cactus, 1¤88
AsIm Abu-Shaqra (oII
on paper, 12o Fp8o cm,
coIIectIon o! the art-
Ist's !amIIy}
Cactus, 1¤88
AsIm Abu-Shaqra (oII
on paper, 12o Fp8o cm,
coIIectIon o! the art-
Ist's !amIIy}
"sInce he, as an Arab, appIIes It to hImseI!, whIIe orIgInaIIy and In common usage
the Image re!ers to the IsraeII ]ew. "8ut ShapIra does not stop there, wrItIng that
Abu Shaqra's choIce o! the hVWgV "may attest to the Iack o! personaI or coIIectIve
IdentI!yIng mark o! hIs own" (CInton, 1¤¤a:88}. Thus, by re!errIng to the hVWgV, Abu
Shaqra has strIpped hImseI! o! hIs own skIn and chosen Instead to wear that o!
hIs rIvaI-nothIng more. The cactus, then, Is an outsIder, and by IdentI!yIng hIm-
seI! wIth It, Abu Shaqra Is somehow desertIng hIs orIgInaI IdentIty.
Another IsraeII crItIc, TaII TamIr, does not share ShapIra's extreme Interpreta-
tIon. In a gesture o! reconcIIIatIon, she seeks a way to share the symboI: "Sha-
pIra.Is mIstaken In attrIbutIng authorshIp o! the Image o! the hVWgV to IsraeII
cuIture.ExamInatIon o! Its sources In PaIestInIan cuIture reveaIs that there,
too, a weaIth o! concepts exIsts around thIs Image.[Ijt operates as an IronIc and
crItIcaI Image o! the stoIen IdentIty o! the Arab who wIshes to see hImseI! as the
hVWgV, as ShapIra shows, whIIe at the same tIme remaInIng an InternaI PaIestIn-
Ian code symboIIzIng su!!erIng and deepIy-rooted tenacIty" (CInton, 1¤¤a:88}.
AccordIng to thIs anaIysIs, Abu Shaqra shed haI! o! hIs skIn, yet preserved the
other haI!. TamIr acknowIedges PaIestInIan cuIture and Its own separate Ianguage
and code. 8ut we must note that TamIr agrees wIth ShapIra's centraI thesIs: Abu
Shaqra has a deep desIre to IdentI!y hImseI! wIth the Cther, the hVWgV, by cIothIng
hImseI! In Its trappIngs. As such, TamIr rescInds wIth one hand what her other
hand has o!!ered.
EIIIn CInton o!!ers yet another perspectIve, based on a comment made by Abu
Shaqra hImseI! In an IntervIew wIth TaII TamIr. "The hVWgV !ascInates me," he saId,
"because Its amazIng prIckIy pear cactus enchants me wIth Its shockIng abIIIty to
Hower out o! thorny death" (CInton, 1¤¤a:¤1}. CInton argues that Abu Shaqra's maIn
contrIbutIon to thIs symboIIsm Is hIs trans!ormatIon o! the cactus pIant Into a
cross. HIs potted cactus Is the crucIñed ChrIst. Abu Shaqra, there!ore, has enIIsted
the cactus In hIs contrIbutIon to western art tradItIons. "IIke ]ewIsh and IsraeII
artIsts, !rom ChagaII to TumarkIn," wrItes CInton, "Abu Shaqra couId and dId make
use o! the themes o! the sacrIñce.as Images o! personaI and natIonaI death. HIs
unIque quaIIty Iay In hIs abIIIty to present an aIternatIve to the changed symboI o!
the crucIñxIon In the !orm o! a cactus" (CInton, 1¤¤a:¤1}. 8ut even here, when Abu
Shaqra's re!erence Is the crucIñx, he contInues to wear the garb o! the Cther. He Is
not expressIng hImseI! In hIs own tongue but In a !oreIgn tongue, maInIy the Ian-
guage o! IsraeII and ]ewIsh artIsts, despIte that the crucIñxIon motI! can be !ound In
ArabIc IIterature goIng back at Ieast one thousand years.
Yet Abu Shaqra was buIIdIng a new metaphor In dIrect opposItIon to the Israe-
II one, but because thIs metaphor Is so !resh and unprecedented In PaIestInIan
art, It has been mIsunderstood. IsraeII crItIcs are accustomed to seeIng PaIestInIan
art as a dIrect poIItIcaI art; when they are !aced wIth somethIng more subtIe and
compIex, they !aII to Interpret It properIy.
I=:EG>8@ANH67G6
In IsraeII cuIture, the name "hVWgV" was gIven to the ñrst IsraeII generatIon,
the PaIestInIan-born chIIdren o! ]ewIsh ImmIgrants. They "toughened up"-or
^`]h]dlh]Vcdj, In the words o! Usama 8In MunqIdh, a !amous knIght and
¤22
l
¤2¤
InnovatIon
DestructIon
nephew o! SaIadIn, as he descrIbes In hIs memoIrs the Crusaders who IIved !or
a Iong perIod o! tIme In PaIestIne and became IIke the natIve InhabItants o! the
country. The ]ewIsh hVWgV were abIe to grasp the thorny !ruIt o! the prIckIy pear
cactus and peeI It wIth theIr bare hands, ]ust IIke the PaIestInIan peasants. At
ñrst thIs was a IIterary metaphor, trans!erred to the pIastIc arts as an Image o! a
rIpe cactus !ruIt wIth thorns poIntIng outward. The symboI emphasIzed a duaIIty
between the sweet, so!t InterIor and crueI, thorny exterIor.
EquaIIy Important, the metaphor o! the hVWgV reHected the spIrIt o! the ]ewIsh
ghetto In Europe as much as the reaIIty o! ]ewIsh settIement In PaIestIne. In a
manner o! speakIng, the cactus !ruIt has the !orm o! the ghetto, whIch aIso maIn-
taIns a sweet InterIor (through natIonaIIsm, soIIdarIty, mutuaI support} whIIe
brIstIIng In thorny watch!uIness agaInst a hostIIe exterIor. The ñrst ]ewIsh settIe-
ments In PaIestIne were aIso a type o! a ghetto, theIr thorns poIntIng outwards,
but aII sweetness on the InsIde.
ThIs aspect Is crucIaI because to Ignore the echoes o! the ghetto In the
IsraeII cactus metaphor Is to mIss the dI!!erences between It and the PaIestIn-
Ian metaphor created by Abu Shaqra. £or Abu Shaqra, the IsraeII metaphor Is an
oppressIve one. Its barbs were aImed at hIm, as an Arab vIIIager. AccordIngIy,
Abu Shaqra constructed hIs metaphor In dIrect opposItIon. The comment cIted
by CInton suggests another duaIIsm, the Hower and the thorn, In the !ace o! the
IsraeII duaIIsm, sweetness and barbs. WhIIe the IsraeII metaphor gIorIñes the
prIckIe, Abu Shaqra Is most concerned wIth the bIossom. In hIs eyes, the thorn Is
a negatIve eIement, not de!ensIve ("the thorny death"} and the goIden Hower o!
hIs cactus Is rIsIng agaInst thIs death. Thus, Abu Shaqra undermInes and trIes to
overcome the IsraeII metaphor. There Is no spIendId InsIde and vIoIent outsIde.
HIs duaIIsm Is that o! II!e In the Hower versus death In the thorn.
8ecause o! that emphasIs, Abu Shaqra seems concerned In hIs paIntIngs wIth
eIImInatIng or trans!ormIng the cactus thorns Into somethIng so!ter. Many o! the
!ruIts depIcted In hIs work are voId o! thorns; I! they appear at aII, the barbs are
wIthered, not tense and aggressIve. These are gentIe thorns that can be taken In
hand wIth compIete ease, or trans!ormed and rendered Into somethIng eIse.
In one o! the paIntIngs, the prIckIy pear appears to Iend Its thorns as rays o!
IIght to the Iamp appearIng above It (AsIm Abu Shaqra,TeI AvIv Museum o! Art cataIog,
1¤¤a:a2}. In another work, a sun Is settIng to the rIght o! the paIntIng, whIIe on
the Ie!t the cactus Hower receIves the Iast rays o! the dIsappearIng IIght (cataIog,
1¤¤a:¤a}. Here, too, the rays o! the settIng sun substItute !or thorns.
In another portraIt taken !rom Abu Shaqra's sketchbook (cataIog, 1¤¤a:)¤}, the
thorns o! the cactus pear drop o!!, trans!ormed Into smaII, beautI!uI crosses on
a background resembIIng a bIue carpet. In some other paIntIngs, we ñnd trans-
parent thorns, more cIoseIy resembIIng so!t, sIIky threads than barbs o! crueIty.
The portraIt "Cactus Pear" 1¤8¤ !eatured In the cataIog o! the KhaIII SakakInI
CuIturaI Center !or Abu Shaqra's 1¤¤¤ RamaIIah exhIbItIon, depIcts thorns scattered
over the background and merged Into the threads o! a PersIan carpet.
In short, a cIoser Iook at Abu Shaqra's prIckIy pear cactI raIses doubts that
the artIst wanted us to Interpret hIs paIntIngs In IIght o! the conventIonaI mean-
Ing o! hVWgV !ound In IsraeII IIterature, whIch emphasIzes the hVWgV thorns or the
contradIctIon between InterIor and exterIor. Moreover, on
the whoIe, Abu Shaqra appears to resent prIckIes. Among
the artIst's earIy sketches, we ñnd a drawIng o! a genIe
armed wIth weapons orderIng a bare!oot man to waIk on
pIanks o! thorny cactus !ruIts. In the sketch, the cactus
has no Howers. The representatIon here Is obvIous: It Is
an IsraeII soIdIer and a PaIestInIan man. The soIdIer, as he
appears In thIs sketch, Is precIseIy the tough IsraeII hVWgV.
He Is rough and crueI, and hIs prIckIy pear cactus thorns
brIstIe In others' !aces and prIck theIr !eet. ThIs sketch Is
especIaIIy Important !or understandIng the orIgIns o! Abu
Shaqra's metaphor. It provIdes a reasonabIe expIanatIon
!or the "dIsarmIng" o! Abu Shaqra's cactI barbs.
The sketch aIso mIght heIp us In understand-
Ing the "thorny death" In Abu Shaqra's !amous
quote. He Is the outsIder In the IsraeII metaphor,
and the thorns o! thIs metaphor are dIrected
at hIm. As a PaIestInIan, he and other vIIIag-
ers su!!ered a great deaI !rom the experIence
o! "sweetness on the InsIde" and the "thorny,
hostIIe exterIor." Sweet democracy was meant
soIeIy !or the ]ewIsh InterIor and oppressIve
mIIItary ruIe was dIrected at hIs vIIIage. Hence,
he seeks to eIImInate or to so!ten the cactus
prIckIes, !ocusIng Instead on Its Howers In an aIternatIve duaIIsm o! InterIor ver-
sus exterIor, so!t versus crueI, and esoterIc versus exoterIc.
E6I>:C8:6C9HIG:C<I=G:7DGC
It Is not strange that the PaIestInIan cactus metaphor was produced by an artIst
!rom the PaIestInIan mInorIty, whIch remaIned on the Iand, and not by an artIst
!rom the West 8ank or Caza or the PaIestInIan dIaspora. The cactus' rIch metaphor
Is the IegItImate son o! the 1¤a8 CV`WV (DIsaster} caused by the estabIIshment o!
IsraeI on PaIestIne's soII. ThIs mInorIty watched as the prIckIy pear cactI Howered
In the çoo emptIed PaIestInIan vIIIages, theIr goIden bIossoms IIke candIes set out
to IIght the return o! the departed exIIes. In every deserted or destroyed PaIestIn-
Ian vIIIage, the cactI-once de!ensIve barrIers agaInst cattIe or Intruders-contInued
to bIoom, a remInder o! the past. The metaphor was there, IyIng In waIt, to be
pIucked by an artIst. £ortunateIy, Abu Shaqra was present to paInt It !or us. He
pIcked the bIossom-candIe and set It In a Howerpot on the wIndow.
"'AsIm potted cactI In a sunIess zone, where the ma]or source o! IIght Is
obscured, as In a partIaI ecIIpse," observed PaIestInIan artIst and crItIc KamaI
8ouIIata (2oo1:12o}. ThIs Is the IIght o! daybreak and nIght!aII. In thIs sunIess zone,
Abu Shaqra's cactus Howers IIIumInate the nIght, at the same tIme PaIestInIans
In the dIaspora were IIghtIng Ianterns In theIr tents. The cactus appears as a
IIghthouse, or nIght watchman hoIdIng hIs torch, recaIIIng the kerosene Iamp o!
Cazan paInter IsmaeI Shammout.
¤2a
l
¤2ç
InnovatIon
DestructIon
SoIdIer and Cactus, by AsIm
Abu-Shaqra (exhIbItIon cataIog
KhaIII SakakInI, CuIturaI Center,
RamaIIah, 1¤¤¤}
Cactus, 1¤88
AsIm Abu-Shaqra (oII
on paper, 12o F 8o cm,
coIIectIon IsraeI
Musuem, ]erusaIem}
8ut In Abu Shaqra's work, the overt symboI was veIIed and !raught wIth
meanIng. "AsIm Abu Shaqra succeeded In aIterIng the course o! PaIestInIan art and
raIsIng It !rom the status o! nostaIgIc-poIItIcaI art to that o! a unIversaI art cIpher-
Ing poIItIcaI codes In deeper IeveIs," observed TaII TamIr (1¤¤a:1),¤a}. ThIs was hIs
maIn achIevement, but It was aIso the source o! hIs work's crItIcaI mIsInterpre-
tatIon. It was as I! the crItIcs couId not accept that a metaphor o! such depth couId
be produced by a PaIestInIan brush. It was as I! the thorn had struck agaIn.
The roots o! the connectIon between the prIckIy pear cactus (or hVWg In ArabIc}
wIth patIence and endurance (aIso hVWg, wrItten wIth the same root} In Abu
Shaqra's work IIes In aIIyIng "verbaI herItage wIth vIsuaI Ianguage," as 8ouIIata
observes (8ouIIata, 2oo1}. The words are connected In theIr ImpIIed endurance o!
In]ury, bItterness, and wearIness, accompanIed by the hope that cIrcumstances
wIII change. Most probabIy, the Hebrew word hVWgV derIves !rom the PaIestInIan
word !or cactus.
The notIon o! IInkIng patIence and endurance to the genus cactI Is a rIch concept
In cIassIcaI Arab cuIture. We recaII the sayIng o! the great eIghth century Cazan,
Imam aI-Shañe, whIch Is !requentIy wrItten In caIIIgraphy and hung In homes:
I wIII be !oIIowIng, patIent, untII patIence ItseI! Is unabIe to bear my patIence
/ And I'II keep doIng that untII Cod aIIows !or my concern / I am patIent untII
patIence knows that I am abIe to stand a thIng much bItter than bItter sabr ItseI!.
"HVWg" In thIs verse re!ers to a bItter aIoe wIth medIcInaI uses, but Its ArabIc
name has been appIIed to the cactus !amIIy as a whoIe.
As compared wIth Its meanIngs In the PaIestInIan envIronment In IsraeI, the
cactus metaphor was aItered sIIghtIy In the West 8ank and Caza. A new genera-
tIon ñghtIng the IsraeII occupatIon emphasIzed one eIement o! the metaphor: the
abIIIty o! the cactus to endure adversIty. The sIIent patIence !ound In the vIIIage
o! Um aI-£ahIm was trans!ormed Into deñant stead!astness (hjbjY} In NabIus
and RamaIIah. Thus the cactus metaphor adapted to Its envIronment to become
a natIonaI symboI.
In thIs IIght, approprIatIon o! the prIckIy pear cactus as a soIeIy ]ewIsh symboI
stIrred bItterness among PaIestInIan InteIIectuaIs. CrItIc Anton Shammas wrItes:
"And sInce the PaIestInIan cactus.has become Instead a common nIckname !or
those born In Eretz YIsra'eI and raIsed In It, and nothIng more-Someone had to
trans!er the cactus to the pot. Someone had to shake us and teII us that It's over
and done wIth; that now there Is no return, neIther to the map nor to the Iand-
]ust to be pIaced on the wIndowsIII." (Shammas, 1¤¤8: pre!ace}
Cne can sense the anger In these words over the the!t o! a symboI and the
!orce!uI trans!ormatIon o! what was once PaIestInIan property Into somethIng
obvIousIy !oreIgn. 8ut what Shammas has mIssed, In my opInIon, Is that Abu
Shaqra dId not pIace the prIckIy pear cactus on the wIndowsIII as a sIgn o!
absence and sheIved memory, but as a Iantern o! hope. Abu Shaqra managed
to construct a !resh, rIch metaphor In opposItIon to the IsraeII one. Cn the one
hand, he managed to restore the stoIen symboI o! the hVWg cactus. Cn the other
hand, he Inverted the IsraeII meanIngs o! thIs approprIated symboI. The ]ewIsh
cactus metaphor emerged !rom a !oreIgn European background wIth Its roots In
the Warsaw ghetto. ]ewIsh settIements In PaIestIne were a repIIca o! thIs ghetto
where the toughened hVWgVh spread theIr hostIIe thorns to the Arab vIIIagers,
whIIe turnIng theIr sweetness Inward to theIr !eIIow ]ews. Abu Shaqra's dIsarmIng
o! the hVWgV¼h thorns and "IIghtIng" o! Its paIe bIooms Is a subtIe and even pIay!uI
act o! deñance.
I Ieave you wIth the thought that thIs poIItIcaI struggIe over Iand has man-
aged to trans!orm the PaIestInIan cactus Into an archItecturaI ob]ect-a ghetto !or
IsraeIIs and a IIghthouse !or PaIestInIans. NeIther Is thIs strange, sInce the ]our-
ney traced here between IdeoIogy, symboI, and shape Is the very path traced by
the archItecturaI dImensIons o! the IsraeII-PaIestInIan conHIct. ThIs dImensIon Is
manI!ested In pIaIn vIew !or any vIsItor to see-between the PaIestInIan vIIIages
and the IsraeII settIements overIookIng them, and between the CId CIty o! ]erusaIem
and the settIements that encIrcIe It.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
KamaI 8ouIIata, pre!ace to "AsIm Abu Shaqra," In IZa6k^kBjhZjbd[6gi8ViVad\ (1¤¤a}.
KamaI 8ouIIata, "AsIm Abu Shaqra: The ArtIst's Eye and the Cactus Tree," ?djgcVad[EVaZhi^cZ
HijY^Zh ¤o (a} (2oo1}.
EIIIn CInton, "The AsIm Abu Shaqra PassIon," In AsIm Abu Shaqra, IZa6k^kBjhZjbd[6gi8ViVad\
(1¤¤a}.
Anton Shammas, "The ImpossIbIe ReconcIIIatIon between Abu Shaqra's Cactus and AvI's Dogs,"
JbVa";V]^bH]dl8ViVad\ (1¤¤8}.
TaII TamIr, "The Shadow o! £oreIgnness: Cn the PaIntIngs o! AsIm Abu-Shakra?," In AsIm Abu
Shaqra, IZa6k^kBjhZjbd[6gi8ViVad\ (1¤¤a}.
¤26
l
¤2)
InnovatIon
DestructIon
egZhZciVcYVWhZci
=>HIDG>86A>CK:CI>DC!>9:DAD<N!6C9I=:EDA>I>8H
D;EA68:>C8DCI:BEDG6GN?:GJH6A:B
Thomas Abowd
]erusaIem Is a pIace where memory, coIonIzIng power, and hIstorIcaI InventIon
have Interacted In myrIad ways through successIve waves o! !oreIgn domInatIon.
As the prImary sIte o! contest and con!rontatIon between PaIestInIans and IsraeIIs
sInce 1¤a8, ]erusaIem has become an urban center where an Intense conHIct
between competIng natIonaI ImagInatIons rages. The poIItIcs o! monuments In
]erusaIem Is part and parceI o! the constructIon o! hIstory and has served a vItaI
roIe In producIng the past In a contested Iand.
Not onIy do such sItes o! natIonaI remembrance pro]ect a partIcuIar notIon o!
what has come be!ore, monuments-IIke hIstorIcaI archIves-are aIso very much
about the !uture. 8ut what Is curIous about the IsraeII IdeoIogIcaI Iandscape,
Is not sImpIy that such pIaces have been InscrIbed on and scattered across an
occupIed PaIestIne, but how these pIaces have so o!ten served both as sItes o!
remembrance and, sImuItaneousIy, as IocaIes o! Ioss.
In thIs artIcIe I !ocus on one partIcuIar PaIestInIan home, owned by the PaI-
estInIan 8aramkI !amIIy o! ]erusaIem and 8IrZeIt. I examIne how thIs structure
straddIes dI!!erent eras In the cIty's hIstory and dI!!erent, deepIy poIItIcIzed
spaces. I wIII aIso Iook at how the once-!amIIIaI space has served muItIpIe !unctIons
convenIent to IsraeII coIonIaI power sInce Its seIzure In 1¤a8.
Instances o! stoIen PaIestInIan propertIes trans!ormed Into IsraeII natIonaI
sItes are not uncommon. Many o! these pIaces have, over severaI decades, been
remade and dedIcated to the memory o! IsraeII achIevement, sacrIñce, or IongIng.
Arab propertIes-partIcuIarIy homes-have proven crItIcaI In the ZIonIst "mem-
ory mIII." As the IsraeII state took over thousands o! Arab homes throughout
]erusaIem In 1¤a8, the cIty was reconñgured dIscursIveIy no Iess than physIcaIIy.
In ]erusaIem, as eIsewhere, the space o! the Arab home has been IntegraI to the
vast e!!orts to both settIe and sIIence PaIestIne. Cver the years there!ore, the
cIty has not sImpIy been a contested physIcaI pIace but aIso a hIghIy prIzed Idea.
As such, It has been brought Into beIng through the dIscourses that descrIbe It;
through an artIcuIatIon, !or Instance, o! certaIn narratIves o! IsraeII Independence
(`db^bZndi}, de!ense (\dcZc}, and redemptIon (\jZaV}.
These three terms are, IncIdentaIIy, the names the IsraeII state has gIven to
three !ormer Arab neIghborhoods In today's West ]erusaIem, cIeansed o! theIr
PaIestInIan popuIatIon In 1¤a8. Today, the homes o! PaIestInIan exIIes have been
ñIIed wIth IsraeII ]ewIsh cItIzens o! the state. IsraeI, as I wIII argue, has onIy been
abIe to "overwrIte" the hIstory o! PaIestInIan exIstence In ]erusaIem and change
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the meanIng o! specIñc IocaIes because It was ñrst abIe to make the Arab popu-
IatIon dIsappear. EpIstemIc vIoIence has !oIIowed In the wake o! the vIoIence o!
Iarge-scaIe dIspIacement.
I=:EGD9J8I>DC6C99:HIGJ8I>DCD;I=:E6HI
PaIestInIan homes have, sInce 1¤a8, been approprIated and trans!ormed Into
IsraeII sItes o! aII kInds: kIndergartens, centers !or psychoanaIysIs, cIubs !or new
]ewIsh arrIvaIs (da^b} In the country, HoIocaust memorIaIs, restaurants, and
even sheIters !or anImaIs. These trans!ormatIons have been, In each Instance,
a metonym !or the Iarger processes o! coIonIaI approprIatIon In the cIty. In a !ew
cases, these houses have served a strIct IdeoIogIcaI !unctIon, underscorIng the
productIve nature o! representatIonaI power.
The truth o! the past, the "reaI story," cannot as TrouIIIot (1¤¤ç} cogentIy
asserts, sImpIy be retrIeved whoIe and unsuIIIed as I! puIIed !rom hIstory's "ñIe
cabInet." Memory Is medIated through a host o! present-day Issues, poIItIcaI
concerns, and pre]udIces, and Is thus o!ten hIghIy contested and HuId. EpIste-
moIogIcaI Issues and concerns about such sources are Indeed reaI. 8ut hIstory Is
aIso not compIeteIy "up !or grabs," "undecIdabIe," or sImpIy an e!!ect o! domInant
epIstemoIogIes. Though the memorIes o! both natIonaI communItIes must be
examIned In a crItIcaI way, theIr IImItatIons do not necessarIIy dIscount that
whIch those a!!ected by traumatIc events have to say about such experIences.
I=:76G6B@>=DJH:
A home owned by the PaIestInIan 8aramkI !amIIy has served varIed !unctIons !or
the IsraeII state sInce It was taken !rom Its owners In the sprIng o! 1¤a8. I wIsh to
examIne what Its !ate (and that o! the !amIIy who once IIved there} mIght teII us
about the poIItIcs o! hIstory constructIon and the way memorIaIs to IsraeII mIIItary
power InvoIve as much an actIve !orgettIng as they entaII a stead!ast rememberIng.
The structure was buIIt In 1¤¤a In the neIghborhood o! Saad SaId. DurIng the
ñrst Arab-IsraeII War In 1¤a8, thIs neIghborhood and the homes and buIIdIngs
that comprIsed It were spIIt between the ]ordanIan-heId east and IsraeII-heId
west sIdes o! the cIty by a "no-man's-Iand" o! barbed wIre and !ences that
!ractured the cIty !or the next 1¤ years. The 8aramkIs were one o! thousands o!
!amIIIes In ]erusaIem who Hed !amIIIaI spaces durIng the vIoIent sprIng o! 1¤a8
!or what they beIIeved were temporary havens.
AndonI 8aramkI, a young PaIestInIan archItect o! renown, desIgned the home.
IIke the many other structures In the ]erusaIem area that were aIso hIs creatIon,
thIs one !eatured a dIstInctIve, hybrId use o! CorInthIan coIumns and Arab-styIe
arches and verandas. 8aramkI experImented wIth the use o! red and whIte
stones, whIch he o!ten utIIIzed In the same arch or !açade, and whIch wouId
become one o! hIs archItecturaI trademarks. HIs work stIII dots PaIestIne's Iand-
scape o! Ioss, partIcuIarIy In the !ormer Arab neIghborhoods o! West ]erusaIem,
such as 8aqa and the Cerman CoIony, whIch are today popuIated by IsraeII ]ews.
The 8aramkI house, as It happened, came to rest precIseIy on the edge o! the
emergIng !rontIer between the IsraeII and ]ordanIan-ruIed segments o! the cIty
durIng the years the cIty was physIcaIIy dIvIded between "east" and "west" (spatIaI
¤¤o
l
¤¤1
InnovatIon
DestructIon
desIgnatIons that had never meant anythIng be!ore the cIty was partItIoned In
1¤a8}. ThIs arbItrarIIy deñned boundary, drawn In a per!unctory manner across a
!ormaIIy undIvIded Iandscape by IsraeII and ]ordanIan generaIs, actuaIIy ran aIong
the outer edge o! thIs 8aramkI property.
Mammoth, weII-!ortIñed, and strategIcaIIy posItIoned, the 8aramkI's ImposIng
three-story, stone structure was commandeered by the sentIneIs o! the buddIng
]ewIsh state onIy weeks a!ter Its Arab occupants had Hed. In the days a!ter the
border was estabIIshed, the IsraeII mIIItary trans!ormed the house Into an army
post. Weapons were pIaced behInd the home's thIck IImestone waIIs and aImed
across a mIxture o! mInes and barbed wIre that separated IsraeII !orces !rom those
o! the ]ordanIans onIy meters away. The doors
were reIn!orced and Its !ront entrance seaIed.
The structure's exquIsIte arched wIndows were
ñIIed In wIth concrete and made Into turrets
so that onIy a thIn aperture, narrow enough to
accommodate a gun and the gaze o! a marksman,
remaIned. The InterIor was cIeared !or the hous-
Ing o! troops. The "state o! emergency" aIong the
cIty's dIvIdIng IIne and the hIts absorbed by the
home-turned-!ortress eventuated In the graduaI
wearIng down o! the structure's exterIor.
WIth very !ew exceptIons, neIther ]ew nor Arab was
permItted to cross over to the other sIde o! the cIty, an
arrangement that heId !rom May 1¤a8 untII ]une 1¤6).
Though the dIvIsIon o! ]erusaIem prevented IsraeII ]ews
!rom vIsItIng the CId CIty and the WaIIIng WaII, seaIIng the
border aIso ensured that the Arab homes on ]erusaIem's
west sIde (!rom whIch tens o! thousands o! re!ugees had
Hed} couId not be contested because the !amIIIes were
deemed "absentees" by IsraeII Iaw.

In the wake o! the HIght o! the re!ugees, the IsraeII
Army reconñgured the 8aramkI home dIscursIveIy no
Iess than physIcaIIy. EmptIed o! Its Arab occupants, the
home took on new meanIngs and began to be known by those on the IsraeII
sIde o! the border as the "Tour]eman Army Post."

Its mIIItary sIgnIñcance was
bound up wIth the MandeIbaum Cate compIex, whIch exIsted ]ust north o! the
property and was the soIe crossIng poInt between the east and west sIdes o! the
cIty. However, though tourIsts, pIIgrIms, and other !oreIgners were permItted to
cross here, ]erusaIem's resIdents-PaIestInIans and IsraeIIs-were precIuded !rom
enterIng the other sIde.
B:BDG>:HD;L6>I>C<
ExIIe Is a condItIon shared by many PaIestInIan ]erusaIemItes. 8ut there Is some-
thIng !aIrIy dIstInct about the 8aramkI case. UnIIke nearIy aII other PaIestInIan
!amIIIes made exIIes and re!ugees In 1¤a8, the 8aramkIs had the dubIous prIvIIege
o! beIng abIe to see theIr home on the IsraeII-heId sIde o! the "no man's Iand"
TraveIers waIt In IIne to enter
IsraeII-controIIed ]erusaIem
through MandeIbaum Cate,
]ust next to the 8aramkI !am-
IIy home. (Source: C. 8aramkI}
The run-down
spIendour o! the
8aramkI home,
1¤6). (Source: C.
8aramkI}
durIng the years o! the "dIvIded cIty" (1¤a8-1¤6)}. RIskIng snIper ñre, !amIIy
members wouId occasIonaIIy vIsIt pIaces on the east sIde's borderIands and peer
across the !rontIer at theIr Iost property.
Much mystery exIsted among PaIestInIan exIIes concernIng ]erusaIem's dIvIsIon
and theIr return to theIr homes. Cver the years, questIons o! l]Zc they wouId
return graduaIIy became questIons o! ^[. WouId the waII o! separatIon ever be
brought down? WouId they ever be abIe to return? The dIvIdIng IIne was some-
thIng one couId see !rom numerous vantage poInts and the tens o! thousands o!
PaIestInIan exIIes resIdent In East ]erusaIem regarded It as a contInuaI remInder
o! theIr condItIon o! dIspIacement.
?JC:!'/,-/B6@>C<I=:A6C9¹L=DA:º
The years o! the "dIvIded cIty" were to end suddenIy and dramatIcaIIy. DurIng sIx
days In ]une 1¤6), IsraeII !orces conquered ]ordanIan-heId East ]erusaIem In IIght-
nIng !ashIon. WIthIn a !ew weeks o! takIng the east sIde (and a!ter some InternaI
IsraeII debate}, the dIvIsIon o! concrete and barbed wIre whIch had !or 1¤ years
separated the two sIdes was brought down by the vIctors. The cIty, decIared
IsraeII o!ñcIaIdom, had now been "reunIñed" and "IIberated."
Cnce the streets o! East ]erusaIem had been queIIed and the physIcaI partItIon
was removed, thousands o! Arabs and ]ews raced across to the other sIde In curI-
osIty. Thousands o! PaIestInIan re!ugees who had waIted nearIy two decades to
return made theIr way back to theIr !ormer neIghborhoods and homes. Hundreds
o! thousands o! IsraeII ]ews streamed to the Western WaII and the ]ewIsh Cuarter
o! the CId CIty wIthIn the ñrst !ew days o! what IsraeII o!ñcIaIs re!erred to as the
cIty's "IIberatIon."
The IsraeII conquest o! the east sIde had seemIngIy opened up possIbIIItIes !or
PaIestInIan exIIes to recIaIm propertIes taken !rom them In 1¤a8. Many re!ugees
reIate that InItIaIIy there exIsted a pervasIve beIIe! among the dIspIaced that
they wouId ñnaIIy be abIe to repossess theIr homes a!ter 1¤ years o! exIIe. They
had not, a!ter aII, repudIated theIr cIaIms to these propertIes. UnIted NatIons
resoIutIons caIIed !or theIr rIght to return, and the PaIIstInIan's had kept the keys
and deeds !rom the pre-1¤a8 perIod that sIgnIñed ownershIp. 8ut the reaIIty o!
recIaImIng theIr property was rather more compIex. PaIestInIan ]erusaIemItes
wouId, IronIcaIIy, remaIn exIIes wIthIn the newIy reconñgured IsraeII munIcI-
paIIty-re!ugees wIthIn theIr own cIty.
The 8aramkIs, too, crossed over the oId !rontIer wIth theIr keys and deeds. They
made the short waIk through the !ormer no-man's-Iand they had once peered
across. They were, !amIIy members reIate, !orbIdden access to theIr home by
mIIItary authorItIes stIII statIoned there. IegaI attempts were made to recIaIm
theIr property, but the IsraeII state re!used to hand over the badIy-damaged
home to the 8aramkIs, cIaImIng aIternateIy that It was stIII requIred !or purposes
o! IsraeII "securIty"; that It was In need o! repaIr and thus a hazard; and ñnaIIy,
that ownershIp o! the property had shI!ted sInce the IsraeII grId o! IegaIIty had
been Imposed on ]erusaIem. I! PaIestInIans IIke the 8aramkIs stood any chance o!
retrIevIng property, the onus was pIaced on them to prove (to IsraeII o!ñcIaIs, In
IsraeII courts} that they were wrongIy cIassIñed as "absentees."

¤¤2
l
¤¤¤
InnovatIon
DestructIon
G:"8DC;><JG>C<?:GJH6A:B/I=:9>H8JGH>K:8DCHIGJ8"
I>DCD;6G:<>B:D;EDL:G
£oIIowIng the 1¤6) War, the cIty's physIcaI dImensIons began to undergo sIgnIñcant
aIteratIons as weII-dIscursIve no Iess than physIcaI. CnIy weeks a!ter seIzIng East
]erusaIem, IsraeII Iaw was extended to thIs segment o! the cIty and the occupIed
popuIatIons were sub]ect to a host o! new ruIes and prohIbItIons. The 6o,ooo
"Arab InhabItants," as IsraeI re!erred to them, who came under IsraeII ruIe at the
moment o! conquest, were trans!ormed aImost overnIght !rom cItIzens o! the ]orda-
nIan monarchy Into "permanent resIdents" wIthIn the enIarged IsraeII munIcIpaIIty.
The physIcaI dIvIsIon that had !ractured ]erusaIem was now gone. 8ut the
eIImInatIon o! that !orm o! !orced separatIon between Arab and ]ew gave way to
emergIng practIces o! drawIng and poIIcIng other kInds o! !rontIers wIthIn a physI-
caIIy unIñed urban space. These acts IncIuded extendIng IsraeII segregatIonIst
IegIsIatIon over the whoIe o! the IsraeII-ruIed cIty.
In addItIon to the vast reorderIng o! spaces In ]erusaIem, a paraIIeI IdeoIogI-
caI e!!ort, a poIIcy o! knowIedge constructIon, seemed equaIIy at work In the
"reunIñed" urban center. Its raw materIaI was so o!ten not that whIch was new,
but pIaces and sItes that exIsted decades be!ore the IsraeII state was estabIIshed.
As the borderIands were swept away and mIIItary empIacements were dIsmantIed,
one such post was kept Intact aIong the IIne o! the prevIous dIvIde: the 8aramkI
House, known by then as the "Tour]eman Post."
What precIseIy such a memorIaI was meant to convey symboIIcaIIy !or suc-
ceedIng generatIons o! IsraeIIs-"!or posterIty"-was not cIearIy artIcuIated at
the tIme. 8ut It was now certaInIy evIdent that two mutuaIIy excIusIve vIsIons
o! thIs structure and Its past converged at the same IocaIe, one !oregrounded
and the other sIIenced. The 8aramkI property was no Ionger seen sImpIy as a
home-or even as a home at aII. Weathered by war, strIpped o! eIements and
traces that wouId IndIcate thIs was once a !amIIIaI space (IncIudIng the removaI
o! the !amIIy who owned It}, the structure's roIe as a mIIItary garrIson had begun
to assume a "taken !or granted" quaIIty. As the son o! the home's archItect
reIated In the Iate 1¤¤os: "You know, thIs questIon o! beIng deñned "absent" or
"absentee" by the IsraeII Covernment Is unbeIIevabIe. ImagIne, my !ather at the
tIme [1¤6)j, a )o-year-oId person goIng to the IsraeIIs and teIIIng them "here
I am now and I want my property" and them teIIIng hIm that, no, you are an
"absentee." And he saId "How am I absent? I am present!" He couId not under-
stand how he was absent and present at the same tIme" (8aramkI, 1¤¤)}!
The IsraeII Covernment never dId permIt the owner to step !oot In hIs house
agaIn, and the eIder 8aramkI dIed an exIIe In 1¤)2.
9DB>C6I>DCDC9>HEA6N/¹I=:IDJG?:B6CEDHIBJH:JBº
The encounter between the 8aramkIs and the IsraeII state Is embIematIc o! the
muItIpIe ways In whIch PaIestInIans are sImuItaneousIy "present" and "absent" In
]erusaIem. The IsraeII Iaw deñnIng PaIestInIan exIIes as "absentees" underscores
the IegaI margInaIIty Arabs InhabIt In the ]erusaIem o! IsraeI's ImagInatIon. 8ut
thIs margInaIIty aIso poInts to the ways In whIch certaIn understandIngs o! the
cIty are remembered and recognIzed, whIIe others are sImpIy "absented."
Members o! the 8aramkI !amIIy were "permItted" to cross the !ormer dIvIde
to West ]erusaIem In 1¤6). 8ut they were aIIowed access to theIr home onIy In
the earIy 1¤8os. The cIrcumstances o! theIr return were as odd as they were
paIn!uI !or the owners. As wIth hundreds o! other PaIestInIan homes, the IsraeII
CustodIan !or Absentee Property had turned the house over to the IsraeII gov-
ernment !or "pubIIc purposes," Iong be!ore the actuaI Arab owners were abIe
to return to theIr property. In the earIy 1¤8os, the home underwent another
trans!ormatIon. WIthout notIce, knowIedge, or the permIssIon o! the owners,
the IsraeII MunIcIpaIIty steaIthIIy reconstItuted the dIIapIdated, !ormer "Tour]e-
man Post" Into what became known as the "Tour]eman Post BjhZjb." ThIs sIte,
the IsraeIIs decIared, wouId now serve as a monument meant to memorIaIIze
the "reunIñcatIon o! ]erusaIem." The structure's InterIor
and exterIor were desIgned In ways that recaII what II!e
was IIke In the cIty durIng the 1¤ years It was !ractured
between east and west sIdes. Museum brochures and the
pIaque on the !ront door re!er to the structure as "DedI-
cated to the Theme: ]erusaIem-A DIvIded CIty ReunIted."
The home's crumbIIng exterIor was Ie!t In Its damaged
state-"!or posterIty"-whIIe a donatIon !rom a Cerman
!amIIy enabIed the IsraeII munIcIpaIIty to reconñgure the
InterIor. In the IIterature that the cIty produces !or exter-
naI consumptIon, It Is never mentIoned that the structure
was In !act the home o! a PaIestInIan !amIIy.
C6B>C<I=:;68I
Cuns, mortars, and other weapons used durIng the 1¤a8 and 1¤6) wars were
exhIbIted, a sort o! dIspIay o! "purIty o! arms." These were the weapons, vIsI-
tors were toId, o! a reIuctant army, one that !ought a war agaInst enemIes who
re!used peace and compromIse. Remnants o! the home's hIstory as mIIItary
empIacement were pIentI!uI, IncIudIng the reIn!orced turrets pIaced wIthIn the
!ormer arched wIndows. 8ut aII o! these renovatIons were In a sense two tImes
removed !rom the orIgInaI home's InterIor. Though constructed In the space o!
a gutted house, the IsraeII state o!ñcIaIIy estabIIshed thIs representatIonaI sIte
wIthIn a !ormer army empIacement. Its appearance reHects and memorIaIIzes
that past. A transhIstorIcaI notIon o! ]ewIsh IdentIty and entItIement to ]erusaIem
Is depIoyed power!uIIy at thIs IocaIe. The cIaIm to ownershIp o! the cIty has, by
thIs account, a bIbIIcaI basIs stretchIng back ¤ooo years. No other peopIe's notIon
o! connectIon to ]erusaIem, maIntaIn IsraeII o!ñcIaIs and much o! Its cItIzenry,
has nearIy the same IegItImacy.
The museum (trans!ormed agaIn In 2oo2 Into the new "IsraeII Museum on
the Seam"} aIIows the vIsItor to use the actuaI physIcaI structure o! thIs home-
turned-outpost-turned-museum to better understand the IsraeII narratIve o!
IongIng and redemptIon. At the end o! the exhIbIt, aII are InvIted to gaze out !rom
the narrow sIIts In the ñIIed-In wIndows o! the top Hoor, apertures that once
served as turrets and !rom whIch, durIng the dark days o! the dIvIded cIty, IsraeII
soIdIers peered out braveIy at an enemy, apparentIy as "!aceIess" today as then.
The 8aramkI home
presentIy housIng
the IsraeII "Muse-
um on the Seam"
(photo: edItorIaI team,
2oo¤}
¤¤a
l
¤¤ç
InnovatIon
DestructIon
8y reenactIng the practIce o! gazIng across a once-dIvIded Iandscape, vIsItors
are meant to understand the sIgnIñcance o! thIs sIte !or the securIty o! the
buddIng state. Today, however, those who gaze out !rom behInd these !ormer
turrets (themseIves !ormer wIndows}, see a seamIess whoIe, a unIty achIeved
through IsraeII vIctory. Cne "sees" ]ust what the beIeaguered IsraeII natIon
Is saId to have once seen, and whIch It now memorIaIIzes. £rom thIs vantage
poInt, IsraeII coIIectIve memory and the myths that In!orm It ossI!y Into "hIs-
torIcaI truth."
8DC8AJH>DC
The 8aramkI House and the museums that have been constructed wIthIn Its
space exIst sImuItaneousIy. The utIIIzatIon o! the home hIstorIcaIIy embodIes two
dI!!erent but Interconnected modes o! domInatIon. ServIng ñrst as an Instrument
o! mIIItary conquest, It poIIced the borders Imposed on the cIty by the domInant
natIonaI communIty. Today, the once-!amIIIaI space Is depIoyed In the servIce
o! epIstemIc vIoIence, used to produce and poIIce certaIn IdeoIogIcaI and hIstor-
IcaI boundarIes. The monuments to IsraeII mIIItary vIctory do more than sImpIy
deny the home's !amIIIaI past. They eIaborate a domInant serIes o! myths that
"evaporate" the hIstory o! the PaIestInIan peopIe more generaIIy, whIIe provIdIng
IegItImacy !or IsraeI's occupatIon o! the entIrety o! the cIty.
A PaIestInIan !amIIy home o! !ormer archItecturaI spIendor, desIgned by a
now-deceased master o! PaIestInIan archItecture, serves today as a component
o! a dI!!erent archItecture o! knowIedge productIon, a sca!!oIdIng o! truth-mak-
Ing, a !oundatIon !or epIstemIc vIoIence. It contInues to rest on the !rontIer o!
competIng hIstorIcaI ImagInatIons and memorIes, anchored In pIace, but sImuI-
tanousIy on the movIng edge o! IsraeII coIonIaI power.
1 The 1¤a¤ Rhodes Agreement between IsraeI and the Arab states caIIed !or brIngIng the waII down.
IsraeI re!used to ImpIement thIs, or to adhere to the UN resoIutIons caIIIng !or the return o!
PaIestInIans dIspIaced In 1¤a8.
2 Tour]eman was a ]ewIsh man who IIved and owned property In the neIghborhood be!ore 1¤a8.
¤ MeetIng thIs IsraeII standard !or ownershIp was accompIIshed by PaIestInIan exIIes In onIy a
hand!uI o! known cases. To be success!uI, the Arab owner had to demonstrate su!ñcIentIy In
IsraeII courts that when he or she Hed West ]erusaIem In 1¤a8, he or she had not gone to a coun-
try "at war wIth IsraeI." Such read the provIsIons o! IsraeI's "Absentee Property Iaw" (orIgInaIIy
the "EnemIes Property Iaw"}. I came upon onIy one !amIIy, the Daouds, who owned a property In
TaIbIeh, who were abIe to recIaIm It a!ter a severaI-year battIe and a!ter they proved that they had
Hed In 1¤a8 to EI SaIvador, not a state "at war" wIth IsraeI at the tIme o! her bIrth.
SeI ect ed 8I bI I ography
CabrIeI 8aramkI, IntervIew wIth the author, ]uIy 2), 1¤¤).
MIcheI-RoIph TrouIIIot, H^aZcX^c\i]ZEVhi/EdlZgVcYi]ZEgdYjXi^dcd[=^hidgn (8oston. 8eacon
Press, 1¤¤ç}.
i]Z^hgVZa^¹eaVXZº
^cZVhi_ZgjhVaZb
AIona NItzan-ShI!tan
How does new terrItorIaI controI become InexorabIe !act?
³
How does such !act,
based on conñscated Iand, turn Into "a natIonaI home"? How does thIs "home"
embody the IsraeII "pIace" even as PaIestInIans contest possessIon o! the genIus
IocI? ThIs essay examInes the IegItImIzIng pro!essIonaI dIscourse o! the IsraeII
settIer socIety. It !ocuses on the archItecturaI practIces that empowered the ñrst
IsraeII-born generatIon-the generatIon entrusted wIth IsraeIIzIng ]erusaIem a!ter
the 1¤6) War. In Its e!!orts to IocaIIze IsraeII archItecture, thIs generatIon !aced a
doubIe-bInd. Cn the one hand, It crItIcIzed the hIgh, deveIopmentaI modernIsm
that had hItherto shaped the state; on the other, It sought a sItuated modern
archItecture InspIred by the PaIestInIan vernacuIar (and thus beIongIng to the
Arab "other"}. ThIs Impasse provokes IntrIguIng questIons In postcoIonIaI theory
about how coIonIzers approprIate the cuIture o! the coIo-
nIzed In order to deñne an authentIc natIonaI cuIture o!
theIr own.
I=:H:6G8=;DGEA68:
ArchItect Moshe Sa!dIe expressed thIs predIcament suc-
cInctIy when descrIbIng the approach to ]erusaIem (Iater,
he wouId pIay an InstrumentaI roIe In Its IsraeIIzatIon}.
"[Tjhe road ascends to a crest overIookIng the western
hIIIs o! the cIty. Down the sIopes, a deserted Arab vIIIage
hugs the hIII, smaII and Iarger cubes made o! the stone o!
the mountaIn: domes, arches, vauIts, the mosque's tower,
shaded passages, aII In harmony wIth the Iandscape and
the sun" (1¤)¤:216}.
Sa!dIe contrasted thIs IdeaIIzed pIcture o! a vacant
II!ta [£Ig. 1j wIth the achIevements o! IsraeI's MInIstry
o! HousIng. "At the summIt o! the hIII," he poInted
to DavId AnatoI 8rutzkus's housIng In Upper II!ta
(Romema}, "Is a serIes o! Iong !our-story apartment
structures buIIt In the Iate ñ!tIes. They do vIoIence to
the mountaIn. They are !oreIgn, as I! Imported !rom
some raIny, cooI European suburb" [£Ig. 2j (1¤)¤:216}.
What Sa!dIe artIcuIated was a generatIonaI re!usaI
to espouse the hIgh modernIsm o! IsraeI's natIon-
1. DavId AnatoI
8rutzkos, Upper
II!ta, 1¤6os reprInted
!rom IsraeI ßuìIds
(IsraeI: MInIstry o!
HousIng, 1¤6ç}
2. II!ta (reprInted !rom
DavId Kroyanker, ]erusaIem
- ConHIcts over the CIty's
PhysIcaI and VIsuaI £orm
(]erusaIem: Zmora-8Itan,
1¤88}}
¤¤6
l
¤¤)
InnovatIon
DestructIon
buIIdIng years. AIthough aIready estabIIshed by IsraeI's ñrst archItecturaI hIstory
text as a pervasIve IsraeII archItecturaI tradItIon (HashImshonI, 1¤6¤:1¤¤-22¤}, It !eII
short o! addressIng the aspIratIons o! a younger generatIon whose members
sought a "new" tradItIon authentIcated by deeper roots. In order to conceIve o!
an IdentIñabIe "IsraeII archItecture," they turned Instead to the tradItIon o! the
"pIace" as !ound In vIIIages IIke II!ta, and Iater In the townscape o! the CId CIty.
EventuaIIy, the search !or the IsraeII "pIace" evoIvIng !rom the Iate 1¤ços
undergIrded the conceptuaI !ramework most prevaIent In post-1¤6) ]erusaIem.
Instead o! unI!orm modernIst housIng bIocks, archItects experImented wIth
buIIdIng cIusters, hIerarchIcaI cIrcuIatIon, and broken masses. The mInIster o!
housIng expIaIned the state's buIIdIng methods In East ]erusaIem, prescrIbIng
Iow-rIse, stone-cIad buIIdIng. "AIso Incorporated," he added, "are eIements o!
CrIentaI buIIdIng such as arches, domes, etc." These "buIIdIng types are especIaIIy
ad]usted to the topographIc condItIon and the sIopes o! the sItes" (Haaretz, £ebru-
ary 2, 1¤68}, [£Ig. ¤-aj. The cIear re!erence to the hItherto re]ected PaIestInIan buIIt
cuIture IntrIgues: how couId such buIIt tradItIon
be accepted as a modeI !or the post-1¤6) archI-
tecture o! IsraeII ]erusaIem?
6EGD;:HH>DCH::@>C<I=:
6G8=>I:8IJG:D;¹I=:EA68:º
In the Iate 1¤ços, the ñrst IsraeII-born genera-
tIon o! archItects (the sabra} saw In the dec-
ade-oId IsraeII state a homeIand !undamentaIIy
dI!!erent !rom that envIsIoned by the !ounders
o! Iabor ZIonIsm. £or the 2o years prIor, ZIonIst
archItects In Mandate PaIestIne had embraced
a modern archItecture promIsIng a new begIn-
nIng-a departure !rom both bourgeoIs and
"CrIentaI" II!e, whIch they beIIeved had contamI-
nated ]ewIsh II!e In the DIaspora. 8abra archI-
tects cIaImed that the resuItIng "InternatIonaI
archItecture" Ie!t no room !or "cuIture," whIch Is what makes human beIngs Into
a peopIe and socIety (KarmI, 1¤¤8}. It may have created proper housIng soIutIons,
they posIted, but dIsregarded the ZIonIst promIse o! a "natIonaI home" [£Ig. çj.
8y 1¤6), thIs generatIonaI group (partIcuIarIy Its IeadIng pro!essIonaI cIrcIe}
³

was gaInIng the pro!essIonaI power requIred to Iead the buIIdIng o! the so-
caIIed "unIted ]erusaIem." TheIr wIsh to create a sense
o! beIongIng between peopIe, communIty, and pIace was
InspIred by sImIIar e!!orts overseas. In order to ñnd an
unmedIated !orm o! "the spatIaI expressIon o! human
conduct" archItects (such as members o! the European
Team 1o} emphasIzed vernacuIar archItecture where
II!e, rather than creatIve pro!essIonaIs, dIctated buIId-
Ing !orms (8akema, 1¤68:2a}. The resuIt was a shI!t to Man,
wIth structuraIIst anthropoIogy provIdIng the theoretIcaI
¤. Ram KarmI, CIIo HousIng,
cIuster 6, 1¤)os, AxonometrIc
vIew
a. CeneraI vIew, both courtesy
o! Ram KarmI
ç. IsraeI ßuìIds,
1¤ç8, cover Image
ground. Modern archItecture, they argued, shouId cease searchIng !or "what Is
dI!!erent In our tIme" and seek Instead "what Is aIways essentIaIIy the same" (Van
Eyck, 1¤8o:2)6}. The prototypIcaI InhabItant o! these envIronments was a generIc
Man, whose specIñc hIstory, cuIture and poIItIcs were Ignored In !avor o! unIver-
saI truths concernIng the InstIncts o! human habItatIon.
In the US, archItecture crItIcs such as 8ernard Rudo!sky drew upon the 8IbIe
and DarwIn-the mythoIogIcaI and scIentIñc orIgIns o! Western cuIture-to dIvest
the Modern Movement o! Its scIentIñc command. Rudo!sky's ArchItecture WIth-
out ArchItects emerged as a ma]or sourcebook !or archItects worIdwIde. It heId
vernacuIar archItecture as "nearIy ImmutabIe, Indeed, unImprovabIe, sInce It
serves Its purpose to per!ectIon" (1¤6a: captIon !or IIIustratIon 1}. SImIIarIy enthusI-
astIc were HeIdeggerIan phenomenoIogIsts who !ound In vernacuIar archItecture
ontoIogIcaI deñnItIons o! "pIace," o! beIng "at home" In the worId. The group
Atbat-A!rIque In Morocco, whose work combIned Arab vernacuIar wIth modern
archItecture, wrote In theIr statement o! prIncIpIe that "[Ijt Is ImpossIbIe !or
each man to construct hIs house to hImseI!. It Is !or the archItect to make It
possIbIe !or the man to make hIs house a home" (1¤68:)a}.
ThIs was precIseIy the type o! "socIaI ethIcs" that brought the archItecturaI
thInkIng o! the European Team 1o and the concurrent trend o! New 8rutaIIsm
to bear so e!!ectIveIy on the archItecturaI dIscourse o! sabra archItects. New
ImmIgrants, the sabra generatIon posIted, couId not and shouId not compIy wIth
an Imposed modernIst ImmIgrants' Idea-a utopIa buIIt o! ordered whIte boxes.
The sabra generatIon wanted Instead to "trans!orm the DIaspora ]ew Into a man
growIng out o! the Iand" (KarmI, 1¤¤8}, a man whose IdentIty deveIops as a resuIt
o! hIs organIc tIes to terrItory rather than adherence to !oreIgn Ideas. CnIy archI-
tecture "o! the pIace" couId IdentI!y IsraeIIs wIth the terrItory to whIch they
wanted to beIong and possess.
Maqom (Hebrew !or "pIace"} re!ers to the encounter between man and the
pIace where he Is.
³
The notIon o! maqom Is !undamentaI to sabra art and archI-
tecturaI dIscourse because, as CurevItz and Aran have argued, IsraeII ]ews had
not succeeded In resoIvIng the ambIguItIes o! theIr pIace: the tensIon between
the text and the terrItory. The "Iand o! IsraeI," accordIng to thIs argument, has
aIways been an abstract homeIand, an Idea, an aspIratIon the ZIonIst movement
InherIted !rom the ]ewIsh reIIgIon. At the same tIme, It was an actuaI pIace,
Iaden wIth hIstory, authentIcIty, and sacredness. I! the !oundIng generatIon was
devoted to "the Idea," the sabra generatIon embraced the terrItory ItseI!. The
schIsm between the two persIstentIy dIsturbed the process o! InhabItIng the
Iand. 8ecause the Idea, accordIng to CurevItz and Aran, preceded the pIace, these
e!!orts were conscIous, determIned, and IdeoIogIcaIIy charged-!undamentaIIy
dI!!erent !rom the e!!ortIess "natIveness" gaIned by bIrthrIght and dIrect ancestry
(CurevItz B Aran, 1¤¤1}.
ThIs "natIveness" was readIIy !ound !or sabra archItects among PaIestIn-
Ians, whose vernacuIar archItecture, InseparabIe !rom the pIace In whIch It was
created, evInced the rootedness they sought. When Yoram SegaI pubIIshed In
the InauguraI Issue o! the ]ournaI Tvaì a cover story on "The TradItIonaI House
In the Arab VIIIages o! the CaIIIee" (1¤66:1¤-22}, he emphasIzed thIs unmedIated
¤¤8
l
¤¤¤
InnovatIon
DestructIon
connectedness. The |eIIah's (!armer or !arm Iaborer's} tIes to hIs house, whIch
was buIIt and maIntaIned wIth the |eIIah's own hands, entaIIed "a reIatIonshIp o!
beIongIng, o! IdentIñcatIon, and o! strong emotIonaI attachment" (1¤66:2o} [£Ig. 6j.
It was precIseIy thIs sort o! reIatIonshIp that the sabra archItects were seekIng.
In hIs recent book, Ram KarmI suggested that "emuIatIng the IocaI gave bIrth
to an empathy toward the II!estyIe o! the Arabs and the 8edouIns, and Ied to a
renewed examInatIon o! dI!!erent IdentIty optIons" (2oo1:12}. IIke ArabIc words
In Hebrew sIang, PaIestInIan attIre on IsraeII youth, or ArabIc cookIng In IsraeII
cuIsIne, the evocatIon o! "the Arab vIIIage"
In IsraeII archItecturaI cuIture was a protest
through whIch sabras aImed to IdentI!y them-
seIves as natIves.
In 1¤6ç, !or exampIe, Ram KarmI expIaIned
In re!erence to hIs award-wInnIng 8rutaIIst
megastructure In 8eer Sheva that he Intended
to transIate rather than mImIc regIonaI vaIues
and moIds. He cIaImed to have !ound In the
Arab vIIIage typoIogIes that accord wIth the desert-the cohesIveness o! the buIIt
materIaI; the shaded, aIry bazaar; the dIssoIutIon o! the tradItIonaI !acade Into
a voIumetrIc pIay In whIch the sun scuIpts ever-changIng shadows [£Ig )j. 8ut,
KarmI emphasIzed, thIs typoIogy was not yet part o! the IsraeII cuIture, whIch
"we" IsraeIIs were so IaborIousIy tryIng to deñne.
I=:6B7>K6A:C8:D;8DADC>6A
8JAIJG6AEGD9J8I>DC
SocIaIIst ZIonIsm had emerged In Europe, and
Its sweepIng ]udaIzatIon o! Mandate PaIestIne
IntentIonaIIy Ignored, even destroyed, IndIg-
enous archItecture. AddItIonaIIy, Its modus oper-
andI was top down, orIgInatIng wIth the ZIonIst
pIoneers who saw themseIves saIvagers o! a ter-
rItorIaI tabuIa rasa.
The sabra approach, on the other hand,
turned to the IocaI vernacuIar to buIId !rom the
bottom up. 8ut thIs approach was no Iess con-
!usIng. A genuIne natIonaI archItecture requIred an unmedIated expressIon o!
pIace, but the search !or authentIc expressIon yIeIded perpIexIng resuIts: natIve
archItecture was mostIy Arab. The IsraeII search wIthIn the IocaI PaIestInIan
vernacuIar !or an aIternatIve to ZIonIst modernIsm was contradIctory; at exactIy
the tIme when Arab cuIture was most denIgrated by the IsraeIIs, Its IocaI con-
nectedness was deepIy admIred. In the wake o! thIs contradIctIon, notIons o!
coIonIzer/coIonIzed or Western/CrIentaI gave way to the ambIvaIence o! coIonIaI
sub]ectIvIty.
SchoIarIy anaIysIs o! thIs condItIon has emerged In crItIcaI response to bInary
opposItIons (see, !or exampIe, Edward SaId's semInaI CrìentaIìsm}.
ª
It habItuaIIy
!ocused on the InabIIIty o! the coIonIzed to retrIeve an "authentIc" IdentIty !ree
6. Yoram SegaI, "The Arab
VIIIage In the CaIIIee," reprInt-
ed !rom Tvaì 1, (SprIng 1¤66}
). Ram KarmI, "An Arab VII-
Iage," reprInted !rom KarmI, Cn
the Archìtecture o| 8hadows
!rom coIonIaI sub]ugatIon (£erguson, 1¤¤o; 8habha, 1¤¤a}. My Interest here Is a
sImIIar yet Inverted ambIvaIence, studIed by IookIng at the domInant pro!essIonaI
dIscourse rather then at the "natIves" as the ob]ect o! ethnography (CII!!ord m
Marcus, 1¤86; StockIng, 1¤8¤}. AccordIngIy, I !ocus on the coIonIzer's dependency on
the IdentIty o! the coIonIzed In Its search to deñne an "authentIc" natIonaI IdentIty
wIth vIsceraI tIes to the pIace.
³
The IsraeII desIre to achIeve the Arab's natIve-
ness-whIch was seen as the uItImate expressIon o! IocaIIty-sheds new IIght on
a sub]ect seIdom !requented by postcoIonIaI schoIarshIp.
The natIonaI and pro!essIonaI sentIments o! the sabra, I argue, underIIned
the IsraeII archItecturaI praxIs that shaped the urban Iandscape o! post-1¤6)
IsraeII ]erusaIem. These sentIments were deveIoped as an InternaI IsraeII debate
between post-WorId War II archItecturaI cuIture-Its modernIst crIsIs echoed In
the sabra generatIonaI revoIt agaInst ZIonIst modernIsm-and a natIonaI IdentIty
buIIt on a !ormatIve deñcIency whIch provoked a desIre !or and !antasy about the
Arab natIve's IntImate reIatIonshIp wIth the pIace, Its Iandscape, stone and IIght.
A!ter the 1¤6) War, when the ob]ect o! thIs !antasy, the Arab habItat, became
tangIbIe, thIs seemIngIy InternaI-pro!essIonaI debate was caught In the urgent
un!oIdIng poIItIcs o! the IsraeII-PaIestInIan conHIct.
H:>O>C<AD86A>IN>C?:GJH6A:B
ImmedIateIy a!ter the 1¤6) War and IsraeI's resuItIng seIzure o! East ]erusaIem
!rom ]ordan, IsraeII pIanners were suddenIy asked to trans!orm the Iand by
constructIng "!acts on the ground" that !ostered the perceptIon o! a cIty unIñed
under IsraeII controI. 8ut neIther IsraeI's modernIst pIanners nor the poIItIcIans
who guIded them knew how to express thIs power!uI symboIIsm archItecturaIIy.
ª

The mInIster o! housIng sImpIy advIsed hIs pIanners to gIve the unIñed cIty an
"orIentaI character" (Haaretz, £ebruary 2, 1¤68}. The pre!abrIcated concrete arches
soon to be superImposed on the compIeted pIans !or the ñrst IsraeII East ]erusa-
Iem neIghborhood IIIustrated the con!usIon.
'
ThIs sItuatIon changed dramatIcaIIy,
however, when the younger generatIon o! archItects entered the pIannIng scene.
DurIng the 1¤)os, these archItects cra!ted a coherent archItecturaI vIsIon echoIng
the readIIy-accessIbIe PaIestInIan vernacuIar-a vIsIon whIch bewIIdered EIInoar
8arzakI, !ormer ]erusaIem regIon head In the MInIstry o! HousIng: "A cuIture
Iooks !or the symboIs o! Its heroIc perIods and assImIIates them In Its IocaI archI-
tecture, as ItaIy, !or exampIe, reIates to the Roman EmpIre. In ]erusaIem, how-
ever, the post 1¤6) archItecture o! power absorbed the symboIs o! the conquered
rather than those o! the conqueror" (8arzakI, 1¤¤8}.
ª
8arzakI's was a !orce!uI observatIon. PresumabIy, the symboIs o! the conqueror
were the ordered cubIcaI housIng bIocks o! pre-1¤6) West ]erusaIem and the
modernIst InstItutIonaI buIIdIngs that crowned Its government precInct. The
symboIs o! the conquered, on the other hand, were !ound In the CrIentaI stone
archItecture o! the CId CIty's pIcturesque skyIIne and envIronment.
8ut why wouId archItects "IsraeIIze" a contested cIty usIng the archItecturaI
!orms that were IdentIñed wIth another natIon? Moreover, once the PaIestInIan
vernacuIar was espoused, what mechanIsms enabIed IsraeIIs to separate It !rom
the cuIture that produced It, In order to reshape It Into an IsraeII archItecture?
¤ao
l
¤a1
InnovatIon
DestructIon
£oIIowIng, I study three strategIes !or IsraeIIzIng the Arab vernacuIar: to read It
as bIbIIcaI archItecture, as an uncontamInated prImItIve orIgIn o! archItecture, or
sImpIy as typIcaIIy MedIterranean.
¹7>7A>8>O>C<ºI=:A6C9H86E:
A!ter the 1¤6) conquest o! ]erusaIem's CId CIty, IsraeII ]ews re]oIced In a meta-
phorIcaI return home, especIaIIy to the Western WaII and the ]ewIsh Cuarter as
the symboIIc centers o! the ]ewIsh natIon. The consequent heIghtened !ocus on
the ]ewIsh Cuarter's vernacuIar archItecture prompted a natIonaI strategy that
weakened the authorIty o! Arab archItecturaI !orms over IsraeII archItecture.
When SegaI wrote on the Arab vIIIage In the CaIIIee In 1¤66, or when sabra archI-
tects sImuItaneousIy Iaunched a preservatIonIst approach to the reconstruc-
tIon o! CId ]a!!a, they expressed admIratIon !or the human vaIues and IdentIty
embeddedness o! what they saw as generIc exampIes o! the regIon's vernacuIar
archItecture. 8ut when archItects o! thIs same generatIon began reconstructIng
the ]ewIsh Cuarter ImmedIateIy a!ter the 1¤6) War, thIs vernacuIar was no Ionger
generIc; It was seen by IsraeIIs as an embodIment o! ]ewIsh hIstory. The tangIbIe
presence o! the Cuarter and the WaII substantIated !or IsraeIIs theIr natIonaI
conñdence and anchored theIr cIaIm over a dIsputed Iand. "The WaIIIng WaII,"
saId archItect KarmI, "symboIIzes the pIace In whIch I !eeI dIrect roots to KIng
DavId. I can greet hIm shaIom" (Cassuto, 1¤)ç:¤ç}. ArcheoIogIcaI research authentI-
cated thIs bIbIIcaI connectedness. WhIIe archItects were seekIng IocaIIty on the
ground, archeoIogIsts sought ]ewIsh hIstory underneath Its sur!ace. The two
were combIned In the reconstructed ]ewIsh Cuarter, where archeoIogIcaI ñnds
were embedded, as NadIa Abu EI-Ha] (2oo1} recentIy demonstrated, In the physIcaI
!abrIc and spatIaI experIence o! the Cuarter.
I! the archItecture o! the Cuarter testIñed to the contInuIty o! ]ewIsh habI-
tatIon !rom bIbIIcaI tImes, the new sense o! IocaIe couId be appIIed to the
surroundIng PaIestInIan vIIIages, whose archItecture was perceIved as bIbIIcaI,
and whose InhabItants served as custodIans. The centraI
!eature o! the natIonaI Iandscape scheme was a green beIt
around the CId CIty-prevIousIy a 8rItIsh coIonIaI dream-
whIch wouId vIsuaIIy arrest the CId CIty o! ]erusaIem. The
Arab vIIIage o! SIIwan was IncIuded In thIs park because
"Its character gIves us a good pIcture o! how the Iand-
scapes and vIIIages o! 8IbIIcaI tImes Iooked" (DvIr, 1¤6¤:2a}.
EducatIonaI pubIIcatIons by the army
°
compared thIs vII-
Iage to the archeoIogIcaIIy-In!ormed open-aIr modeI o!
Herod's ]erusaIem (ZaharonI, 1¤¤o}. A 1:ço scaIe monumentaI
reconstructIon o! the so-caIIed Second TempIe PerIod-
a ma]or tourIst attractIon In and o! ItseI!-conñrmed the
sameness o! SIIwan and Herod's ]erusaIem, agaIn empha-
sIzIng the contInuIty o! ancIent buIIdIng tradItIons [£Ig. 8j.
³º

8. Pro!. AvI-Yona,
ModeI o! ]erusaIem
DurIng the Second
TempIe, !rom "Sa!dIe
In ]erusaIem," RI8A
Iecture
I=:CD7A:H6K6<:6C9I=:DG><>CHD;6G8=>I:8IJG:
Sa!dIe ImmIgrated durIng hIs youth to Canada, where he became InternatIonaIIy
known !or hIs groundbreakIng MontreaI HabItat (Expo 1¤6)}. Endorsed by the
IsraeII admInIstratIon upon hIs return home In December 1¤6), he desIgned the
(unreaIIzed} pre!abrIcated ]erusaIem HabItat [£Ig. ¤j. Sa!dIe caIIed the sIte o! hIs
pro]ect, next to the Arab vIIIage MaIha, by Its Hebrew/bIbIIcaI name, Manchat.
"Here," he stated, "was the prototype, the ancIent vIIIage, wIth whIch any modern
deveIopment wouId have to co-exIst" (Sa!dIe, 1¤8¤:2)}. £urtherIng an archItecture
derIved !rom perceIved prImary InstIncts o! habItatIon, Sa!dIe advanced a
DarwInIan IogIc that dIrectIy evoked acquaIntance 8ernard Rudo!sky's semInaI
Archìtecture Wìthout Archìtects.
In Sa!dIe's eyes, vIIIages o! 1¤a8 PaIestInIan
re!ugees, buIIt wIth "!aIrIy IImIted resources"
and devoId o! hIstorIcaI depth, were "awesome
envIronments" (Sa!dIe, 1¤)¤}. They proved !or hIm
that habItatIon was a product o! "the compas-
sIonate search !or the way peopIe IIve theIr
prIvate and pubIIc II!e" (Sa!dIe, 1¤8¤:2¤}. Sa!dIe
expIaIned hIs IncorporatIon o! advanced meth-
ods o! constructIon Into thIs "orIgInaI" vernacu-
Iar modeI o! habItatIon as "an expressIon o! II!e
today, but that wouId be as I! It had aIways been
there" (1¤)¤:216}.
³³
8y creatIng a "!ugue wIth two
Instruments," one vernacuIar and one techno-
IogIcaI, Sa!dIe's ]erusaIem HabItat couId !uIñII
the ZIonIst dream o! !usIng the ancIent wIth the
modern (1¤)¤:216}. In ]erusaIem the "orIgIn" was
bIbIIcaI, the modern progressIve, and the combInatIon o! both servIng to vaIIdate
a peopIe's natIonaI II!e !rom a remote past to an un!oreseen !uture.
B:9>I:GG6C:6C>HB
InspIratIon !rom IndIgenous archItecture sImIIarIy provIded ratIonaIe !or the
ordInary housIng whIch deñned ]erusaIem's post-1¤6) vernacuIar. In 1¤)), Ram
KarmI pubIIshed the essay, "Human VaIues In Urban ArchItecture." EssentIaIIy
a manI!esto, the essay prescrIbed a IIst o! MedIterranean archItecturaI !orms as
guIdeIInes !or !uture pIannIng. They were Intended to heIp archItects to resoIve
the most pressIng questIon: that o! beIongIng. How couId archItects estabIIsh
an archItecturaI Ianguage that encouraged personaI expressIon but aIso deñned
a vernacuIar !or the natIonaI communIty? KarmI's re!erence !or such actIve
rerootIng was the revIvaI o! the ancIent Hebrew Ianguage, whIch addressed
bIbIIcaI orIgIn, kInshIp, and bIood. IsraeII archItecture, KarmI contended, shouId
connect those attrIbutes to the Iand.
In other contexts, schoIars have termed the strategy KarmI chose !or thIs task
"MedIterraneanIsm." He Invoked the tImeIess patterns o! MedIterranean archI-
tecture as guIdeIInes !or a hIerarchIcaI orderIng o! the buIIt envIronment, !rom
the house to the cIuster, quarter, square, street, bazaar, and, ñnaIIy, to the entIre
¤. Moshe Sa!dIe, a comparI-
son between an Arab vIIIage
(Manchat} and Sa!dIe's
hometown o! ]erusaIem .
£rom Moshe Sa!dIe, ]erusaIem:
The £uture o! the Past (8oston:
Houghton MI!HIn Company, 1¤8¤},
unpaged
¤a2
l
¤a¤
InnovatIon
DestructIon
system. Then he compIIed a manuaI o! MedIterranean "structuraI eIements"
comprIsed o! the aIphabet o! the Hebrew buIIt Iandscape: the waII, the gate, the
baIcony and porch, the staIrs and threshoId, the street and aIIeyway.
KarmI's shI!t In !ocus !rom the Arab vIIIage to MedIterranean archItecturaI
precedent was engraIned In a Iarger archItecturaI cuIture.
³³
PoIItIcaIIy, the Idea
o! IsraeII partIcIpatIon In a Iarger MedIterranean cuIture dIvested PaIestInIan
archItecture o! Its authorIty over the genìus Iocì, because It was subsumed Into
a Iarger geocuIturaI reaIm (ShavIt, 1¤¤8}. ThIs reIocatIon reIIeved the IsraeII archI-
tect o! the dIsturbIng conHIct between admIratIon o! natIve archItecture and
dIsregard !or the Iarger PaIestInIan cuIture that produced It. The assocIatIon wIth
Europe's cradIe o! cIvIIIzatIon was pacI!yIng and HexIbIe, and couId accommodate
IsraeI's earIy modernIsm.
I=::I=>8HD;>HG6:A>EA68:"B6@>C<
When KarmI moved !rom the prIvate sector to the heart o! bureaucracy, he
made an IdeoIogIcaI cIaIm on behaI! o! the archItecturaI pro!essIon !or the rIght
to shape the physIcaI Image o! the state. He demanded a compIete overhauI o!