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Hazimi Bin Ismail1, Ahmad Faroqi Bin Mohayiddin2,Muhammad Zul Hazwan bin Md Fauzi3
2007293606,Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,UiTM firstname.lastname@example.org
2007293586, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM email@example.com
2007293644, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM. firstname.lastname@example.org
Large or small hydropower, still by far the most important of the renewable energy for electrical power production worldwide, providing 19% of planet¶s electricity. However, hydropower on a small scale remains the most cost effective energy technologies to be considered for rural electrification in less develops country. The advantages of small hydro technology are the system can last for 50 years or more with less maintenance and also environmental friendly. Malaysian government has launched the Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) in 2001, in order to motivate the Independent Power Producer (IPP) in implementing the renewable energy projects in Malaysia. In 2009, there are 5 mini hydropower projects from 17 SREP participants, and one of them is Renewable Power Sdn Bhd. This mini hydro is operating at Gading Reserve forest, Hulu Selangor with licensed capacity of 2.2 MW. The capital cost of this project is estimated to be paid off after 10 years operation, but the operation and maintenance cost are at minimum compared to others renewable energy power generation. The barriers of this mini hydro are authority issues, short-term profit minded and expensive transmission to the main grid. Apart from these challenges, obviously mini hydropower is one the most potential alternatives energy in Malaysia, suitable to the objective of Fifth Fuel Policy in implementing r enewable energy as one of the energy resources in Malaysia. Keywords: small hydro, mini hydro, SREP, renewable, hydro Malaysia, renewable Malaysia, sustainable.
The concerns on environment and the high price of fossil fuel urge people to implement the alternative energy as the substituted energy resources. The fossil fuels are the main primary energy in the world, and yet to dominant the energy demands until a certain time when there is no more accessible fossil fuel on the earth. On that time, the world will meet the energy chaos if the alternatives are not prepared. Nowadays, no other sources that can beat fossil fuel as the 80% contributor to the Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES), and the demand of fossil fuels is expected to reach 80% at 2035 in power electricity generation . Third Conference of The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), was held in 1997, Kyoto which is widely known as Kyoto Protocol. This protocol was setup with the objective to reduce 5% of CO2 total emissions in developed and industrialized country for the period 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 level . This protocol is not compulsory to the developing country, but in order to show Malaysia¶s commitment to the world environment, Malaysia ratified this protocol in September 2002 . Malaysia is very committed to this protocol as the Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak gave the statement to have 40% CO2 reduction in 2020 compared to 2005¶s level during his speech in United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, Copenhagen .In order to fulfil this ambition, Malaysia has to find the solution of power generation without or less CO2 emission, which is hydro power is one of the best answers for this problem. There are many alternative energy resources that are available in the world, but these energy resources are still young in technology and have some limitation depend on the geographical factor 1
solar. which is limit to 10MW output capacity. Iran and Kapuas Hulu Ranges while in Sabah.These hydro power plants are categorized under small hydro category. Under this program. Maitland and Brassey. In Peninsula Malaysia. 1. the small hydro is theoretically has high potential to be implemented widely in Malaysia. there are17 small power plants participate in the SREP. General Classification of Hydro Power Power Output More 10MW Less 10MW Less 1 MW Less 100kW Less 20kW Class Large Small Mini Micro Pico 2 .and location. from 17 participants of SREP. There are 3 types of small hydro power. Other than that. The utilization of all types of renewable energy resources including biomass. Statistically. mini. km which 58% is lowland areas and 42% is highland areas . the highlands are Tama Abu. based on hydrology study. Table 1.1 Hydro Potential in Malaysia According to Philip Hurst 1990. mini up to 1MW. Malaysia also has average rainfall of 2540 mm in Peninsula. Other than highlands. Based on the results obtained. and only 7 of them are already generated the electricity . micro and pica. Malaysia covers a land area of 330 000 sq. Kledang. in order to attract the Independent Power Producer (IPP) to develop and build the power plant based on the renewable energy resources. accessibility and river profile . it comes from the basic of hydro gravitational potential energy to drive the generator in order to generate the electricity. Bintang. However. In Sarawak. and Pantai Timur. biogas. mini-hydro and wind are allowed to participate in SREP.With abundance of highland areas.2 Types of Small Hydropower What is small hydro power? Basically. municipal wastes. they are Crocker. there are 5 power plants those are using hydropower as the energy resource . The CO2 emission and high price of fossil fuel problem at least can be reduced if someday the mini hydro projects diverge to large number of participations. micro can be up to 100kW and the pica hydro can generate electricity up to 5kW or 20kW . we have Titiwangsa. Malaysia has launched a program called Small Renewable Energy Program (SREP). location in Malaysia met the requirement for hydro generation  1. from 1997 to 2007 . which is 1. The small hydro can generate up to 10MW or 25MW in certain places. small hydro all over the world contribute over 40GW of world capacity. Until 2009. Globally. On 11th May 2001. small power generation plants that are utilizing renewable energy will sell their electricity to the Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) through the national grid transmission system. The categorization of small hydro power depends on its electrical output. the average annual rainfall rate are in range from 1500mm up to 3600mm. From Nathan Raman and Ibrahim Hussein Journal (2010) map studies. 2630 mm in Sabah and 3850 mm in Sarawak which contribute to abundance streams and rivers flowing from the highland areas . average annual rainfall in Malaysia especially in highland sites. They are energy demand.48 times more than total capacity of electricity generation in Malaysia . small hydro power commonly categorized under 10MW or 25 MW in certain countries. Tahan. they found out that the suitable catchment for hydro potential is based on 3 factors.
There is one micro hydropower which is located in Sungai Piah. irrigation outlets.Based on .Negeri Sembilan.3. Mukim Keling. Sungai Rek Daerah Kuala Krai Negeri Kelantan Kompartment 52 & 53 Hutan Simpan Gading. Tambunan.Bhd. small hydropower is defined to be less than 10MW.5 3 Syarikat Esajadi Power Sdn. hills. The plant is equipped with two turbines that can produce up to100 kW electricity power. Schemes of Small Hydro Types of Small Hydro Flow Rate Total Head Size of Plants Geographical potential Type 1 Large Discharge (m3/s) Low Head (m) Large Plant Small rivers.S Energy Sdn.Under Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP). Sungai Kaingaran. Kota Belud. 2007 between Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and Renewable Power Sdn Bhd.Sabah.8 5 Renewable Power Sdn. Sungai Kadamaian. 2. Table 3.0 4 I.Commonly small hydro is kind of two types as described in Table 2 : Table 2. 1 Name of Company Syarikat Esajadi Power Sdn. 2. Kota Marudu. The list and output capacity of all mini hydro projects are listed in Table 2. Negeri Selangor Licensed Capacity (MW) 4. The plant uses two Pelton wheel turbines to run two generators.3 Implementation of Small Hydro in Malaysia 1.2 Micro hydro Micro hydro power output is less than 100 kW. 2. 3 .Sabah.3. Location Sungai Pangpuyan.2 Source: Electricity Supply Industry in Malaysia : Performance and Statistical Information 2009 1. List of Mini Hydro Projects in Malaysia No. The power purchase agreement was signed on 27 March. mountain waterfalls.Bhd. 1.5 2 Syarikat Esajadi Power Sdn. there are 4 other mini hydro plants in Malaysia.Bhd. 2. Hulu Selangor. Bhd. Daerah Hulu Selangor.1 Small hydro A small hydro or called mini-hydro in was implemented in Sungai Kerling. (RPSB). canal falls Type 2 Low Discharge (m3/s) High Head (m) Small Plant Steep area. Bhd. Sabah.
before it diverts back into Sg. Bhd.Kerling.3 Pico hydro Pico hydro power is capable to produce up to 5 kW . two of 1000 mm x 1000 mm flush gate. Kerling located approximately at 290.2 MW Mini Hydro Power station in Sg. 2. As the system has low impact on environment so the requirement to environment Impact Assessment (EIA) can be avoid.1: Site location A hydrological study had been carried on the side to identify the nature of the river and the topography. Kerling Mini Hydro Project is capable to applied run-off river system. The capacity of the project has been approved and accepted by MEWC and TNB as 2. for the Sg.0 MW. but it is ongoing in research stage.1 CONTENT Site visit to Renewable Powe r Sdn Bhd (RPSB) in Gading Reserved Forest Renewable Power Sdn. 18. 4 . This type of small hydro is not implemented in Malaysia.822 m penstock to a surface powerhouse containing two Pelton turbines. The water then diverted by a 3. Fig. On 1st October 2009. The system consists of flow turbine. Based on the study. Selangor officially operated and the power is injected into Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) grid .2 Mechanism of Small Hydropower The general arrangement of the system starts with an intake and a diversion weir on the Sg.0 2. (RPSB) is the first Green Technology develop by the Group of Majulia Sdn Bhd (MAJULIA) which had register as a Class ³A´ contractor. Kerling. The determination of this group preserving the environment with regards to carbon emissions had ventured into Green Technology via generation of renewable energy.5 m long descending basin and flushing facilities. and alternator with charge controller and a set of battery as storage . gear system. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) initiated pico-hydro project in 2006.1.5 m above the sea level. Other than that.95 m long uncontrolled spillway. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) had undertaken a research project of Small Scale Hydro Power (Pico-Hydro) for eBario  2. Others main features of the system are Headwork which is a diversion weir with a 10. 2.3. an intake chamber.
Fig.8 mm to 10 mm .4: Inlet pipe 5 .2 : Common layout of small hydro Fig.Fig.3: Intake and weir The penstock is built of 3822 m long with 1.0 m internal diameter mild steel pipes with varies thickness from 5.
Fig.5: Outlet into power house The power house is installed of 2 x 1250 kW generators and an 11 kV double circuit.7: 400 pole connecting PowerStation to the substation. 6 . 2 generators and control room.6: Power house consists with 2 turbines. 400 pole of 10 km long transmission line from the powerhouse to substation at Taman Lembah Damai with additional switching facilities. Fig.Fig.
8: Lembah Damai substation. Description Unit Value 1 Rated Discharge m3/s 1. Usually for the small hydro to operate in highland area. is the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Q is the volume flow rate passing through the turbine (m3/s) and H is net pressure head of water across the turbine (m).5m .43 6 Maximum Hydraulic Loss % (m) 4. The efficiency of generators in the plant is 96% .25 4 Head Gross m 225. The best turbines available can operate in range of 80% to over 90% of efficiency .18 m3/s but it has been fixed to operate at 1. g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/s2).Fig. Keling Mini Hydro Power Plant Development Under SREP Program 7 .00 5 Rated (net) Head m 214.3 Efficiency of RPSB s small hydropower P= gQH The power output of the hydro power plant can be determined by using the general formula of where P is the mechanical power produced at the turbine shaft (Watts).25 2 Minimum Discharge m3/s 0.18 3 Maximum Discharge m3/s 1. the gross head is 225. The proposed minimum flow rate is 0. is the density of water (kg/m3).25 m3 /s .5) 7 Compensation Flow Downstream m3/s 0. Kerling power plant. For this Sg. Table 4.The Pelton turbines used in RPSB¶s plant is claimed to operate at 89% efficiency . The head loss occur along the penstock is estimated at 10. Input Data and Conditions No.7 (15.43 m . 2. The power loss also occurs along the transmission line from the plant to the substation which is rated at 4% loss . the discharge needed is lower compared to discharge needed in low altitude area and vice versa for pressure head.0 m but the rated head value is 214.100 8 Reduction of energy due to outage % 2 9 Generator efficiency % 96 10 Plant operation use % 1 11 Transformer loss % 1 12 Transmission line loss % 4 Source: Report of Sg.
97 Source: Report of Sg.5 Economics The detail and specific cost of the Sg Kerling plant is confidential but roughly the cost for a 1MW small hydro is RM 7.5 years operation.5 million. Keling Mini Hydro Power Plant Development Under SREP Program From the data above. 2. Kerling small hydro is RM 15 millions. there is no such proper research has been done in the weir area in term of climate change. The operating cost is most consumed in paying the salary and logistic as the fuel of power plant is free.81 m/s2 x 1.25 m3/s x 214. = 1000kg/m3 . but the contract delivery of electricity is only capped at 2MW. 2. and the approximate capital cost for this Sg. The maintenance cost is low and no major breakdown occurs along 1. g= 9.81 m/s2. Mr Izzdy Ismail.167/kWh . assumption of water density.000.18MW.000 21 years RM0. the net power output of the plant can be determined by using this calculation: P= gQH Net plant efficient factor = 0. Description Unit Value 1 Turbine Rated Capacity kW 1164 2 Generator Rated Capacity kW 1117 3 Maximum Available Capacity @ Interconnection Facility kW 2102 4 Deliver Capacity @ Interconnection Facility kW 2000 5 Annual Energy Available MWh 15327 6 Annual Energy Delivered (capped at 2000 kW) MWh 14833 7 Energy Reduction Due to Outage MWh 297 8 Net Annual Energy Delivered MWh 14536 9 Net Plant Capacity Factor % 82. and the losses can be higher if the length is more.8297.8297 x 1000 kg/m3 x 9.43m = 2182 kW = 2.182MW Even the output capacity can reach to 2.the penstock piping and access road all are built on former road of logging activities. and it logically sound the negative effects of small hydro is very low compared to the large hydro which needs dam to be built.4 Impact and effect of RPSB s small hydropower The impact and effect of small hydro is at minimum compared to the large hydro. The high head hydro generally provides the most cost-effective projects. however the fish and other water inhabitants are still in the there. In fact. Table 6.Table 5. According the RPSB¶s Project Manager. thus it is recession proof. Cost and Contract Approximate Capital Cost Contract duration Tariff 8 RM 15.25m3/s and H= 214.there is 4% energy loss along the 10km transmission line. Output Data No. Q = 1. but the long transmission distances to the substation or to the main grid can be pricey . and even more compare to the time before the weir completes.43m P = 0. In this project.
Among the future challenges are to make continual load demand monitoring. 3. hydropower plant needs a fast stream river as a medium to move the wheel turbine. However. only the Renewable Power Sdn Bhd in Sg Kerling.477.6 Limitation and future challenge Mini Hydro power stations are available in Malaysia. Hutan Simpan Gading is operating and delivering the electricity to the TNB. The awareness of people towards greener approach to power generation are still low so. The net efficiency of the plant is 83% and is very high compared to other type of renewable energy power plants.2MW. 2. especially securing the relevant license / premises and to get permission from authorities. but the contract can be extended if everything is going in plan because the hydro power plant is the longest life time compared to other power plants. Izddy Ismail From the information above. but it is not good enough for a radical and impatient investor. the futility of small hydro development in areas close to grid. and 4 the others are still under construction. The Sg Kerling power plant use 2 Pelton Turbines. based on statistic published by Suruhanjaya Tenaga in 2009. the gross income before expenses and tax can be determined as: Annual Gross Income = Annual Energy Delivered to TNB x Tariff = 14833000 kWh x RM0. there are still in production and have operated for years. Mini hydro power only contributed very low percentage compare to conventional coal power station. in fact RPSB helps to cure that area which was used for logging activities. Mr. and until now there are 17 participants from variant of renewable energy approach participate in this program. but the manager said the profitability is there. and 2 generators with the total capacity of 2. The ratio of cost to output for small hydro is quite high compared to 9 . appointing consultants for detailed design and preparing specifications.In order to get µcomfortable profit¶. The real limitation for implementing hydroelectric power plant is the capital cost.000/year Source: Interview with RPSB¶s project manager. The real challenge for the system only occur when the rainfall capacity volume reduce in curtain month trough a year. Renewable technology needs to be ³branding´ to get intention from the society. Other than that. The effects to environment are very low. The total capital cost will be paid off after 10 to 11 years. the efficiency may drop to 20 -30 %. for now at least the initiation is there and in the future there is a hope that we can switch the fossil fuel with the renewable and sustainable energy.111 The net income actually is not being revealed. which is relatively higher than conventional power plant.167/kWh = RM 2. This project has faced long lead times and various obstacles from predevelopment stage up. So it seems less significant to the eyes of society. 2 governors. some hydro plants can last to 50 years or more without major refurbishment.0 Discussion The SREP has been launched in 2001. Mini hydro power station is low cost maintenance and easy to operate. The technology is available around the world and the installation may take only a few years.RM100.Other fees Lembaga Air Selangor . Izddy mentioned that the small hydro should be at least 4MW generation. Five of them use small or mini hydro power in utilizing the renewable energy into electricity.000/year Jabatan Hutan Selangor ± RM22. Even the contract duration with the TNB is set to 21 years. A visit has been organized to there in order to gain more information from them. many entrepreneur see this potential business very low because it less profitable and need a long time to turn into profit. and still to be competitive due to low of maintenance and operation cost . In fact.
and there is a hope that in the future more investors and entrepreneurs develop this kind of project in Malaysia. Rainforest Politics. [Online].my/cms/contentPrint. Give less interest of loan finance to site-owners and developers of SREP program. As the concern toward less emission power generation. however the contribution of SREP is very tiny if to be compared with conventional fossil fuel power plant. 4. "Electricity Supply Industry in Malaysia : Performance and Statistical Information. TNB.com.article.gov. London. Paris: International Energy Agency.  Kyoto Protocol. HYPERLINK "http://unfccc.0 Conclusion The visit to RPSB¶s mini hydro power in Sg. Malaysia is already has the initiative project and program such as SREP.0 y y y y Recommendation Review again the tariff for the IPPs. and that is why it is not attractive in the investors¶ eyes. 1990. [Online].asp?file=/2009/12/18/nation/20091218134734&sec=nation"  Electricity Supply and Market Regulation Department Energy Commission. [Online]." Suruhanjaya Tenaga.  Philip Hurst.tms.conventional fossil fuel power plant.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830. The concept of operation in mini hydro power is quietly the same as large hydro power.php" http://unfccc. The mini hydro is obviously high potential renewable energy in Malaysia. Kerling give a brief explanation and information to the authors how the hydropower operates. HYPERLINK "http://thestar. 2010.Technology and the 10 . Use of small hydro as the main source of energy supply or as alternative off grid connection especially for the people in rural area.Article_1a7bcd9d7f000010-5e095e09-e17e96f0&paging=0"  The Star Online :UK lauds Malaysia's pledge to cut carbon emissions.cms. Ecological Destruction in South-East Asia. This mini hydro power is developed under SREP program and it is the earliest project that accomplishes to deliver the electricity to TNB national grid. 2009. 5. government and NGO should give adequate information to all people in Malaysia especially for the entrepreneurs and investors in order for them to gain trust in SREP program.php  Official Portal of Ministry of International Trade and Industry Malaysia. 6. and promote more attractive tariff for the IPPs who utilize the renewable and sustainable energy.jsp?id=com.my/news/story. but the small or mini hydro power is more environmental friendly.0 References  World Energy Outlook 2010.  "Assesment of Biological Diversity in Malaysia. HYPERLINK "http://www.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.miti." Ministry of Science. In conclusion. this system seems can give very big contribution towards that.
" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. "Pico Hydro : Clean Power From Small Stream". "Small hydro and the environmental implications of its extensive utilization. 537-556. Shah Alam. Abbasi. no.  Time For Change.  Ibrahim Hussein Nathan Raman. 15. "Small hydro power: technology and current status." Renewable Power SDN BHD. pp. "Sg. February 2002 2002. Bhd (2011) Personal communication ± [Personal Communication] 11 . [Online]. Project Manager of Renewable Power Sdn. 2134-2142.  Tasneem Abbasi and S." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews..  Oliver Paish.  Juhari Ab. Keling Mini Hydro Power Plant Development Under SREP Program.. HYPERLINK "http://timeforchange. pp.Environment." 2010.org/cause-and-effect-for-global-warming  Izzdy Ismail. 2011. Razak Kamaruzzaman Sopian.org/cause-and-effect-forglobal-warming" http://timeforchange.A.  Izzdy Ismail. "Reconnaissance Study to Identify Micro Hydro Potential Sites in Malaysia.
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