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Submitted to: Mr. K.N. Chaudhary
Submitted by: Manjit paul Rollno.a23 Reg.no.10902965
Introduction Cigarettes should be banned or not? Why people smoke? hazardous effects of smoking cigarette sales in India Usage of tobacco in cigarettes Deaths due to Tobacco in India Controls taken by Indian government Controls need to be taken? Conclusion references
The topic is all around discussing the issue of whether cigarettes should be banned completely in society or not. so I have done a thorough study on cigarettes, its components, it harmful effect, why people use it, growth of cigarette production in India, measures taken by government,and measures need to be taken.
Cigarettes should be banned or not?
Do you know what's in a cigarette?
Would you inhale carbon monoxide? Expose yourself to polonium-210? Ingest hydrogen cyanide? Is it OK to market a product that contains these deadly chemicals children?
Cigarettes are much more than tobacco rolled in paper. There are over 4,000 chemicals in a single puff of cigarette smoke, and at least 69 of them are known to cause cancer. Every time someone takes a puff they are exposed to carbon monoxide, polonium-210, hydrogen cyanide and thousands of other chemicals, including
Cigarette is mainly comprises of nicotine, tar, carbon mono oxide, benzener, hydrozen cynide, ammonia, acetone etc. which at all has no benefit to health. Component Nicotine Tar Carbon monoxide Benzene Acetone Formaldehyde Hydrogen Cyanide Function This is the addictive component of cigarettes This is also used to create road surfaces - The same gas as created by your car exhaust Also in petrol fumes A paint stripper Embalming fluid A poison used in gas chambers
Why people smoke?
There is very foolish thinking about it as people think it as fun, type of reward; think that though this concentration become consistent, pleasure, trouble remover, a status indicator etc. these all are reasons created by cigarette manufacturer to sell his product other wise there is no case till found that proves it .so some of the wron facts about the cigarette are as follow: Smoking is Fun People took cigarette as fun to get excuse from their busy working schedule. They feel that cigarettes give then psychological pleasure. They feel free after using it. Smoking is Oral Pleasure As we have said, to explain the pleasure derived from smoking as taste experience alone, is not sufficient. For one thing, such an explanation leaves out the powerful erotic sensitivity of the oral zone. Oral pleasure is just as fundamental as sexuality and hunger. It functions with full strength from earliest childhood. There is a direct connection between thumb sucking and smoking. "In school I always used to chew a pencil or a pen," said a journalist, in reply to our questions. "You should have seen the collection I had. They used to be chewed to bits. Whenever I try to stop smoking for a while, I get something to chew on, either a pipe or a menthol cigarette. You just stick it in your mouth and keep on sucking. And I also chew a lot of gum when I want to cut down on smoking...."The satisfied expression on a smoker's face when he inhales the smoke is ample proof of his sensuous thrill. The immense power of the yearning for a cigarette, especially after an enforced abstinence, is acknowledged by habitual smokers. One of our respondents said: "When you don't get a cigarette for a long time and you are kind of on pins, the first drag goes right down to your heels." "With a Cigarette I Am Not Alone" Frequently, our respondents remarked that smoking cigarettes is like being with a friend. Said one, "When I lean back and light my cigarette and see the glow in the dark, I am not alone any more...."
In one sense, a cigarette seems to be something alive. so its image has been created like that cigarette is your friend and people start feeling it. Cigarettes Help Us to Relax One shortcoming of our modern culture is the universal lack of adequate relaxation. Many of us not only do not know how to relax, but do not take time to learn. Smoking helps us to relax because, like music, it is rhythmic. Smoking gives us a legitimate excuse to linger a little longer after meals, to stop work for a few minutes, to sit at home without doing anything that requires effort.
Hazardous effects of smoking:
Rather than finding any positive effect people only come in following hazardous problems: Lung cancer: Cigarettes result in lug cancer which leads to death of a person. Reduce life: Every cigarette takes five and a half minutes away from the smoker. It also damaging the lives of people living around the smoker. If a chain smoker living with her spouse then there is high chance of more than 30 % that the spouse can get lung cancer. Children living with their parents using cigarettes can also inhale the fumes of cigarettes which is vary harmful for their health. More than seventeen percent of lung cancer is only due to children living with smoker parents. Minors attracted to cigarettes most by seeing their elders using cigarettes and seeing their favorite celebrities or comic stars in movies or ads using cigarettes. Nicotine, the primary psychoactive chemical in cigarettes, is addictive. Cigarette use by pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects (which include mental and physical disability). On average, each cigarette smoked shortens lifespan by 11 minutes and smokers who die of tobacco-related disease lose, on average, 14 years of life.
Immediate effects of second hand smoke: 53,000 people die from the effects of second hand smoke if u use 2nd hand smoke by chance then be aware u may caught in following problems: • headache • coughing • eye irritation • sore throat • sneezing • runny nose • breathing problems • feeling sick • irregular heartbeat
CIGARETTE SALES IN INDIA:
India's share in world cigarette production has remained at around 1.7% whereas India's exports of around 2.8 billion sticks of cigarette per year counts for less than 1% of the world export of cigarette. Cigarette industry in India is essentially capital intensive in nature. The growth of cigarette industry both in domestic and international market represents a big revenue opportunity for the economy. But the burden of Tobacco tax has increasingly shifted to cigarette with the removal of duty on raw Tobacco since 1979, resulting in discriminatory rates of duty compared to other Tobacco products. Cigarette sales has been increased from 76.8% to 95.5% from 1987-88 to 1995-96.and excise duty also increased from 1470.8 to 3572 respectively .sales force was increasing from 76.8% in 1987-88 to 86.1% in 1990-91 and then it was decreasing 1994 to 78.8% which is a good sign but then it again start rising. As we seen the %age increase in sales according to that excise duty must be higher than govt. applied because this is a big concern for government that the sale is higher. It means that people are got addicted to smoking which will result in more diseases
and create un healthy environment which is a big concern for the developing country like India.
Year 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 Cigarette Sales & 76.8 80.3 83.5 86.1 85.7 80.8 78.8 84.4 95.5 Excise Duty Cigarettes (Rs.Cr) 1470.8 1599.1 1924.8 2084.4 2387.1 2767.7 2741.0 3074.8 3572.3 on
Usage of tobacco in cigarettes: tobacco provides employment to
large number of people on the one hand. On the other hand, it makes significant contribution to National Exchequer by way of excise revenue and foreign exchange earnings. Tobacco being a labour intensive crop provides employment to more than 60 lakhs people who are engaged in the farming curing, redrying, packaging, grading, manufacturing distribution, export and retailing activities. Tobacco Industry in India contributes in a unique manner to several important facets of the Indian Economy, covering revenue, export, employment, and GDP growth. The Tobacco industry in India mainly covers manufacturing of cigarette, bidi, cigar and cheroot, hookah, snuff and other chewing Tobacco like zarda, gutkha and other pan masala.cigarette is mainly second highly used form of tobacco in India.
Year 1951-52 1961-62 1971-72 1981-82 1994-95 Cigarettes (%age) 21 44 71 86 80
As we know that tobacco is used highly in cigarettes as this is the main component of tobacco. from 1951-52 to 1994-95, tobacco usage increased highly that is from 21% to 80%.it means that people are addicted highly to cigarettes and government is also no taking strong steps against cigarette consumption or the measures taken by it are going to be failed due to which tobacco usage is increased rather than decreased. The other major fact about tobacco usage is that there are 29.4% male and 16.2% female household users above 15 year age in cigarettes in 1998-99 year data.
Deaths due to Tobacco in India
Information on mortality rates associated with tobacco use in India is available from three cohort studies. The age adjusted relative risk of mortality due to tobacco use and the prevalence of tobacco use, applied to overall mortality of the country, suggested that at least 630,000 persons died in 1986 due to tobacco use16. Median risks as observed from these cohort studies, and the prevalence of tobacco use as found in the first nationwide survey of National Sample Survey Organization14, when applied to the 1996 population, showed that about 800,000 persons in India died due to their tobacco habit in 1996.Recent studies indicate that the risk of death due to tobacco use may in fact be more than that identified earlier.
Controls taken by Indian government: Although government has not banned the cigarettes but it has taken several steps so that people will not prefer it. Initiatives taken by government from 1970-2004:
1975: The Cigarettes Act 1975 made a statutory health warning mandatory on all cigarette packets. 1980: The central and several state governments imposed restrictions on tobacco trade and initiated efforts for comprehensive legislation for tobacco control.
1990: The Central government issued a directive for prohibiting smoking in public places, banned tobacco advertising on national radio and TV and made display of statutory health warnings on chewing tobacco products mandatory. 1991: The Central government directed the Central Board of Film Certificate to comply with the Cinematography Act 1952. 1995: The Parliamentary Committee on Subordinate Legislation examined the existing Cigarette Act and made specific suggestions for stronger provisions. An Expert Committee on the economics of tobacco use was constituted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. A coordination committee was formed by the Central Government to consider recommendations. 1999: Ministry of Railways banned sale of cigarettes and bidis on railway platforms and inside trains. 2000: Central Government banned tobacco advertisements on cable TV. 2001: Ministry of Railways imposed ban on sale of gutka at railway stations, concourses, and reservation centers and inside trains. The National Commission on Human Rights at the S.E. Asia regional consultation meeting, advocated for tobacco control as an essential measure to protect human rights 2001-03: The states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra , Bihar, Goa and Madhya Pradesh banned the production and sale of gutka and pan masala under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act.
Year 2003 onwards, India has played a pro-active role on the tobacco control front. It played a leading role in the several rounds of negotiations of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), as Regional Coordinator of South-east Asian countries, advocating actively for this international treaty on tobacco control. It was among the first 8 countries to ratify the FCTC treaty on 5 February 2004. in 2003, The Central Government passed the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) applicable to all tobacco products. It has also taken steps to notify the law at the central and state levels.
Main components of the Proposed National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP): The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched the pilot phase of the National Tobacco Control Programme in 2007-08 in 9 states of the country covering 18 districts. In 2008, it has been up scaled to 42 districts across 21 states. The main components of the NTCP are: Setting up of State Tobacco Control Cells District tobacco control programme: Training and capacity building of enforcement officials Monitoring and implementation of tobacco control laws Launching media campaign School health and awareness programmes National level mass awareness campaigns Establishment of tobacco product testing labs Research and training Monitoring and evaluation, including Adult Tobacco Survey (ATS) Setting up of National Regulatory Authority (NRA) In 2008, Section 4 of the COTPA specifying the smoke free rules came into effect, prohibiting smoking in all public and work places from October 2, 2008. As a Result, public places like offices, airports, hospitals, shopping malls, cinema halls, banks, hotels, restaurants and bars, public transports, educational institutions and libraries are Now smoke free across India. This act also stipulates that: There should be a visible board at every entrance and every floor of a public place that “No Smoking Area- Smoking is an Offence”. Any hotel or restaurant having seating capacity of 30 or more shall have physically segregated smoking and non-smoking areas. The penalty for violations is a fine of up to Rs 200/ Pack warnings: Pictorial warnings on all tobacco products as specified under Section 7,8, 9 of the COTPA have become mandatory from 31 May 2009. On May 6, 2009, the Supreme Court issued an order that pictorial health warnings will be implemented on all tobacco products. Since Feb 1, 2007 till date, pictorial warnings in India have been diluted thrice and
delayed over half a dozen times. Strong, effective, evidencebased warnings notified but government on Sep 29, 2007 were rejected via a GOM decision and substituted by a set of three images that are softer and un-tested. It remains to be seen how effective pack warnings will prove to be in India. On the whole, pack warnings on tobacco packages will enable the public, including the less literate and vulnerable, like women and children to be informed of the hazards of tobacco use.
Other important measures initiated by the government on alternate cropping and livelihoods: As part of the Indian government’s commitment to tobacco control, key initiatives are as under: Inter-ministerial Task Force: A national level inter-ministerial task force has been set up with stakeholder ministries and representatives from other states and civil Society. Steering and Monitoring Committees at national and state levels: A Steering Committee has been formed under the chairmanship of Secretary (Health) to look into specific instances of violation of Section 5 at national level. Monitoring Committees have also been formed at state level. Tobacco Product Regulation: Five regional laboratories for tobacco product testing and one apex lab for research and validation have been identified. Alternate Livelihoods: The Ministry of Labour has launched a pilot programme for skill-based vocational training of bidi workers in locations such as Bangalore, Kengeri, Nagpur, Ajmer, Solapur, Murshidabad, Kolkata, Karimnagar, Hyderabad,Indore, Jabalpur,Kota, Bundi, Tonk, Beawar, Karauli and Nasirabad. Grassroot level nterventions to sensitize women and minors engaged in bidi-making in addition to training on alternative vocations has
been initiated in seven states – Maharashtra,Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat.
Controls need to be taken?
Proper ban on cigarette, as it has no any good effect. It is same as poison so. If poison is prohibited then why government not banning it. Anything which has no any positive effect need to be banned for the healthier people and environment. As mortality rate is increasing only due to cigarette consumption which is very big concern for India’s growth. Banning cigarette campaign should be started which will provoke people and aware them about the ill effect of cigarettes. Special campaign must be started in schools, offices, villages, which will aware people about cigarettes hazardous effects. Alternate cropping should be encouraged between farmers who cultivate tobacco which is highly used in cigarettes. Other methods of employment should be generated so that skilled laborers in cigarette making and tobacco cultivating can be applied to other jobs. so that the gap of unemployment that will be generated after banning can be fulfilled. Special counseling of patients should be done frequently so that they can’t be moved easily to smoking cigarettes.
all in all I only want to tell that cigarette is very poisonous to our health and we must ban it as it will erode the development of our country by making our generation and environment unhealthy.so government should ban it directly rather than imposing indirect measures of stopping its consumption and they should not think about the revenue it earns from
the cigarette selling but only consider the prosperous and healthy future of its people ahich is of utmost important.
http://dacnet.nic.in/tobacco/handbook/intro.htm http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Tobacco_Free_Initia tive_Executive_Summary.pdf
http://mohfw.nic.in/pg204to219.pdf http://rctfi.org/Parliamentarian %20Factsheets/Factsheet%20TOBACCO%20CONTROL %20IN%20INDIA.pdf
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