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Hence explain how an IP packet sent by a host at one site is routed a host at a different site. And also explain how the reply packet is returned to the host that sent the first packet. Ans. Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a technique by which a device on a given network answers the ARP queries for a network address that is not on that network. The ARP Proxy is aware of the location of the traffic's destination, and offers its own MAC address in reply, effectively saying, "send it to me, and I'll get it to where it needs to go." Serving as an ARP Proxy for another host effectively directs LAN traffic to the Proxy. The "captured" traffic is then typically routed by the Proxy to the intended destination via another interface or via a tunnel. The process which results in the node responding with its own MAC address to an ARP request for a different IP address for proxying purposes is sometimes referred to as 'publishing'.A Proxy ARP Simulation visualizes how a router responds to ARP request on behalf of the target host at different networks. See ARP cache updates at host, router, remote host. If we were to follow the path that the message "Hello computer 184.108.40.206!" took from ourcomputer to the computer with IP address 220.127.116.11, it would happen something like this:Diagram 2
they areready to be sent over the Internet.6. After going through the TCP layer.Each packet is assigned a port number . Now that our message packets have a port number and an IP address. This is whereeach packet receives it's destination address. This is because data sentover the Internet (and most computer networks) are sent in manageable chunks. 5. 5. 6.On the other end of the phone line your ISP has a direct connection to the Internet. each stack layer that the message passes throughmay break the message up into smaller chunks of data. The hardware layer takes care of turning ourpackets containing the alphabetic text of our message into electronic signals andtransmitting them over the phone line. Onthe Internet.1. 3. Weneed to know which program on the destination computer needs to receive themessage because it will be listening on a specific port. 2.The ISPs router .The packets would go through the Application Layer and continue to the TCP layer. the packets proceed to the IP layer. these chunks of data are known as packets . Ports will be explained later.If the message to be sent is long. but suffice tosay that many programs may be using the TCP/IP stack and sending messages. 4.7. The message would start at the top of the protocol stack on your computer and workit's way downward.8.
all routing data that the sendingcomputer's stack added (such as IP address and port number) is stripped from thepackets.6.com/design/ relative_and_absolute_urls.gif" width=".webdevelopersnotes. which means that if two URLs are identical. Similarly.webdevelopersnotes." height=". the absolute URL of the document you are viewing is http://www.. means "not dependent on anything else".com domain on this (relative_and_absolute_urls. under www. Hence.7. We can either refer to it using an absolute URL or use a relative URL. an absolute URL specifies the exact location of a file/directory on the internet. the packets have been re-assembledinto their original form. 8. For example: http://www. 7.gif stored in theimages directory of www. Let us understand relative URLs through a small exercise.When the data reaches the top of the stack. There are two ways to do this. Ans.php3 stored in the design directory) page. in English. the packets start at thebottom of the destination computer's TCP/IP stack and work upwards. the packet's next stop is another router. the word absolute. Absolute URL In addition to several other meanings.gif located in the images directory.php3 which is a page in the directory called design on this web site. they point to the same file.com/images/email.com domain name.gif specifies an image file email. "Hello computer 5. explain the meaning of “Absolute URL” and “relative URL” including the relationship between the two.webdevelopersnotes.webdevelopersnotes. Eventually.. It also follows that each absolute URL is unique. More on routersand Internet infrastructure later. It also means "free from doubt". Relative URL A relative URL points to a file/directory in relation to the present file/directory. As the packets go upwards through the stack. thus.7. An Absolute URL is. something that is independent or free from any relationship. 9. The <img> tag for this image display will be as follows: Using an Absolute URL in an <img> tag <img src="http://www..webdevelopersnotes. When you use an absolute URL.6..com/images/email. We want to include (display) the image file email.8. you point directly to a file." /> Using a Relative URL in an <IMG> tag . the packets reach computer 5. Here. Look at the two URL above. Often.examines the destination address in each packet and determineswhere to send it.8! Ques 2:-With the aid of an example.
. while increasing employee and network efficiency." height=". An encryption system at file./images/email. websites and IM Improves defence capability for the entire network Reduces the level of inconvenience to employees. server and workstation to eliminate improper messages being delivered through website.. ANS: DMX Cyber Defence Solution employs a multilayered approach to safeguard the network infrastructure. A Forensics system is also provided to log and record the activities in the network in order for enterprises to meet compliance requirements." /> The absolute URL is straight forward but in the relative URL you'll notice that I have refered to the image with . hard disk and database levels is also deployed to strengthen data level security.. firewall/Virtual Private Network (VPN) system and Content Security System to guard the perimeter of the network. • • • Ques4:-Explain why large fabrics consist of multiple switching stages each made up of a number of smaller switching elements interconnected in a regular matrix. Content Security Content security enables enterprises to keep up with the ever-evolving network infrastructure and to have complete control over their information assets’ and information systems’ costs. let me tell you about the directory structure of this web site.gif... Intrusion Prevention System (IPS). DMX Content Security Solutions provide a comprehensive protection to enterprises as it: • Monitors and scans different levels including the gateway.. email or instant messaging (IM) Provides multilevel antivirus & mobile code which enables content filtering for email. In order to understand the relative URL. ./images/email. All the security devices are managed with the Security Event Management (SEM) systems so that security administrators can quickly identify the root cause of any security breach through various alarms triggered by the security devices. Ques3:-Identify the potential security loophole with SSL scheme and state how the secure electronic transactions (SET) scheme overcomes this. To defend against virus and worms outbreaks – as well as other anomalies in the internal part of the network – Network Access Control is employed.gif" width=".<img src=".
The goal is to select candidates that can serve a hardware (HW)-wise scalable and bi-directionally reconfigurable Internet Protocol (IP) router. The modems are coupled with a DIP-switchable RS-232/422/485 interface board and regularly outperform more expensive RF modems. Include in your description the size of the key used and the number and size of sub keys associated with each encryption stage. Multistage Interconnection Network (MIN). together with a memory switch and a crossover switch.4 GHz models. HW scalability and bi-directional HW reconfigurability for an IP router denote respectively its ability to (1) expand according to network traffic capacity growth. however. for a matrix switch controlled by a grid of crossing metal bars. Overall result points to Hypercube. and a semi-quantitative compliance scoring scheme for 10 SFs.Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access. and 3-Dimensional Torus Mesh as potential candidates. In electronics. inspection.Ans. modification. ANS:. Available in 900 MHz and 2. Information security is concerned with the confidentiality. disclosure. crosspoint switch. perusal. It is one of the principal switch architectures. and (2) be functionally converted to perform in two conceptual directions on-demand: “downward” as “edge”. XStream-PKG modems provide transmission ranges of up to 20 miles in a low-cost wireless solution. or matrix switch) is a switch connecting multiple inputs to multiple outputs in a matrix manner. the methodologies used. or other forms. The terms information security. or “upward” as “hub” or “backbone” router according to the layer of the internet services provider’s network hierarchy it is targeted to serve at the moment. These fields are interrelated often and share the common goals of protecting the confidentiality. integrity and availability of data regardless of the form the data may take: electronic. computer security and information assurance are frequently incorrectly used interchangeably. a crossbar switch (also known as cross-point switch. Using six basic router functional requirements. Originally the term was used literally. These differences lie primarily in the approach to the subject. integrity and availability of information. . print. State the additional applications that these channels are used for. and later was broadened to matrix switches in general. Ques5:-Expalin the role of an RF modem including the modulation schemes used and the bandwidth available with a single 6/8 MHz band. recording or destruction. there are some subtle differences between them. Ans ) Digi’s XStream-PKG RF modems can be configured in minutes to provide lowcost serial cable replacement between all types of electronic devices. use. Ques6:-Explain with diagram describe the operation of the IDEA scheme. a primary switch fabrics (SFs) selection criterion. and the areas of concentration. disruption.
Also if the data type of the different software arenot compatible then it can lead to problems. This will lead to delay of timesince two different software are to be used. Purchasing two different software increases the budget. expanded and compressed or choice Permutation / transposition. Use of two different software for providingsecurity and compression poses different problems for the user. Identify those networks and networking equipment of that use ATM. Ques7:-Explain with diagram show the difference between straight. DRAWBACKS IN EXISTING SYSTEM Two different software are required for the purpose of Compression andEncryption/Decryption. ANS:- EXISTING SYSTEM Existing system are the different software that provides the compression only and someprovide cryptography only .Explain why the development of B-ISDN has been postponed. known as Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN). Ans ) the telecommunications industry expected that digital services would follow much the same pattern as voice services did on the public switched telephone network. Various issues regarding theuse of the two different software has to be solved like compatibility of the data in the twosoftware.Computer security can focus on ensuring the availability and correct operation of a computer system without concern for the information stored or processed by the computer. One for providing encryption and another for providing compression. Data type of different software may not be the same (compatibility issue) Using two different software requires more time as compared to using one . Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). State the keys used in each case. Also training on two different software has to be provided to the user.If some organization wants to send an e-mail that contains secretdata and also to reduce the size of the data then different software are to be used. . Ques8:. and conceived a grandiose end-to-end circuit switched services. This was designed in the 1990s as a logical extension of the end-to-end circuit switched data service. Use for example purpose a P-box with 8 input bits.
Before B-ISDN. the standardization process took years while the technology in this area moved rapidly. Once the standard was finally agreed upon it was already obsolete. Obtaining worldwide agreement on the Basic rate interface standard was expected to lead to a large user demand for ISDN equipment. However. hence leading to mass production and inexpensive ISDN chips. the original ISDN attempted to substitute the analog telephone system with a digital ISDN system which was appropriate for both voice and non voice traffic. .
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