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Power System State Estimation with Interline Power Flow

C.Venkatesh Kumar V.Gomathi
PG Scholar M.E (Power Systems Engineering) Power Systems Engineering
College of Engineering,Anna University College of Engineering,Anna University
Guindy,Chennai,600025 Guindy,Chennai,600025

Abstract: With the flexible of AC transmission systems IPFC, a versatile VSC-based FACTS controller for
(FACTS) technique, the power flow in the interconnected series compensation with the unique capability of power
power systems can be controlled flexibly. This paper is flow management among multi-lines of a substation and
concerned about the state estimation of system, which contain has the capability to equalize both real and reactive power
Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device. Interline flow between the lines, transfer power from overloaded to
power flow controller (IPFC) is one of the versatile FACTS underloaded lines, compensate against reactive voltage
device which is considered for State Estimation. Based on the drops and the corresponding reactive line power, and to
conventional power system state estimation model, a kind of
increase the effectiveness of the compensating system
model for state estimation with IPFC is introduced in this
paper, in which power injection model is used and the affect of against dynamic disturbances.
IPFC on the power flow is transferred to the lines which is
connected. This method can be integrated to the conventional So,there has been increasing interest in the analysis of IPFC
state estimation program with the consideration of IPFC. The in power system.However, very limited efforts have been
results demonstrate that the model is effective for practical use. made to study the impact of FACTS devices on power
The Operation and working of Interline Power flow Controller system state estimation. A new method is introduced to
was done and the results are simulated and presented using incorporate IPFC devices into the power state estimation.
MATLAB/SIMULINK. This paper attempts to deduce the model of state estimation
with IPFC using the conventional power system state
I. INTRODUCTION estimation model. A power injection model that transfers the
After the establishment of power markets with
affect of IPFC towards the power flow to the transmission
transmission open access, the significance and use of FACTS
lines is presented. This method can be integrated to the
devices for manipulating line power flows to relieve congestion
and optimize the overall grid operation have increased. As a
conventional state estimation program with the
result, there is a need to integrate the FACTS device models consideration of IPFC. Furthermore, the results demonstrate
into the existing power system applications.This paper will that the model is effective for practical use. The Operation
present an algorithm for state estimation of networks co- of Interline Power flow Controller was done and the results
ordinated with a FACTS device. are simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Due to the enlargement of interconnected electric
power system and the increasingly complexity of electric II. THE STATE ESTIMATION PROBLEM
power system structure, hence energy management
A. Formulation
system(EMS)is critical for modern power system State WLS state estimation minimizes the weighted sum of
estimation plays an important role in EMS, which provides a squares of the residuals.
reliable and consistent system data by processing real time
redundant telemetered and pseudo measurements. These Consider the set of measurements given by the vector z :
measurements typically consist of bus voltage magnitudes,
real and reactive line flows and power injection. Processing
these real time data, different kinds of advanced application  z1  h1 (x1, x2 ,.., xn )  e1 
software in EMS are derived, such as voltage stability      
analyses, security constraint and transient stability analysis  z2  h2 ( x1, x2 ,.., xn )  e2 
et al. Since the concept of flexible AC transmission systems
(FACTS) was proposed by Hingorani in the 1860s,many
.  .  . 
Z=   =   +   =h(x)+e (2)
various FACTS devices have been utilized to meet a
growing demand of the transfer capabilities due to .  .  . 
developing wheeling transactions in the deregulation  z  h ( x , x ,.., x ) e 
environment. Some interesting applications of FACTS  m  m 1 2 n   m
devices can be found to economic dispatch(ED), AC/DC
optimal power flow(OPF), available transfer hT=[h1(x),h2(x),…,hm(x)] (3)
capability(ATC), contract path based electricity trading, and
transmission congestion management.

ISSN: 1792-5088 65 ISBN: 978-960-474-233-2


hi(x) is the nonlinear function relating where:

measurement i to the state vector x
Vi , Vj is the voltage magnitude at bus i,
xT=[x1,x2,…,xn ] is the system state vector
δij is the difference between the voltage phase angles
e =[e1,e2,…,em] is the vector of measurement errors. at buses i and j,

Let E(e) denote the expected value of e , with the following Gij+jBij is the ijth element of the complex bus
assumptions: admittance matrix,
E(e)=0, i=1,2,…,m
gij+bij is the series admittance of the branch
E(eiej)=0 connecting buses i and j,
Measurement errors are assumed to be independent and their
covariance matrix is given by a diagonal matrix R : gsi+bsi is the shunt admittance of the branch connecting
buses i and j,
Cov(e)=E[e.eT]=R=diag{ߪ12 , ߪ22 ,.., ߪm2} (4)
N is the number of buses in the system.
The WLS estimator will minimize the following objective II. INTERLINE POWER FLOW CONTROLLER
It is common that the Interline Power Flow
m Controller employs a number of dc to ac inverters in
Min J(x)= ∑ (zi-hi(x))2/Rii
i=1 order to offer series compensation for each line. As a new
=[z-h(x)]TR-1[z-h(x)] (5) concept for the compensation and effective power flow
management, it addresses the target of compensating a
The objective of weighting the squared differences in (5) number of transmission lines at a given substation.
is to provide a mathematical way of describing the accuracy 2.1 Configuration of Interline Power Flow
of the meters. Controller
Generally, the Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) is a
More precisely, the standard deviation a of a meter is a combination of two or more independently controllable
statistical value that describes how tightly the measurements
static synchronous series compensators (SSSC) which are
taken are clustered around the true value. Thus, if the
solid-state voltage source converters which inject an almost
standard deviation is large, the measurement is relatively
sinusoidal voltage at variable magnitude and couples via a
inaccurate; while a small standard deviation value indicates a
small error range. common DC link as shown in Figure1.Conventionally,
series capacitive compensation fixed, thyristor controlled or
B. The Measurement Functions SSSC based, is employed to increase the transmittable real
power over a given line and to balance the loading of a
According to the previous discussion, the measured normally
quantities are represented by the vector z, and h(x) represents
a set of functions that depend on the values being estimated.
These functions are used to calculate the estimated values
corresponding to measured values z. For this study, only the
bus voltage magnitudes, the injected real and reactive
powers, and the real and reactive branch power flows will be
used as the quantities being measured. With exception of the
bus voltage magnitudes, the corresponding h(x) functions are
nonlinear and are calculated as follows:
Real and reactive power injection at bus i:

Pi = | Vi | ∑ | V j |( G ij cos δ ij + Bij sin δ ij )
j =1 (3)
Qi = | Vi | ∑ | V j |( G ij sin δ ij − Bij cos δ ij ) (4)
j =1
Real and reactive power flow from bus i to bus k

Pij=Vi2 (gsi+gij)-|Vi|*|Vj|(gij cosδij+bij sinδij) (5)

Qij=-Vi2 (bsi+bij)-|Vi|*|Vj|(gij sinδij-bij cosδij) (6)

ISSN: 1792-5088 66 ISBN: 978-960-474-233-2


encountered multi-line transmission system. They are

controlled to provide a capability to directly transfer
independent real power between the compensated lines
while maintaining the desired distribution of reactive flow
among the line [1],[3].Consider simplified schematic of
IPFC model in figure1, each compensating inverters is
linked together at their dc terminals. With this scheme, in
addition to providing series reactive compensation, any
inverter can be controlled to supply real power to the
common dc link from its own transmission line. Thus, an
overall surplus power can be transferred from the
underutilized lines which can be used by other lines for real
power compensation. Evidently, this arrangement maintains
the overall power balance at the common dc terminal by
appropriate control action. An elementary IPFC scheme
consisting of two back-to-back dc to ac inverters is used as a
tool to compensate a transmission line by series voltage
injection. Two synchronous voltage sources, with phasors
V1pq and V2pq, in series with transmission line1 and 2
respectively, represent the two back-to-back dc to ac Assuming lossless converter valves, the active power
inverters as illustrated in figure2. supplied to one converter equals the active power demanded
by the other, if there are no underlying storage systems; that
2.2 Equivalent Circuit is
IPFC is a kind of VSC-based FACTS device. Just like
UPFC, IPFC is also called combined compensator because
It consists of at least two static synchronous series
compensators (SSSCs) which are connected via a common
dc voltage link that can be represented by a capacitor. For
simplicity, this paper deals with IPFC combining only two
SSSCs, as shown in Fig. 1. However, following derivations
can be applied to IPFCs consisting of more than two VSCs
without much difficulty. Usually, in the steady state analysis
of power systems, the VSC is represented as a synchronous
where the superscript * denotes the conjugate of a complex
voltage source injecting an almost sinusoidal voltage with
controllable magnitude and angle [9]. As for IPFC, the two
VSCs are connected in series with two lines as shown in
Fig. 2. Vi, Vj and Vk are complex voltages at buses i, j and
k, respectively,defined as VbLθb (b=i, j). Vseij and Vseik
are the controllable complex voltages of the two
synchronous voltage sources,defined as VseinLθsej, (n=j, k).
zseij and zsejk are the series transformer impedance. Pcal,i
and Qcal,i are the transmitted active and reactive powers
through the two branches of IPFC leaving bus i. PcalJi
(Pcal,ki) and Qcal,ji (Qcalki) are the transmitted active and
reactive powers through one branch of IPFC leaving bus j
(k), respectively. Active power can be transferred from one
line to the other via the common dc link. Based on the above
equivalent circuit, the power flow equations at each bus are :

ISSN: 1792-5088 67 ISBN: 978-960-474-233-2


Step6: Check for convergence. If

max{|Av(k+1>|,|Ae(k+1>|}>„go to Step 3;

Otherwise, set k = k + 1 and go to Step 7; Step 7:

The process is finished and print results.


So, the mismatch power equations considering generation

Pgm, Qgm, and load PIm, Qlm at each bus are as follows:

where m=i,j, k
Here PineJm and Qline,m are conventional transmitted
active and reactive power only through transmission lines
leaving bus m. Equation (6) still applies here. If the series
transformers are assumed to contain no resistance, the
following equation can be derived.



The detailed solution steps of the proposed algorithm can

be summarized as follows:

Step 1: Input system data and telemetered measurements

load flow;

Step 2: Set iteration count k = 0; V.RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS

Step3: Initialize the state vector v(0),e(0) and calculate system In this section, IEEE 14 bus and 30 bus system has been
measurements; used to test the effectiveness of the introduced method. The
data for testing the modified state estimation are obtained
using the results from power flow analysis. The solution
Step 4: With IPFC Compute Jacobin matrix H(x(k));
accuracy, convergence behavior and computational
efficiency of the proposed method are verified by the test
(k+1) AND (k+1) .
Step5: Obtain ∆V ∆θ results and compared with those obtain from traditional state
estimation method. For all simulations, the tolerance used to
define convergence is 10−4.
V(k+1)=∆V(k)+∆V(k+1) , θ(k+1)=∆ θ(k)+∆ θ(k+1)

ISSN: 1792-5088 68 ISBN: 978-960-474-233-2


TABLE I [5] H. Singh, F.L. Alvarado, "Weighted Least Absolute

STATE ESTIMATION RESULTS FOR IEEE 14 BUS Value State problem was Estimation
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V/pu δ(°) V/pu δ(°) V/pu δ(°)
Tech Conf, 5 pp
[7]A. Nabavi-Niaki, M. R. Iravani, " Steady State and
1 1.0600 0.0000 1.0600 0.0000 1.0600 0.0000
Dynamic Models of United
Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for Power System Studies ",
2 1.0443 -4.9645 1.0445 -5.0258 1.0445 -4.9652
IEEE Transactions on
Power systems, Vol. 11, No. 4, November 1996.
3 1.0142 -12.5525 0.9982 -13.1523 1.0141 -12.5432
[8] M. Noroozian, L. Angquist, M. Ghandhari, and G.
Anderson, " Use of UPFC for
4 1.0222 -10.1950 1.0261 -10.9952 1.0262 -10.1891
Optimal Power Flow Control ", IEEE Trans. On Power
Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp.
5 1.0235 -8.6384 1.0523 -9.6989 1.0335 -8.6215
1629-1634, October 1997.
[9] John J. Grainger, William D. Stevenson, Jr., " Power
6 1.0702 -14.2147 1.0710 -14.7012 1.0713 -14.2214 System Analysis", McGraw-
Hill, 1988.
7 1.0629 -13.2642 1.0592 -12.7999 1.0629 -13.2531

8 1.0939 -13.2874 1.0931 -13.1461 1.0940 -13.1987

9 1.0607 -14.8839 1.0459 -14.0125 1.0698 -14.7228

10 1.0529 -14.9728 1.0456 -14.7100 1.0519 -14.9692

11 1.0592 -14.7978 1.0530 -14.7215 1.0610 -14.8001

12 1.0569 -14.9159 1.0536 -15.0012 1.0569 -14.9253

13 1.0506 -15.1871 1.0500 -15.1777 1.0512 -15.1869

14 1.0346 -16.0643 1.0313 -16.0594 1.0347 -16.0611

J (x) 257.148 50.1044

Iteration number 4 4


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ISSN: 1792-5088 69 ISBN: 978-960-474-233-2