This article is about the corporation. For the search engine, see Google search.

For other uses, see Google (disambiguation).

Google Inc.

Type Public (NASDAQ: GOOG), (LSE: GGEA) Menlo Park, California (September 7, 1998) Founded [1] Headquarters Mountain View, California, USA Eric E. Schmidt, CEO/Director Sergey Brin, Co-Founder, Technology Key people President Larry Page, Co-Founder, Products President George Reyes, CFO Industry Internet, Computer software Products See list of Google products Revenue US$10.604 billion 73% (2006)[2] Net income US$3.077 billion 29% (2006)[2] Total assets US$18.473 billion (2006)[2] Total equity US$17.039 billion (2006)[2] Employees 15,916 (September 30, 2007)[3] Slogan Don't be evil Website www.google.com

Google Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG and LSE: GGEA) is an American public corporation, specializing in Internet search and online advertising. The company is based in Mountain View, California, and has 15,916 full-time employees (as of September 30, 2007).[3] It is the largest American company (by market capitalization) that is not part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. [4] Google was co-founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were students at Stanford University and the company was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 7, 1998. Google's initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, raising US$1.67 billion, making it worth US$23 billion. Through a series of new product developments, acquisitions and partnerships, the company has expanded its initial search and advertising business into other areas, including web-based e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, and video sharing, among others.

Contents
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1 History o 1.1 Financing and initial public offering o 1.2 Growth o 1.3 Philanthropy o 1.4 Acquisitions o 1.5 Partnerships 2 Products o 2.1 Advertising o 2.2 Applications o 2.3 Enterprise products 3 Platform 4 Corporate affairs and culture o 4.1 Googleplex o 4.2 "Twenty percent" time o 4.3 Easter eggs and April Fool's Day jokes o 4.4 IPO and culture 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History
Google in 1998 Main article: History of Google Google began in January 1996, as a research project by Larry Page, who was soon joined by Sergey Brin, two Ph.D. students at Stanford University, California.[5] They hypothesized that a search engine that analyzed the relationships between websites would produce better ranking of results than existing techniques, which ranked results according to the number of times the search term appeared on a page.[6] Their search engine was originally nicknamed "BackRub" because the system checked backlinks to estimate a site's importance.[7] A small search engine called Rankdex was already exploring a similar strategy.[8] Convinced that the pages with the most links to them from other highly relevant web pages must be the most relevant pages associated with the search, Page and Brin tested their thesis as part of their studies, and laid the foundation for their search engine.

Originally, the search engine used the Stanford University website with the domain google.stanford.edu. The domain google.com was registered on September 15, 1997,[9] and the company was incorporated as Google Inc. on September 7, 1998 at a friend's garage in Menlo Park, California. The total initial investment raised for the new company eventually amounted to almost US$1.1 million, including a US$100,000 check by Andy Bechtolsheim, one of the founders of Sun Microsystems.[10] The founders originally were keen to acquire the domain "Googol.com". It was registered to a local Silicon Valley engineer (Tim Beauchamp) who was using it as a site for math and astronomy. He did not want to relinquish the domain at the time.[11] In March 1999, the company moved into offices in Palo Alto, home to several other noted Silicon Valley technology startups.[12] After quickly outgrowing two other sites, the company leased a complex of buildings in Mountain View at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway from Silicon Graphics (SGI) in 2003.[13] The company has remained at this location ever since, and the complex has since come to be known as the Googleplex (a play on the word googolplex, a 1 followed by a googol zeros). In 2006, Google bought the property from SGI for US$319 million.[14] The Google search engine attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its simple design and usability.[15] In 2000, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords.[5] The ads were text-based to maintain an uncluttered page design and to maximize page loading speed.[5] Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bid and clickthroughs, with bidding starting at US$.05 per click.[5] This model of selling keyword advertising was pioneered by Goto.com (later renamed Overture Services, before being acquired by Yahoo! and rebranded as Yahoo! Search Marketing).[16][17][18] While many of its dot-com rivals failed in the new Internet marketplace, Google quietly rose in stature while generating revenue.[5] The name "Google" originated from a misspelling of "googol",[19][20] which refers to 10100, the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. Having found its way increasingly into everyday language, the verb "google", was added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."[21][22] A patent describing part of Google's ranking mechanism (PageRank) was granted on September 4, 2001.[23] The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor.

Financing and initial public offering
The first funding for Google as a company was secured in the form of a US$100,000 contribution from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given to a corporation which did not yet exist.[24] Around six months later, a much larger round of funding was announced, with the major investors being rival venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital.[24]

Google's IPO took place on August 19, 2004.19,605,052 shares were offered at a price of US$85 per share.[25][26] Of that, 14,142,135 (another mathematical reference as √2 ≈ 1.4142135) were floated by Google and 5,462,917 by selling stockholders. The sale of US$1.67 billion, and gave Google a market capitalization of more than US$23 billion.[27] The vast majority of Google's 271 million shares remained under Google's control. Many of Google's employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of Google, also benefited from the IPO because it owned 8.4 million shares of Google as of August 9, 2004, ten days before the IPO.[28] Google's stock performance after its first IPO launch has gone well, with shares hitting US$700 for the first time on October 31, 2007,[29] due to strong sales and earnings in the advertising market, as well as the release of new features such as the desktop search function and it's iGoogle personalized home page.[30] The surge in stock price is fueled primarily by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds.[30] The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol GOOG and under the London Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGEA

Growth
While the company's primary business interest is in the web content arena, Google has begun experimenting with other markets, such as radio and print publications. On January 17, 2006, Google announced that its purchase of a radio advertising company "dMarc", which provides an automated system that allows companies to advertise on the radio.[31] This will allow Google to combine two niche advertising media—the Internet and radio —with Google's ability to laser-focus on the tastes of consumers. Google has also begun an experiment in selling advertisements from its advertisers in offline newspapers and magazines, with select advertisements in the Chicago Sun-Times.[32] They have been filling unsold space in the newspaper that would have normally been used for in-house advertisements. Google was added to the S&P 500 index on March 30, 2006. It replaced Burlington Resources, a major oil producer based in Houston which was acquired by ConocoPhillips.

Philanthropy
In 2004, Google formed a non-profit philanthropic wing, Google.org, with a start-up fund of US$1 billion.[33] The express mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects is to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 mpg. The current director is Dr. Larry Brilliant.[34]

Acquisitions

See also: List of Google acquisitions Since 2001, Google has acquired several small start-up companies, often consisting of innovative teams and products. One of the earlier companies that Google bought was Pyra Labs. They were the creators of Blogger, a weblog publishing platform, first launched in 1999. This acquisition led to many premium features becoming free. Pyra Labs was originally formed by Evan Williams, yet he left Google in 2004. In early 2006, Google acquired Upstartle, a company responsible for the online word processor, Writely. The technology in this product was used by Google to eventually create Google Docs & Spreadsheets. In February 2006, software company Adaptive Path sold Measure Map, a weblog statistics application, to Google. Registration to the service has since been temporarily disabled. The last update regarding the future of Measure Map was made on April 6, 2006 and outlined many of the service's known issues.[35] In late 2006, Google bought online video site YouTube for US$1.65 billion in stock.[36] Shortly after, on October 31, 2006, Google announced that it had also acquired JotSpot, a developer of wiki technology for collaborative Web sites.[37] On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick. Google agreed to buy the company for US$3.1 billion.[38] On July 9, 2007, Google announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to acquire enterprise messaging security and compliance company Postini.[39]

Partnerships
In 2005, Google entered into partnerships with other companies and government agencies to improve production and services. Google announced a partnership with NASA Ames Research Center to build up 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m²) of offices and work on research projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology, distributed computing, and the entrepreneurial space industry.[40] Google also entered into a partnership with Sun Microsystems in October to help share and distribute each other's technologies.[41] The company entered into a partnership with Time Warner's AOL,[42] to enhance each other's video search services. The same year, the company became a major financial investor of the new .mobi toplevel domain for mobile devices, in conjunction with several other companies, including Microsoft, Nokia, and Ericsson among others.[43] In September 2007, Google launched, "Adsense for Mobile", a service for its publishing partners which provides the ability to monetize their mobile websites through the targeted placement of mobile text ads,[44] and acquired the mobile social networking site, Zingku.mobi, to "provide people worldwide with direct access to Google applications, and ultimately the information they want and need, right from their mobile devices."[45]

In 2006, Google and News Corp.'s Fox Interactive Media entered into a US$900 million agreement to provide search and advertising on the popular social networking site, MySpace.[46]

Products
Main article: List of Google products Google has created services and tools for the general public and business environment alike; including Web applications, advertising networks and solutions for businesses.

Advertising
Most of Google's revenue is derived from advertising programs. For the 2006 fiscal year, the company reported US$10.492 billion in total advertising revenues and only US$112 million in licensing and other revenues.[47] Google AdWords allows Web advertisers to display advertisements in Google's search results and the Google Content Network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme. Google AdSense website owners can also display adverts on their own site, and earn money every time ads are clicked.

Applications
Google is well-known for its web search service, which is a major factor of the company's success. As of August 2007, Google is the most used search engine on the web with a 53.6% market share, ahead of Yahoo! (19.9%) and Live Search (12.9%).[48] Google indexes billions of Web pages, so that users can search for the information they desire, through the use of keywords and operators. Google has also employed the Web Search technology into other search services, including Image Search, Google News, the price comparison site Google Product Search, the interactive Usenet archive Google Groups, Google Maps, and more. In 2004, Google launched its own free web-based e-mail service, known as Gmail.[49] Gmail features spam-filtering technology and the capability to use Google technology to search e-mail. The service generates revenue by displaying advertisements from the AdWords service that are tailored to the content of the e-mail messages displayed on screen. In early 2006, the company launched Google Video, which not only allows users to search and view freely available videos but also offers users and media publishers the ability to publish their content, including television shows on CBS, NBA basketball games, and music videos.[50] In August 2007, Google announced that it would shut down its video rental and sale program and offer refunds and Google Checkout credits to consumers who had purchased videos to own. Google has also developed several desktop applications, including Google Earth, an interactive mapping program powered by satellite and aerial imagery that covers the vast

majority of the planet. Google Earth is generally considered to be remarkably accurate and extremely detailed. Many major cities have such detailed images that one can zoom in close enough to see vehicles and pedestrians clearly. Consequently, there have been some concerns about national security implications. Specifically, some countries and militaries contend the software can be used to pinpoint with near-precision accuracy the physical location of critical infrastructure, commercial and residential buildings, bases, government agencies, and so on. However, the satellite images are not necessarily frequently updated, and all of them are available at no charge through other products and even government sources. For example, NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Some counter this argument by stating that Google Earth makes it easier to access and research the images. Many other products are available through Google Labs, which is a collection of incomplete applications that are still being tested for use by the general public. Google has promoted their products in various ways. In London, Google Space was setup in Heathrow Airport, showcasing several products, including Gmail, Google Earth and Picasa.[51][52] Also, a similar page was launched for American college students, under the name College Life, Powered by Google.[53] In 2007, some reports surfaced that Google was planning the release of its own mobile phone, possibly a competitor to Apple's iPhone.[54][55][56] The project, called Android provides a standard development kit that will allow any "Android" phone to run software developed for the Android SDK, no matter the phone manufacturer. In October 2007, Google SMS service was launched in India allowing users to get business listings, movie showtimes, and information by sending an SMS.

Enterprise products
In 2007, Google launched Google Apps Premier Edition, a version of Google Apps targeted primarily at the business user. It includes such extras as more disk space for email, API access, and premium support, for a price of US$50 per user per year. A large implementation of Google Apps with 38,000 users is at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.[57]

Platform
Main article: Google platform Google's services are run on several server farms, each consisting of thousands of lowcost commodity computers running stripped-down versions of Linux. While the company does not provide detailed information about its hardware, a 2006 estimate consisted of over 450,000 servers, racked up in clusters located in data centers around the world.[58]

Corporate affairs and culture

A license plate seen in the Googleplex parking lot.
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Google is particularly known for its relaxed corporate culture, reminiscent of the Dotcom boom. In January 2007 and also January 2008, it was cited by Fortune Magazine as the #1 (of 100) best company to work for.[59] Google's corporate philosophy is based on many casual principles including, "You can make money without doing evil", "You can be serious without a suit," and "Work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun." A complete list of corporate fundamentals is available on Google's website.[60] Google's relaxed corporate culture can also be seen externally through their holiday variations of the Google logo. Google has been criticized for having salaries below industry standards.[61] For example, some system administrators earn no more than US$35,000 per year – considered to be quite low for the Bay Area job market.[62] However, Google's stock performance following its IPO has enabled many early employees to be competitively compensated by participation in the corporation's remarkable equity growth.[63] Google implemented other employee incentives in 2005, such as the Google Founders' Award, in addition to offering higher salaries to new employees. Google's workplace amenities, culture, global popularity, and strong brand recognition have also attracted potential applicants. After the company's IPO in August 2004, it was reported that founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page, and CEO Eric Schmidt, requested that their base salary be cut to US$1.00.[64] Subsequent offers by the company to increase their salaries have been turned down, primarily because, "their primary compensation continues to come from returns on their ownership stakes in Google. As significant stockholders, their personal wealth is tied directly to sustained stock price appreciation and performance, which provides direct alignment with stockholder interests."[64] Prior to 2004, Schmidt was making US$250,000 per year, and Page and Brin each earned a salary of US$150,000.[64] They have all declined recent offers of bonuses and increases in compensation by Google's board of directors. In a 2007 report of the United States' richest people, Forbes reported that Sergey Brin and Larry Page were tied for #5 with a net worth of US$18.5 billion each.[65]

Googleplex

The Googleplex Main article: Googleplex Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California, is referred to as "the Googleplex" in a play of words; a googolplex being 1 followed by a googol of zeros, and the HQ being a complex of buildings (cf. multiplex, cineplex, etc). The lobby is decorated with a piano, lava lamps, old server clusters, and a projection of search queries on the wall. The hallways are full of exercise balls and bicycles. Each employee has access to the corporate recreation center. Recreational amenities are scattered throughout the campus and include a workout room with weights and rowing machines, locker rooms, washers and dryers, a massage room, assorted video games, Foosball, a baby grand piano, a pool table, and ping pong. In addition to the rec room, there are snack rooms stocked with various foods and drinks.[citation needed]

Sign at the Googleplex In 2006, Google moved into 311,000 square feet (28,900 m²) of office space in New York City, at 111 Eighth Ave. in Manhattan.[66] The office was specially designed and built for Google and houses its largest advertising sales team, which has been instrumental in securing large partnerships, most recently deals with MySpace and AOL. [66] In 2003, they added an engineering staff in New York City, which has been responsible for more than 100 engineering projects, including Google Maps, Google Spreadsheets, and others.[66] It is estimated that the building costs Google US$10 million per year to rent and is similar in design and functionality to its Mountain View headquarters, including Foosball, air hockey, and ping-pong tables, as well as a video game area.[66] In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon's campus in Pittsburgh.[67] By late 2006, Google also established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan.[68] The size of Google's search system is presently unknown; the best estimates place the total number of the company's servers at 450,000, spread over twenty five locations throughout the world, including major operations centers in Dublin (European Operations

Headquarters) and Atlanta, Georgia. Google is also in the process of constructing a major operations center in The Dalles, Oregon, on the banks of the Columbia River. The site, also referred to by the media as Project 02, was chosen due to the availability of inexpensive hydroelectric power and a large surplus of fiber optic cable, left over from the dot com boom of the late 1990s. The computing center is estimated to be as large as two football fields, and it has created hundreds of construction jobs, causing local real estate prices to increase 40%. Upon completion, the center is expected to create 60 to 200 permanent jobs in the town of 12,000 people.[69] Google is also making steps to ensure that their operations are environmentally sound. In October 2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 megawatts of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy needs.[70] The system will be the largest solar power system constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the world.[70] In June 2007, Google announced that they plan to become carbon neutral by 2008, which includes investing in energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and purchasing carbon offsets, such as investing in projects like capturing and burning methane from animal waste at Mexican and Brazilian farms.

"Twenty percent" time
All Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time (one day per week) on projects that interest them. Some of Google's newer services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors.[71] In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google's Vice President of Search Products and User Experience, stated that her analysis showed that half of the new product launches originated from the 20% time.[72]

Easter eggs and April Fool's Day jokes
Main article: Google's hoaxes Google has a tradition of creating April Fool's Day jokes — such as Google MentalPlex, which allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web.[73] In 2002, they claimed that pigeons were the secret behind their growing search engine.[74] In 2004, they featured Google Lunar (which claimed to feature jobs on the moon),[75] and in 2005, a fictitious brain-boosting drink, termed Google Gulp was announced.[76] In 2006, they came up with Google Romance, a hypothetical online dating service.[77] In 2007, Google announced two joke products. The first was a free wireless Internet service called TiSP (Toilet Internet Service Provider) [78] in which one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a fiber-optic cable down their toilet and waiting only an hour for a "Plumbing Hardware Dispatcher (PHD)" to connect it to the Internet.[78] Additionally, Google's Gmail page displayed an announcement for Gmail Paper, which allows users of their free email service to have email messages printed and shipped to a snail mail address.[79] Some thought the announcement of Gmail in 2004 around April Fool's Day (as well as the doubling of Gmail's storage space to two gigabytes in 2005) was a joke, although

both of these turned out to be genuine announcements. In 2005, a comedic graph depicting Google's goal of "infinity plus one" GB of storage was featured on the Gmail homepage. Google's services contain a number of Easter eggs; for instance, the Language Tools page offers the search interface in the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin, ”Hacker” (actually leetspeak), Elmer Fudd, and Klingon.[80] In addition, the search engine calculator provides the Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything from Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.[81] As Google's search box can be used as a unit converter (as well as a calculator), some non-standard units are built in, such as the Smoot. Google also routinely modifies its logo in accordance with various holidays or special events throughout the year, such as Christmas, Mother's Day, or various birthdays of notable individuals.[82]

IPO and culture
Many people speculated that Google's IPO would inevitably lead to changes in the company's culture,[83] because of shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions and short-term advances, or because a large number of the company's employees would suddenly become millionaires on paper. In a report given to potential investors, cofounders Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised that the IPO would not change the company's culture.[84] Later Mr. Page said, "We think a lot about how to maintain our culture and the fun elements. We spent a lot of time getting our offices right. We think it's important to have a high density of people. People are packed together everywhere. We all share offices. We like this set of buildings because it's more like a densely packed university campus than a typical suburban office park."[85] However, many analysts are finding that as Google grows, the company is becoming more "corporate". In 2005, articles in The New York Times and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy.[86][87][88] In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google has designated a Chief Culture Officer in 2006, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on in the beginning — a flat organization, a lack of hierarchy, a collaborative environment.[89]

Criticism
Main article: Criticism of Google As it has grown, Google has found itself the focus of several controversies related to its business practices and services. For example, Google Book Search's effort to digitize millions of books and make the full text searchable has led to copyright disputes with the Authors Guild. Google's cooperation with the governments of China, and to a lesser extent France and Germany (regarding Holocaust denial) to filter search results in accordance to regional laws and regulations has led to claims of censorship. Google's persistent cookie and other information collection practices have led to concerns over

user privacy. A number of Indian state governments have raised concerns about the security risks posed by geographic details provided by Google Earth's satellite imaging. [90] Google has also been criticized by advertisers regarding its inability to combat click fraud, when a person or automated script is used to generate a charge on an advertisement without really having an interest in the product. Industry reports in 2006 claim that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were in fact fraudulent or invalid.[91] As of December 11, 2007, Google, like the Microsoft search engine, stores "personal information for 18 months" and by comparison, Yahoo! and AOL (Time Warner) "retain search requests for 13 months".[92] Google is a search engine owned by Google, Inc. The largest search engine on the web, Google indexes a portion of the total amount of webpages on the web. Google receives several hundred million queries each day through its various services PageRank Main article: PageRank Google.com uses a patented algorithm called PageRank to rank web pages that match a given search string. The PageRank algorithm computes a recursive score for web pages, based on the weighted sum of the PageRanks of the pages linking to them. The PageRank derives from human-generalinks, and correlates well with human concepts of importance. Such concepts and literia are part of the patented information that is not fully disclosed to users. The exact percentage of the total of web pages that Google indexes is not known as it is very hard to actually calculate it. Previous keyword-based methods of ranking search results, used by many search engines that were once more popular than Google, would rank pages by how often the search terms occurred in the page, or how strongly associated the search terms were within each resulting page. In addition to PageRank, Google also uses other secret criteria for determining the ranking of pages on result lists. [edit] Search results Google not only indexes and caches (X)HTML files but also 13 other file types, which include PDF, Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, Flash SWF, plain text files, among others.[2] Except in the case of text and SWF files, the cached version is a conversion to (X)HTML, allowing those without the corresponding viewer application to read the file. Users can customize the search engine somewhat. They can set a default language, use "SafeSearch" filtering technology (which is on 'moderate' setting by default), and set the number of results shown on each page. Google has been criticized for placing long-term cookies on users' machines to store these preferences, a tactic which also enables them to track a user's search terms over time. It retains data for more than a year. [1] For any query (of which only the 32 first keywords are taken into account), up to the first 1000 results can be shown with a maximum of 100 displayed per page. [edit] Non-Web sources of data Despite its immense index, there is also a considerable amount of data in databases, which are accessible from websites by means of queries, but not by links. This so-called deep web is minimally covered by Google and contains, for example, catalogs of libraries, official legislative documents of governments, phone books, and more. [edit] Google optimization

Since Google is the most popular search engine, many webmasters have become eager to influence their website's Google rankings. An industry of consultants has arisen to help websites raise their rankings on Google and on other search engines. This field, called search engine optimization, attempts to discern patterns in search engine listings, and then develop a methodology for improving rankings. As Google's algorithms and results have gained the trust of web users, commercial websites will profit from subverting these results by artificially inflating their rankings. Some search engine optimization firms have attempted to inflate specific Google rankings by various artifices, and thereby draw more searchers to their client's sites. One of Google's main challenges has been to weaken some of these attempts by reducing the ranking of sites known to use them. Search engine optimization encompasses both "on page" factors (like body copy, title tags, H1 heading tags and image alt attributes) and "Off Page Optimisation" factors (like anchor text and PageRank). The general idea is to affect Google's relevance algorithm by incorporating the keywords being targeted in various places "on page", in particular the title tag and the body copy (note: the higher up in the page, the better its keyword prominence and thus the ranking). Too many occurrences of the keyword, however, cause the page to look suspect to Google's spam checking algorithms. One "Off Page Optimisation" technique that works particularly well is Google Adwords in which websites link to another site using a particular phrase in the anchor text, in order to give the site a high ranking when the word is searched for.[citation needed] The Google webmaster guidelines were published for website owners who would like to raise their rankings when using legitimate optimization consultants.[3] [edit] Uses of Google A corollary use of Google - and other Internet search engines - is that it can help translators to determine the most common way of expressing ideas in the English language (and other languages). This is generally done by doing a 'count' of different variants, thereby establishing which expression is more common. While this approach requires careful judgment, it does improve the ability of non-native translators to use more idiomatically correct English expressions. [edit] Google dance Google dance refers to the period of time when Google indices are tuned. This will often cause both a fluctuation in index size as well a significant change in a web site's search result position. [edit] Googlability Googlability is the degree to which an individual index can be referenced. [edit] Search engine features Besides the main search engine feature of searching for text, the search engine can be used as a calculator, currency converter, dictionary and many other useful tools. The largest number the Google calculator can compute (based on studies conducted at the University of Bath in January 2008) is 1.07257416E308. Early history Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page, a Ph.D. student at Stanford.[1] In search for a dissertation theme, Page decided to explore the mathematical properties of the World Wide Web, understanding its link structure as a huge graph.[2] His supervisor Terry Winograd agreed and Page focused on the problem of finding out

which web pages link to a given page, considering the number and nature of such backlinks to be valuable information about that page (with the role of citations in academic publishing in mind).[2] In his research project, nicknamed "BackRub", he was soon joined by Sergey Brin, a fellow Stanford Ph.D. student and close friend, whom he had first met in the summer of 1995 in a group of potential new students which Brin had volunteered to show around the campus.[2] Page's web crawler began exploring the web in March 1996, setting out from Page's own Stanford home page as its only starting point. [2] To convert the backlink data that it gathered into a measure of importance for a given web page, Brin and Page developed the PageRank algorithm.[2] Analyzing BackRub's output - which, for a given URL, consisted of a list of backlinks ranked by importance - it occurred to them that a search engine based on PageRank would produce better results than existing techniques (existing search engines at the time essentially ranked results according to how many times the search term appeared on a page).[2][3] A small search engine called RankDex was already exploring a similar strategy.[4] Convinced that the pages with the most links to them from other highly relevant Web pages must be the most relevant pages associated with the search, Page and Brin tested their thesis as part of their studies, and laid the foundation for their search engine. Originally the search engine used the Stanford website with the domain google.stanford.edu. The domain google.com was registered on September 15, 1997. They formally incorporated their company, Google Inc., on September 7, 1998 at a friend's garage in Menlo Park, California. The name "Google" originated from a misspelling of "googol,"[5][6] which refers to the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. Having found its way increasingly into everyday language, the verb, "google," was added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning, "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."[7][8] By the end of 1998, Google had an index of about 60 million pages.[9] The home page was still marked "alpha test", but an article in Salon.com already argued that Google's search results were better than those of competitors like Hotbot or Excite.com, and praised it for being more technologically innovative than the overloaded portal sites (like Yahoo!, Excite.com, Lycos, Netscape's Netcenter, AOL.com, Go.com and MSN.com) which at that time, during the growing dot-com bubble, were seen as "the future of the Web", especially by stock market investors.[9] In March 1999, the company moved into offices at 165 University Avenue in Palo Alto, home to several other noted Silicon Valley technology startups.[10] After quickly outgrowing two other sites, the company leased a complex of buildings in Mountain View at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway from Silicon Graphics (SGI) in 1999.[11] The company has remained at this location ever since, and the complex has since become known as the Googleplex (a play on the word googolplex, a 1 followed by a googol of zeros). In 2006, Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million.[12] The Google search engine attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its simple design.[13] In 2000, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords.[1] The ads were text-based to maintain an uncluttered page design and to maximize page loading speed.[1] Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bid and clickthroughs, with bidding starting at $.05 per click.[1] This model of selling keyword advertising was pioneered by Goto.com (later

renamed Overture Services, before being acquired by Yahoo! and rebranded as Yahoo! Search Marketing).[14][15][16] While many of its dot-com rivals failed in the new Internet marketplace, Google quietly rose in stature while generating revenue.[1] A patent describing part of Google's ranking mechanism (PageRank) was granted on September 4, 2001.[17] The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. Google's declared code of conduct is "Don't be evil", a phrase which they went so far as to include in their prospectus (aka "red herring" or "S-1") for their IPO, noting, "We believe strongly that in the long term, we will be better served - as shareholders and in all other ways - by a company that does good things for the world even if we forgo some short term gains." The Google site often includes humorous features such as cartoon modifications of the Google logo to recognize special occasions and anniversaries.[18] Known as "Google Doodles", most have been drawn by Google's international webmaster, Dennis Hwang. [19] Not only may decorative drawings be attached to the logo, but the font design may also mimic a fictional or humorous language such as Star Trek Klingon and Leet.[20] The logo is also notorious among web users for April Fool's Day tie-ins and jokes about the company. [edit] Financing and initial public offering The first funding for Google as a company was secured in the form of a $100,000USD contribution from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given to a corporation which did not yet exist.[21] Around six months later, a much larger round of funding was announced, with the major investors being rival venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital.[21] In October 2003, while discussing a possible initial public offering of shares (IPO), Microsoft approached the company about a possible partnership or merger.[citation needed] However, no such deal ever materialized. In January 2004, Google announced the hiring of Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs Group to arrange an IPO. The IPO was projected to raise as much as $4 billion. On April 29, 2004, Google made an S-1 form SEC filing for an IPO to raise as much as $2,718,281,828. This alludes to Google's corporate culture with a touch of mathematical humor as e ? 2.718281828. April 29 was also the 120th day of 2004, and according to section 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, "a company must file financial and other information with the SEC 120 days after the close of the year in which the company reaches $10 million in assets and/or 500 shareholders, including people with stock options.[22] Google has stated in its annual filing for 2004 that every one of its 3,021 employees, "except temporary employees and contractors, are also equity holders, with significant collective employee ownership", so Google would have needed to make its financial information public by filing them with the SEC regardless of whether or not they intended to make a public offering. As Google stated in the filing, their, "growth has reduced some of the advantages of private ownership. By law, certain private companies must report as if they were public companies. The deadline imposed by this requirement accelerated our decision." The SEC filing revealed that Google turned a profit every year since 2001 and earned a profit of $105.6 million on revenues of $961.8 million during 2003.

In May 2004, Google officially cut Goldman Sachs from the IPO, leaving Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse First Boston as the joint underwriters. They chose the unconventional way of allocating the initial offering through an auction (specifically, a "Dutch auction"), so that "anyone" would be able to participate in the offering. The smallest required account balances at most authorized online brokers that are allowed to participate in an IPO, however, are around $100,000. In the run-up to the IPO the company was forced to slash the price and size of the offering, but the process did not run into any technical difficulties or result in any significant legal challenges. The initial offering of shares was sold for $85 a piece. The public valued it at $100.34 at the close of the first day of trading, which saw 22,351,900 shares change hands. Google's initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004. A total of 19,605,052 shares were offered at a price of $85 per share.[23] Of that, 14,142,135 (another mathematical reference as ?2 ? 1.4142135) were floated by Google and 5,462,917 by selling stockholders. The sale raised US$1.67 billion, and gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion.[24] The vast majority of Google's 271 million shares remained under Google's control. Many of Google's employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of Google, also benefited from the IPO because it owns 2.7 million shares of Google.[25] The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol GOOG. [edit] Growth In February 2003, Google acquired Pyra Labs, owner of Blogger, a pioneering and leading web log hosting website. Some analysts considered the acquisition inconsistent with Google's business model. However, the acquisition secured the company's competitive ability to use information gleaned from blog postings to improve the speed and relevance of articles contained in a companion product to the search engine, Google News. At its peak in early 2004, Google handled upwards of 84.7 percent of all search requests on the World Wide Web through its website and through its partnerships with other Internet clients like Yahoo!, AOL, and CNN. In February 2004, Yahoo! dropped its partnership with Google, providing an independent search engine of its own. This cost Google some market share, yet Yahoo!'s move highlighted Google's own distinctiveness, and today the verb "to google" has entered a number of languages (first as a slang verb and now as a standard word), meaning, "to perform a web search" (a possible indication of "Google" becoming a genericized trademark). Analysts speculate that Google's response to its separation from Yahoo! will be to continue to make technical and visual enhancements to personalized searches, using the personal data that is gathering from orkut, Gmail, and Google Product Search to produce unique results based on the user. Frequently, new Google enhancements or products appear in its inventory. Google Labs, the experimental section of Google.com, helps Google maximize its relationships with its users by including them in the beta development, design and testing stages of new products and enhancements of already existing ones.[26] After the IPO, Google's stock market capitalization rose greatly and the stock price more than quadrupled. On August 19, 2004 the number of shares outstanding was 172.85 million while the "free float" was 19.60 million (which makes 89% held by insiders). In January 2005 the number of shares outstanding was up 100 million to 273.42 million,

53% of that was held by insiders, which made the float 127.70 million (up 110 million shares from the first trading day). The two founders are said to hold almost 30% of the outstanding shares. The actual voting power of the insiders is much higher, however, as Google has a dual class stock structure in which each Class B share gets ten votes compared to each Class A share getting one. Page says in the prospectus that Google has, "a dual class structure that is biased toward stability and independence and that requires investors to bet on the team, especially Sergey and me." The company has not reported any treasury stock holdings as of the Q3 2004 report. On June 1, 2005, Google shares gained nearly four percent after Credit Suisse First Boston raised its price target on the stock to $350. On that same day, rumors circulated in the financial community that Google would soon be included in the S&P 500.[27] When companies are first listed on the S&P 500 they typically experience a bump in share price due to the rapid accumulation of the stock within index funds that track the S&P 500. The rumors, however, were premature and Google was not added to the S&P 500 until 2006. Nevertheless, on June 7, 2005, Google was valued at nearly $52 billion, making it one of the world's biggest media companies by stock market value. On August 18, 2005 (one year after the initial IPO), Google announced that it would sell 14,159,265 (another mathematical reference as ? ? 3.14159265) more shares of its stock to raise money. The move would double Google's cash stockpile to $7 billion. Google said it would use the money for "acquisitions of complementary businesses, technologies or other assets".[28] On September 28, 2005, Google announced a long-term research partnership with NASA which would involve Google building a 1-million square foot R&D center at NASA's Ames Research Center, and on December 31, 2005 Time Warner's AOL unit and Google unveiled an expanded partnership-see Partnerships below. Additionally, Google has also recently formed a partnership with Sun Microsystems to help share and distribute each other's technologies. As part of the partnership Google will hire employees to help in the open source office program OpenOffice.org.[29] With Google's increased size comes more competition from large mainstream technology companies. One such example is the rivalry between Microsoft and Google.[30] Microsoft has been touting its MSN Search engine to counter Google's competitive position. Furthermore, the two companies are increasingly offering overlapping services, such as webmail (Gmail vs. Hotmail), search (both online and local desktop searching), and other applications (for example, Microsoft's Windows Live Local competes with Google Earth). Some have even suggested that in addition to an Internet Explorer replacement Google is designing its own Linux-based operating system called Google OS to directly compete with Microsoft Windows. There are also rumors of a Google web browser, fueled much by the fact that Google is the owner of the domain name "gbrowser.com". This corporate feud is most directly expressed in hiring offers and defections. Many Microsoft employees who worked on Internet Explorer have left to work for Google. This feud boiled over into the courts when Kai-Fu Lee, a former vicepresident of Microsoft, quit Microsoft to work for Google. Microsoft sued to stop his move by citing Lee's non-compete contract (he had access to much sensitive information regarding Microsoft's plans in China). Google and Microsoft reached a settlement out of court on 22 December 2005, the terms of which are confidential.[31]

Click fraud has also become a growing problem for Google's business strategy. Google's CFO George Reyes said in a December 2004 investor conference that "something has to be done about this really, really quickly, because I think, potentially, it threatens our business model."[32] Some have suggested that Google is not doing enough to combat click fraud. Jessie Stricchiola, president of Alchemist Media, called Google, "the most stubborn and the least willing to cooperate with advertisers", when it comes to click fraud. While the company's primary market is in the web content arena, Google has also recently began to experiment with other markets, such as radio and print publications. On January 17, 2006, Google announced that it had purchased the radio advertising company dMarc, which provides an automated system that allows companies to advertise on the radio.[33] This will allow Google to combine two advertising media-the Internet and radio-with Google's ability to laser-focus on the tastes of consumers. Google has also begun an experiment in selling advertisements from its advertisers in offline newspapers and magazines, with select advertisements in the Chicago Sun-Times.[34] They have been filling unsold space in the newspaper that would have normally been used for inhouse advertisements. During the third quarter 2005 Google Conference Call, Eric Schmidt said, "We don't do the same thing as everyone else does. And so if you try to predict our product strategy by simply saying well so and so has this and Google will do the same thing, it's almost always the wrong answer. We look at markets as they exist and we assume they are pretty well served by their existing players. We try to see new problems and new markets using the technology that others use and we build." After months of speculation, Google was added to the Standard & Poor's 500 index (S&P 500) on March 31, 2006.[35] Google replaced Burlington Resources, a major oil producer based in Houston that had been acquired by ConocoPhillips.[36]. The day after the announcement Google's share price rose by 7%[37]. Over the course of the past decade, Google has become quite well known for its corporate culture and innovative, clean products, and has had a major impact on online culture. In July 2006, the verb, "to google", was officially added to both the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary as well as the Oxford English Dictionary, meaning, "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."[38][39] [edit] Philanthropy In 2004, Google formed a non-profit philanthropic wing, Google.org, giving it a starting fund of $1 billion.[40] The express mission of the organization is to help with the issues of climate change (see also global warming), global public health, and global poverty. Among its first projects is to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 mpg. The current director is Dr. Larry Brilliant.[41] [edit] Acquisitions Since 2001, Google has acquired several small start-up companies, often consisting of innovative teams and products. One of the earlier companies that Google bought was Pyra Labs. They were the creators of Blogger, a weblog publishing platform, first launched in 1999. This acquisition led to many premium features becoming free. Pyra Labs was originally formed by Evan Williams, yet he left Google in 2004. In early 2006, Google acquired Upstartle, a company responsible for the online collaborative word

processor, Writely. The technology in this product was combined with Google Spreadsheets to become Google Docs & Spreadsheets. On October 9, 2006, Google announced that it would buy the popular online video site YouTube for $1.65 billion.[42] The brand, YouTube, will continue to exist, and will not merge with Google Video. Meanwhile, Google Video signed an agreement with Sony BMG Music Entertainment and the Warner Music Group, for both companies to deliver music videos to the site.[43] The deal was finalized by November 13.[44] On October 31, 2006, Google announced that it had purchased JotSpot, a company that helped pioneer the market for collaborative, web-based business software to bolster its position in the online document arena. [45] On March 17, 2007, Google announced its acquisition of two more companies. The first is Gapminder's Trendalyzer software, a company that specializes in developing information technology for provision of free statistics in new visual and animated ways[46] On the same day, Google also announced its acquisition of Adscape Media, a small in-game advertising company based in San Francisco, California.[47] Google also acquired PeakStream Technologies. See also: List of Google acquisitions [edit] Partnerships Google has worked with several corporations, in order to improve production and services. On September 28, 2005, Google announced a long-term research partnership with NASA which would involve Google building a 1-million square foot R&D center at NASA's Ames Research Center. NASA and Google are planning to work together on a variety of areas, including large-scale data management, massively distributed computing, bio-infonano convergence, and encouragement of the entrepreneurial space industry. The new building would also include labs, offices, and housing for Google engineers.[48] In October 2006, Google formed a partnership with Sun Microsystems to help share and distribute each other's technologies. As part of the partnership Google will hire employees to help the open source office program OpenOffice.org.[49] Time Warner's AOL unit and Google unveiled an expanded partnership on December 21, 2005, including an enhanced global advertising partnership and a $1 billion investment by Google for a 5% stake in AOL.[50] As part of the collaboration, Google plans to work with AOL on video search and offer AOL's premium-video service within Google Video. This did not allow users of Google Video to search for AOL's premium-video services. Display advertising throughout the Google network will also increase. In August 2003, Google signed a $900 million offer with News Corp.'s Fox Interactive Media unit to provide search and advertising on MySpace and other News Corp. websites including IGN, AmericanIdol.com, Fox.com, and Rotten Tomatoes, although Fox Sports is not included as a deal already exists between News Corp. and MSN.[51] [52] On 6 December 2006, British Sky Broadcasting released details of a Sky and Google alliance.[53] This includes a feature where Gmail will link with Sky and host a mail service for Sky, incorporating the email domain "@sky.com". [edit] New mobile top-level domain In coordination with several other major corporations, including Microsoft, Nokia, Samsung, and Ericsson, Google provided financial support in the launch of the .mobi top level domain created specifically for the mobile internet, stating that it is supporting the

new domain extension to help set the standards that will define the future of mobile content and improve the experience of Google users.[54] In early 2006, Google launched, Google.mobi, a mobile search portal offering several Google mobile products, including stripped-down versions of its applications and services for mobile users.[55] On September 17, 2007, Google launched, "Adsense for Mobile", a service to its publishing partners providing the ability to monetize their mobile websites through the targeted placement of mobile text ads.[56] Also in September, Google acquired the mobile social networking site, Zingku.mobi, to "provide people worldwide with direct access to Google applications, and ultimately the information they want and need, right from their mobile devices."[57] [edit] Legal battles [edit] Gonzalez v. Google On Wednesday, January 18, 2006, the U.S. Justice Department filed a motion to compel in United States district court in San Jose seeking a court order that would compel search engine company Google Inc. to turn over, "a multi-stage random sample of one million URL's", from Google's database, and a computer file with, "the text of each search string entered onto Google's search engine over a one-week period (absent any information identifying the person who entered such query)."[58] Google maintains that their policy has always been to assure its users privacy and anonymity, and challenged the subpoena. On March 18, 2006, a federal judge ruled that while Google must surrender 50,000 random URLs, the Department of Justice did not meet the necessary burden to force Google to disclose any search terms entered by its users. Google Web Search Features In addition to providing easy access to billions of web pages, Google has many special features to help you to find exactly what you're looking for. Click the title of a specific feature to learn more about it. o Book Search Use Google to search the full text of books. o Cached Links View a snapshot of each page as it looked when we indexed it. o Calculator Use Google to evaluate mathematical expressions. o Currency Conversion Easily perform any currency conversion. o Definitions Use Google to get glossary definitions gathered from various online sources. o File Types Search for non-HTML file formats including PDF documents and others. o Groups See relevant postings from Google Groups in your regular web search results. o I'm Feeling Lucky Bypass our results and go to the first web page returned for your query. o Images See relevant images in your regular web search results. o Local Search Search for local businesses and services in the U.S., the U.K., and Canada.

o Movies Use Google to find reviews and showtimes for movies playing near you. o Music Search Use Google to get quick access to a wide range of music information. o News Headlines Enhances your search results with the latest related news stories. o PhoneBook Look up U.S. street address and phone number information. o Product Search To find a product for sale online, use Google Product Search. o Q&A Use Google to get quick answers to straightforward questions. o Refine Your Search - New! Add instant info and topic-specific links to your search in order to focus and improve your results. o Results Prefetching Makes searching in Firefox faster. o Search By Number Use Google to access package tracking information, US patents, and a variety of online databases. o Similar Pages Display pages that are related to a particular result. o Site Search Restrict your search to a specific site. o Spell Checker Offers alternative spelling for queries. o Stock and Fund Quotes Use Google to get up-to-date stock and mutual fund quotes and information. o Street Maps Use Google to find U.S. street maps. o Travel Information Check the status of an airline flight in the U.S. or view airport delays and weather conditions. o Weather Check the current weather conditions and forecast for any location in the U.S. o Web Page Translation Provides you access to web pages in other languages. o Who Links To You? Find pages that point to a specific URL.

Book Search

Google is helping to get the world's information online by bringing books themselves online. Whenever books in our Google Book Search index contain content that matches your search terms, you'll see links to those books under Book Results at the top of your search results page. Click on any book title and you'll see the page in that book which contains your search terms, as well as other information about the title. Click one of the links under "Buy this Book" and you'll go straight to a bookstore selling that book online. example:

Cached Links Google takes a snapshot of each page examined as it crawls the web and caches these as a back-up in case the original page is unavailable. If you click on the "Cached" link, you will see the web page as it looked when we indexed it. The cached content is the content Google uses to judge whether this page is a relevant match for your query. When the cached page is displayed, it will have a header at the top which serves as a reminder that this is not necessarily the most recent version of the page. Terms that match your query are highlighted on the cached version to make it easier for you to see why your page is relevant. The "Cached" link will be missing for sites that have not been indexed, as well as for sites whose owners have requested we not cache their content. Google ... Advertise with Us - Business Solutions - Services & Tools - Jobs, Press, & Help ©2004 Google - Searching 4,285,199,774 web pages. www.google.com/ - 3k - Nov 26, 2004 - " Cached " - Similar pages

Calculator To use Google's built-in calculator function, simply enter the calculation you'd like done into the search box and hit the Enter key or click on the Google Search button. The calculator can solve math problems involving basic arithmetic, more complicated math, units of measure and conversions, and physical constants. Try one of the sample expressions below, or refer to our complete instructions for help in building your own. These sample queries demonstrate the utility and power of this new feature: " 5+2*2 " 2^20 " sqrt(-4) " half a cup in teaspoons " 160 pounds * 4000 feet in Calories

example:

Currency Conversion To use our built-in currency converter, simply enter the conversion you'd like done into the Google search box and hit "Enter" or click the Google Search button Here are some sample queries: " 3.5 USD in GBP " currency of Brazil in Malaysian money " 5 British pounds in South Korean money " 2.2 USD per gallon in INR per litre example:

Definitions To see a definition for a word or phrase, simply type the word "define," then a space, and then the word(s) you want defined. If Google has seen a definition for the word or phrase on the Web, it will retrieve that information and display it at the top of your search results. example: You can also get a list of definitions by including the special operator "define:" with no space between it and the term you want defined. For example, the search [define:World Wide Web] will show you a list of definitions for "World Wide Web" gathered from various online sources.

File Types Google has expanded the number of non-HTML file types searched to 12 file formats. In addition to PDF documents, Google now searches Microsoft Office, PostScript, Corel WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3, and others. The new file types will simply appear in Google search results whenever they are relevant to the user query. Google also offers the user the ability to "View as HTML", allowing users to examine the contents of these file formats even if the corresponding application is not installed. The

"View as HTML" option also allows users to avoid viruses which are sometimes carried in certain file formats. Overall, the additional file types provide Google users a wider view of the content available on the World Wide Web. And Google has plans to keep expanding the range of file types available over time. For more information about this feature, please read the file type FAQ. " [PDF] " The Anatomy of a Search Engine File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - " View as HTML " ... Second, Google keeps track of some visual presentation details such as font ... phone numbers, product numbers), type or format (text, HTML, PDF, images, sounds ... www-db.stanford.edu/pub/papers/google.pdf - Similar pages If you prefer to see a particular set of results with a specific file type (for example, PDF links), simply type filetype:[extension] (for example, filetype:pdf) within the search box along with your search term(s). example:

Product Search If you search for products using Google, you may see relevant product search information and links displayed at the top of your search results. These product search results are linked to the sites of merchants who participate in Product Search, Google's product search service. These results are not advertisements, as participation in Product Search is completely free to merchants. example:

Groups When you search on Google, sometimes you'll see results from Google Groups at the bottom of your search results page. These are messages that users have posted to a discussion group about a topic related to your search. Clicking on one of these results will bring you to the full text of the message on the Google Groups site. example:

I'm Feeling Lucky The "I'm Feeling Lucky™" button takes you directly to the first web page Google returned for your query. You will not see the other search results at all. An "I'm Feeling Lucky" search means you spend less time searching for web pages and more time looking at them. For example, to find the homepage for Stanford University, simply enter Stanford into the search field and click on the "I'm Feeling Lucky" button. Google takes you directly to "www.stanford.edu", the official homepage of Stanford University. example: Are you feeling lucky?

Images You may occasionally see small images at the top of your Google search results. These are images that we think are relevant to your search terms. You can also find relevant images by doing a Google Image Search, or by adding words like 'pics' or 'pictures' to your search terms when you do a regular web search. example:

Local Search Google enables you to search the entire web for just those stores and businesses in a specific neighborhood. Include a city or zip code in your search and Google displays relevant results from that region on a map with links to reviews, directions, and more information at the top of your search results. example:

Movies To find reviews and showtimes for movies playing near you, type "movies", "showtimes" or the name of a current film into the Google search box. If you've already saved your location by using Google Local, the top search result will display showtimes for nearby theaters for the movie you've chosen. example:

To find theatres and showtimes near you for a currently playing movie, simply search for the movie's name. example:

Can't remember a movie title, or just looking for something new to see? You can use the "movie:" operator to search for films related to a specific actor, director or plot detail. example:

Want to read about the movies you find? Your search results for any film will include an average rating out of 5 stars and several snippets from online reviews, along with links to the reviews themselves. Click the "reviews" link near any title for a complete list of online reviews of this film.

Music Search Find information about artists, songs, albums and places to buy the music you are looking for. If you enter the name of an artist popular in the U.S. into the search box, we will display user reviews, song titles, stores to purchase the music and other useful information related to that artist at the top of your search results. example:

Pixies

Albums: Doolittle, Surfer Rosa, Pixies, and more... Songs: Debaser, Wave of Mutilation, Silver, and more... More music results for pixies Click on the link to see more music information about that artist such as related albums, songs, and more.

News Headlines When searching on Google you may see links at the top of your results marked "News". These links connect you to reports culled from numerous news services Google continuously monitors. The links appear if the terms you enter are words currently in the news and clicking on them will take you directly to the service supplying them. example:

PhoneBook Google has added the convenience of US street address and phone number lookup to the information we provide through our search box. You'll see publicly listed phone numbers and addresses at the top of results pages for searches that contain specific kinds of keywords. To find listings for a US residence, type any of the following combinations into the Google search box: " first name (or first initial), last name, city (state is optional) " first name (or first initial), last name, state " first name (or first initial), last name, area code " first name (or first initial), last name, zip code " phone number, including area code " last name, city, state " last name, zip code To have your residential phone and address information removed from the Google PhoneBook, click here.

Q&A Want to know the population of Japan? What currency is used in Algeria? The birthplace of Bono? Hit us with a fact-based question or query (like "population of Japan") by typing it into the Google search box. We'll search the web and display the answer at the top of your search results page. We also link to our source for this information so that you can learn even more. example:

Refine Your Search For searches within certain topics, you'll notice links at the top of the search results page that help you quickly narrow your search.

These links are labels that have been assigned to certain webpages. Organizations, businesses, and individuals can label websites in the topics they know best. You can subscribe to more of these providers by visiting the Google Co-op directory. example: example: The Google Co-op directory also includes subscribed links, which provide instant information in your search results - things like restaurant reservations, financial info, or even celebrity gossip. Add these services to your Google search by subscribing to the providers of your choice.

Results Prefetching On some searches, Google automatically instructs your browser to start downloading the top search result before you click on it. If you click on top result, the destination page will load faster than before.

Google uses a special prefetching feature in Firefox and Mozilla web browsers to provide this functionality, so results prefetching is not available in Internet Explorer or other web browsers. You can disable prefetching in your web browser preferences, as described in the Mozilla Prefetching FAQ. In Firefox, you can disable prefetching by doing the following: 1. Type "about:config" the address bar. 2. Scroll down to the setting "network.prefetch-next" and set the value to "False". With prefetching enabled, you may end up with cookies and web pages in your web browser's cache from web sites that you did not click on since prefetching happens automatically when you view Google search results pages. You can delete these files by clearing your browser's cache and cookies. If you run a web server, you can find webmaster-specific information about this feature in our Webmaster FAQ.

Search By Number Parcel tracking IDs, patents and other specialized numbers can be entered into Google's search box for quick access to information about them. For example, typing a FedEx tracking number will return the latest information on your package. Other special search by number types include : o UPS tracking numbers example search: "1Z9999W99999999999" o FedEx tracking numbers example search: "999999999999" o USPS tracking numbers example search: "9999 9999 9999 9999 9999 99" o Vehicle ID (VIN) numbers example search: "AAAAA999A9AA99999" o UPC codes example search: "073333531084" o Telephone area codes example search: "650" o Patent numbers example search: "patent 5123123" Remember to put the word "patent" before your patent number. example: Are there other types of numbers you'd like Google to search? Please contact us.

Similar Pages When you click on the "Similar Pages" link for a search result, Google automatically scouts the web for pages that are related to this result. The Similar Pages feature can be used for many purposes. If you like a particular site's content, but wish it had more to say, Similar Pages can find sites with similar content with which you may be unfamiliar. If you are looking for product information, Similar Pages can find competitive information so you can make direct comparisons. If you are interested in researching a particular field, Similar Pages can help you find a large

number of resources very quickly, without having to worry about selecting the right keywords. The more specialized a page is, the fewer results Google will be able to find for you. For example, Similar Pages may not be able to find related pages for your personal home page if it does not have enough information to authoritatively associate other pages with yours. Also, if companies use multiple URLs for their pages (such as company.com and www.company.com), Similar Pages may have little information on one URL, but lots on the other. In general, however, Similar Pages works well for the majority of web pages. Google ... Advertise with Us - Business Solutions - Services & Tools - Jobs, Press, & Help ©2004 Google - Searching 4,285,199,774 web pages. www.google.com/ - 3k - Mar 26, 2004 - Cached - " Similar pages "

Site Search The word "site" followed by a colon enables you to restrict your search to a specific site. To do this, use the site:sampledomain.com syntax in the Google search box. For example, to find admission information on Stanford's site, enter: example:

Spell Checker Google's spell checking software automatically looks at your query and checks to see if you are using the most common version of a word's spelling. If it calculates that you're likely to generate more relevant search results with an alternative spelling, it will ask "Did you mean: (more common spelling)?". Clicking on the suggested spelling will launch a Google search for that term. Because Google's spell check is based on occurrences of all words on the Internet, it is able to suggest common spellings for proper nouns (names and places) that might not appear in a standard spell check program or dictionary.

Stock and Fund Quotes To use Google to get stock and mutual fund quotes, just enter the symbol into the search box. example:

Click on the chart or Google Finance link to see more relevant information from Google Finance. Alternatively, you can go directly to other financial information providers for more information by clicking on the links provided. These financial information providers are selected and ordered based on popularity determined by independent third party audience measurement firms. In addition, we consider important quality factors such as download speed, user interface and functionality. If you'd like to suggest a provider we might include, please contact us.

Street Maps To use Google to find street maps, enter a U.S. street address, including zip code or city/ state (e.g. 165 University Ave Palo Alto CA), in the Google search box. Often, the street address and city name will be enough. example: When Google recognizes your query as a map request, we'll show you your address on a Google map and enable you to obtain directions and store your default location.

Travel Information To see delays and weather conditions at a particular airport, type the airport's three letter code followed by the word "airport." For example, San Francisco International Airport updates can be found by searching for "sfo airport." example: To check the status of a U.S. flight, type the name of the airline followed by the flight number. For example, to see the status for United Airlines flight 134 search for "United 134." example:

Weather

To see weather conditions and a four-day forecast for a particular U.S. or worldwide location, type "weather," followed by the location. Usually a city name will be enough, but you may also want to include a state or zipcode or the country for worldwide cities. For example, to see Palo Alto weather, you could search for "weather palo alto, ca" or "weather palo alto 94301". If you like to see the weather of this location on your personalized Google homepage, you can do this by clicking on the button 'Add to my Google homepage' in the upper right corner. example: All weather conditions and forecasts are provided by Weather Underground, Inc.

Web Page Translation Google breaks the language barrier with this translation feature. Using machine translation technology, Google now gives you the ability to access web pages in languages other than your own. Currently, Google offers the following translation pairs: English to and from Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Korean, Japanese, Spanish, and Portuguese; and German to and from French. If your search results contain a page in one of these languages, and we support your translation pair, you can translate that page into your language with a single click. For more information about this feature, please read the translation FAQ. Répertoire Web de Google - World > Français - " [ Translate this page ] " ... Modifié par Google - ©2003 Google Aide du répertoire Google - À propos - Google in English. directory.google.com/Top/World/ - 7k - Mar 26, 2004 - Cached - Similar pages a

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