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OF

GRAPH THEORY

&

PROBABILITY

SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY

MISS MANJIT KAUR PARKASH GUPTA

BCA-MCA(INT)

IIIRD SEMESTER

3010070322

Euler's Formula

If G is a planar graph, then any plane drawing of G divides the plane

into regions, called faces. One of these faces is unbounded, and is

called the infinite face. If f is any face, then the degree of f (denoted

by deg f) is the number of edges encountered in a walk around the

boundary of the face f. If all faces have the same degree (g, say), the

G is face-regular of degree g.

For example, the following graph G has four faces, f4 being the infinite

face.

It is easy to see from above graph that deg f1=3, deg f2=4, deg f3=9,

deg f4=8.

Note that the sum of all the degrees of the faces is equal to twice the

number of edges in the the graph , since each edge either borders

two different faces (such as bg, cd, and cf) or occurs twice when walk

around a single face (such as ab and gh). The Euler's formula relates

the number of vertices, edges and faces of a planar graph. If n, m,

and f denote the number of vertices, edges, and faces respectively of

a connected planar graph, then we get n-m+f = 2.

planar graph have the same number of faces namely, 2+m-n.

(Euler's Formula) Let G be a connected planar graph, and

let n, m and f denote, respectively, the numbers of vertices,

edges, and faces in a plane drawing of G. Then n - m + f =

2.

induction is obvious for m=0 since in this case n=1 and f=1. Assume

that the result is true for all connected plane graphs with fewer than m

edges, where m is greater than or equal to 1, and suppose that G has

m edges. If G is a tree, then n=m+1 and f=1 so the desired formula

follows. On the other hand, if G is not a tree, let e be a cycle edge of

G and consider G-e. The connected plane graph G-e has n vertices,

m-1 edges, and f-1 faces so that by the inductive hypothesis,

n - (m - 1) + (f - 1) = 2

which implies that

n - m + f = 2.

"corollary" is a theorem associated with another theorem from which

it can be easily derived.)

Many theorems in mathematics are important enough that they have

been proved repeatedly in surprisingly many different ways.

Examples of this include the existence of infinitely many prime

numbers, the evaluation of zeta(2), the fundamental theorem of

algebra (polynomials have roots), quadratic reciprocity (a formula for

testing whether an arithmetic progression contains a square) and the

Pythagorean theorem (which according to Wells has at least 367

proofs). This also sometimes happens for unimportant theorems,

such as the fact that in any rectangle dissected into smaller

rectangles, if each smaller rectangle has integer width or height, so

does the large one.

This page lists proofs of the Euler formula: for any convex

polyhedron, the number of vertices and faces together is exactly two

more than the number of edges. Symbolically V-E+F=2. For instance,

a tetrahedron has four vertices, four faces, and six edges; 4-6+4=2.

by Euler, and first proven by Legendre in 1794. Earlier, Descartes

(around 1639) discovered a related polyhedral invariant (the total

angular defect) but apparently did not notice the Euler formula itself.

Hilton and Pederson provide more references as well as entertaining

speculation on Euler's discovery of the formula. Confusingly, other

equations such as ei pi = -1 and aphi(n) = 1 (mod n) also go by the name

of "Euler's formula"; Euler was a busy man.

important ways, some using methods described below. One

important generalization is to planar graphs. To form a planar graph

from a polyhedron, place a light source near one face of the

polyhedron, and a plane on the other side.

The

shadows of

the

polyhedron

edges form

a planar

graph,

embedded

in such a

way that the

edges are

straight line

segments. The faces of the polyhedron correspond to convex

polygons that are faces of the embedding. The face nearest the light

source corresponds to the outside face of the embedding, which is

also convex. Conversely, any planar graph with certain connectivity

properties comes from a polyhedron in this way.

Some of the proofs below use only the topology of the planar graph,

some use the geometry of its embedding, and some use the three-

dimensional geometry of the original polyhedron. Graphs in these

proofs will not necessarily be simple: edges may connect a vertex to

itself, and two vertices may be connected by multiple edges. Several

of the proofs rely on the Jordan curve theorem, which itself has

multiple proofs; however these are not generally based on Euler's

formula so one can use Jordan curves without fear of circular

reasoning.

• Proof 2: Induction on Faces

• Proof 3: Induction on Vertices

• Proof 4: Induction on Edges

• Proof 5: Divide and Conquer

• Proof 6: Electrical Charge

• Proof 7: Dual Electrical Charge

• Proof 8: Sum of Angles

• Proof 9: Spherical Angles

• Proof 10: Pick's Theorem

• Proof 11: Ear Decomposition

• Proof 12: Shelling

• Proof 13: Triangle Removal

• Proof 14: Noah's Ark

• Proof 15: Binary Homology

• Proof 16: Binary Space Partition

• Proof 17: Valuations

• Proof 18: Hyperplane Arrangements

• Proof 19: Integer-Point Enumeration

History

The Königsberg Bridge problem

Königsberg and published in 1736 is regarded as the first paper in the

Vandermonde on the knight problem, carried on with the analysis

situs initiated by Leibniz. Euler's formula relating the number of

edges, vertices, and faces of a convex polyhedron was studied and

generalized by Cauchy[2] and L'Huillier,[3] and is at the origin of

topology.

Königsberg and while Listing introduced topology, Cayley was led by

the study of particular analytical forms arising from differential

calculus to study a particular class of graphs, the trees. This study

had many implications in theoretical chemistry. The involved

techniques mainly concerned the enumeration of graphs having

particular properties. Enumerative graph theory then rose from the

results of Cayley and the fundamental results published by Pólya

between 1935 and 1937 and the generalization of these by De Bruijn

in 1959. Cayley linked his results on trees with the contemporary

studies of chemical composition.[4] The fusion of the ideas coming

from mathematics with those coming from chemistry is at the origin of

a part of the standard terminology of graph theory. In particular, the

term "graph" was introduced by Sylvester in a paper published in

1878 in Nature.[5]

the four color problem: "Is it true that any map drawn in the plane

may have its regions colored with four colors, in such a way that any

two regions having a common border have different colors?". This

problem was first posed by Francis Guthrie in 1852 and its first

written record is in a letter of De Morgan addressed to Hamilton the

same year. Many incorrect proofs have been proposed, including

those by Cayley, Kempe, and others. The study and the

generalization of this problem by Tait, Heawood, Ramsey and

Hadwiger led to the study of the colorings of the graphs embedded on

surfaces with arbitrary genus. Tait's reformulation generated a new

class of problems, the factorization problems, particularly studied by

Petersen and Kőnig. The works of Ramsey on colorations and more

specially the results obtained by Turán in 1941 was at the origin of

another branch of graph theory, extremal graph theory.

The four color problem remained unsolved for more than a century. A

proof produced in 1976 by Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken[6][7],

which involved checking the properties of 1,936 configurations by

computer, was not fully accepted at the time due to its complexity. A

simpler proof considering only 633 configurations was given twenty

years later by Robertson, Seymour, Sanders and Thomas.[8]

fertilized graph theory back through the works of Jordan, Kuratowski

and Whitney. Another important factor of common development of

graph theory and topology came from the use of the techniques of

modern algebra. The first example of such a use comes from the

work of the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff, who published in 1845 his

Kirchhoff's circuit laws for calculating the voltage and current in

electric circuits.

in the study of Erdős and Rényi of the asymptotic probability of graph

connectivity, gave rise to yet another branch, known as random

graph theory, which has been a fruitful source of graph-theoretic

results

served as the residence of the dukes of Prussia in the 16th century.

(Today, the city is named Kaliningrad, and is a major industrial and

commercial center of western Russia.) The river Pregel flowed

through the town, creating an island, as in the following picture.

Seven bridges spanned the various branches of the river, as shown.

The Bridges of Königsberg

A famous problem concerning Königsberg was whether it was

possible to take a walk through the town in such a way as to cross

over every bridge once, and only once. An example of a failed

attempt to take such a walking tour is shown below.

OK, so this attempt didn't work. But might there be some other path

that would cross every bridge exactly once? This problem was first

solved by the prolific Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler

(pronounced "Oiler"), who invented the branch of mathematics now

known as graph theory in the process of his solution.

Graphs

Euler's approach was to regard the spots of land (there are 4 of them)

as points to be visited, and the bridges as paths between those

points. The mathematical essentials of the map of Königsberg can

then be reduced to the following diagram, which is an example of

what is called a graph:

vertex) and connecting lines or curves (called edges). The problem

of the bridges of Königsberg can then be reformulated as whether

this graph can be traced without tracing any edge more than once.

For each of the vertices of a graph, the order of the vertex is the

number of edges at that vertex. The figure below shows the graph of

the Königsberg bridge problem, with the orders of the vertices

labeled.

Euler's Solution

Euler's solution to the problem of the Königsberg bridges involved the

observation that when a vertex is "visited" in the middle of the

process of tracing a graph, there must be an edge coming into the

vertex, and another edge leaving it; and so the order of the vertex

must be an even number. This must be true for all but at most two of

the vertices--the one you start at, and the one you end at, and so a

connected graph is traversible if and only if it has at most two vertices

of odd order. (Note that the starting and ending vertices may be the

same, in which case the order of every vertex must be even.) Now a

quick look at the graph above shows that there are more than two

vertices of odd order, and so the graph cannot be traced; that is the

desired walking tour of Königsberg is impossible.

bridge, as in the diagram shown below. Would a walking tour of

Königsberg now be possible?

2. Show how you could add a ninth bridge to the diagram above, to

make the walking tour once again impossible.

Euler's solution can also be applied to problems that at first look

different from the problem of the Königsberg bridges. Consider the

problem of whether it is possible to draw a continuous curve that

passes through each of the ten edges (line segments) of the following

figure exactly once. (A curve that passes through a vertex is not

allowed.)

The next figure shows a start on a possible solution.

problem, we will create a graph with four vertices, one for each of the

four regions (including the outside region, D). There will be ten edges

in our graph, one for each of the boundary edges between two of the

regions. For instance, our graph will have three edges between the

vertices for regions A and D, because there are three boundary

edges between regions A and D in the figure above. The resulting

graph can be drawn as follows:

The question of whether there is a continuous curve passing through

all ten edges is equivalent to the question of whether this graph can

be traced. Since there are only two vertices of odd order, Euler's

theorem not only answers the question in the affirmative, but also

tells you that you must start either in region A or in region D.

that passes through each of the edges of the following figure exactly

once? Now that you know the secret, you can easily make up your

own similar challenges.

Today, graph theory is a highly developed field of mathematics, and

is both a fertile ground for the creation of new mathematics and an

area with many, many applications. Many research problems in

graph theory are easily stated and easily understood (although

perhaps not easily solved). A few of the applications of graph theory

include transportation and warehousing applications, planning and

scheduling, analysis of electrical networks, and even understanding

the Internet!

SUBMITTED TO, SUBMITTED

BY,

MANJIT KAUR SARABJIT

SINGH

BCA-MCA

(INT)

IIIrd

SEMESTER

ROLLNO.19

3010070056

CONTENTS

1. Properties

o 1.2 Uniqueness

o 1.3 Minimum-cost sub graph

o 1.4 Cycle property

o 1.5 Cut property

• 2 Pseudo Code

• 3 Algorithms

• 4 MST on complete graphs

• 5 Related problems

• 6 See also

• 7 References

• 8 External links

Donate Now »

The minimum spanning tree of a planar graph. Each edge is labeled with its

weight, which here is roughly proportional to its length.

graph which is a tree and connects all the vertices together. A single graph can

have many different spanning trees. We can also assign a weight to each edge,

which is a number representing how unfavorable it is, and use this to assign a

weight to a spanning tree by computing the sum of the weights of the edges in

that spanning tree. A minimum spanning tree or minimum weight spanning

tree is then a spanning tree with weight less than or equal to the weight of every

other spanning tree. More generally, any undirected graph (not necessarily

connected) has a minimum spanning forest, which is a union of minimum

spanning trees for its connected components.

If it is constrained to bury the cable only along certain paths, then there would be

a graph representing which points are connected by those paths. Some of those

paths might be more expensive, because they are longer, or require the cable to

be buried deeper; these paths would be represented by edges with larger

weights. A spanning tree for that graph would be a subset of those paths that has

no cycles but still connects to every house. There might be several spanning

trees possible. A minimum spanning tree would be one with the lowest total cost.

DEFINATION:-

PROPERTIES OF TREES

° A graph is a tree if and only if there is one and only one path joining any two of

its vertices.

° A connected graph is a tree if and only if every one of its edges is a bridge.

DEFINATION

° A sub graph that spans (reaches out to) all vertices of a graph are called a

spanning sub graph.

° A sub graph that is a tree and that spans (reaches out to) all vertices of the

original graph are called a spanning tree.

° among all the spanning trees of a weighted and connected graph, the one

(possibly more) with the least total weight is called a minimum spanning tree

(MST).

KRUSKAL'S ALGORITHM

• Step 1

Find the cheapest edge in the graph (if there is more than one, pick one at

random). Mark it with any given color, say red.

• Step 2

Find the cheapest unmarked (uncolored) edge in the graph that doesn't

close a coloured or red circuit. Mark this edge red.

• Step 3

Repeat Step 2 until you reach out to every vertex of the graph (or you

have N; 1 coloured edges, where N is the number of Vertices.) The red

edges form the desired minimum spanning tree.

o Tutorial Kruskal

o Interactive Kruskal's Algorithm

PRIM’S ALGORITHM

• Step 0

Pick any vertex as a starting vertex. (Call it S). Mark it with any given

color, say red.

• Step 1

Find the nearest neighbor of S (call it P1). Mark both P1 and the edge SP1

red. Cheapest unmarked (uncolored) edge in the graph that doesn't close

a coloured circuit. Mark this edge with same color of Step 1.

• Step 2

Find the nearest uncolored neighbor to the red sub graph (i.e., the closest

vertex to any red vertex). Mark it and the edge connecting the vertex to the red

sub graph in red.

• Step 3

Repeat Step 2 until all vertices are marked red. The red sub graph is a

minimum spanning tree.

3. Of those you had in # 2, which one(s) is (are) minimum spanning trees. (i.e.,

those those have a minimum sum of their weighted edges.)

1. Use Kruskal's algorithm to find a minimum spanning tree and indicate the

edges in the graph shown below: Indicate on the edges that are selected the

order of their selection.

2. Use Prim's algorithm to find the minimum spanning tree and indicate the edges

in the graph shown below. Indicate on the edges that are selected the order of

their selection.

PRIM’S ALGORITHM

Suppose we are given G = (V, E). We assume G is connected. (If not, then

The algorithm will find a minimal spanning tree for the component we

Happen to start in.)

Choose any v in V.

While B <> V do

{(u. w)}.

the following steps:

Note that at step 3 we could have chosen to add edge (2, 4) instead of (2, 3).

At step 4 we could have chosen to add edge (2, 4) instead of (3, 4).

Now it is fairly easy to see that the algorithm finds a spanning tree for G. But is it

a minimal spanning tree? To see that it is, we need the following lemma.

edges in a minimal spanning tree T for G. Let V1 be the set of vertices incident

with edges in E1. Let (u, v) be an edge of minimal weight with the property that u

is in V - V1 and v is in V1. Then E1 union {(u, v)} is also a subset of a minimal

spanning tree. (figure3).

Proof. If the edge (u, v) is in the minimal spanning tree T, then we are done. If (u,

v) is not in T, on the other hand, then there is a path from u to v in T. Let (x, y) be

the edge in this path with exactly one vertex in V1. Call this vertex x. (Figure 4).

Let T1 be T with edge (x, y) removed and edge (u, v) added. Then E1 union {(u,

v)} is contained in T1 and T1 is a spanning tree. Now by the choice of (u, v) we

know that the weight of (u, v) is less than or equal to the weight of (x, y).

Therefore the weight of T1 is less than or equal to the weight of T, i.e., T1 is a

minimal spanning tree for G.

uses the set data structure. Let G be a connected graph with n vertices and

nonnegative edge weights.

Now sort the edges in increasing order by weight and set T = the empty set.

Now examine each edge in turn. If an edge joins two components, add it to T and

merge the two components into one. If not, discard the edge.

Sorted edges: (1, 5), (2, 4), (2, 3), (3, 4), (1, 2), (4, 5)

2 {1, 5}, {2}, {3}, {4} (2, 4) (1, 5), (2, 4)

PROPERTIES

Possible multiplicity

There may be several minimum spanning trees of the same weight; in particular,

if all weights are the same, every spanning tree is minimum.

UNIQUENESS

If each edge has a distinct weight then there will only be one, unique minimum

spanning tree. The proof of this fact can be done by induction or contradiction.

This is true in many realistic situations, such as the cable TV company example

above, where it's unlikely any two paths have exactly the same cost. This

generalizes to spanning forests as well.

If the weights are non-negative, then a minimum spanning tree is in

fact the minimum-cost subgraph connecting all vertices, since

subgraphs containing cycles necessarily have more total weight.

CYCLE PROPERTIES

For any cycle C in the graph, if the weight of an edge e of C is larger than the

weights of other edges of C, then this edge cannot belong to an MST. Indeed,

assume the contrary, i.e., e belongs to an MST T1. If we delete it, T1 will be

broken into two subtrees with the two ends of e in different subtrees. The

remainder of C reconnects the subtrees, hence there is an edge f of C with ends

in different subtrees, i.e., it reconnects the subtrees into a tree T2 with weight

less than that of T1, because the weight of f is less than the weight of e.

CUT PROPERTIES

For any cut C in the graph, if the weight of an edge e of C is smaller than the

weights of other edges of C, then this edge belongs to all MSTs of the graph.

Indeed, assume the contrary, i.e., e does not belong to an MST T1. Then adding

e to T1 will produce a cycle, which must have another edge e2 from T1 in the cut

C. Replacing e2 with e, would produce a tree T1 of smaller weight.

ALGORITHMS

The first algorithm for finding a minimum spanning tree was developed by Czech

scientist Otakar Borůvka in 1926 (see Borůvka's algorithm). Its purpose was an

efficient electrical coverage of Moravia. There are now two algorithms commonly

used Prim's algorithm and Kruskal's algorithm. All three are greedy algorithms

that run in polynomial time, so the problem of finding such trees is in FP, and

related decision problems such as determining whether a particular edge is in the

MST or determining if the minimum total weight exceeds a certain value are in P.

Another greedy algorithm not as commonly used is the reverse-delete algorithm,

which is the reverse of Kruskal's algorithm.

The fastest minimum spanning tree algorithm to date was developed by Bernard

Chazelle, which is based on the Soft Heap, an approximate priority queue. [1] [2]

Its running time is O (e α (e, v)), where e is the number of edges, v is the number

of vertices and α is the classical functional inverse of the Ackermann function.

The function α grows extremely slowly, so that for all practical purposes it may be

considered a constant no greater than 4; thus Chazelle's algorithm takes very

close to linear time.

What is the fastest possible algorithm for this problem? That is one of the oldest

open questions in computer science. There is clearly a linear lower bound, since

we must at least examine all the weights. If the edge weights are integers with a

bounded bit length, then deterministic algorithms are known with linear running

time. For general weights, there are randomized algorithms whose expected

running time is linear.

Whether there exists a deterministic algorithm with linear running time for general

weights is still an open question. However, Seth Pettie and Vijaya

Ramachandran have found a provably optimal deterministic minimum spanning

tree algorithm, the computational complexity of which is unknown.

More recently, research has focused on solving the minimum spanning tree

problem in a highly parallelized manner. With a linear number of processors it is

possible to solve the problem in O (log n) time. A 2003 paper "Fast Shared-

Memory Algorithms for Computing the Minimum Spanning Forest of Sparse

Graphs" by David A. Bader and Guojing Cong demonstrates a pragmatic

algorithm that can compute MSTs 5 times faster on 8 processors than an

optimized sequential algorithm. Typically, parallel algorithms are based on

Boruvka's algorithm — Prim's and especially Kruskal's algorithm do not scale as

well to additional processors.

Other specialized algorithms have been designed for computing minimum

spanning trees of a graph so large that most of it must be stored on disk at all

times. These external storage algorithms, for example as described in

"Engineering an External Memory Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm" by Roman

Dementiev et al.,[10] can operate as little as 2 to 5 times slower than a traditional

in-memory algorithm; they claim that "massive minimum spanning tree problems

filling several hard disks can be solved overnight on a PC." They rely on efficient

external storage sorting algorithms and on graph contraction techniques for

reducing the graph's size efficiently.

It has been shown by J. Michael Steele based on work by Alan M. Frieze that

given a complete graph on n vertices, with edge weights chosen from a

continuous random distribution f such that f'(0) > 0, as n approaches infinity the

size of the MST approaches ζ (3) / f'(0), where ζ is the Riemann zeta function.

For uniform random weights in [0, 1], the exact expected size of the minimum

spanning tree has been computed for small complete graphs.

Vertice

Expected size Approximate expected size

s

2 1/2 0.5

3 3/4 0.75

4 31 / 35 0.8857143

9 126510063932 / 115228853025 1.0979027

Related problems

A related graph is the k-minimum spanning tree (k-MST) which is the tree that

spans some subset of k vertices in the graph with minimum weight.

possible spanning trees) such that no spanning tree outside the subset has

smaller weight. (Note that this problem is unrelated to the k-minimum spanning

tree.)

The Euclidean minimum spanning tree is a spanning tree of a graph with edge

weights corresponding to the Euclidean distance between vertices.

In the distributed model, where each node is considered a computer and no node

knows anything except its own connected links, one can consider Distributed

minimum spanning tree. Mathematical definition of the problem is the same but

has different approaches for solution.

For directed graphs, the minimum spanning tree problem can be solved in

quadratic time using the Chu–Liu/Edmonds algorithm.

REFERENCES

WIKIPEDIA.COM

GOOGLE.COM

DISCRETE STRUCTURES

MSN.COM

WIKIANSWERS.COM

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