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Dirty waters: Corruption infects global water services
Transparency International’s Global Corruption Report: misconduct rife in water sector Read more » Popularity: 8%
Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water matters
Social theorists believe that meaning exists in relation, in the exchange of words and images between people. David Elliot Cohen’s new anthology, What Matters, takes this theory to heart Read more » Popularity: unranked
Alaskan mine pollution poses potential threat to Salmon industry
ANCHORAGE - Alaskan voters turned down an initiative to control the toxic pollutants the state’s newer mines could dump into the waters. Read more » Popularity: 1%
Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit
MONTREAL - According to a recent study, Quebec is rich with water and could grow richer by $6.5 billion annually if it decides to export the resource. The suggestion, however, has already provoked heated criticism. Read more » Popularity: 1%
Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee
Water levels in the Sea of Galilee are at their lowest level on record, reports The Popularity: 1%
Water Data U.S. water usage by state on Google Earth
Using United States Geological Survey data from the most recent U.S. water consumption reports, Circle of Blue has generated a new visualization of water use by state. The Google Earth module also includes data for the U.S. Drought Monitor. Click here to download the module. Popularity: 20%
Graphic: Water shortages - GAO report proves prophetic
Scientists, researchers, and others warn that the U.S. is entering a new era of water scarcity. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report from 2003 projected that 36 states could face water shortages by 2013. Five years sooner than forecast, the report has proved disturbingly prophetic. Read the story » Popularity: unranked
Graphic: Bottled water imports and exports
A new UN map highlights bottled water’s patterns of international trade. With France being the major exporter of bottled water, trade routes in Europe (between France, Germany, and Belgium) often involve intracontinental trade. The United States also imports a large quantity of water from France and Fiji. Read the story » Popularity: 57%
Focus: Africa The secret lives of forests: An interview with Nobel Laureate, Wangari Maathai
In an interview with Circle of Blue, 2004 Nobel Peace Prize winner Wangari Maathai discusses the crucial role forests play as rainwater harvesters. Read the story » Popularity: 6%
Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water matters
Social theorists believe that meaning exists in relation, in the exchange of words and
images between people. David Elliot Cohen’s new anthology, What Matters, takes this theory to heart Read the story » Popularity: unranked
Dry spells and large-scale agriculture: Climate change threatens Uganda’s food security
Sustainable agriculture helps Ugandan farmers cope with water shortages Read the story » Popularity: unranked See all Africa Stories
Focus: North America Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing largest in history
BIRMINGHAM, Alabama - Jefferson, the state’s most populous county, is considering
filing for bankruptcy to alleviate its $3.2 billion sewer debt. Governor Bob Riley is currently talking with creditors, AP reports. Read the story » Popularity: 1%
Bronx water-filtration plant a fiscal sinkhole?
NEW YORK - The completion date has been extended by six years for a project to construct a ten-story deep water-filtration plant in the Bronx. Read the story » Popularity: 1% See all United States Stories
World Water News
Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing largest in history Bronx water-filtration plant a fiscal sinkhole? Alaskan mine pollution poses potential threat to Salmon industry Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit London mayor echoes Maathai: City needs to harvest rainwater, plant trees Nestlé granted permission to drink from Michigan wells The secret lives of forests: An interview with Nobel Laureate, Wangari Maathai Dirty waters: Corruption infects global water services Op-ed: Not a ‘natural’ disaster Indonesia launches clean water, sanitation campaign Information flow: Australian Senate deliberates how to save Murray-Darling Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water matters New energy, old dams: Maine to restore Penobscot River ecosystem College cafeterias drop trays to save water See all World Water Stories
Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing largest in history BIRMINGHAM, Alabama - Jefferson, the state’s most populous...
Bronx water-filtration plant a fiscal sinkhole? NEW YORK - The completion date has been extended by six years...
Alaskan mine pollution poses potential threat to Salmon industry ANCHORAGE - Alaskan voters turned down an initiative to control...
Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee Water levels in the Sea of Galilee are at their lowest level...
Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit MONTREAL - According to a recent study, Quebec is rich with...
Nestlé granted permission to drink from Michigan wells DETROIT - While most of the world’s glaciers are shrinking,...
Dirty waters: Corruption infects global water services Transparency International’s Global Corruption Report: misconduct... See all Business Stories
Science + Tech
Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing largest in history BIRMINGHAM, Alabama - Jefferson, the state’s most populous county, is considering filing for bankruptcy to alleviate its $3.2... September 2, 2008 | Bronx water-filtration plant a fiscal sinkhole? NEW YORK - The completion date has been extended by six years for a project to construct a ten-story deep water-filtration plant in... September 2, 2008 | Alaskan mine pollution poses potential threat to Salmon industry ANCHORAGE - Alaskan voters turned down an initiative to control the toxic pollutants the state’s newer mines could dump into...
September 2, 2008 | Read the story » Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee Water levels in the Sea of Galilee are at their lowest level on record, reports The Telegraph. Popularity: 1% Read More → September 2, 2008 | Read the story » Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit MONTREAL - According to a recent study, Quebec is rich with water and could grow richer by $6.5 billion annually if it decides to... September 2, 2008 | Read the story » See all Science + Tech Stories
Policy + Politics
Alaskan mine pollution poses potential threat to Salmon industry ANCHORAGE - Alaskan voters turned down an initiative to control the toxic pollutants the state’s newer mines could dump into... September 2, 2008 | Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit MONTREAL - According to a recent study, Quebec is rich with water and could grow richer by $6.5 billion annually if it decides to... September 2, 2008 | Nestlé granted permission to drink from Michigan wells DETROIT - While most of the world’s glaciers are shrinking, Nestlé’s Ice Mountain continues to expand. The Michigan Department... August 29, 2008 | Dirty waters: Corruption infects global water services Transparency International’s Global Corruption Report: misconduct rife in water sector Popularity: 8%
August 28, 2008 | Information flow: Australian Senate deliberates how to save Murray-Darling In worried response to a rapidly desiccating Murray-Darling river basin, the Australian Senate just approved an inquiry into the availability... August 27, 2008 | Read the story » See all Policy + Politics Stories
Op-ed: Not a ‘natural’ disaster NEW DELHI - The floods India and Nepal have suffered this season need not have wrought such havoc, an editorial in India’s Business... August 28, 2008 | Read the story » Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water matters Social theorists believe that meaning exists in relation, in the exchange of words and images between people. David Elliot Cohen’s... August 26, 2008 | Read the story » Video: Kenny Irby of the Poynter Institute In a video interview with Circle of Blue, Kenny Irby, visual journalism group leader and diversity program director of the Poynter... August 22, 2008 | Read the story » See all Commentary Stories
Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water matters Social theorists believe that meaning exists in relation, in the exchange of words and images between people. David Elliot Cohen’s... August 26, 2008 | Read the story »
Video: Kenny Irby of the Poynter Institute In a video interview with Circle of Blue, Kenny Irby, visual journalism group leader and diversity program director of the Poynter... August 22, 2008 | Read the story » The near future, like tomorrow: An interview with Alex Rivera, director of Sleep Dealer During an interview with Circle of Blue, director Alex Rivera discusses his recent film Sleep Dealer. Popularity: unranked Read More → August 22, 2008 | Read the story » See all Arts Stories
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Circle of Blue Video Reports Circle of Blue Reports: U.S. Water Scarcity
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U.S. faces era of water scarcity Graphic: Water shortages - GAO report proves prophetic U.S. water usage by state on Google Earth The Great Lakes Compact and the potential privatization of water: an interview with James M. Olson Lake Mead, the American Southwest, and water: an interview with Tim Barnett
• • • • •
China, Tibet, and the strategic power of water Water's Urgent Message at the World Economic Forum Op-ed: Though the Compact is signed, Great Lakes are still at risk U.S. faces era of water scarcity Graphic: Bottled water imports and exports
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Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit London mayor echoes Maathai: City needs to harvest rainwater, plant trees Nestlé granted permission to drink from Michigan wells The secret lives of forests: An interview with Nobel Laureate, Wangari Maathai Dirty waters: Corruption infects global water services Op-ed: Not a ‘natural’ disaster Indonesia launches clean water, sanitation campaign Information flow: Australian Senate deliberates how to save MurrayDarling Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water matters New energy, old dams: Maine to restore Penobscot River ecosystem College cafeterias drop trays to save water
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Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and plants which live in these water bodies. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water, water is typically referred to as polluted when it impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use (like serving as drinking water) or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. The primary sources of water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their point of origin. Point-source pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete "point source". Examples of this category include discharges from a wastewater treatment plant, outfalls from a factory, leaking underground tanks, etc. The second primary category, non-point source pollution, refers to contamination that, as its name suggests, does not originate from a single discrete source. Non-point source pollution is often a cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. Nutrient runoff in storm water from sheet flow over an agricultural field, or metals and hydrocarbons from an area with high impervious surfaces and vehicular traffic are examples of non-point source pollution. The primary focus of legislation and efforts to curb water pollution for the past several decades was first aimed at point sources. As point sources have been effectively regulated, greater attention has come to be placed on non-point source contributions, especially in rapidly urbanizing/suburbanizing or developing areas.
The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical or sensory changes. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (iron, manganese, etc) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water, and what is a contaminant. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water's physical chemistry include acidity, electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is the fertilisation of surface water by nutrients that were previously scarce. Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.
When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get
dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits.
Water pollution has many sources. The most polluting of them are the city sewage and
industrial waste discharged into the rivers. The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate in any city in India. Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated; the rest is discharged as it is into our water bodies. Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies. Such water, which ultimately ends up in our households, is often highly contaminated and carries disease-causing microbes. Agricultural run-off, or the water from the fields that drains into rivers, is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides. Domestic sewage refers to waste water that is discarded from households. Also referred to as sanitary sewage, such water contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended impurities.
The amount of organic material that can rot in the sewage is measured by the biochemical oxygen demand. BOD is the amount of oxygen required by micro-organisms to decompose the organic substances in sewage. Therefore, the more organic material there is in the sewage, the higher the BOD. It is among the most important parameters for the design and operation of sewage treatment plants. BOD levels of industrial sewage may be many times that of domestic sewage. Dissolved oxygen is an important factor that determines the quality of water in lakes and rivers. The higher the Today, many people dump their garbage concentration of dissolved oxygen, the better the into streams, lakes, rivers, and seas, thus water quality. When sewage enters a lake or making water bodies the final resting place stream, micro-organisms begin to decompose the organic materials. Oxygen is consumed as of cans, bottles, plastics, and other micro-organisms use it in their metabolism. This Eutrophication can quickly deplete the available oxygen in the water. When the dissolved oxygen levels drop too low, many aquatic species perish. In fact, if When fresh water is artificially supplemented the oxygen level drops to zero, the water will with nutrients, it results in an abnormal increase become septic. When organic compounds in the growth of water plants. This is known as decompose without oxygen, it gives rise to the eutrophication. The discharge of waste from undesirable odours usually associated with industries, agriculture, and urban communities septic or putrid conditions. into water bodies generally stretches the biological capacities of aquatic systems. Chemical run-off from fields also adds nutrients household products. The various substances that to water. Excess nutrients cause the water body we use for keeping our houses clean add to water to become choked with organic substances and pollution as they contain harmful chemicals. In the past, people mostly used soaps made from animal organisms. When organic matter exceeds the and vegetable fat for all types of washing. But most capacity of the micro-organisms in water that of today’s cleaning products are synthetic break down and recycle the organic matter, it detergents and come from the petrochemical encourages rapid growth, or blooms, of algae. When they die, the remains of the algae add to industry. Most detergents and washing powders contain phosphates, which are used to soften the the organic wastes already in the water; water among other things. These and other eventually, the water becomes deficient in oxygen. Anaerobic organisms (those that do not chemicals contained in washing powders affect the health of all forms of life in the water. require oxygen to live) then attack the organic wastes, releasing gases such as methane and hydrogen sulphide, which are harmful to the Agricultural Run off oxygen-requiring (aerobic) forms of life. The result is a foul-smelling, waste-filled body of The use of land for agriculture and the practices water. This has already occurred in such places followed in cultivation greatly affect the quality of as Lake Erie and the Baltic Sea, and is a groundwater. Intensive cultivation of crops causes growing problem in freshwater lakes all over chemicals from fertilizers (e.g. nitrate) and India. Eutrophication can produce problems pesticides to seep into the groundwater, a process such as bad tastes and odours as well as green commonly known as leaching. Routine applications scum algae. Also the growth of rooted plants of fertilizers and pesticides for agriculture and increases, which decreases the amount of indiscriminate disposal of industrial and domestic oxygen in the deepest waters of the lake. It also wastes are increasingly being recognized as leads to the death of all forms of life in the water significant sources of water pollution. bodies.
It amounts to a very small fraction of the sewage by weight. But it is large by volume and contains impurities such as organic materials and plant nutrients that tend to rot. The main organic materials are food and vegetable waste, plant nutrient come from chemical soaps, washing powders, etc. Domestic sewage is also very likely to contain disease-causing microbes. Thus, disposal of domestic waste water is a significant technical problem. Sewage generated from the urban areas in India has multiplied manifold since 1947.
Biochemical oxygen demand, or BOD
The high nitrate content in groundwater is mainly from irrigation run-off from agricultural fields where chemical fertilizers have been used indiscriminately.
Waste water from manufacturing or chemical processes in industries contributes to water pollution. Industrial waste water usually contains specific and readily identifiable chemical compounds. During the last fifty years, the number of industries in India has grown rapidly. But water pollution is concentrated within a few subsectors, mainly in the form of toxic wastes and organic pollutants. Out of this a large portion can be traced to the processing of industrial chemicals and to the food products industry. In fact, a number of large- and medium-sized industries in the region covered by the Ganga Action Plan do not have adequate effluent treatment facilities. Most of these defaulting industries are sugar mills, distilleries, leather processing industries, and thermal power stations. Most major industries have treatment facilities for industrial effluents. But this is not the case with small-scale industries, which cannot afford enormous investments in pollution control equipment as their profit margin is very slender. Effects of water pollution
The effects of water pollution are not only devastating to people but also to animals, fish, and
birds. Polluted water is unsuitable for drinking, recreation, agriculture, and industry. It diminishes the aesthetic quality of lakes and rivers. More seriously, contaminated water destroys aquatic life and reduces its reproductive ability. Eventually, it is a hazard to human health. Nobody can escape the effects of water pollution.
The individual and the community can help minimize water pollution. By simple housekeeping
and management practices the amount of waste generated can be minimized.
Acid rain • Air Quality Index • Atmospheric dispersion modeling • Chlorofluorocarbon • Global dimming • Global distillation• Global warming • Indoor air quality • Ozone depletion • Particulate • Smog
Eutrophication • Hypoxia • Marine pollution • Marine debris • Ocean acidification • Oil spill • Ship pollution • Surface runoff • Thermal pollution • Wastewater • Waterborne diseases • Water quality • Water stagnation
Bioremediation • Herbicide • Pesticide • Soil Guideline Values (SGVs)
Actinides in the environment • Environmental radioactivity • Fission product • Nuclear fallout • Plutonium in the environment • Radiation poisoning • Radium in the environment • Uranium in the environment
Other types of pollution
Invasive species • Light pollution • Noise pollution • Radio spectrum pollution • Visual pollution
Montreal Protocol • Kyoto Protocol • CLRTAP • OSPAR
DEFRA • EPA • Global Atmosphere Watch • EEA • Greenpeace • American Lung Association
Environmental Science • Natural
• • • • • • •
1 Contaminants 2 Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants 3 Sampling & monitoring 4 Regulatory framework 5 References 6 See also 7 External links
Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Some organic water pollutants are:
• • • • • •
• • •
Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemicals Bacteria, often is from sewage or livestock operations Food processing waste, including pathogens Tree and brush debris from logging operations VOCs (volatile organic compounds), such as industrial solvents, from improper storage DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids), such as chlorinated solvents, which may fall at the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are more dense Petroleum Hydrocarbons including fuels (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, and fuel oils) and lubricants (motor oil) from oil field operations, refineries, pipelines, retail service station's underground storage tanks, and transfer operations. Note: VOCs include gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Detergents Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products Disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in chemically disinfected drinking water
Some inorganic water pollutants include:
• • • •
Spill of oil over the seas is the biggest danger. Heavy metals including acid mine drainage Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants) Pre-production industrial raw resin pellets, an industrial pollutant
• • •
Chemical waste as industrial by products Fertilizers, in runoff from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates Silt in surface runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites
Macroscopic, that is, large visible items polluting the water are termed marine debris, and can include such items as:
Nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets Shipwrecks, large derelict ships
 Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants
Most water pollutants are eventually carried by the rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight, for example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River, but 100 kilometers south, since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to coriolis force. Further south then are areas of oxygen depletion, caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms, caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been reported, because toxins climb the foodchain after small fish consume copepods, then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT. This is known as biomagnification which is occasionally used interchangeably with bioaccumulation. The big gyres in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. The North Pacific Gyre for example has collected the so-called "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" that is now estimated at 100 times the size of Texas. Many of these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation. Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or chemically change especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class of such chemicals are the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry (note latest advances in liquid carbon dioxide in dry cleaning that avoids all use of chemicals). Both of these chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial decomposition reactions, leading to new hazardous chemicals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride).
Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers. Non-porous aquifers such as clays partially purify water of bacteria by simple filtration (adsorption and absorption), dilution, and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity: however, in some cases, the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants. Groundwater that moves through cracks and caverns is not filtered and can be transported as easily as surface water. In fact, this can be aggravated by the human tendency to use natural sinkholes as dumps in areas of Karst topography. There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition. Some of these secondary impacts are:
Silt bearing surface runoff from can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants. Thermal pollution can induce fish kills and invasion by new thermophilic species. This can cause further problems to existing wildlife.
 Sampling & monitoring
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Environmental Scientists preparing water autosamplers. Sampling water can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Many contamination events are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason 'grab' samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals.
 Regulatory framework
In the UK there are common law rights (civil rights) to protect the passage of water across land unfettered in either quality of quantity. Criminal laws dating back to the 16th century exercised some control over water pollution but it was not until the River (Prevention of pollution )Acts 1951 - 1961 were enacted that any systematic control over water pollution was established. These laws were strengthened and extended in the
Control of Pollution Act 1984 which has since been updated and modified by a series of further acts. It is a criminal offense to either pollute a lake, river, groundwater or the sea or to discharge any liquid into such water bodies without proper authority. In England and Wales such permission can only be issued by the Environment Agency and in Scotland by SEPA. In the USA, concern over water pollution resulted in the enactment of state anti-pollution laws in the latter half of the 19th century, and federal legislation enacted in 1899. The Refuse Act of the federal Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 prohibits the disposal of any refuse matter from into either the nation's navigable rivers, lakes, streams, and other navigable bodies of water, or any tributary to such waters, unless one has first obtained a permit. The Water Pollution Control Act, passed in 1948, gave authority to the Surgeon General to reduce water pollution. Growing public awareness and concern for controlling water pollution led to enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. As amended in 1977, this law became commonly known as the Clean Water Act. The Act established the basic mechanisms for regulating contaminant discharge. It established the authority for the United States Environmental Protection Agency to implement wastewater standards for industry. The Clean Water Act also continued requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. Further amplification of the Act continued including the enactment of the Great Lakes Legacy Act of 2002.
WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY
By David Krantz and Brad Kifferstein
Comprising over 70% of the Earth?s surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet. Without the seemingly invaluable compound comprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent: it is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper. Although we as humans recognize this fact, we disregard it by polluting our rivers, lakes, and oceans. Subsequently, we are slowly but surely harming our planet to the point where organisms are dying at a very alarming rate. In addition to innocent organisms dying off, our drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water for recreational purposes. In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems and become part of the solution.
POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCES
According to the American College Dictionary, pollution is defined as: ?to make foul or unclean; dirty.? Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. When it is unfit for its intended use, water is considered polluted. Two types of water pollutants exist; point source and nonpoint source. Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water. The Exxon Valdez oil spill best illustrates a point source water pollution. A nonpoint source delivers pollutants indirectly through environmental changes. An example of this type of water pollution is when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by rain, in the form of run-off which in turn effects aquatic life. The technology exists for point sources of pollution to be monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. Nonpoint sources are much more difficult to control. Pollution arising from nonpoint
sources accounts for a majority of the contaminants in streams and lakes.
CAUSES OF POLLUTION
Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters. This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water. Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, washoff plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it rains. Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other water bodies undergo Eutrophication, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with sediment and organic matter. When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish respirationbecomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and aquatic organisms and their environments become suffocated. Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures. When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million. When this occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which leads to disruptions in the food chain.
Polluted River in the United Kingdom
The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the most crutial environmental problems within the 20th century. Waterborne chemical pollution entering rivers and streams cause tramendous amounts of destruction.
Pathogens are another type of pollution that prove very harmful. They can cause many illnesses that range from typhoid and dysentery to minor respiratory and skin diseases. Pathogens include
such organisms as bacteria, viruses, and protozoan. These pollutants enter waterways through untreated sewage, storm drains, septic tanks, runoff from farms, and particularly boats that dump sewage. Though microscopic, these pollutants have a tremendous effect evidenced by their ability to cause sickness.
ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION
Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat. Petroleum often pollutes waterbodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil spills. The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution. These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution. One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported. This is equal to about 0.0001 percent. Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials. Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining. The last form of water pollution is heat. Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs.
Demonstrators Protest Drilling
Oil pollution is a growing problem, particularly devestating to coastal wildlife. Small quantities of oil spread rapidly across long distances to form deadly oil slicks. In this picture, demonstrators with "oil-covered" plastic animals protest a potential drilling project in Key Largo, Florida. Whether or not accidental spills occur during the project, its impact on the delicate marine ecosystem of the coral reefs could be devastating.
Oil Spill Clean-up
Workers use special nets to clean up a California beach after an oil tanker spill. Tanker spills are an increasing environmental problem because once oil has spilled, it is virtually impossible to completely remove or contain it. Even small amounts spread rapidly across large areas of water. Because oil and water do not mix, the oil floats on the water and then washes up on broad expanses of shoreline. Attempts to chemically treat or sink the oil may further disrupt marine and beach ecosystems.
CLASSIFYING WATER POLLUTION
The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and commercial establishments. For many years, the main goal of treating municipal wastewater was simply to reduce its content of suspended solids, oxygen-demanding materials, dissolved inorganic compounds, and harmful bacteria. In recent years, however, more stress has been placed on improving means of disposal of the solid residues from the municipal treatment processes. The basic methods of treating municipal wastewater fall into three stages: primary treatment, including grit removal, screening, grinding, and sedimentation; secondary treatment, which entails oxidation of dissolved organic matter by means of using biologically active sludge, which is then filtered off; and tertiary treatment, in which advanced biological methods of nitrogen removal and chemical and physical methods such as granular filtration and activated carbon absorption are employed. The handling and disposal of solid residues can account for 25 to 50 percent of the capital and operational costs of a treatment plant. The characteristics of industrial waste waters can differ considerably both within and among industries. The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their
collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances. Three options are available in controlling industrial wastewater. Control can take place at the point of generation in the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to municipal treatment sources; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters.
Raw sewage includes waste from sinks, toilets, and industrial processes. Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or released back into local water systems. In a treatment plant, the waste is passed through a series of screens, chambers, and chemical processes to reduce its bulk and toxicity. The three general phases of treatment are primary, secondary, and tertiary. During primary treatment, a large percentage of the suspended solids and inorganic material is removed from the sewage. The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic material by accelerating natural biological processes. Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be reused; 99 percent of solids are removed and various chemical processes are used to ensure the water is as free from impurity as possible.
Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater. These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers. Animal wastes are high in oxygen demanding material, nitrogen and phosphorus, and they often harbor pathogenic organisms. Wastes from commercial feeders are contained and disposed of on land; their main threat to natural waters, therefore, is from runoff and leaching. Control may involve settling basins for liquids,
limited biological treatment in aerobic or anaerobic lagoons, and a variety of other methods.
Ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is ground water. Ground water is found in natural rock formations. These formations, called aquifers, are a vital natural resource with many uses. Nationally, 53% of the population relies on ground water as a source of drinking water. In rural areas this figure is even higher. Eighty one percent of community water is dependent on ground water. Although the 1992 Section 305(b) State Water Quality Reports indicate that, overall, the Nation?s ground water quality is good to excellent, many local areas have experienced significant ground water contamination. Some examples are leaking underground storage tanks and municipal landfills.
Several forms of legislation have been passed in recent decades to try to control water pollution. In 1970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build wastewater facilities. This has helped control surface water pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States. When congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, states were given primary authority to set their own standards for their water. In addition to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial uses and their criteria must comply with the ?fishable and swimmable? goals of the act. This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to support aquatic life and recreational use. Because it is impossible to test water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to identify indicator bacteria. One for a example is a bacteria known as fecal coliforms.(Figure 1 shows the quality of water for each every state in the United States, click on the US link). These indicator bacteria suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that other, more dangerous, organisms are present. These legislations are an important part in the fight against water pollution. They are useful in preventing Envioronmental catastrophes. The graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994. If stronger legislations existed, perhaps these events would never have occurred.
GLOBAL WATER POLLUTION
Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases. With over 70 percent of the planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if these very bodies of water could serve as a limitless dumping ground for wastes. Raw sewage, garbage, and oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted. Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer.
Perhaps the biggest reason for developing a worldwide effort to monitor and restrict global pollution is the fact that most forms of pollution do not respect national boundaries. The first major international conference on environmental issues was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1972 and was sponsored by the United Nations (UN). This meeting, at which the United States took a leading role, was controversial because many developing countries were fearful that a focus on environmental protection was a means for the developed world to keep the undeveloped world in an economically subservient position. The most important outcome of the conference was the creation of the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). UNEP was designed to be ?the environmental conscience of the United Nations,? and, in an attempt to allay fears of the developing world, it became the first UN agency to be headquartered in a developing country, with offices in Nairobi, Kenya. In addition to attempting to achieve scientific consensus about major environmental issues, a major focus
for UNEP has been the study of ways to encourage sustainable development increasing standards of living without destroying the environment. At the time of UNEP's creation in 1972, only 11 countries had environmental agencies. Ten years later that number had grown to 106, of which 70 were in developing countries.
Water quality is closely linked to water use and to the state of economic development. In industrialized countries, bacterial contamination of surface water caused serious health problems in major cities throughout the mid 1800?s. By the turn of the century, cities in Europe and North America began building sewer networks to route domestic wastes downstream of water intakes. Development of these sewage networks and waste treatment facilities in urban areas has expanded tremendously in the past two decades. However, the rapid growth of the urban population (especially in Latin America and Asia) has outpaced the ability of governments to expand
sewage and water infrastructure. While waterborne diseases have been eliminated in the developed world, outbreaks of cholera and other similar diseases still occur with alarming frequency in the developing countries. Since World War II and the birth of the ?chemical age?, water quality has been heavily impacted worldwide by industrial and agricultural chemicals. Eutrophication of surface waters from human and agricultural wastes and nitrification of groundwater from agricultural practices has greatly affected large parts of the world. Acidification of surface waters by air pollution is a recent phenomenon and threatens aquatic life in many area of the world. In developed countries, these general types of pollution have occurred sequentially with the result that most developed countries have successfully dealt with major surface water pollution. In contrast, however, newly industrialized countries such as China, India, Thailand, Brazil, and Mexico are now facing all these issues simultaneously.
Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent. Congress has passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a seriousissue. But the government alone cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our water. We must become familiar with our local water resources and learn about ways for disposing harmful household wastes so they don?t end up in sewage treatment plants that can?t handle them or landfills not designed to receive hazardous materials. In our yards, we must determine whether additional nutrients are needed before fertilizers are applied, and look for alternatives where fertilizers might run off into surface waters. We have to preserve existing trees and plant new trees and shrubs to help prevent soil erosion and promote infiltration of water into the soil. Around our houses, we must keep litter, pet waste, leaves, and grass clippings out of gutters and storm drains. These are just a few of the many ways in which we, as humans, have the ability to combat water pollution. As we head into the 21st century, awareness and education will most assuredly continue to be the two most important ways to prevent water pollution. If these measures are not taken and water pollution continues, life on earth will suffer severely. Global environmental collapse is not inevitable. But the developed world must work with the developing world to ensure that new industrialized economies do not add to the world's environmental problems. Politicians must think of sustainable development rather than economic expansion. Conservation strategies have to become more widely accepted, and people must learn that energy use can be dramatically diminished without sacrificing comfort. In short, with the technology that currently exists, the years of global environmental mistreatment can begin to be reversed.
0601–040. Aftab Begum SY, Noorjahan CM, Dawood Sharif S (PG Res Dept Zoo, Justice Basheer Ahmad Sayeed Coll Women, Chennai 600018). Physico-chemical and fungal analysis of a fertilizer factory effluent. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 529-531 [12 Ref]. Physico-chemical parameters and analysis of untreated fertilizer effluent were studied and the results revealed that the parameters like EC, TDS, TSS, BOD, COD and ammonia are high compared to permissible limits of CPCB (1995), and fungal analysis
showed the presence of 15 species isolated on Malt Extract Agar (MEA) medium thereby indicating the pollutional load of the effluent. 0601–041. Anand Chetna, Akolkar Pratima, Chakrabarti Rina (B- U&V 25A, Shalimar Bagh, Delhi-110088). Bacteriological water quality status of river Yamuna in Delhi. J Environ Bio, 27(1) (2006), 97-101 [8 Ref]. Study reveals the impact of diverse anthropogenic activities as well as the monsoon effect on the bacterial population of river Yamuna in Delhi stretch. Microbial population contributed mainly through human activities prevailed in the entire stretch of Yamuna river with reduction in bacterial counts during monsoon period due to flushing effect. Bacteriological assessment does not provide an integrated effect of pollution but only indicate that water quality at the time of sampling. Hence, this parameter is time and space specific. 0601–042. Arthur James R, Emmanuel KV, Scaria Rose, Thanasekaran K (Dept Marine Sci, Bhartiadasan Univ, Tiruchi 620018). Evaluation of domestic wastewater treatment using various natural filter media. Asian J Water Env Polln, 3(1) (2000), 103-110 [24 Ref]. The performance of combined anaerobic and aerobic treatment system with different medias and their efficiencies were examined for domestic wastewater. In anaerobic filter, gravel media show higher efficiency than slag media and PO4 removal is proven to fail in the slag media. Gravel (2-4 mm) and pebble (8-10 mm) gives better performance than sand media (0.5 mm) in aerobic filter. Combination of these threesystem gives excellent alternative (89 to 94.5% efficiency) to conventional treatment system, which proves and reduced the operational cost. 14 0601–043. Athikesavan S, Vincent S, Velmurugan B, Vasuki R (Unit Environ Hlth Biotechno, PG Res Dept Zoo, Loyola Coll, Chennai 600034). Accumulation of nickel in
the different tissues of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Env Eco, 24(5) (1) (2006), 143-146 [25 Ref]. Nickel chloride widely used in industries was investigated in the present study. Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The bioaccumulation of nickel was studied in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney of the fish. Fish were exposed to 10, 20 and 30 days in sublethal concentration of nickel (5.7 mg / liter). This heavy metal is predominantly accumulated in liver followed by kidney, intestine and gill. 0601–044. Barik RN, Pradhan B, Patel RK (Dept Chem, Natl Inst Techno, Rourkela 769008). Trace elements in ground water of Paradip area. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 355-362 [13 Ref]. The degree of trace element pollution and the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose was assessed. The concentration of Pb was found to be present above maximum permissible limit. More than permissible limit of Fe was found around the industrial area. The concentrations of Zn, Cu and Mn are well below the maximum permissible limit as recommended by ISI (1983) for drinking purpose. 0601–045. Bhat Subhas Chandra, Goswami Saswati, Ghosh Uday Chand* (* Govt Teachers Trng Coll, Malda, West Bengal). Removal of trace chromium (VI) from contaminated water: biosorption by Ipomea aquatica. J Environ Sci Engng, 47(4) (2005), 316-321 [25 Ref]. Ipomea aquatica a wetland plant, has ability to remove Cr(VI) from the contaminated water by transforming Cr (VI) to Cr(III). This adsorption of Cr(VI) basically takes places in roots of this plant. The lower level of contamination requires greater contact time than the higher one to bring down Cr(VI) below the permissible level. The study revealed that the plant Ipomea aquatica adsorbs Cr(VI) from the contaminated water very slowly compared to the other reported plants.
0601–046. Chavan RP, Lokhande RS, Rajput SI (Dept Chem, Dnyanasadan Coll, Thane, Maharashtra). Monitoring of organic pollutants in Thane creek water. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 633-636 [4 Ref]. Investigation was carried out to study the different organic pollutants present in the Thane creek water. The creek water shows high values of BOD and COD along with 15 phenolic compounds, detergents, alcohols, ether and acetone, which are harmful to aquatic life. The origin of this pollutants is mainly from the entry of effluents from surrounding industries. 0601–047. Das Rajib, Samal Nihar Ranjan, Roy Pankaj Kumar, Mitra Debojyoti* (*Dept Mechanical Engng, Jadavpur Univ, Kolkata 700032). Role of electrical conductivity as an indicator of pollution in shallow lakes. Asian J Water Env Polln, 3(1) (2006), 143146 [4 Ref]. Experiments carried out at Subhas Sarovar (lake) and Rabindra Sarovar (lake), Kolkata, indicates that EC has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), which is validated by the findings at various other lakes throughout the world. It is also observed that EC increases with increase in TDS, which in turn indicates increased concentration of sulphates and other ions. 0601–048. D’Cruz FG, Miranda MTP (PG Res Dept Zoo, Fatima Mata Natl Coll Kollam 691001). Effect of KMML (Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited) titanium dioxide industrial effluents on the plankton biomass of Vattakayal - an estuarine system in Kerala. Uttar Pradesh J Zoo, 25(2) (2005), 151-156 [21 Ref]. There was drastic reduction of plankton biomass at station I which directly receives the effluents. Station II which was near to Station I also recorded decreased values. Station III closer to the river discharge site and Station IV closer to the estuarine mouth to the sea, exhibited almost normal values. The interrelationship of plankton biomass with year,
station and season are discussed. 0601–049. Dey Kallol, Mohapatra SC, Misra Bidyabati (Dept Chem, Govt (Auto) Coll, Rourkela 769004). Assessment of water quality parameters of the river Brahmani at Rourkela. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 265-270 [5 Ref]. Various physio-chemical parameters were assessed on the samples drawn from the river, “Koel”, “Shankha” and “Brahmani” selecting strategic points. It was observed that dilution during rainy season decreases the metal concentration level to a considerable extent. However the enrichment of these metals by bio-magnification and bioaccumulation in edible components produced in water is accepted to produce a remarkable effect on the water of the river “Brahamani” which is of deep public concern. 16 0601–050. Doke Jayant, Kudlu Priyadarshini, Vijapurkar Suman, Adhyapak Upendra, Kalyan Raman V (Dept Environ Sci, Univ Pune, Pune 411007). Application of root zone process for remediation of 2-chlorophenol. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(3) (2005), 327-331 [11 Ref]. The root-zone technology is effective for removal of 2-chlorophenol from wastewater. It is simple, robust process able to withstand wide variation of operating conditions. The plant like Phragmites australis was used in root-zone technology, which gives an average of 0.5g O2/m2/day (max 3g/m2/day). It removes 2-chlorophenol up to 65%, 60%, 57% and 42% from 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ppm concentrations respectively. 0601–051. Dutta RK, Saikia G, Das B, Bezbaruah, Das HB, Dube SN (Dept Cheml Sci, Tezpur, Univ, Tezpur 784028). Fluoride contamination in groundwater of Central Assam, India. Asian J Water Env Polln, 3(2) (2006), 93-100 [24 Ref]. High fluoride contamination has been observed in the groundwater of areas having ancient alluvial red soil and Precambrian metamorphic rock complex basement in the Kapili-Jamuna sub-basin. Moderate fluoride has been found in ground water of some
places in Morigaon and Golaghat district also. Besides fluoride, presence of high concentrations of SO42-, much above the guideline values, have also bee recorded in some samples. 0601–052. Gnana Rani DF, Arunkumar K, Sivakumar SR (Govt Arts Coll, Ariyalur 621713). Physio-chemical analysis of waste water from cement units. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 337-340 [9 Ref]. Two major cement industries of the Ariyalur and Reddipalayam were selected and the waste water discharged from these units were collected and subjected to analysis. The values of different parameters were compared with the standard values given by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board. The reasons for variations are analysed and remedial measures suggested. 0601–053. Guru Prasad B (Environ Engng Lab, Civil Engng Dept, KL Coll Engng, Vaddeswaram 522502). Assessment of water quality in canals of Krishna Delta area of Andhra Pradesh, Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 521-523 [2 Ref]. Water samples from different locations are collected regularly to check the suitability of water for human use. The parameters like temperature, suspended solids, total solids, 17 electrical conductivity, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorides are analyzed. For the experimental data mean, standard deviation, variance, and standard error are calculated and the results are discussed. This investigation revealed that the canal serves the purpose of human use. 0601–054. Harish Babu K, Puttaiah ET, Kumara Vijaya, Thirumala S (Dept Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Shankaraghatla 577451). Status of drinking water quality in Tarikere taluk with special reference to fluoride concentration. Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(1) (2006), 71-78 [29 Ref]. Thirty water samples were collected from public hand pumps of Tarikere taluk, which are
used for drinking purpose only. The fluoride concentration ranges from 0.45 mg/L to 1.98 mg/L. The results of the study indicate that ground water quality in the study area is much suitable with respect to fluoride as more than 65% of the sample have fluoride above the permissible limit. 0601–055. Indra V, Meiyalagan V (Dept Zoo, Thiruvalluvar Univ, Fort Campus, Vellore). Diversity and distribution of microfungi in polluted and non polluted water bodies from an industrial areas of river Palar, Vellore-India. Asian J Microbio Biotechno Environ Sci, 7(4) (2005), 723-725 [14 Ref]. Attempt is made to enumerate the diversity and distribution of micro fungi in water polluted and non polluted aquatic ecosystems in an industrial area of river Palar. The results show that the fungal diversity was higher with 22 species in polluted waters compared to 12 species from non-polluted sources. The ecological significance of these observations is discussed. 0601–056. Jadeja BA, Odedra NK, Thaker MR (Dept Bot, MD Sci Coll, Porbandar 360575). Studies on ground water quality of industrial area of Dharampur, Porbandar city, Saurashtra, Gujrat, India. Plant Archives, 6(1) (2006), 341-344 [5 Ref]. The ground water quality was assessed by examining various physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics. TDS was above the desirable limit prescribed by BIS : 14543, 2004. All the samples collected from Dharampur industrial area Porbandar city were rated as unacceptable for their taste on the basis of total hardness. Results show that the ground water of Dharampur Industrial area, Porbandar city is suitable for drinking purpose, subject to proper disinfection to ensure health of population. 18 0601–057. Jena PK, Mohanty M (Inst Adv Techno Environ Stud, Bhubaneshwar, Orrisa). Processing of liquid effluents of mineral processing industries. Intl Symposium
Environ Manag Mining Metallurgical Industries, 11-14 Dec, 2005, Bhubaneshwar, 193212 [20 Ref]. In mineral based industry among various environmental issues the water pollution has posed most disastrous effect and complex challenges for undertaking necessary remedial measures. The sources of water pollution in different mineral based industries including mining, mineral processing, integrated iron and steel plant and nonferrous metal industries are described. Various liquid effluent treatments techniques both physiochemical and biological have been described and discussed. The process in each case being used commercially, have been outlined. 0601–058. Kamath Devidas, Kumara Vijaya, Tirumala BR, Puttaiah ET (Dept Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Shankeraghatta 577451, Dist Shimoga). Phytoplankton for biomonitoring of organic pollution in two tanks of Shimoga district, Karnataka. J Aquatic Bio, 21(1) (2006),. 7-9 [13 Ref]. Two tanks situated in Shimoga district were selected for their phytoplankton diversity and the possibility of using it as bio monitors of organic pollution. These algae occurred as regular blooms in all the seasons. Hosalli tank supports a wide diversity of phytoplankton and less polluted. The use of algae for bio monitoring of organic pollution indicates that Purle tank, which regularly receives sewage is heavily polluted and Hosalli tank is mesotrophic in nature of mild anthropogenic activities. 0601–059. Kavitha Kirubavathy A, Binukumari S, Mariamma Ninan, Rajammal Thirumalnesan (Dept Zoo, Chikanna Govt Arts Coll, Tirupur 641602). Assessment of water quality of Orathupalayam reservoir, Erode district, Tamil Nadu. J Ecophysio Occupl Hlth, 5(1&2) (2005), 53-54 [5 Ref]. The water quality of Orathupalayam reservoir has been studied to ascertain the level of municipal waste contamination in it and further it’s suitability for the irrigation. The
physio-chemical end points studies have shown a heavy contamination of several undesired compounds and make it unsuitable for irrigation purpose. 0601–060. Kelkar PS, Nanoti MV (Natl Environ Engng Res Inst, Nagpur 440020) Impact assessment of Ganga Action Plan on river quality at Varanasi, J Indian Water Work Assoc, 37(3) (2005), 225-234. Extensive water quality assessment was undertaken in pre- and postimplementation period at 14.5 km stretch of the river at Varanasi. Water quality was assessed near the 19 bathing ghats and in the midstream. Water quality indicator showed substantial improvement in the river. The organic loading was reduced as represented by BOD and COD values. 0601–061. Kiran BR, Shastri Shekhar TR, Puttaiah ET, Shivaraj Y (Dept Std Res Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Shankaraghatta 577451). Trace metal levels in the organs of finfish Oreochromis mossambicus (Peter) and relevant water of Jannapura Lake, India. J Environ Sci Engng, 48(1) (2006), 15-20 [31 Ref]. Trace metal levels in the body organs of finfish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peter) and relevant water was studied in Jannapura lake, located five kilometers from Bhadravathi town, Karnataka, India. Lead, copper and cadmium accumulation was higher in muscles than in gills while, zinc, nickel and cobalt accumulation was maximum in gills followed by muscles. The metals presents in the highest concentration were in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd>Ni>Co in the water samples. 0601–062. Kulshrestha H, Sharma S* (*Dept Microbio, Division of Life Sci, SBS (PG) Inst Biomedical Sci Res, Balawala, Dehradun 248161). Impact of mass bathing during Ardh Kumbh on water quality status of river Ganga. J Environ Bio, 27 (2 supplement) (2006), 437-440 [20 Ref]. Study highlighted that mass bathing during Ardhkumbh caused the changes in the river
water quality and indicated that water is not fit for either drinking or bathing purposes. The presence of faecal coliforms in water also hints at the potential presence of pathogenic microorganisms, which might cause water born diseases. Although the water was found to be safe with respect to dissolved oxygen content, the values of BOD and COD exceeded the maximum permissible limit during bathing. 0601–063. Lingeswara Rao SV, Sambasiva Rao T, Sreenivasulu S (Dept Zoo, Sri Venkateshwara Univ, Tirupati 517502). Analysis of groundwater of Nellore coast by correlation technique. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 545549 [12 Ref]. Groundwater samples, covering all geological formations, were collected from 100 drinking water sources all along the Nellore coast and analysed for major physical and chemical parameters. Correlation coefficients among different chemical constituents were determined. The analysis of correlation coefficients indicates that the quality of ground water in the study area is saline and consist of high sodium chloride, magnesium bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. 20 0601–064. Mala R, Sarvana Babu S (PG Dept Biochem, VV Vanniaperumal Coll Women, Virudhnagar 626001). Production and partial purification of peroxidase from water hyacinth plants induced by textile dyeing effluent. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 321-326 [21 Ref]. Initially, the water hyacinth plants were gradually acclimatized to textile dyeing effluent from 5% to 50%. The production of enzyme was greatly induced by the strength of the effluent. The results indicated that, acclimatized water hyacinth roots could be a simple and easily available source for cost effective industrial production of peroxidase. 0601-065. Manjappa S, Puttaioh ET (Dept Chem, Univ BDT Coll Engng, Davangere 577004). Evaluation of trace metals in the sediments of river Bhadra near
Bhadravathi town, Karnataka, India. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 271-276 [15 ref.] Attempt has been made to evaluate trace metals in the Bhadra river bed sediments from four identified stations. The results of the analysis showed that trace metals in the river bed sediments are well within the Shale standards. Trace metals in the order of their relative dominal were in the sequence Fe> Al>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cr>Cu>Ni>Cd>Hg. 0601-066. Meenakshi, Maheswari RC (Cent Rural Dev Techno, Indian Inst Techno, Delhi). Arsenic removal from water: a review. Asian J Water Env Polln, 3(1) (2006), 133-139 [49 Ref]. Article overviews the possible arsenic removal options for safe drinking water supply in the arsenic affected areas. All these options were tested in the laboratory and effect of various parameters was studied. Adsorption of arsenic on iron salts such as Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) and silica ferric complex adsorbent (Sfca) was found to be most effective option for arsenic removal. 0601-067. Misra PC, Behera PC, Patel RK (PG Dept Chem, Natl Inst Techno, Rourkela 08). Contamination of water due to major industries and open refuse dumping in the steel city of Orissa – a case study. J Environ Sci Techno, 47(2) (2005) 141-154 [18 ref]. Attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on the ground and surface water due to Integrated Rourkela Steel Plant and other major industries. From the analytical data of physico-chemical parameters, it is indicated that the river water is contaminated mainly due to the industrial and municipal effluents and the ground water 21 of some of the analyzed areas is contaminated due to municipal and industrial solid waste dumping. 0601-068. Mitra Abhijit, Das Anumita, Chakarborty Rajiv, Banerjee Kakoli, Banerjee
Subash, Bhattacharya DP (Dept Marine Sci, Univ Calcutta, 35, BC Rd, Kolkata 700019). Enteromorpha intestinalis – an indicator of heavy metal pollution in coastal environment. Ultra Sci, 17(2) (2005), 177-184 [14 Ref]. Seqasonal concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in three important estuarine macroalgae inhabiting three different station of the Sagar land. Metals in the algal tissue accumulated in the order Zn>Cu>Pb. Highest concentrations of these heavy metals were found in the surface water in the month of monsoon, the period characterized by lowest salinity and pH of the ambient aquatic phase. A unique compartmentation was observed between sediment and surface water with respect to selected heavy metals. 0601-069. Mohan S, Ramesh ST (Dept Civil Engng, Environ Water Resources Engng Div, Indian Inst Techno Madras, Chennai 600036). Treatability studies and evaluation of biokinetic parameters for Chennai Municipal wastewater using activated sludge process. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 627-632 [6 Ref]. Batch study for activated sludge process was carried out with the wastewater collected from municipal sewage pumping station, Velachery, Chennai. Experiments were conducted with ‘bio-logical solids retention time’ (BSRT) of 2 days, 2.5 days, 5 days and 10 days using nutrient broth and dextrose spiked water as feed. It was observed that COD of effluents and SVI were decreased as BSRT increased, and the MLSS increased as BSRT increased. The influence of BSRT on activated sludge operation and performance has also been discussed. 0601-070. Namasivayam C, Suresh Kumar MV (Environ Chem Dev, Dept Environ Sci, Bharathiar Univ, Coimbatore 641046). Surfactant modified coir pith, an agricultural solid waste as adsorbent for phosphate removal and fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release. J Env Sci Engng, 47(4) (2005), 256-265 [31 Ref]. The surface of coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was modified using a cationic
surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and the modified coir pith was investigated to assess the capacity for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. Optimum pH for maximum phosphate adsorption was found to be 4.0. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. 22 0601-071. Nikhil Kumar (Environ Manag Gr, Centl Mining Res Inst, Barwa Rd, Dhanbad 826001). Biotreatment of polluted water-vis-a-vissocio- Economic development in coal mining area. J Indl Polln Contl, 2(2) (2005), 195-199 [5 Ref]. Irrespective of the mining methods employed, mining is bound to cause various environmental problems and one of them is water pollution. Besides this, sewage and industrial effluents water are also present in coal mining areas. Mechanical, chemical and other treatment methods for the sewage, mine and industrial effluents waters are found costlier. A bio-treatment option to recycle this polluted water for some useful purposes is discussed. 0601-072. Panda Unmesh Chandra, Rath Prasanta, Sahu Kali Charan, Majumdar Sabyasachi, Sundaray Sanjay K (Wetland Res Cent, Chilika Dev Authority, Bhubaneswar 751001). Environmental quantification of heavy metals in the Subrarnarekha, estuary and near-shore environment, east coast of India. Asian J Water Env Polln, 3(2) (2006), 85-92 [30 Ref]. Concentration of heavy metals in the sediments was measured from the river, estuarine and coastal environment off Subrarnarekha River, Bay of Bengal. The degree of contamination of the sediments was evaluated through enrichment factor (ER), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI). The high ER’s and Igeo values for Cu and Cr were due to the chromite and copper mines, and Cu ore processing plants
situated on the upstream catchments of the river. 0601-073. Parikh Punita, Rao KS (Dept Biosci, Sardar Patel Univ, Vallabh Vidyanagar – 388120). The response of Chara and Oscillatoria to remove Ni (II) ions from industrial waste water. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 293-297 [10 Ref]. A blue green algae Oscillatoria sp. and green algae Chara sp. have been used to remove Ni (II) ions from effluent having high concentration of Ni and the effect of this metal on dry matter content of the algae. Oscillatoria, being blue green algae can efficiently remove/uptake Ni (II) ions than Chara from the industrial waste water. The metal concentration in the effluent and the dry matter content of both the algae are negatively correlated. 0601-074. Patel DK, Kanungo VK (Dept Bot, Govt Coll Sci, Raipur 492010). Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters by using a free floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes L. Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(1) (2006). 101-106[8 Ref]. 23 A culture of aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes was grown in the domestic wastewater for a stipulated interval of seven days for phytoremediation. The results of analysis for pH and dissolved oxygen have shown an increase in values while other parameters exhibited significant decrease throughout the year. The increase in biomass of Pistia stratiotes and finding of physico-chemical analysis have proved that Pistia stratiotes is a suitable aquatic plant for Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater. 0601-075. Patil Dilip B, Kshirsagar A, Ganorkar Ajay P (Dept Chem, Inst Sci, Nagpur 440001). Estimation of surfactants at ppm level from synthetically polluted water. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 259-264 [10 Ref]. The level of surfactant in synthetically polluted water followed the order arial>Surf excel>Rin Shakti> Nirma. Study revealed that minimum amount of surfactant that could
be estimated in synthetically polluted water of commercially available detergent like Arial, Surf excel, Rin Shakti and Nirma were 39.0, 50.6, 58.1 and 72.2 ppm respectively. 0601-076. Pawar Anusha C, Nair Jithender Kumar, Jadhav Naresh, Vasundhara Devi V, Pawar Smita C (Dept Zoo, Univ Coll Women, Osmania Univ, Koti, Hyderabad 500195). Physico-chemical study of ground work samples from Nacharam Industrial area, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Aquatic Bio, 21(1) (2006), 118-120 [11 Ref]. The bore well and dug well water samples from a highly polluted industrial area – Nacharam were collected and analysed for physico-chemical parameters by adopting the standard methods for examination for water and waste water. The analyzed samples obtained a high values, compared with drinking water standards. 0601-077. Poonkothai M, Parvatham R (Dept Biochem Biotechno, Avinashilingam Deemed Univ, Coimbatore 641043). Bio-physico and chemical assessment of automobile wastewater. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2)(2005), 377-380 [11 Ref]. Physico-chemical and microbiological studies of automobile wastewater in Nammakkal, Tamil Nadu, India indicated that the values for physico-chemical parameters were on the higher side of permissible limits of BIS. Microbiological studies revealed the presence of bacteria at high concentration and these organisms serves as indicators for pollutants. 0601-078. Prabhakara Rao K, Radha Krishnaiah K (Dept Zoo, Sri Krishnadevaraya Univ, Anantapur 515003). Pesticidal impact on protein metabolism of the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio (Lin.). Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3) (2006), 367374 [35 Ref]. 24 The total protein content increased in the gills and decreased in the muscle of the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio at days 1 and 2 on exposure to lethal concentration and at days 1 and 10 on exposure to the sublethal concentrations of furadan, endosulfan,
chlorpyrifos and mixture of these three in a 100:10:1 ratio. The results indicate that the changes in protein levels of the fish are organ-dependant, and also dependant on the concentration of pesticides. 0601-079. Raje GB, Muley DV, Mankar DD (Dept Zoo, Shivaji Univ, Kolhapur 416004). Analysis of heavy metals in ground water from Lote industrial area in Ratnagir, district (Maharastra). J Indls Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 381-386 [11 Ref]. Heavy metals in natural spring water and dugwell water from Lote Industrial Area and nearby villages have been monthly analysed. The results on trace metals indicated varying degrees of contamination in ground water which may cause a serious health problems to domestic animals and human beings. 0601-080. Ramanaiah S, Sambasivarao T, Niranjan Kumar K ( Dept Geo, SV Univ, Tirupati 517502). A rapid method to assess source of groundwater pollution through statistical approach. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(3) (2005), 409-412 [2 Ref]. A method has been suggested to assess the source of groundwater pollution through the study of coefficient of variation of the parameteric ratios among the influencing parameters of groundwater samples. The usefulness of this approach has been demonstrated by applying this technique to about 25 samples collected in the vicinity of Kadapa town in Andhra Pradesh. 0601-081. Rokade PB, Ganeshwade RM (Dept Zoo, RB Attal Coll, Georai 431127). Impact of pollution on water quality of Salim Ali Lake at Aurangabad. Uttar Pradesh J Zoo, 25(2) (2005), 219-220 [12 Ref]. Results showed high fluctuations in the physico-chemical parameters indicating the intensity of pollution. The pH ranged from minimum of 6.6 to maximum of 8.4, chlorides from 132.5 to 820.4mg/l, hardness ranged from 74 to 281 mg/l, CO2 from 2.1 to 5.09, BOD from 4.437 to 112.432 mg/l, sulphates 0.192 to 5.12 mg/l, nitrates 0.5 to 1.012.
0601-082. Sahu Anita, Vaishnav MM* (*Dept Chem, GBVPG Coll, Hardibazar, Korba (C.G.). Study of fluoride in groundwater around the BALCO Korba area (India). J Environ Sci Engng , 48(1) (2006), 65-68 [13 Ref]. 25 Study was undertaken for the determination of fluoride ions in drinking water at the BALCO, Kobra region by the ion selective electrode method. The fluoride concentration values varied from 1.07 ppm to 3.10 ppm. It was found that fluoride was present within the permissible limit (1.5 ppm) in most of the villages studied but the fluoride level was unacceptable in drinking water samples taken from some villages of BALCO, Kobra area. 0601-083. Samanta S, Mitra K, Chandra K, Saha K, Bandopadhyay S, Ghosh A (Centl Inland Fisheries Res Inst, Barrackpore, Kolkata 700120) Heavy metals in water of the rivers Hooghly and Haldi at Haldia and their impact on fish. J Environ Bio, 26(3) (2005), 517-523 [17 Ref]. Paper deals with the measurement of five heavy metals viz., Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in water of the rivers Hooghly and Haldi at Haldia. Most of the metals exhibited their least concentration at the sampling site above the Haldia industrial area of river Hoogly. Comparison of the data with the Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) of USA revealed that Cd, Cu and Pb were the pollutants present at alarming level to disturb the aquatic life process in the zone. The other two metals viz., Mn and Zn were probably less harmful to the aquatic ecosystem. 0601-084. Sawane AP, Puranik PG, Bhate AM (Dept Zoo, Anand Niketan Coll, Warora 442907, Dist Chandrapur). Impact of industrial pollution on river Irai, district Chandrapur, with reference to fluctuation in CO2 and pH. J Aquatic Bio, 21(1) (2006), 105-110 [10 Ref]. The minimum pH value of 6.3 mg/l was found during winter season and maximum of
8.93 mg/l in summer. The pH shows general decline from upstream to downstream. CO2 was found to maximum in summer reaching up to 55.44 mg/l and reduced to a minimum of 2.28 mg/l during rainy season. From the data collected it can be concluded that the inverse relationship, which is known to exist between pH and CO2 , is not existing in the present investigation. 0601-085. Saxena Pratibha, Sharma Subhashini, Sharma Shweta, Suryavathi V, Grover Ruby, Soni Pratima, Kumar Suresh, Sharma KP (Dept Zoo, Univ Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004). Effect of acute and chromic toxicity of four commercial detergents on the freshwater fish Gambusia affinis Bairds Gerard. J Environ Sci Engng, 47(2) (2005), 119-124 [25 Ref]. 26 The toxic effect of four commercial detergents (two washing powders and two cakes) on behavior, mortality and RBC counts of a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis are reported. During acute toxicity studies (96h), surface movements of fish increased markedly for 24h, only at higher concentrations(>10ppm) of all the four detergents. During acute toxicity studies, cakes (LC50 = 6.69-19.98ppm) were found more toxic than powders (LC50 = 18.34-20.72 ppm). 0601-086. Shailaja K, Johnson Mary Esther C (Limno Lab, Dept Bot, Osmania Univ Coll Women, Koti, Hyderabad 500195). Heavy metals in the ground waters of same areas of Hyderabad. Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3) (2006), 447-449 [12 Ref]. The ground water quality of Hyderabad has been examined with reference to heavy metals contamination. Twentyfour samples were collected during pre and post monsoon seasons and analysed for various heavy metals. The heavy metals in ground waters were mostly below the prescribed maximum permissible limits in all the samples. The concentration of zinc, lead and chromium were found well within the permissible limits
in all the samples of Hyderabad district. 0601-087. Sharma Madhvi, Ranga MM, Goswami NK (Dept Zoo, Govt Coll, Ajmer Rajasthan). Study of groundwater quality of the marble industrial area of Kishangarh (Ajmer), Rajshthan. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(3) (2005), 419-420 [5 Ref]. Ground water quality of industrial area of Kishangarh was studied for various physicochemical parameters seasonally without and after addition of marble slurry in different proportions. From the study it is clear that these parameters increase with the addition of marble slurry leading to deterioration of the overall quality of the groundwater. 0601-088. Shivram Hari Singh, Kumar Dinesh, Singh RV (Dept Chem, Univ Rajasthan, Jaipur 300204). Improvement of water quality through biological denitrification. J Environ Sci Engng, 48(1) (2006), 57-60 [10 Ref]. Results show that the value of pH and alkalinity was increased due to generation of alkalinity during biological denitrificaion process. The obtained value of the DO in the treated water was found lower than the supplied water, and the COD of the treated water was nil. The biological reduction of nitrate-nitrogen (from 50.79 mg/L to 0.57 mg/L) was found to be lower than the tolerance limit prescribed by WHO without changing the water quality. 27 0601-089. Singh Rajesh, Yadav Archan (Dept Zoo, Univ Allahabad, Allahabad 211002). Impact of carpet dyeing units wastewater on total chlorophyl contents and biomass of certain aquatic macrophytes. Indian J Environ Sci, 9(2) (2005), 137-139 [9 Ref]. In comparison to controls, total chlorophyll contents (30-50%) and biomass (1-10%) of Typha latifolia, Hydrilla verticillata and Lemna minor decreased when grown in cent percent carpet dyeing industry wastewater for 7,14 and 21 days. Percentage reduction in
both biomass and chlorophyll content was minimum in Hydrilla and maximum in Typha. 0601-090. Singh V, Chandel CPS (Dept Chem, Univ Rajashtan, Jaipur 302004). The potability of groundwater in terms of Water Quality Index (WQ1) of Jaipur city. Cheml Environ Res, 13(3&4) (2004), 307-314 [20 Ref]. Ground water samples from various hand pumps of eight adjacent localities of various industrial areas in Jaipur city were analyzed with the help of standard methods of APHA. The values obtained were compared with standards of ISI, ICMR and WHO. It was observed that the pH, EC, Ca2+, Na+ , K+, Mg2+, SO4 2, CO3 2, HCO3-,Cl-, DO and BOD values are within permissible limits of ISI, ICMR and WHO but NO3
TDS, TH, COD and WQI values show poor water quality in most of the studied groundwater samples taken. 0601-091. Singhal V, Kumar A, Rai JPN (Ecotechno Lab, Dept Environ Sci, GB Pant Univ Agricl Techno, Pantnagar 263145). Bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J Environ Res, 26(3) (2005), 525-529 [16 Ref]. Study reports on the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the same has been compared at two different pH 5.5 and 8.5. At both the pH, colour, COD, lignin content and total phenols of the effluent significantly declined after bioremediation. However, greater decolourisation and reduction in COD, lignin content and total phenols were observed at pH 5.5. 0601-092. Sonaware DS, Shrivastava VS (Cent PG Res Chem, GTP Coll, Nandurbar 425412). Hazardous metals in marine sediments and water. Cheml Environ Res, 13(3&4) (2004), 221-226 [17 Ref]. The marine sediments and water samples were collected from Girgaon Chaupati, Juhu
Chaupati, Mumbai and Dumas, Surat respectively. The concentration of hazardous metals like Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, As, Hg, Fe, Cr, Mn and Co were determined by ICPAES. The concentration of these metals in marine sediments and water samples were found to be higher as compared to respective ISI and WHO standards. 28 0601-093. Sudha PN, Backyavthy D, Manley (Dept Chem, DKM Coll, Vellore 632001). Levels of trace metals in industrially polluted soils of Ranipet industrial town, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3) (2006), 421 – 424 [13 Ref]. Villages located near this industrial area whose main occupation is agriculture are adversely affected due to these industries. Investigation has been conducted at four different sites to estimate the levels of trace metals in the soil. The levels of some metals were found to be exorbitantly high which need immediate attention. 0601-094. Sunil Kumar S, Lokesh SV, Puttaiah ET, Sherigara BS, Harish Babu K (Dept Stud Res Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Jhane, Sahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577451). Analysis of trace metals in river Tung of Karnataka by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV). Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3) (2006), 425-428 [12 Ref]. Water samples from river Tunga were collected and analyzed for the presence of trace metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametric (DPASV) method. The study reveals that all the trace metals are well within the maximum permissible limits, however, check should be kept on the anthropogenic inputs to restore the quality of this valuable natural resource. 0601-095. Sunil Kumar S, Puttaiah ET*, Manjappa S, Prakash Naik S, Kumar Vijay (Dept Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka 577451). Water quality assessment of river Tunga, Karnataka. Env Eco, 24(5) (1) (2006), 23-26 [7 Ref].
Study revealed that DO levels were observed to be 100% of saturation concentration. The concentrations of nitrite, nitrate phosphate, sodium and potassium were considerably low when compared with that of groundwater in the region. However, values of all the parameters are observed within the range of GIS specification. Quality assessment of Tunga river water shows that surface water is suitable for domestic use although check should be kept on anthropogenic and diffuse inputs. 0601-096. Sunita S, Bakre VP, Bakre PP (Environ Bio Lab, Dept Zoo, Rajasthan Univ, Jaipur 302004). Effects of textile industry sludge on key organ, hepato-pancreas of Gambusia Offinis. J Ecophysio Occupl Hlth, 5(3&4) (2005), 223-227 [12 Ref]. The toxic effluent generated at different textile and printing units after treatment, the sludge generated is allowed to dry in drying beds and dumped far from the plant would 29 leach and make their way to local Bandi river through sub-soil movement. The ill effects on fish Gambusia affinis was studied by exposing it to 1/1000, 1/500 and 1/100 leachate concentrations. Hepato-pancreas was studied for histopathological damage. The organ showed pathological disintegration that was dose and time dependent. 0601-097. Tiwari Pushpendra, Saxena Prabha N ( Toxico Lab, Dept Zoo, Sch Life Sci, Dr. BR Ambedkar Univ, Agra). Response of biotransformating organs in Labeo rohita to chromium and nickel in Yamuna water at Agra. J Ecophysio Occpl Hlth, 5(1&2) (2005), 37-40 [28 Ref]. The carp, Labeo rohita was sampled and analyzed for their qualitative and quantitative presence of heavy metals at the biotransformation site, the liver and kidney. The fishes were sacrificed on 1st, 15th and 30th of the month and the heavy metals revealed their presence in the liver and kidney. Chromium was found to be more than nickel. Both the heavy metals revealed their higher concentration in liver than in kidneys. The studies
advocate the use of treated Yamuna water for drinking and domestic purposes. 0601-098. Tiwari RK, Rajak GP, Mondal MR (Env Manag Gr, Centl Mining Res Inst, Barwa Rd, Dhanbad 826001). Water quality assessment of Ganga river in Bihar region, India. J Environ Sci Engng, 47(4) (2005), 326-355 [16 Ref]. The physicochemical analysis of Ganga river shows that the water has high TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD. The coliform bacteria were found to be alarmingly high in the river. Most of the parameters analyzed were found high near the bank in comparison to the water in the middle stream of that station. The study revealed that due to discharge of untreated sewage into the Ganga, the water quality of Ganga has been severely deteriorated and the potable nature of water is being lost. 0601-099. Zargar S, Ghosh TK (Environ Bio techno Div, Natl Environ Engng Res Inst, Nagpur 440020). Influence of cooling water discharges from Kaiga nuclear power plant on select indices applied to plankton population of Kadra reservoir. J Environ Bio, 27(2) (2006), 191-198 [40 Ref]. During the study period 49 and 22 genera of phytoplankton and zooplankton respectively were recorded at surface waters, Diversity indices indicated oligotrophic nature of the lake. Dissimilarity was more amongst the planktons in between intake and discharge point. Studies revealed that there was negative impact of evaluated temperature on plankton up to 500 m from discharge point.
Water pollution is a complex issue - from the source of poluution to its impacts, both short-term and long-term on human and other species that depend on water. Point and non-point sources of pollution have a profound impact on the degree of pollution, and many times the actual causes are hidden behind more 'visible' causes. Understanding these causes-behind-causes is critical in developing appropriate responses to reduce
pollution. Broad-based awareness of the sources and impacts of pollution - involving a number of stakeholders on the water continuum - is also important to effect lasting solutions. Resources specific to river pollution are aslo included - River pollution is a result of a complex combination of processes that reduce overall river water quality. Acid rain, industrial pollution, agricultural pollution contribute to river pollution, but so do everyday activities that drain untreated pollutants and leachate into rivers and streams. Transportation has a role to play too - where carbon and one-drop-at-a-time 'oil spills' can also cause pollution through storm run-off. A holistic and integrative understanding of the cause-effect cycles of river pollution is an effective starting point to improve river water quality. UNEP-GPA: ClearingHouse - Pollutant Nodes (Web links) This page provides an up-to-date list of links to the various nodes participating in the GPA Clearing-House Mechanism. http://www.gpa.unep.org/clrhouse/chnodes.htm#1 and http://www.gpa.unep.org/links/default.htm#Pollutant UNEP-GPA: Pollution from the land: the threat to our seas (Brochure) The major threats to the health, productivity and biodiversity of the world’s oceans result from human activities on land in coastal areas and further inland. Some 80 per cent of the pollution in the oceans originates from land-based activities. http://www.gpa.unep.org/documents/other/brochure/GPA_english.pdf UNESCO-WAAP: Glossary on Pollution (Online resource) This glossary is a contribution to the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO by the French National Hydrology Committee. Available in 11 languages. http://www.cig.ensmp.fr/~hubert/glu/HINDENPL.HTM UNEP-IETC: Database of Water Pollution Control Technology in JAPAN (Database) The source of this database is "Water Pollution Control Technology in JAPAN", which was published by the Committee for Studying Transter of Environmental Technology in February 1997. This volume describes the various technological measures to prevent and control water pollution which are available in Japan. http://nett21.gec.jp/CTT_DATA/index_water.html SANICON: An Overview of Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution (Publication) The major sources of coastal and marine pollution originating from the land vary from country to country. The nature and intensity of development activities, the size of the human population, the state and type of industry and agriculture are but a few of the factorscontributing to each country's unique pollution problems. Pollution is discharged either directly into to the sea, or enters the coastal waters through rivers and by atmospheric deposition. http://www.sanicon.net/titles/title.php3?titleno=65
UEMRI: Kita-Kyushu - International Cooperation to solve Environmental Problems (Document) In the high economic growth period of 1960s, the city of Kita-Kyushu attained notoriety as a "dead" city due to the very high degree of air and sea pollution caused by its petrochemical and other heavy industries. Its effect on human and other natural species was predictable - for example, many fish species that were found in the adjacent Dokaiwan Bay disappeared. http://www.gdrc.org/uem/japan/kitakyushu.html IWA: Diffuse Pollution (Specialist group) This group covers atmospheric deposition of pollutants including acid rainfall; qualitative impact of atmospheric deposition on land (soil and groundwater) and surface water resources; pollutant loads and impact of non-urban land use and land use conversion activities (deforestation, land drainage, large scale construction); and related issues and topics. http://www.iawq.org.uk/template.cfm?name=sg27 UNEP-IETC: Water Quality - The Impact of Eutrophication (Publication) The booklet provides an overview of the problem of the enrichment of surface freshwater bodies due to organic compounds originating from urban and agricultural activities as well as from industrial effluents. Eutrophication is a process in water bodies that once started is difficult to control unless immediate action is taken and it will ultimately reduce oxygen in water killing fish and other organisms, reduce biodiverstisity and cause enormous economic