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Exam 4

Review Sheet

Fall 2010

Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory

Valence Electrons
-know how to assign valence electrons in atoms and molecules
-understand the Octet Rule and why it’s important
Ionic Bonds
- Be able to generate a Lewis structure for an ionic compound, such as NaCl.
- Known what Lattice energy refers to (formation of crystalline ionic solid from
gaseous ions), and identify which step in a Born-Haber cycle corresponds to the
Lattice energy.
- Be able to state from a series of choices which compound has a higher or lower
lattice energy (e.g., which has the higher lattice energy, NaCl or NaBr? And

Covalent Bonds
- know what constitutes a covalent bond (example: how is it different than an ionic
- Lewis Structures (know these well, they lead to many other concepts in the
chapters to come)
-sharing of electrons
-octet rule
-writing Lewis structures
- know what it is
- know the general trends and be able to correlate them with IEs and metallic and
covalent radii.
- be able to determine whether a compound has a polar bond.
- know whether a compound is ionic, covalent or polar covalent.

Bond Lengths
-what’s longer, a single or double bond? And why?

Bond energy
- be able to predict which molecule will have a stronger, or weaker, bond based on
its Lewis structure (e.g., CO has a triple bond, CO2 has a double bond, etc.)
Resonance Hybrids
-know what they are
-be able to recognize what might contain hybrids (i.e., those with double or triple
bonds) example: if you see a molecule with a central atom bonded to more than
one oxygen, for example, and the Lewis structure shows a double bond that’s a tip
off you might have a resonance hybrid.
-be able to draw the different hybrids (the double headed arrow, etc.).

Formal Charges
-the equation will be given, know how it and what they represent (e.g., formal
charges are simply that a book keeping device to help decide on the best Lewis
-be able to choose the best Lewis Structure from many different choices (and be
able to generate those choices).

Metallic bonding
- how is it different from metallic and ionic bonding? What does this mean for the
properties of metals?

Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes

VSEPR theory
-be able to predict the shape (also known as the molecular geometry) of a
molecule using Lewis Structures and VSEPR theory.
-shapes you need to know (you won’t be tested on any others)
linear, bent, trigonal planar, trigonal pyramidal, tetrahedral.

Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules.

-you will need to be able to identify polar bonds AND polar molecules; for
example, be able to explain why water is a polar molecule, and methane (CH4) is
not yet both contain polar bonds.
- Be able to apply polarity to solutions
-“like dissolves like”….why?
-be able to explain why I2 dissolves in toluene but not in water, etc.
- how does a soap molecule (surfactant) work? Why does an alcohol
become less soluble in water as it gets larger?
- What is hydrophobic? What is hydrophilic? Be able to determine which
one a molecule would be.

Chapter 11 Liquids, Solids and Intermolecular Forces

Structures of Solids, Liquids and Gases

-know what differentiates these three states of matter

Intermolecular forces
-know these well, for they are used to explain most if not all of the properties of
liquids and solutions
-be able to predict the strength of intermolecular forces using experimental data.
We went through an example of this in class

Surface Tension
- what is surface tension? Why is it important?
- Surface tension controls the shape of the liquid. How?

Vapor pressure
-why does water evaporate if left in an open container?
-what is vapor pressure? What is equilibrium? Why is the vapor pressure used to
characterize liquids at specific temperatures?

Enthalpy of Vaporization
-what is the enthalpy of vaporization?
-be able to calculate the enthalpy of vaporization for a reaction (e.g., H2O(l) ->
H2O(g)) using data from Appendix IIB

Melting point, boiling point, freezing point.

-know what they are and what physical processes they represent
- what does sublimation and fusion refer to?
-look at Figure 11.36, be able to explain the shape of the plot (both the areas
where T changes, and the areas where T doesn’t change)

Phase diagrams
- Know how to use one. (e.g., if given a specific temperature and/or pressure, be
able to list what state the molecule is in).
- Know what the different regions, and lines between regions, represent. (e.g., what
is physically happening at the triple point?).

The amazing water!

- water is a surprising substance, why?
- what has hydrogen bonding and this leads to some rather surprising anomalies of
-Don’t memorize the anomalies but know why water does not follow all the
predictions. For example, why is ice more dense than liquid water, whereas solid
H2S is more dense than liquid H2S?
- Specific Heat (section 7.4 starting on page 264)
-what is it? What does it represent? Why does the temperature change
more in Hg than in water?
-why is the fact that water has such a high specific heat so important to
this planet?