Abstract² the project is enlightening us about the characteristics and properties of microwave .

It also include its applications in our daily life.

Introduction: The term microwave refers to electromagnetic energy having a frequency higher than 1 gigahertz (billions of cycles per second), corresponding to wavelength shorter than 30 centimeters.
Microwave signals propagate in straight lines and are affected very little by the troposphere. They are not refracted or reflected by ionized regions in the upper atmosphere. Microwave beams do not readily diffract around barriers such as hills, mountains, and large human-made structures. Some attenuation occurs when microwave energy passes through trees and frame houses. Radio-frequency (RF) energy at longer wavelengths is affected to a lesser degree by such obstacles. The microwave band is well suited for wireless transmission of signals having large bandwidth. This portion of the RF electromagnetic radiation spectrum encompasses many thousands of megahertz. Compare this with the so-called shortwave band that extends from 3 MHz to 30 MHz, and whose total available bandwidth is only 27 MHz. In communications, a large allowable bandwidth translates into high data speed. The short wavelengths allow the use of dish antennas having manageable diameters. These antennas produce high power gain in transmitting applications, and have excellent sensitivity and directional characteristics for reception of signals.

History: The existence of electromagnetic waves was predicted by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864 from his equations. In 1888, Heinrich Hertz was the first to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus that produced and detected microwaves in the UHF region. The design necessarily used horse-and-buggy materials, including a horse trough, a wrought iron point spark, Leyden jars, and a length of zinc gutter whose parabolic cross-section worked as a reflection antenna. In 1894 J. C. Bose publicly demonstrated radio control of a bell using millimeter wavelengths, and conducted research into the propagation of microwaves.
The first, documented, formal use of the term microwave occurred in 1931. Perhaps the first use of the word microwave in an astronomical context occurred in 1946 in an article "Microwave Radiation from the Sun and Moon" by Robert Dicke and Robert Beringer. This same article also made a showing in the New York Times issued in 1951.

y y y y y y Suitable over line-of-sight transmission links without obstacles Provides good bandwidth Affected by rain, vapor, dust, snow, cloud, mist and fog, heavy moisture, depending on chosen frequency (see rain fade) Have limited penetration capabilities Sensitive to high pollen count Signals can be degraded during Solar proton events

Why use microwaves?
Communication using electromagnetic radiation (except for light) began early in this century, and most early practical systems used very long wavelengths (low frequencies) which traveled great distances. Eventually, electronics were developed, including the vacuum tube (or "valve") which allowed controlled frequencies and modulation. This led to the use of higher frequencies, many channels, and commercial and industrial radio. During the 1930's and 1940's various experimenters discovered that higher frequencies could bring other advantages to communications. Some of these experimenters were government agencies and the military - some were universities, and some were private individuals.

Among these discoveries were that microwaves are easier to control (than longer wavelengths) because small antennas could direct the waves very well. They use repeaters (a device that receives the transmitting signal through one antenna." microwave radio systems have the capacity to broadcast great quantities of information because of their higher frequencies. 5/e. They placed towers every 30 to 60 miles each with antennas. making it very difficult for someone to intercept the conversation. A microwave communication system does not require physical cables or expensive attenuation equipment (devices that maintain signal strength during . One advantage of such control is that the energy could be easily confined to a tight beam (expressed as narrow beamwidth). and true television networks were born. such as wire-line technologies. This beam could be focused on another antenna dozens of miles away. According to "Electronic Communications System: Fundamentals Through Advanced. and have bounced signals at that frequency off the moon. greater amounts of information could be put on them (expressed as increased modulation bandwidth). Advantages: a) Able to Transmit Large Quantities of Data: According to "Microwave Communication. operating anywhere between 15 miles to 4. fabrication and testing. Amateurs have carried on conversations using 10GHz well over 1. in order to reach beyond LOS (line-of-sight) amateurs have spent countless hours carefully measuring propagation phenomena. and the reduction in beamwidth made this reasonably secure. These would relay hundreds or even thousands of voice conversations across the country." approximately 35 percent of all terrestrial communication is maintained by microwave radio relay systems. contact a local VHF/Microwave Amateur radio club.000 miles. In communication: Microwave radio signals are electromagnetic waves with high frequencies (between 500 MHz to 300 GHz) and short wavelengths. converts it into an electrical signal and retransmits it) to transmit large volumes of data over great distances.org. This allows microwave radio systems to transmit thousands of data channels between two points without relying on a physical transmitting medium (optical fibers or metallic cables). Both of these advantages (narow beamwidth and modulation bandwidth) make microwaves very useful for RADAR as well as communications. b) Relatively Low Costs: Microwave communication systems have relatively low construction costs compared with other forms of data transmission. Another characteristic is that because of their high frequency. Amateur radio interests in microwaves have mostly been for the challenge of working with such esoteric frequencies that require specialized techniques in design.wa1mba. In the 1950s experiments were conducted that showed the potential to connect the two coasts of the US via these microwave circuits to produce television programming on a continental basis. these qualities led to the use of microwaves by the telephone companies. Microwave radio communication systems propagate signals through the earth's atmosphere. Furthermore. Applications: 1. These signals are sent between transmitters and receivers that lie on top of towers. The ability to modulate with a wide bandwidth permitted so many conversations on just one signal. or contact the ARRL. For more information about amateur radio uses of microwaves set your browser to www. Eventually. including feeder service or intrastate microwave systems and long-haul microwave systems. receivers and transmitters. There are various types of microwave radio communication systems.000 miles.

By virtue of sending out pulses of microwave electromagnetic radiation this type of instrument can be classified as an "active sensor" . Unlike infrared data that help us to identify different minerals or vegetation types from reflected sunlight. Microwave radio communication is also affected by heavy moisture. scatter and diffract TV. provided no solid obstacle disrupts the flow. being an active system. buildings and airplanes).. Radar wavelengths range between less than 1 millimeter to 1 meter. Radar and infrared sensors are complimentary instruments and are often used together to study the same types of earth surfaces. Microwave signal disruption EMI is caused by electric motors. such as the non-unique spectral properties of the returned radar signal. television/radio stations and cell phone transmission towers. This drawback limits microwave communication systems to line of sight operating distances. 2. hills and rooftops provide inexpensive and accessible bases for microwave transmission towers. EMI is any disturbance that degrades. for instance. radio and microwave signals when placed between signal transmitters and receivers. In RADAR¶s : RADAR stands for "Radio Detection And Ranging". and from . rain and fog due to rain fade (the absorption of microwave signals by ice. Radar was originally developed in the 1950s. Disadvantages: a) Line of Sight Technology: Microwave radio systems are a line of sight technology. different geometry and polarizations can be combined to roughness characteristics of the earth surface. Mountains.it measures the time between pulses and their reflected components to determine distance. electric power transmission lines. snow or rain. it can be operated day or night. Signals flow between one fixed point to another. and some vegetation." microwave radio signals are affected by electromagnetic interference (EMI). Radar uses relative long wavelengths which allow these systems to "see" through clouds. meaning the signals will not pass through objects (e. smoke. mountains. wind turbines. There are disadvantages. obstructs or interrupts the performance of microwave signals. vapor. early airborne radar systems were limited by the physical size of the antenna however. causing signal degradation and distortion). the first airborne system was called SLAR (Side-Looking Airborne Radar) and was used for improving the resolution for military reconnaissance. Later. Wind turbines. snow.g. Different pulse intervals. b) Subject to Electromagnetic and Other Interference: According to "Rural America at the Crossroads: Networking for the Future. radar only shows the difference in the surface roughness and geometry and moisture content of the ground (the complex dielectric constant). different wavelengths. was developed and are widely used in many countries for civilian applications.transmission). NOTE:Did you know that if you had a sensitive microwave telescope in your house that you would detect a faint signal leaking out of your microwave oven. SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar). Also.

Significantly large segments of the population are exposed to infrared rays. Some other materials. Microwaves are located in the non-ionizing portion of the energy spectrum between radio waves and visible light. Microwave Facts and Safety Information : Microwaves are a form of radiant energy. these materials make excellent utensils for cooking in a microwave oven. One characteristic of microwaves is their ability to bounce or deflect off metal surfaces. In microwave ovens: Microwave ovens use microwave energy to heat or cook food in a fraction of the time needed to cook with conventional ovens. a characteristic basic to its use in radar. with little or no effect. infrared heat and electricity. A magnetron tube is used to produce short electromagnetic waves known as microwaves. use of metal utensils in microwave ovens should be avoided. To distinguish between the forms. Today microwaves are widely used in communication systems. radar and many other commercial and industrial applications.various other man-made sources. F. but also a faint signal coming from all directions that you pointed it? This is the Cosmic Microwave Background! 3. which raises the magnetron tube's filament temperature. Because metal reflects microwave energy. If the cooking load is not large enough to absorb the microwave energy.900. Materials with high moisture content. visible light. The life of the magnetron tube can be shortened by extended periods of back-feeding R. the food molecules are changing direction every half cycle. so they are oscillating back and forth 4. tend to reflect microwave energy. Other common forms are radio waves. absorb microwave energy. thereby converting the microwave energy to heat. the food molecules follow these alternations and thus move rapidly back and forth. most plastics. visible light waves and microwaves every day. energy.000 times each second. so cooking efficiency is greatly reduced. In effect.000. The first application of microwaves was in radar during world war II (See History of the Microwave Oven). a microwave oven heats food without applying external heat. like most foods. Generally. Another is its thermal or heating effect utilized in microwave cooking. the metal walls of the cooking cavity are not affected by microwaves and do not get hot. they are classified according to the wave length which may vary from miles to thousandths of an inch. paper and china. the oven could be damaged by an arc between the metal utensils and the cavity interior or door assembly. The microwaves readily pass through many materials. Except for certain recommended procedures that involve the use of metal or foil as outlined in the use and care manual. F. the molecules tend to align themselves with the cycling energy (animated illustration). such as glass. Why? For the following reasons: y y y Metal utensils do not allow complete penetration of the food by the microwaves. or R. Unlike conventional ovens. Since the microwaves are changing polarity with every half cycle. This high-speed oscillation causes friction between the molecules. As the electromagnetic waves at a frequency of 2450 million cycles per second enter the food. energy. such as metal and foil. Microwave energy is directed into the cooking chamber where the food is placed to be heated. All forms of radiant energy are a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. .

cost.require advancements and innovation in materials. meaningful trend identification becomes almost impossible because an important factor in one sector may be completely irrelevant to another. incorporating everything from tiny discrete components to large integrated systems. such as X-rays. New Thermal Management Considerations For Circuit Boards In RF and microwave applications. finding the optimal balance of material properties is critical for device reliability. with a reach that grows wider with each passing year. In other words. the scope of application areas for RF/microwave products is nearly as broad as the number of technologies themselves. power amplifiers and high-power transmitter networks are major applications that demand high reliability while also pushing power density and operating temperature limits. As such. maintenance. Future Scope: Discussing general trends in the RF/microwave design industry is tricky business for a couple of reasons. . New materials must exhibit: low coefficient of thermal expansion (lower CTE offers more reliable component attachment). For one. This is particularly true where passive cooling is desired from a reliability. In addition. and size perspective. and high thermal conductivity to improve heat dissipation. Beta and Gamma rays. As a result. As RF materials are typically fairly strong thermal insulators. Alpha. the number of unique technologies that fall under the umbrella of RF/microwave is vast. is that microwave energy is non-ionizing. it does not alter the molecular structure of the item being heated. Engineering focus for these higher-power designs where temperature extremes are normal and heat rejection is a primary consideration . these technologies place high demand on heat rejection to ensure material life and/or component reliability. low loss (loss creates additional heat). and performance.The difference between microwave energy and other forms of ionizing radiation. The effects of microwave energy are strictly thermal and do not cause cellular change as with ionizing radiation.

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