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Basic Concept: The Plate Capacitor

Two metal plates equal in size stand opposite each other a certain distance apart, separated by air or some other
insulator. Voltage is applied:

The capacitor takes up both negative and, on the other hand, positive charged carriers on the surface of it's plates. It
stores electric charges, so to speak.
(Mechanical analogy: storage receptacle for fluid).

Direct current is normally unable to pass through this structure; due to the insulator (dielectric) lying in between, the
electrons cannot get from one plate to the other. This is only possible in the case of very high voltage, and then a
breakdown occurs due to ionization.

Note: The capacitor is usually infinitely resistant to direct current (DC).

On the other hand, the capacitor lets alternating current (AC) through.
The current cannot flow directly through the dielectric even here, but because of the alternating charging and discharging

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of the plates, charged carriers appear to be transported through the capacitor.
Of course, the capacitor presents some resistance to alternating current too, this is dependent on the frequency.

Note: At lower frequencies the capacitive resistance is higher. At higher frequencies the capacitive resistance is lower.

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Dielectric
In reality the dielectric is not an ideal insulator, i.e. a certain number of electrons penetrate it.

Due to these processes and also to changing polarization in the material, part of the electric energy is lost as dissipated
heat:

a)

Ohmic losses: there is a difference between insulation resistance = volume resistance Rv (current flow through the
interior of the insulator) and surface resistance = the external resistance Rs (current flow over the surface of the insulator
due to humidity or dirt). Together they make up the complete resistance

The ohmic losses are to be seen in the rise of the temperature of the insulator which is often quite considerable. b)
Dielectric losses (dissipation) are the result of the changing polarization of the elementary particles of the dielectric
caused by alternating fields.
They are transformed into oscillations (like little compass needles) and thus produce frictional heat. So, here too, part of

the electric energy is lost in heat. The losses amount to:

tan is the dissipation factor, it is the measurement of dielectric losses and is dependent on frequency.

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Capacitance
Definition: A capacitor is measured by the size of its capacitance. A capacitance is the electric capacity of a capacitor, i.e.
the amount of electrically charged carriers it can store. Symbol: C

Measurement unit: F = farad Calculation example: The capacitance is 1 farad when a current of 1
ampere flows for one second with the applied voltage of 1 V.

The stored charge Q is proportional to the applied voltage U.

Q~U

The proportional factor C is the capacitance of the capacitor

Q=CxU

Capacitance calculation for the plate capacitor

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=
= absolute dielectric constant
0.0885 x 10-12 farad/cm =
. relative dielectric constant
depending on insulation material A = plate surface (one plate only) in cm2 d = distance between plates in cm The relative
dielectric constant can have values between = 1 (air) and ~ 10,000 (special ceramic materials).

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Capacitance Tolerance
Tolerance is the permissible relative deviation of the capacitance from the rated value, expressed in per cent. The
tolerance is to be measured at a temperature of +20°C and is only valid at the time of delivery.

After a longer period of storage or use, the tolerance can increase; but, according to standard specification, it may never
exceed twice the value measured at the time of delivery.

The following delivery tolerances are usual for wound capacitors:

±1%; ±2.5%; ±5%; ±10%; ±20%.

In the case of electrolytic capacitors for which the largest possible capacitance matters, tolerances of +100/-20% also
occur.

Note: The tolerance (with the exception of 20%) is usually clearly marked on the body of the capacitor, in case of very
small capacitor sizes, coding or ciphers according to IEC 60062 are also used.

Rated Voltage

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Each capacitor is designed for a particular rated voltage, which it must stand up to without adverse effect during
continuous operation.

However, this only applies to ambient temperatures of < +85°C; at higher temperatures the maximum permissible voltage
or voltage limit for continuous operation is reduced by voltage derating.

This is caused by tiny weak points in the dielectric, which, under increased temperatures, are subject to greater stress and
can then break down.

In the case of rated voltage, DC voltage specifications are distinguished from AC voltage data. In general, this information
is printed on the capacitor with clear symbols; in the case of capacitors with very small dimensions code symbols may be
necessary as with the tolerance specifications.

Voltage Derating
With all thermoplastic film dielectrics, the voltage strength diminishes when the temperature is increased.

The voltage derating gives the percentage by which the permissible voltage is reduced compared to the rated voltage, for
DC voltage operation from +85°C and for AC voltage operation from +75°C, at a temperature increase of 1K.

Insulation Resistance
Paper and plastic film capacitors usually have insulation resistance values ranging from 6000 to 12000 M .

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The insulation resistance is given in Ohm. This is not quite explicit because the insulation resistance changes for a time
after voltage is applied - the self-discharge constant = Ris x C is also used to measure the quality of the insulation.

The time constant gives the time in seconds during which the voltage between the terminating wires of a charged
capacitor decreases to 37% due to self-discharging.

With capacitance values in the µF range, the time constant at the time of delivery is usually between 2000 and 4000
seconds.

Humidity which penetrates into the capacitor winding, lowers the insulation resistance.
An appropriately thick casing should therefore be provided, according to how much humidity the capacitor will be
subjected to.

Good insulation resistance is necessary for capacitors which are used to block off DC voltage and for storage capacitors in
which a particular voltage rate has to remain unchanged for a longer period of time.

Dissipation Factor and ESR


The dissipation factor tan is the quotient of the active and reactive components of the impedance.

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The losses occur mainly in the dielectric and are represented by R in the equivalent circuit diagram.
Parallel to R is the insulation resistance Ris, which, in fact, only affects tan at very low frequencies.

Further dissipation is caused by the finite conductivity of the electrodes and the transfer resistance between the electrodes
and the terminating wires.

This is represented in the equivalent circuit diagram by the series resistance r.


L represents the remaining self-inductance.

Values of ESR are not directly stated in the data sheets of plastic film capacitors. The ESR for an individual capacitance
value C can be calculated by the formula

ESR = tan x (2 x x f x C)-1

tan : see data sheets


f: frequency of the AC voltage share in the application.

Inductance and Self-Resonance

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Depending on the construction, an alternating current in the capacitor winding creates a more or less distinctive magnetic
field which can be measured as inductance L (see equivalent circuit diagram).

The self-inductance L of modern capacitors - reduced by structural measures (e.g. contact over the end surfaces) - is
approximately 10 nH. It is therefore not greater than the inductance of a wire, which is as long as the capacitor leads plus

the lead spacing. L and C form a series oscillating circuit; at a frequency of the capacitor is in self-
resonance and has the lowest impedance, which only consists of r (ESR equivalent series resistance).

Temperature Coefficient (TKc)

The temperature coefficient shows the fraction by which the capacitance, measured at +20°C, changes when the surrounding
temperature rises by 1 degree C.

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C20 = capacitance at +20°C
CT = capacitance at T°C can be positive or negative. In the case of good capacitors the TKc is in the region of just a few 10-5/°C.
-5 -6
TKc 10 /°C = 10 x 10 /°C = 10 ppm/°C

Pulse Stressing
In the case of metallized capacitors the user has to give guidelines for the maximum possible pulse stressing because of
the limited current capacity of electrodes and contacts.

These guidelines are worked out by means of so-called pulse tests, in which the stress which might occur during
application, is simulated.

In a test circuit in accordance with IEC 60384 part 1, the test specimen is charged and then discharged intermittently. The
test voltage corresponds to the rated DC voltage and the test comprises 10000 pulses with a repetition frequency of 1 Hz.

The pulse stress capacity is given as pulse rise time in V/µsec. The stipulations for individual capacitor series are in
accordance with the CECC type specifications. The rated or operational pulse rise time is specified as 1/10 of the test
pulse rise time.

The pulse rise time F given in V/µsec is also indirectly the maximum current capacity.

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C in µF
I in A The values on the pulse rise time refer to pulses equal to the full rated voltage, so that, at lower operating voltages
the permissible pulse rise times may also be increased.

Long Term Stability / Temporal Inconstancy


Environmental influences such as heat, high humidity and strong mechanical vibrations can, over a longer period of time,
due to ageing, lead to an irreversible change in the capacitance value.

The information about the temporal inconstancy lays down the maximum extent to which the capacitance of a capacitor
may change under the influence of environmental factors.

As a rule, temporal inconstancy is given in %. The period of time specified by the relevant standards is 2 years, based on
a regular temperature of +40°C. Changes after two years are virtually of no importance.

Typical values are, for example, ±3% for KT-/MKT capacitors and ±0.5 or ±1% for KP-/MKP capacitors according to type.

Dielectric Absorption

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A capacitor which has been charged for a long time and then been completely discharged, has a small voltage on its terminal wires
again, within seconds or minutes.
This effect is known as dielectric absorption.

This phenomenon has a particularly unfavorable effect in sample and hold applications in which charges are to be stored for
comparision/measuring purposes.

The recharging comes from polarization processes in the insulating material and is largely independent of the capacitance of the
capacitor and the thickness of the dielectric.

Measuring of Dielectric Absorption

The standard MIL-C-19978 describes the measuring method of the dielectric absorption.

Circuit diagram:

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The capacitor Cx is charged for 15 minutes on a reference DC voltage, e.g. up to the rated DC voltage of the capacitor. The initial
current surge may not exceed 50 mA.

At the end of the charging time the capacitor is separated from the charging source and discharged over a resistance of 50 . The
discharging resistance is removed from the capacitor after 10 sec.

The "regained voltage" is measured after a period of 15 minutes with a high ohmic (Ri > 10000 M ) millivoltmeter.

The dielectric absorption DA can be calculated according to the following formula:

DA = U1 / U2 x 100%

DA = dielectric absorption
U1 = regained voltage
U2 = charging voltage

Typical values of some dielectrics in % at T = +23°C:

- Polypropylene
- Polyester
- Mixed dielectric
- Ceramic (X7R)
- Ceramic (Z5U) 0.05 ... 0.10
0.20 ... 0.25
0.12 ... 0.18
0.60 ... 1.00
2.00 ... 2.50

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Reliability

For plastic film capacitors the formula = expected value


= temperature factor
= voltage factor is valid for the failure rate in fit (10-9/h).

The expected value is determined for each component on the basis of long term tests and field experience. Long term tests refer to a
minimum test period of t > 10000 h.

If such a test is carried out at a temperature of 85°C, for example, that would, in an appliance with a surrounding temperature of T <
40°C, correspond to an operating time of 150000 - 200000 hours; a value which comes close to real operating conditions.
Due to the element of uncertainty about accuracy of these calculations, a subject which has also been described in technical literature,
this value is given with a confidence limit of 60%. However, according to our experience, these values largely correspond to the field
results.

Correction factors which are specific to the different applications, result from temperature and/or voltage stress capacity according to
the following tables.

Temperature factor

T (°C) 40 50 70 80 100
1 2 5 10 15
Voltage factor

U/UR 0.1 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0


0.2 0.3 1 2 5

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Today metallized plastic film capacitors with Polyester film achieve the best values.

Here the expected value is about 2 fit. This results in a failure rate of 10 fit.

Example: WIMA MKS 2 / 0.1 µF / 63 VDC

= 2 fit
=1
=5
= 2 x 5 x 1 = 10 fit

The expected values for other types of capacitors are available on request.

Warning Notice / Technical Support


AC Voltage Load at the Mains

Anticipating possible interfering pulses, DC voltage capacitors must not be operated at the mains (line power), irrespective
of the rated AC voltage. For this purpose, use approved electromagnetic interference suppression capacitors only.

Thermal Load in the Application

If a plastic film capacitor is overstressed due to inappropriate usage under AC voltage conditions, the temperature inside
the component may rise to an impermissibly high level. Thus, the dielectric film may subsequently be damaged leading to

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a short circuit or formation of smoke and even fire in the capacitor. It may also happen if the capacitor is overheated by an
external heat source.

Shock and/or Vibration Load for Larger Case Sizes

For increased shock and vibration applications involving larger case sizes (i.e., PCM 22.5 mm lead spacing or greater), it
is recommended to fix capacitors in an appropriate way; or special lead and tab terminations may be required respectively,
to minimize lead separation from the capacitor element or the solder joint.

Processing

When processing plastic film capacitors it is mandatory to observe the application recommendations with regard to
soldering and/or cleaning and drying processes.

General Remarks

All data, range surveys and application data correspond to the actual state of the art and were elaborated as thoroughly
and precisely as possible. They are to be understood as general information, and the right for amendments and
construction changes is reserved. Special customized designs which deviate from our catalogue data, irrespective of

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whether being based on factory standards, specifications or related data, do not release the user from his duty of care with
regard to incoming goods inspection and production monitoring. In case of the components being purchased through
second or third suppliers we urgently ask to compare the technical details with the data given by the manufacturer. In
cases of doubt we recommend use is made of our technical support, since we do not take any responsibility for damages
caused by inappropriate use or processing of our capacitors.

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Construction of Plastic Film Capacitors:

The film/foil construction is mainly used for capacitors with smaller capacitance (100pF through 0.1µF).

The advantage of this construction is the easy contactability of the metal foil electrodes and the good pulse strength.

A breakdown in the dielectric film of a F capacitor leads to an irreversible short circuit and thus, to failure.

To avoid breakdowns caused by weak spots in the dielectric, the insulating film chosen is always thicker than theoretically
required by the values which are determined from the specific breakdown strength of the material. Films of less than 4 µm
are not used for F capacitors because of their high proportion of weak points.
The necessity for thicker insulating film has an unfavorable effect on the size and the material used. In order to achieve a
particular capacitance with thicker insulating film, the length of the band also has to be increased by the same amount.
Thicker insulating film therefore squares the volume of the winding element.

A weak spot occurs, when depressions meet on the upper and lower surfaces of the film. The dielectric must then be at
least thick enough to have just the required breakdown strength.

Advantage: High pulse loading capacity due to good contact of the terminating wires to the metal foil electrodes.

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WIMA types with film/foil construction

Metallized Construction
The metallized type of construction also makes it possible to produce wound capacitors with larger capacitance values in
small sizes (~ 0.01µF through 100µF and larger). In the case of M capacitors, thin layers of aluminium (~ 0.03µm) are
vacuum-deposited on the insulating film as conducting electrodes. In the case of a breakdown, the short circuit current
causes the thin metal coating to evaporate around the point of failure, without reducing the quality of the dielectric. An
insulating area is formed, the capacitor remains intact (self-healing). The capacitance loss of a few pF which this causes,
is of no importance.

With metallized capacitors, the breakdown strength of the insulating film can be used to the full. During the production of
the capacitors the weak points are burnt out. This makes it possible to use the thinnest insulating films right down to <
1µm in thickness.

In contrast to the advantages of the small dimensions and the self-healing properties of metallized capacitors, there is the
disadvantage of a limited current loading capacity as a result of the thin, vacuum-deposited metal layers.

Advantage: Construction with the most favorable capacitance/volume value.

WIMA types with metallized construction:

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Metallized Construction for Pulse Applications

-63VAC, 180VAC, 250VAC


-180VAC, 250VAC
-180VAC, 250VAC

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-400VAC, 600VAC, 650VAC, 700VAC
-400VAC, 700VAC
-400VAC, 450VAC, 500VAC, 550VAC

-900VAC/PCM 22.5mm (PCM 15mm = 3-section)


In order to counter the disadvantage of the limited current loading capacity of single-sided metallized capacitors, WIMA
has developed special metallized versions for high pulse applications, in which the electrodes are not directly
metallized on the dielectric film. Aluminium is vacuum-deposited on both sides of a thin plastic film and this film is rolled up
along with the insulating film as is the case with a film/foil capacitor.

With schoopage (metal flame spraying) and contacting, the two metal layers on the carrier film are joined together as a
conductor. The carrier film is therefore in fieldfree space, its dielectric properties are of no importance, ("film in fieldfree
space") and the self-healing process in breakdowns takes place on this film. Thanks to the metallization on both sides,
this type has the same good self-healing properties as a capacitor which is metallized on one side only, the conducting
capacity of a double thickness metallized layer and the advantage of better contacts.

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These capacitors can stand up to very high pulse currents and have only a slightly larger volume than single-sided
metallized capacitors. They offer high operating safety in critical applications.

Advantages:
High pulse loading capacity due to good contacting of the metal layers with schoopage.
Good self-healing properties thanks to the carrier film in fieldfree space.

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Film/Foil Construction with Metallized Electrode Carrier Film

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Due to its film/foil structure with metallized electrode carrier, this capacitor type is suitable for highest
current loads.

The capacitor is constructed as a series connection, the current carrying electrodes consist of two metal foils and a
metallized carrier film as a "floating electrode".

After schoopage and bonding the wires are connected with all the edges of the winding element. The floating electrode
only carries current through capacitive coupling. In this way, the advantage of self-healing (by means of the metallized
floating electrode) is combined with the advantage of the exceptionally safe bonding of the metal foil.
Thanks to the series connection, the value of the corona inception voltage is doubled.

Capacitors constructed in this way are suitable for very high rated currents with a maximum of operating safety.

Advantages:
Highest pulse loading capacity due to very good bonding (metal foil electrode and metallized electrode carrier film).
Good self-healing properties thanks to the metallized carrier film floating electrode.
Due to the series connection, the value of the corona inception voltage is doubled.

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Self-healing Process in Metallized Capacitors

Even the best plastic films, like ceramic materials, are not free from pin-holes.
However, in the case of metallized film capacitors it is possible to eliminate these faults by applying a much higher voltage
than the rated voltage. This process is known as self-healing and practically makes a "zero defect dielectric" possible.

Figure 1: Schematic representation of the self-healing process

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Figure 2: Isolated area after the self-healing process

The self-healing process is started by an electric breakdown, which takes about 10-8 secs. In the breakdown channel, the
dielectric is transformed into a highly compressed plasma which is pushed out of the channel and presses the dielectric
layers apart (figure 1).

In the spreading plasma, discharging continues over the metal electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 6000 K occur
and insulated areas are formed around the original failure spot (figure 2). This self-healing process takes a few µsec and
the discharging in the plasma has already ceased before a greater loss of voltage takes place. This quick extinction of the
plasma is necessary to avoid further damage to the dielectric layer next to the point of failure.
The pressure between the layers must not be too great, so that the plasma can spread out from the breakdown channel
quickly. Large parts of the plasma get into areas of low field strength.

The flawless course of the self-healing process depends on the thickness of the metallization, on the chemical
composition and on the rate of the applied voltage; here, apart from the chemical composition, the production
conditions have to provide the prerequisites for optimum self-healing.

Self-healing behaviour as a quality standard.

The capacitors manufactured by WIMA in winding technology are produced as single winding capacitors. The most
effective pressure on the layers necessary for good self-healing behaviour can be individually adjusted for each capacitor.

WIMA capacitors are known for their excellent self-healing behaviour.

A DC voltage test is used to demonstrate the self-healing properties:

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• the capacitor to be tested is connected over a series resistance of R ~ 10 k at with adjustable direct voltage
source.
• the voltage on the capacitor is observed with a line recorder or an oscilloscope (see diagram).

• the voltage applied to the capacitor is continually increased, over and above the rated voltage for the capacitor, up
to the first self-healing process. The line recorder shows clear breakdowns in the capacitor voltage and then
recharging until the next self-healing occurs.

The voltage rate at the first breakdown and the number of self-healings which happen before the short-circuit finally
occurs, allow definite conclusions to be drawn about the capacitor dimensioning or type.
This clearly shows that stacked MKT film capacitors short-circuit after a few self-healing processes. Also, the rate of the
breakdown voltage is usually distinctly lower. A low loading capacity and a reduced life time are the result.

WIMA capacitors, on the other hand, are surprisingly hardy. As well as having very high breakdown voltage, they self-heal
much more frequently than corresponding stacked film capacitors. The test clearly proves the high reliability and long life-
span of WIMA MKS capacitors, well above the data given in the catalogue.

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Dielectric:

Characteristics of Metallized Film Capacitors in Comparison


with Other Dielectrics
PET PP PPS NPO X7R Tantalum
Dielectric constant 3.3 (positive as 2.2 (negative as 3.0 (very constant
12...40 700...2000 26
1 kHz/23°C temperature rise) temperature rise) versus temperature)
Operating
temperature _ _ _ _ _ _
55...+105 55...+100 55...+140 55...+125 55...+125 55...+125
(°C)
Dielectric absorption
0.2...0.25 0.05...0.10 0.05 0.6 2.5 n.a.
(%)
C/C versus
±5 ± 2.5 ± 1.5 ±1 ± 15 ± 10
temperature (%)
C/C versus voltage
negligible negligible negligible negligible -20 negligible
(%)
C aging rate (%/h
negligible negligible negligible negligible 2 n.a.
decreasing)
Dissipation factor 0.8 0.05 0.2 0.10 2.5 8
(%) 1.5 0.08 0.25 0.10
1 kHz 3.0 0.25 0.5 0.10

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10 kHz
100 kHz
ESR low very low very low low moderate high
Ris (M x µF)
25 °C 10000 100000 10000 10000 1000 100
85 °C 1000 10000 1000 1000 500 10
Capacitance range
1000...220 27...100 10000...6.8 1...0.1 100...2.2 100000...1000
from pF to µF
Capacitance
tolerance 5/10/20 1/2.5/5/10 2.5/5/10/20 5/10 10/20 10/20
(+/- %)
Self-healing yes yes yes no no no
Typical failure mode
open open open short short short
at end of life
Reliability high high high high moderate low
Piezoelectric effect no no no yes yes yes
Resistance to
moderate to moderate to
thermal and high high high high
low low
mechanical shock
Polarity no no no no no yes
-

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Polyester (Polyethylene-terephthalate)
Basic Molecule

Typical Graphs

Capacitance change versus temperature

(f = 1 kHz) ( general guide)

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Insulation resistance change versus temperature (general guide)

Dissipation factor change versus frequency


(general guide)

Max. working temperature: +125°C


Film thickness: > 0.7 µm
Production process: extruded, biaxially stretched

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Manufacturing Process for Polyester Film

- Extrusion

- Bi-axial stretching

-
-
- Crystallisation

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tangled felted

stretched

-
crystallised
- (cross-linked, knotted)

Fields of Applications for Polyester Capacitors

Decoupling
Coupling
Blocking

Properties

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Advantageous price/performance ratio
Advantageous capacitance/volume ratio
Substitution of low quality electrolytic and tantal capacitors

Polypropylene
Basic Molecule

Typical Graphs

Capacitance change versus temperature

(f = 1 kHz) ( general guide)

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Insulation resistance change versus temperature (general guide)

Dissipation factor change versus frequency


(general guide)

Max. working temperature: +100°C

Film thickness: > 4 µm

Production process: extruded, biaxially stretched

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Manufacturing Process for Polypropylene Film

- Extrusion

- Bi-axial stretching

- Crystallisation

tangled felted

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stretched

crystallised (cross-linked, knotted)

Fields of Applications for Polypropylene Capacitors

Sample and hold


Oscillator circuits
Resonating circuits
Deflection systems
Power supplies
Converters

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Lighting
Audio applications

Properties

Lowest dissipation factor


Constantly negative TKc
Close tolerances up to 1%

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MP (Metallized Paper)
Properties

Capacitance change versus temperature


(f = 1 kHz) ( general guide)

Insulation resistance change versus temperature


(general guide)

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Dissipation factor change versus frequency
(general guide)

Fields of Applications for Metallized Paper Capacitors

X and Y RFI applications


TV/HiFi mains filters
Household equipment
Lighting
Power supplies for industrial applications

Properties

Temperature range up to +110°C


Problem free clearing

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High reliability against active and passive flammability
Recommended for across the line applications also during stand-by position

Special Technical Subjects:

WIMA's RoHS Compliance


All WIMA components listed below meet the requirements of the European Union
Directive 2002/95/EC, Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS Directive). PDF Download

WIMA RoHS Guide


WIMA parts do not contain the following substances:
Declaration of
Compliance

Quantity limits of 0.1% (1000 PPM) for: Abbreviations:


1. Lead (Pb)
2. Mercury (Hg) = not applicable
n/a
3. Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+) = Surface Mounted
SMD
4. Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB) Device
THD
5. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE) =Through Hole Device
S
= Screwed

Quantity limits of 0.01% (100 PPM) for:

1. Cadmium (Cd)

WIMA RoHS Guide

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RoHS Terminations Soldering
WIMA Part Description New Identification Coating max. Temp. (°C)
RoHS Type of
Part- Availability
Conform Comp. Barc. Pack. Mounting Leads Plates Wave Reflow
Nr.
Polyester film, pure 220-
SMD-PET Yes No Yes No Yes Yes SMD
metallized Sn 250*
Polyphenylene-
pure
SMD-PPS sulphide film, Yes No Yes No Yes Yes SMD 250
Sn
metallized
Polypropylene pure
FKP 02 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film, film/foil Sn
Polyester film, pure
MKS 02 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
metallized Sn
Polyester film, pure
FKS 2 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film/foil Sn
Polypropylene pure
FKP 2 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film, film/foil Sn
Polyester film, pure
MKS 2 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
metallized Sn
Polypropylene pure
MKP 2 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film, metallized Sn
Polyester film, pure
FKS 3 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec .
film/foil Sn
Polypropylene pure
FKP 3 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film, film/foil Sn
Polyester film, pure
MKS 4 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
metallized Sn

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Polypropylene pure
MKP 4 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film, metallized Sn
Polypropylene pure
film, double Sn
MKP 10 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
metallized
electrode
Polypropylene pure
film, metal Sn
FKP 4 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
foil/metallized
film
Polypropylene pure
film, metal Sn
FKP 1 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
foil/double
metallized film
Polypropylene pure
MKP-X2 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film, metallized Sn
Polypropylene pure
MKP-X2 R Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD 260@5sec
film, metallized Sn
Polypropylene pure
MKP-Y2 Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD . 260@5sec
film, metallized Sn
pure
MP 3-X2 Paper, metallized Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD . 260@5sec
Sn
pure
MP 3-X1 Paper, metallized Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD . 260@5sec
Sn
pure
MP 3-Y2 Paper, metallized Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD . 260@5sec
Sn
pure
MP 3R-Y2 Paper, metallized Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD . 260@5sec
Sn

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Polypropylene
film, double pure pure
SnubberMKP Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD/S 260@5sec
metallized Sn Sn
electrode
Polypropylene pure pure
film, metal Sn Sn
SnubberFKP.. Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD/S 260@5sec
foil/metallized
film
Polypropylene
film, double
GTO MKP Yes No Yes No Yes Yes S n/a n/a
metallized
electrode
DC-LINK Polypropylene pure pure
Yes No Yes No Yes Yes THD/S 260@5sec
MKP 4 film, metallized Sn Sn
DC-LINK Polypropylene
Yes No Yes No Yes Yes S n/a n/a
MKP C film, metallized
Polypropylene pure
DC-LINK HC Yes No Yes No Yes Yes S n/a n/a
film, metallized Sn
SuperCap C Double layer Yes No Yes No Yes Yes n/a n/a n/a
Double layer,
SuperCap MC Yes No Yes No Yes Yes n/a n/a n/a
cascaded
Double layer,
SuperCap R Yes No Yes No Yes Yes n/a n/a n/a
cascaded
SuperCap MR Double layer Yes No Yes No Yes Yes n/a n/a n/a

* depending on size code

Rights reserved to amend design data without prior notification.

46
Encapsulation of WIMA Capacitors

Both, SMD and through-hole WIMA DC capacitors are produced with the proven box technology, showing the following
substantial advantages in comparison with non-encapsulated, moulded or dipped capacitor versions:

• Safe protection of the capacitor element against the mechanical stresses which occur during processing and
operation.
• No danger of delamination, internal cracks or tearing away of the contacts due to similar expansion coefficient and
the elasticity of the construction.
• Excellent self-healing properties of metallized WIMA capacitors due to pressure free layers in the winding element.
• Flame retardant plastic case in accordance with UL 94 V-0.
• Clearly defined dimensions allows for close placement and exact setting of parts on PC-boards. Even larger parts
are easily robotically insertable.

47
• Easy second source because of standardized box size.

Self-healing Behaviour as a Quality Standard


The capacitors manufactured by WIMA in winding technology are produced as single winding capacitors. The
most effective pressure on the layers necessary for good self-healing behaviour can be individually adjusted for
each capacitor.

WIMA capacitors are known for their excellent self-healing behaviour.

A DC voltage test is used to demonstrate the self-healing properties:

• the capacitor to be tested is connected over a series resistance of R ~ 10 k at with adjustable direct
voltage source.
• the voltage on the capacitor is observed with a line recorder or an oscilloscope (see diagram).

• the voltage applied to the capacitor is continually increased, over and above the rated voltage for the
capacitor, up to the first self-healing process. The line recorder shows clear breakdowns in the capacitor
voltage and then recharging until the next self-healing occurs.

The voltage rate at the first breakdown and the number of self-healings which happen before the short-circuit

48
finally occurs, allow definite conclusions to be drawn about the capacitor dimensioning or type.
This clearly shows that stacked MKT film capacitors short-circuit after a few self-healing processes. Also, the rate
of the breakdown voltage is usually distinctly lower. A low loading capacity and a reduced life time are the result.

WIMA capacitors, on the other hand, are surprisingly hardy. As well as having very high breakdown voltage, they
self-heal much more frequently than corresponding stacked film capacitors. The test clearly proves the high
reliability and long life-span of WIMA MKS capacitors, well above the data given in the catalogue.

Flammability of Radio Interference Suppression Capacitors


Radio interference suppression capacitors serve to reduce or suppress the HF voltage interference in electronic
equipment. The RFI capacitors remain on the mains for an uninterrupted period of 10, 20 or more years and
have to both protect the appliance against line-side surge voltages/transients and suppress reactions of the
appliance on the mains supply.
Transients are voltage spikes to which the mains voltage is subjected and which can easily occur several times a
day in low voltage mains supplies with amplitudes of 2000 V and above. Peak values can be as high as 6 kV
(figure 1).

Figure 1: Mains transients

49
A = Atmospheric disturbances (lightning flashes, faults in the high voltage system).
B = Faults in the mains or in nearby equipment (e.g. faulty fuses, response of power switches).
C = Switching on/off of electric equipment (motors, welding sets, household equipment etc.).
D = Voltage spikes from equipment like power supplies, inverters, TV-sets etc.

Radio interference suppression capacitors are used to block and attenuate these voltage spikes and are defined
in X and Y classes according to the demands they have to satisfy.
Class X capacitors have unlimited capacitance and are connected between phase to neutral or phase to phase
conductors. Class Y capacitors have increased electrical and mechanical safety and are installed between
phase conductors and the shock protected earthed casing, thus bridging the insulation of the appliance.

50
Risks Involved with Plastic Film Dielectric

Polyester and polypropylene capacitors are used for radio interference suppression although there is a possibility
of these components catching fire. The physical process which finally leads to the self-ignition of the capacitor
is approximately as follows:

• Transient voltage spikes strike the load's mains input. The current can easily reach a level of 200 A for a
few microseconds.
• The RFI capacitor offers very little virtual resistance to the high voltage spikes.
• At the weakest point of the dielectric there is a breakdown and temperatures of several thousand °C can
occur in the surrounding area. A metal-free insulated area is created around the breakdown channel. This
process is referred to as self-healing.
• As this process continues, up to 41% of the previously bound carbon is deposited in the form of
conductive graphite sediment in the insulated area of plastic film capacitors and forms highly resistive
carbon bridges (figure 2).
• With the accumulation of such damaged areas throughout the life span of the equipment, or because of
high energy self-healing processes of the capacitor, the insulation resistance is considerably reduced.
This inevitably leads to an increase in the capacitor current, which in turn causes overheating of the
component. The gas pressure which is produced in the interior of the capacitor causes the casing to tear
open and the gas mixture to ignite and burn for several minutes with a flame similar to that of a welding
torch.
• Even in the case of fire, the capacitor remains so highly resistive that even a mains fuse connected in
series does not respond.

51
Figure 2: Breakdown channel Figure 3: Breakdownchannel
polyester metallized paper

Advantages of the WIMA Metallized Paper Technology

Metallized paper capacitors are subject to the same physical factors, too. However, in the case of WIMA
metallized paper capacitors, the amount of carbon deposited in the form of graphite sediment is 20 times smaller,
thanks to the good oxidation balance of the paper dielectric.

Proportion of deposited carbon in %


Dielectric Total formula of the molecular chain
theoretical empirical
Cellulose (paper) C6H10O5 2 2.2
Cellulose acetate C10.6H14.5O7.3 5 3
Polypropylene C3H6 54 50.5

52
Polyethylene terephthalate C10H8O4 41 37.5

The insulation area created during the self-healing process is free of carbon bridges, so that minimal short
circuits cannot occur (figure 3). An inadmissible rise in temperature because of a decreasing insulating
resistance is avoided. The capacitor has regenerated completely.

In addition WIMA MP capacitors are fully impregnated under vacuum and encapsulated with self-extinguishing
material. There are no air pockets and contact of the capacitor paper with oxygen is not possible.

Extensive tests have shown that, even when high energy pulses are applied, WIMA metallized paper capacitors
are not actively flammable because of the high breakdown strength and significantly better regeneration
behaviour of the metallized paper.

Model of a reproduceable flammability test

Selection of Capacitors for Pulse Applications


The maximum permissible AC voltage that can be applied to capacitors in sinusoidal waveform applications, can be
determined from the graphs in the respective capacitor ranges.

However, where pulse conditions exists, the following procedure is to be observed to ensure that the correct capacitor rating
is selected for a particular duty:

Rated voltage (Ur): The rated voltage of a capacitor against a zero potential reference point shall take into consideration
that the dielectric strenght of the capacitor film diminishes with rising frequency. The calculation of the required rated

53
voltage of a capacitor must therefore allow for the correction factor k; where k = dielectric strength of the film at the
frequency f in % is shown in graph 1.

Graph 1: Dielectric strength of Polypropylene film


as a factor of frequency (general guide).

The calculation of the required dielectric strength is shown in the following example(Umin, Umax have the same
polarity).

54
Furthermore the rms voltage derived from the peak to peak voltage shall not be greater than the nominal AC
voltage rating of the capacitor to avoid the ionization inception level:
Urms < UAC rated.

Maximum current: The voltage gradient or rise time of the pulse is taken as the reference point when
calculating the maximum current rating of the end contacts. The maximum possible current load on the end
contacts is calculated by means of the voltage rise of the pulse (pulse rise time F).
Imax = F x C x 1.6

The data of the rated pulse rise time Fr for pulses equal to the rated rated voltage figure in the technical data of
the different types. With low voltage rise in operation (Upp) the permissible current load is calculated as follows:

55
for example Ur = 63 V, Upp = 12 V, Fr = 50 V/µsec.

hence Fmax = x 50 = 262.5 V/µsec.

When using maximum current ratings, self-heating must be taken into account at higher frequencies, and must
not exceed 8 K.

Dissipation (heat losses): The heat dissipated by a capacitor when stressed by non-sinusoidal voltages or
when under pulse conditions can be approximately determined from the following formula:

Pd = Urms2 x C x tan where


Pd = dissipation in Watts (see table 1 for the max.W per K).
Urms = root mean square value of the AC voltage share
= 2 x f, where f is the repetition frequency of the pulse waveform.
C = capacitance in Farad
tan = dissipation factor corresponding to the frequency of the steepest part of the pulse.

pulse frequency =

The temperature rise is as follows:

56
Temperature rise in K = (see table 1)

Printed circuit module Specific dissipation in Watts per K


Table 1: The data is for
PCM (in mm) above the ambient temperature
ordinary assembly and
2.5 0.0025 ventilation conditions avoiding
5 0.004 radiant heat within the chassis
7.5 0.006 of the equipment.
10 0.0075
15 0.012
22.5 0.015
27.5 0.025
37.5 0.03

In applications where reliability is critical, it is recommended to measure the surface temperature of the
capacitor and to take into account that the temperature within that capacitor will be approximately 5 K above the
case temperature.

Determining the permissible AC voltage and AC current at given frequencies.


To determine the permissible AC voltage (sinusoidal) for applications in a higher frequency spectrum, graphs
showing AC voltage derating with frequency are available for the respective WIMA series. The diagrams refer to
a permissible self-heating of:

57
< 10 K.

For the WIMA MKP 10 / 0.01µF / 630VDC/400VAC, for example, this shows - when f = 50kHz - a permissible AC
voltage of

Urms = 280 V (graph 2).

Graph 2: Permissible AC voltage in relation to


frequency at 10°C internal temperature rise
(general guide).

The AC voltage given in the diagrams can also be used to determine the maximum effective current

58
Xc = 318

Ic = 0.88 A

The calculated maximum value of the effective current

Ip = 1.24 A

must not exceed the maximum current rating specified in the maximum pulse rise time calculation (see Fmax
above). In this case, the operating AC voltage is to be reduced accordingly.

Selection example for pulse application capacitors

Selection Example for Pulse Application Capacitors

59
Determination of the nominal voltage

Calculation is based on an operating temperature < +60°C unless other data is given by the user.

Ur > 350 V
Urms 85 V (referring to AC voltage share)
Selected nominal voltage: 400VDC / 250VAC lead spacing 27.5mm

Permissible voltage gradient

The voltage rise time is ~ 87.5 V/µsec.

Value from the table "pulse rise time WIMA FKP 1": 7000 V/µsec.

The calculated voltage gradient is lower than the permissible value shown in the catalogue for this capacitor.

Dissipation

60
Given: Urms = 85 V
f = 32 kHz
C = 0.1 µF

The frequency determined from the steepest part of the pulse is:
Pulse width = 15 µsec = 1 cycle.

Hence pulse frequency = ~ 66 kHz

The tan of WIMA FKP 1 at 66 kHz ~ 10 x 10-4 (graph: Dissipation factor change versus frequency)
Pd = 852 x 2 x 32 x 103 x 0.1 x 10-6 x 10 x 10-4 ~ 0.145 Watts.

The selected capacitor has a lead spacing of 27.5mm


(specific dissipation = 0.025 W/K according to table 1) and the temperature rise due to self-heating is:

Temperature rise = ~ + 6K

The temperature rise plus the max. ambient temperature = max. permissible operating temperature (taking into
account the voltage derating in the Electrical Data). If the permissible temperature is exceeded, then select a
capacitor with a higher voltage rating.

Alternatively, our engineers will submit their recommendations upon receipt of voltage and current
oscillogrammes. Questionnaire available on demand at WIMA Sales Office

61
Overview
FKP 1
MKP 10 FKP 4 PDF-File

Page 2

Polypropylene (PP) Capacitors for Pulse Applications with Metal Foil Electrodes, Schoopage Contacts, Double-Sided Metallization
and Self-Healing, Internal Series Connection for Highest Current Carrying Capability in PCM 15 mm to 37.5 mm

Special Features Electrical Data


Extremely high pulse duty Capacitance range: Test voltage:
Self-healing 100 pF to 0.22 µF (E12-values on 2 Ur, 2sec / 6 kV: 1.6 Ur, 2sec
Internal series connection request) Dielectric absorption:
Very low dissipation factor Rated voltages: 0.05%
Negative capacitance change 400VDC, 630VDC, 1000VDC, Voltage derating:
versus 1250VDC, 1600VDC, 2000VDC, A voltage derating factor of 1.35% per
4000VDC, 6000VDC K must be applied from +85°C for DC
temperature Capacitance tolerances: voltages and from +75°C for AC
According to RoHS 2002/95/EC ±20%, ±10%, ±5% (other tolerances voltages.
Typical Applications are available subject to special Reliability:
For high pulse and high enquiry) Operational life > 300000 hours
frequency applications e.g. Operating temperature range: Failure rate < 1 fit (0.5 x Ur and 40°C)
Switch mode power supplies -55°C to +100°C
Converter in drives and power Climatic test category:
electronics 55/100/56 in accordance with IEC
Insulation resistance at +20°C: Graphs:

62
Deflection systems in monitors C < 0.1 µF: > 1 x 105 M
(mean value: 5 x 105 M ) Soldering:
and TV-sets C > 0.1 µF: > 30000 sec (M xµF)
Electronic ballasts (mean value: 100000 sec)
Construction Measuring voltage: 100V/1 min.
Dielectric: Dissipation factors at +20°C: tan
Polypropylene (PP) film at f C < 0.1 µF 0.1 µF < C < 0.22 µF
Capacitor electrodes: -4
1kHz < 3 x 10 < 3 x 10-4
Aluminium foil and double-sided
10kHz < 4 x 10-4 < 6 x 10-4
metallized plastic film -4
100kHz < 10 x 10 -
Internal construction:
Maximum pulse rise time: for pulses equal to the rated voltage
Capacitance max. pulse rise time V/µsec at TA < 40°C
pF/µF 400VD630VD 1000V 1250V 1600V 2000V 4000V 6000VD
C C DC DC DC DC DC C
100...220 - - - - 56000 56000 - -
330...680 - - - - 51000 56000 56000 56000
1000...2200 29000 29000 29000 29000 46000 51000 51000 51000
Encapsulation: 3300...6800 9000 14000 27000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000
Solvent-resistant, flame-retardent 0.01 ...0.022 9000 11000 11000 11000 11000 13000 13000 13000
plastic case with epoxy resin seal, 0.033...0.068 9000 11000 11000 11000 11000 11000 - -
UL 94 V-0 0.1...0.22 7000 11000 11000 11000 11000 - - -
Terminations:
Tinned wire Mechanical Tests Packing
Marking: Pull test on leads: Available taped and reeled up to and
Colour: Red. Marking: Black. d < 0.8 Ø: 10 N in direction of leads including case size 15x26x31.5 / PCM
Epoxy resin seal: Yellow d > 0.8 Ø: 20 N in direction of leads 27.5mm.
according to IEC 60068-2-21
Vibration: Detailed taping information:
6 hours at 10...2000Hz and 0.75mm
displacement amplitude or 10g in

63
accordance with IEC 60068-2-6 Example for ordering / Part number:
Low air density:
1kPa = 10 mbar in accordance with
IEC 60068-2-13
Bump test:
4000 bumps at 390 m/sec2 in
accordance with IEC 60068-2-29

Typical Characteristics and Graphs


of the Polypropylene (PP) Film

Polypropylene Film and Foil Types

Metallized Polypropylene Types

64
Typical Applications Capacitance change versus
For high frequency and high pulse temperature
applications e.g. (f=1 kHz) (general guide)
Sample and hold
Timing
LC-Filtering
Oscillating circuits
Audio equipment
High frequency coupling and
decoupling
TV and monitor sets Dissipation factor change
Lighting versus frequency
Power electronics (general guide)
Film Properties
Dielectric constant at 1kHz and
+23°C:
2.2 negative as temperature rise
Specific volume resistance in
cm at +23°C:
6 x 1018
Dielectric strength (DC voltage) Dissipation factor change
in V/µm at +23°C: versus temperature
650 (f=1 kHz) (general guide)
Preferred temperature range in
°C:
-55 to +100
Dielectric absorption in % at
+23°C:
0.05 to 0.10

65
Annotation: Insulation resistance change
versus temperature
The full lines characterize the (general guide)
metallized versions.
The broken lines show the film/foil
types.

ESR change versus frequency


(general guide)

Self-Inductance Depends on Construction Principle


Depending on the construction, an alternating current in the capacitor winding creates a more or less distinctive
magnetic field which can be measured as inductance.

Old Type with High Self-Inductance

66
The tape length of the
winding element determines
the value of the self-inductance

Modern WIMA Type

Modern plastic film capacitors are contacted over the whole end surface of the winding element. In this way the
self-inductance of the winding element is short-circuited.

The self-inductance is reduced to the PCM (0.8 nH/mm) and the remaining length of the terminating wires (in
case of SMD capacitors the distance between the soldering plates).

Average value for practical applications: inductance related to length = 0.8 nH/mm
Example: length of the terminating wires = 2 x 3 mm + PCM

67
WIMA MKS 02 / PCM 2.5 mm WIMA SMD /Size code 1812
Self-inductance L < 8 nH Self-inductance L < 6 nH

Increasing winding lengths in relation to the capacitance result in a large bonding area and guarantee low ESR
values.

Thus plastic film capacitors stand out because of their HF properties which are the same as or better than those
of ceramic capacitors of comparable size.

Comparison of Impedance

68
WIMA MKS 02 / 0.1µF/ PCM 2.5mm
Z = f(f) / f(T)
-20° to +85°C

(also applicable for size code 1812)

WIMA MKS 2 / 0.1µF/ PCM 5mm


Z = f(f) / f(T)
-20° to +85°C

(also applicable for size code 2220)

69
Ceramic X7R / PCM 5mm
Z = f(f) / f(T)
-20° C
..0°
+25°
+40°
+60°
+85°

Impedance with temperature can be neglected with film capacitors but is remarkable with ceramic capacitors.

With film technology there is no difference between stacked or wound versions.

Circuit Arrangements of Capacitors


In Parallel

In Series

70
Marking of WIMA Capacitors
SMD Capacitors

Marking of WIMA SMD capacitors was gradually ceased as of July 2003. Identification is possible by the labelling of packages
and delivery notes respectively.

Through-Hole Capacitors

In general, WIMA through-hole capacitors are marked on the front side of the box in plain text with brand name, capacitor
series, capacitance, nominal voltage, date code and tolerance. Capacitors with PCM smaller than 15 mm will have the
tolerance indicated on the reverse. Standard tolerance 20% is not marked.

PCM 2.5mm and


PCM 5mm film/foil

71
PCM 5mm metallized *

PCM 7.5 and 10mm

PCM 15 through 37.5mm

The series name MKS 2, FKP 3 etc. is composed as follows:

The first letter indicates the type of construction

"M" = metallized construction

72
"F" = film/foil construction (brands of other manufacturers are missing this letter)

The second letter "K" stands for plastic film capacitors.

The third letter indicates the dielectric film used

"S" = Polyester / PET (other manufacturers are using "T")


"P" = Polypropylene / PP

The numbers following are WIMA-specific markings.

Metallized paper capacitors are marked with "MP".

The cases of 2.5 mm and 5 mm capacitors are too small to imprint with the series type (i.e. MKS 2, FKS 2 etc.). Instead, these capacitors
must be identified by different colours of the marking inks and epoxy fill.

73
PCM 2.5
Case Marking Example Notice
mm

FKP 02 Red Black Yellow epoxy fill

MKS 02 Red Silver Yellow epoxy fill

PCM 5 mm Case Marking Example Notice

FKS 2 Red Silver Yellow epoxy fill

FKP 2 Red Black Yellow epoxy fill

MKS 2 Red Silver/White* Red epoxy fill

MKP 2 Red Black* Red epoxy fill

* As of September 2005 WIMA changes step by step the metallized capacitors in PCM 5 mm to top marking. Following series
are concerned:

(Marking
WIMA MKS 2:
White)
WIMA MKP 2: (Marking Black)

74
Application Guide for WIMA Capacitors
PDF

Fields of Application
Overview New
Automotive Power Lighting Medical Consumer Telecom/Data
Energ
Product Family Range Description Picture
Size Codes 1812 - 6054

SMD-PET/-PPS
SMD Capacitors

PCM 2.5 - 37.5 mm

MKS, MKP,
Film Capacitors
FKS, FKP

Pulse Duty Capacitors PCM 7.5 - 37.5 mm

75
MKP 10, FKP 4, FKP 1

PCM 7.5 - 27.5 mm

MKP-X2/-Y2
EMI Suppression Capacitors
MP 3-X2/-X1/-Y2/R-Y2

Variable terminations

Snubber MKP/FKP
Snubber Capacitors

Axial screw connection

GTO MKP
GTO Capacitors

76
Variable contacts

DC-LINK MKP 4/C/HC


DC-LINK Capacitors

Cylindrical or rectangular

SuperCap C/MC/R/MR
SuperCaps

Fields of Application
Safety Auxiliaries Powertrain Features
Airbag Braking Tire pressure HID Small motor Electrical Remote DC/DC Fuel
Automotive control system monitoring lamps drives (e.g. power keyless converter pump,
unit control unit unit seats, steering entry and inverter diesel
mirrors, filter
(ABS/ESC) windows Electric control
etc.) drives unit

77
SMD SMD- SMD-PPS SMD-PET, SMD-PET SMD-PET SMD- SMD-PET Operating
Capacitors PPS PET temp. up to
SMD-PPS 140°C
0.01 µF - 6.8 Operating l
µF > 300.000 h
Suitable for
63 - 1000 VDC lead-free

Size 1812 - soldering at


6054 < 250°C
Film MKS, MKS, MKP MKS, MKP MKS Operating
Capacitors temp. up to
FKS FKS MKP, 100°C
1000 pF - 220 Operating l
µF FKS > 300.000 h
Smallest PC
50 - 2000 VDC 2.5mm

PCM 2.5 -
37.5mm
Pulse Duty MKP MKP 10, Operating
Capacitors 10, temp. up to
FKP 4, 100°C
100 pF - 15 µF FKP Operating l
4, FKP 1, > 300.000 h
100 - 6000 Highest du/
VDC FKP MKP
1,
PCM 7.5 -
37.5mm MKP

78
Snubber Snubber Operating
Capacitors temp. up to
MKP/FKP 100°C
0.01 µF - 25 Operating l
µF > 300.000 h
Various con
250 - 4000
VDC configuratio

Variable
terminations
DC-LINK DC-LINK Operating
Capacitors temp. up to
100°C
5 µF - 4500 µF Operating l
> 200.000 h
400 - 1600 4-lead or
VDC screwable p

Variable connections
terminations
SuperCaps SuperCap MC/MR modules for boardnet SuperCap MC/MR modules for SuperCap MC/MR Operating
stabilisation and safety back-up local power supply modules for temp.
12 F - 840 F recuperation of braking -30/+65°C
energy/power boost Operating l
5 - 112 VDC > 10 years
Discharge
(+customized) current up t

several 100

79
Fields of Application
Power Electronics Features
Power Electronics Battery charger Frequency Power supply / UPS Electronic
converter SMPS power
meter
SMD Capacitors SMD-PET SMD-PET, Operating temp. up to
140°C
0.01 µF - 6.8 µF SMD-PPS Operating life > 300.0
h
63 - 1000 VDC Suitable for lead-free

Size 1812 - 6054 soldering at T < 250°C


Film Capacitors MKS, MKP, MKS, MKP, Operating temp. up to
FKS FKS 100°C
1000 pF - 220 µF Operating life > 300.0
h
50 - 2000 VDC Smallest PCM 2.5 mm

PCM 2.5 - 37.5mm


Pulse Duty Capacitors MKP 10, MKP 10, Operating temp. up to
100°C
100 pF - 15 µF FKP 4, FKP 4, Operating life > 300.0
h

80
Highest du/dt
100 - 6000 VDC FKP 1, FKP 1,

PCM 7.5 - 37.5mm MKP MKP


EMI Supression MP 3-X1/-X2/- MP 3-X1/-X2/- MP 3-X1/-X2/- Operating temp. up to
Capacitors Y2 Y2 Y2 110°C
Operating life > 300.0
1000 pF - 2.2 µF MKP-X2/-Y2 MKP-X2/-Y2 MKP-X2/-Y2 h
High reliability agains
250 - 500 VAC active

PCM 7.5 - 27.5mm or passive flammabilit


(MP)
Snubber Capacitors Snubber Snubber Snubber Operating temp. up to
100°C
0.01 µF - 25 µF MKP/FKP MKP/FKP MKP/FKP Operating life > 300.0
h
250 - 4000 VDC Various contact
configurations
Variable terminations
DC-LINK Capacitors DC-LINK Operating temp. up to
100°C
5 µF - 4500 µF Operating life > 200.0
h
400 - 1600 VDC 4-lead and screwable p

Variable terminations configurations

81
SuperCaps SuperCap Operating temp.
MC/MR -30/+65°C
12 F - 840 F Operating life > 10 ye
modules as Discharge current up t
5 - 112 VDC
emergency several 1000 A
(+customized) backup

system

Fields of Application
Lighting Power Supply Features
Electronic ballasts Energy saving lamps
Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) dielec
Good resistiveness to increased tempera
Metallized Capacitors MKP 2, MKS 2, Low dissipation factor
Self-healing properties
1000 pF - 220 µF MKS 4, MKP 2,
Polypropylene (PP) dielectric
50 - 2000 VDC MKP 4 MKS 4, Negative capacitance change versus
temperature
PCM 5 - 37.5mm MKP 4 Very low dissipation factor
Self-healing properties

82
Polypropylene (PP) dielectric
High pulse duty
Pulse Duty Capacitors MKP 10, MKP 10, Internal series connection

100 pF - 15 µF FKP 4, FKP 4, (MKP 10 > 630 VDC, FKP 4, FKP 1)


Negative capacitance change versus
100 - 6000 VDC FKP 1 FKP 1 temperature
Very low dissipation factor
PCM 7.5 - 37.5mm Self-healing properties

Polypropylene (PP) dielectric


High degree of interference suppression
EMI Supression MKP-X2, MKP-X2, to
Capacitors
MKP-Y2 MKP-Y2 good attenuation and low ESR
1000 pF - 2.2 µF Self-healing properties

275 - 300 VAC

PCM 7.5 - 27.5mm

Class X2, Y2

83
Fields of Application
Medical Equipment Features
Medical Imaging equipment Anesthesia Cleaning Defibrillation Patient care monitoring Respiration
(CT, MRT, X-Ray, equipment equipment devices (glucose meter, blood technology
ultrasound) gas analyser, telemetry)
SMD Capacitors SMD-PET, SMD-PET, SMD-PET, SMD-PET, Operating tem
up to 140°C
0.01 µF - 6.8 µF SMD-PPS SMD-PPS SMD-PPS SMD-PPS Operating life
300.000 h
63 - 1000 VDC Suitable for le
free
Size 1812 - 6054
soldering at T
250°C
Film Capacitors MKP MKS, MKS, MKS, MKS, Operating tem
up to 100°C
1000 pF - 220 µF MKP MKP MKP MKP Operating life
300.000 h

84
Smallest PCM
50 - 2000 VDC 2.5 mm

PCM 2.5 -
37.5mm
Pulse Duty MKP 10, MKP 10, MKP 10, Operating tem
Capacitors up to 100°C
FKP 4, FKP 4, FKP 4, Operating life
100 pF - 15 µF 300.000 h
FKP 1 FKP 1 FKP 1 Highest du/dt
100 - 6000 VDC

PCM 7.5 -
37.5mm
EMI Supression MP 3-X1, MP 3-X1, MP 3-X1, MP 3-X1, MP 3-X1, MP 3-X1, Operating tem
Capacitors up to 110°C
MP 3-X2, MP 3-X2, MP 3-X2, MP 3-X2, MP 3-X2, MP 3-X2, Operating life
1000 pF - 1.0 µF 300.000 h
MP 3-Y2 MP 3-Y2 MP 3-Y2 MP 3-Y2 MP 3-Y2 MP 3-Y2 High reliabilit
250 - 500 VAC against active

PCM 7.5 - or passive


27.5mm flammability
Snubber Snubber Operating tem
Capacitors up to 100°C
MKP/FKP Operating life
0.01 µF - 25 µF 300.000 h
Various conta
250 - 4000 VDC configuration

85
Variable
terminations
SuperCaps SuperCap C/R Operating tem
-30/+65°C
100 F - 6500 F Operating life
10 years
2.5 VDC Discharge cur
up to
(+customized)
several 1000 A

Fields of Application
Consumer Electronics Features
Consumer High-end Amplifier LCD / Set top Video Control units for White goods (induction
audio Plasma boxes systems home appliances cooker, ignition units
systems TVs etc.)
SMD Capacitors SMD-PPS SMD-PET, SMD-PET SMD-PET Operating temp
to 140°C
0.01 µF - 6.8 µF SMD-PPS Operating life >
300.000 h
63 - 1000 VDC Suitable for lead

86
free
Size 1812 - 6054
soldering at T <
250°C
Film Capacitors MKS, MKS, MKP MKS MKS, MKS, Operating temp
to 100°C
27 pF - 220 µF MKP, MKP, MKP MKP, Operating life >
300.000 h
50 - 2000 VDC FKP FKP FKS Smallest PCM 2
mm
PCM 2.5 -
37.5mm
Pulse Duty MKP 10 MKP 10 MKP 10 MKP 10, MKP 10, Operating temp
Capacitors to 100°C
FKP 4, FKP 4, Operating life >
100 pF - 15 µF 300.000 h
FKP 1 FKP 1 Highest du/dt
100 - 6000 VDC

PCM 7.5 -
37.5mm
EMI Supression MP 3-X1/- MP 3-X1/- MKP-X2, MKP-X2, MKP-X2, MP 3-X1/-X2/-Y2, Operating temp
Capacitors X2/-Y2, X2/-Y2, to 110°C
MKP-Y2 MKP-Y2 MKP-Y2 MKP-X2/-Y2 Operating life >
1000 pF - 2.2 µF MKP-X2/- MKP-X2/- 300.000 h
Y2 Y2 High reliability
250 - 500 VAC against active

PCM 7.5 - or passive


27.5mm flammability (M

87
Snubber Snubber Operating temp
Capacitors to 100°C
MKP/FKP Operating life >
0.01 µF - 25 µF 300.000 h
Various contact
250 - 4000 VDC configurations

Variable
terminations

Fields of Application
Telecommunication / Data Processing Features
Telecom / Data Power Splitter Data processing Network devices Wireless Memory
supply systems (server (router, switcher, communication backup
etc.) hubs, modems) (WLAN, UMTS etc.)
SMD Capacitors SMD-PET, SMD-PET, SMD-PET, SMD-PET, Operating tem
up to 140°C
0.01 µF - 6.8 µF SMD-PPS SMD-PPS SMD-PPS SMD-PPS Operating lif
300.000 h
63 - 1000 VDC Suitable for
lead-free
Size 1812 - 6054
soldering at T

88
250°C
Film Capacitors MKS, MKS, MKS, MKS, Operating tem
up to 100°C
1000 pF - 220 µF MKP MKP, MKP, MKP, Operating lif
300.000 h
50 - 2000 VDC FKS FKS FKS Smallest PCM
2.5 mm
PCM 2.5 -
37.5mm
Pulse Duty MKP 10, MKP 10, MKP 10, MKP 10, Operating tem
Capacitors up to 100°C
FKP 4, FKP 4, FKP 4, FKP 4, Operating lif
100 pF - 15 µF 300.000 h
FKP 1 FKP 1 FKP 1 FKP 1 Highest du/d
100 - 6000 VDC

PCM 7.5 -
37.5mm
EMI Supression MP 3- MP 3-X1/-X2/- MP 3-X1/-X2/-Y2, Operating tem
Capacitors X1/-X2/- Y2, up to 110°C
Y2, MKP-X2/-Y2 Operating lif
1000 pF - 2.2 µF MKP-X2/-Y2 300.000 h
MKP- High reliabil
250 - 500 VAC X2/-Y2 against active

PCM 7.5 - or passive


27.5mm flammability
(MP)

89
SuperCaps SuperCap C/R Operating tem
-30/+65°C
100 F - 6500 F Operating lif
10 years
2.5 VDC Discharge
current up to
(+customized)
several 1000

Fields of Application
New Energy Feature
New Energy
Energy storage in Converter Power supply UPS
photovoltaic systems
Pulse Duty MKP 10, MKP 10, MKP 10, Operating
Capacitors temp. up t
FKP 4, FKP 4, FKP 4, 100°C
100 pF - 15 Operating
µF FKP 1, FKP 1, FKP 1, > 300.000
Highest du
100 - 6000 MKP MKP MKP
VDC

PCM 7.5 -

90
37.5mm
Snubber Snubber Snubber Snubber Operating
Capacitors temp. up t
MKP/FKP MKP/FKP MKP/FKP 100°C
0.01 µF - 25 Operating
µF > 300.000
Various
250 - 4000 contact
VDC configurat

Variable
terminations
GTO GTO MKP GTO MKP GTO MKP Operating
Capacitors temp. up t
°C
1µF - 100 µF Operating
> 300.000
400 - 1600 Axial scre
VDC and thread
connection
Axial screw
connection
DC-LINK DC-LINK DC-LINK DC-LINK Operating
Capacitors temp. up t
100°C
5 µF - 4500 Operating
µF > 200.000
4-lead or
400 - 1600 screwable

91
plate
VDC
connection
Variable
terminations
SuperCaps SuperCap SuperCap MC/MR SuperCap MC/MR Operating
C/MC/R/MR temp.
12 F - 6500 F (e.g pitch control in wind turbine for emergency backup -30/+65°C
systems) systems Operating
2.5 - 112 > 10 years
VDC Discharge
current up
(+customized)
several 10
A

WIMA SMD Capacitors


Fields of Application: Automotive, Power, Medical, Consumer, Telecom/Data
Product
Application Function Circuit Application Waveform Requirements Special Characteristics
Type

92
SMD- Blocking/Coupling -High insulation Operating temperatures up to 100°C
PET resistance (SMD-PET) and 140°C (SMD-PPS)
High-Pass Filter: Suitable for lead-free soldering at
SMD- elevated processing temperature Tpeak
PPS -preventing DC voltages -Low self-inductance 250°C (SMD-PPS)
-transferring AC (to observe voltage Suitable for filtering due to low
voltages rating) dissipation factor (SMD-PPS)
Bypass/Decoupling -High insulation
Compared to Ceramic SMD (MLCC):
resistance
Low-Pass Filter:
No internal cracks or delamination
C/C over temperature: very low (SM
-suppressing -Low self-inductance
PET) or extremely low (SMD-PPS)
transmission of high
Self-healing capability -> high
frequencies (AC
withstanding voltage, high reliability
voltages)
Smoothing -Comparably high
capacitance
-smoothing of pulsating
DC-voltages from AC-
rectifier -Low dissipation
factor (to observe
frequency)
SMD- Band-Pass Filter (e.g. -Low dissipation
PPS Audio, TV) factor

-pass frequencies within


a certain range -Stable capacitance
-attenuate frequencies
outside that range

93
Band-Stop Filter (e.g. -Low dissipation
Audio, TV) factor

-attenuate frequencies
within a specific range -Stable capacitance
-pass frequencies outside
that range

WIMA Film Capacitors (PCM 2.5 - 37.5 mm)


Fields of Application: Automotive, Power, Lighting, Medical, Consumer, Telecom/Data, New Energy
Product
Application Function Circuit Application Waveform Requirements Special Characteristics
Type

94
MKS 02, Blocking/Coupling -High insulation Metallized Film Capacitors (MK-
MKS 2, resistance Types):
High-Pass Filter:
MKS 4, High capacitance values in small box
-preventing DC -Low self- sizes
FKS 2, voltages inductance (to
FKS 3 -transferring AC observe voltage
voltages rating) Smallest PCM: 2.5 mm (MKS 02)
Bypass/Decoupling -High insulation
resistance
MKP 2, Low-Pass Filter: C/C over temperature: very low (MK
MKP 4 MKP)
-suppressing -Low self-
(HF- transmission of high inductance
coupling/ frequencies (AC Self-healing capability -> high
voltages) withstanding voltage, high reliability
decoupling)

Very low dissipation factor (MKP)

High-frequency application (MKP) due


MKS 02, Smoothing -Comparably
low dissipation factor
MKS 2, high
-smoothing of pulsating capacitance
Film/Foil Capacitors (FK-Types):
MKS 4, DC-voltages from AC-
rectifier
High pulse and current rating
MKP 4 -Low dissipation
factor (to
observe
Smallest PCM: 2.5 mm (FKP 02)
frequency)

95
FKP 02, Band-Pass Filter (e.g. -Low dissipation
FKP 2, Audio, TV) factor

FKP 3, -pass frequencies C/C over temperature: very low (FKS


within a certain range -Stable FKP)
MKP 2, -attenuate frequencies capacitance
MKP 4 outside that range
Band-Stop Filter (e.g. -Low dissipation High insulation resistance (FKS) or ver
Audio, TV) factor high insulation resistance (FKP)

-attenuate frequencies
within a specific range -Stable Close tolerances up to 1% (FKP)
-pass frequencies capacitance
outside that range
High-frequency application (FKP) due
FKP 02, Timing (e.g. Signal -High insulation very low dissipation factor
FKP 2, Light) resistance

FKP 3, -when capacitor is High reliability


charged voltage is -Stable
MKP 2, increasing over time capacitance
MKP 4 -after passing certain
value a new state
change occurs
FKP 02, Sample and Hold (e.g. -Low dielectric
FKP 2, Amplifier) absorption

FKP 3, Analogue-Digital
Converter: -High insulation
MKP 2, resistance
MKP 4 -capacitor is used to

96
store analogue voltage
value
-electronic switch is
used to
connect/disconnect
capacitor from
analogue input
(sampling rate)
Peak Voltage -Low dielectric
Detectors absorption

-diode conducts
positive "half cycles" -High insulation
to charge capacitor to resistance
peak voltage
-DC "peak" is stored in
the capacitor, the
diode is blocking
current flow
-capacitor retains the
peak value even if the
waveform drops to
zero

97
WIMA Pulse Duty Capacitors (PCM 7.5 - 37.5 mm)
Fields of Application: Automotive, Power, Lighting, Medical, Consumer, Telecom/Data, New Energy
Product
Application Function Circuit Application Waveform Requirements Special Characteristics
Type
MKP Fly-Back (e.g. Monitor, -Low dissipation factor Pulse and current rating: high (MKP 10
10, TV) very high (FKP 4) or extremely high
(FKP 1)
-current flows from -High pulse rise time

98
deflection coil to fly-back
FKP 4, capacitor
-electron beam is rapidly Self-healing capability -> high
FKP 1 shifted from right to left -High dielectric withstanding voltage, outstanding
side of screen strength reliability

MKP S-Correction (Smoothing) -Low dissipation factor


10, Very low dissipation factor
-current flows from CL
(MKP through trafo deflection -Good pulse rise time
4) coils to Cs High insulation resistance
-Cs is smoothing pulsating
DC-voltages
MKP Energy Storage (e.g. -High pulse rise time
10, Ballasts)

FKP 4, -capacitor is charged to a -High (surge) current


high voltage, stores the carrying capacity
FKP 1 energy and then releases it
in short time
-High insulation
resistance
MKP Oscillating Circuit -Low dissipation factor
10,
Resonant system (LC):
FKP 4, -AC voltage oscillates at -Stable capacitance
resonant frequency (please refer to
FKP 1 -see also filter applications technical data)
MKP Snubbing (e.g. Relay) -Low dissipation factor

99
10,

FKP 4, -capacitor attenuates over-


voltage peaks by high -High pulse rise time
FKP 1 current switching (please refer to
technical data)
(FKP
02,
FKP 2,

FKP 3)

WIMA EMI Suppression Capacitors


Fields of Application: Automotive, Power, Lighting, Medical, Consumer, Telecom/Data, New Energy
Product
Application Function Circuit Application Waveform Requirements Special Characteristics
Type
MKP- EMI Suppression -Particular high reliability High reliability against active and pass
X2, against active and flammability (MP 3-X2, MP 3-X1, MP
-capacitor suppress high- passive flammability Y2,
MKP- frequency disturbances of
Y2, electrical equipment on the MP 3R-Y2)
mains High degree of interference suppressio
MP 3- -Class X capacitors are due to good attenuation and low ESR

100
connected between phase and High volume/capacitance ratio (MKP-X
X2, neutral or phase and phase
conductors MKP-X2 R, MKP-Y2)
MP 3- -Class Y capacitors are
X1, connected between phase
conductors and earthed casing
MP 3- and thus by-pass operating
Y2, insulation

MP
3R-Y2

MKP- Voltage Dropper -High capacitance


X2, stability
-capacitor voltage divider
MKP-
X2 R, -Flame retardant (please
check if approvals are
(MP 3- required)
X1),

(MKS
4)

(> 630
VDC,

> PCM
10)

101
WIMA Snubber Capacitors
Fields of Application: Power, Medical, Consumer, New Energy
Product
Application Function Circuit Application Waveform Requirements Special Characteristics
Type
Snubber Energy Storage -High pulse rise time Pulse and current rating: high (Snubber
MKP, MKP) or very high (Snubber FKP)
-capacitor is charged to a High volume/capacitance ratio (Snubbe
Snubber high voltage, stores the -High (surge) current MKP)
FKP energy and releases it in carrying capacity Self-healing capability -> high
short time withstanding voltage, outstanding
reliability
-High insulation Very low dissipation factor
resistance High insulation resistance
Low self-inductance
Particularly reliable contact
configurations: 4-lead versions or
Snubber Snubbing (e.g. IGBT) -Low dissipation factor
screwable plate connections
MKP,
-capacitor attenuates over-
Snubber voltage peaks by high -High pulse rise time
FKP current switching (please refer to
technical data)

-Low self-inductivity

102
WIMA GTO Capacitors
Fields of Application: Power, New Energy
Product
Application Function Circuit Application Waveform Requirements Special Characteristics
Type
GTO Energy Storage -High pulse rise time Very high pulse and current rating
MKP Self-healing capability -> high
-capacitor is charged to a withstanding voltage, outstanding
high voltage, stores the -High (surge) current reliability
energy and releases it in carrying capacity Very low dissipation factor
short time High insulation resistance
Low self-inductance

103
-High insulation High mechanical stability
resistance High shock and vibration resistance

GTO Snubbing (e.g. GTO- -Low dissipation factor


MKP Thyristor)

-capacitor attenuates over- -High pulse rise time


voltage peaks by high (please refer to
current switching technical data)

-Low self-inductivity

WIMA DC-LINK Capacitors


Fields of Application: Power, New Energy
Product Type Application Function Requirements Special Characteristics
DC-LINK MKP 4 Energy Buffer (e.g. Converter) -High volume/capacitance Volume/capacitance ratio: high (DC-
ratio LINK MKP 4, DC-LINK MKP C) or
DC-LINK MKP C -capacitor stores DC voltage in an intermediate circuit very high (DC-LINK HC)
-high frequency ripple voltage generated by inverter is High mechanical stability
DC-LINK HC short-circuited -High DC-voltage strength Particular reliable contact configuratio
Circuit Application 4-lead versions or screwable plate

104
connections

-Low dissipation factor Advantages Compared to Aluminium


Electrolytic Capacitors:

Low self-inductance
High ripple current capability
High voltage/over-voltage strength by
specific metallization (> 450 VDC) du
self-healing capability
Very constanc C/C
Very low ESR and dissipation factor
Dry construction without electrolyte -
high reliability
Non polar construction
High insulation resistance

WIMA SuperCaps - Automotive

105
Fields of Application: Automotive (Passenger Cars, Trucks, Busses, Military Vehicles and Forklifts)
Product Type Application Function Figure Requirements Special Characteristics
SuperCap Recuperation of Combination with Batteries in Hybrid and -Low fuel Fast supply of several 100 A up to 300
MC/MR Braking Electric Cars consumption A in direct current operation
Energy/Power Boost -Low CO2 emission
"customized" -High dynamic
-SuperCap unit stores -Low weight of Operating temperature range from -30°
energy generated by battery to +65°C
braking and releases -High efficiency
it within short time -Long life-time of
for acceleration battery Many years of maintenance-free
-High reliability of operation with clearly more than 500.0
on-board charge/discharge cycles
electronics
Peak-Load Levelling
- Engine - Electronic - Electric fan Life expectancy of more than 15 years
-SuperCap unit starting
supports battery by stability - Electric water
covering power- - Start-stop control pump Low weight as against batteries or
peaks secondary batteries
- Electric - 4-weehl - Audio system
heating steering
- Door Environmentally friendly materials
Local Power Supply - Electric - Electric close/lock
steering brakes
-SuperCap unit
supplies local electric
systems which need
peak-power within
short time

106
Boardnet
Stabilisation

-Safety backup for


security relevant on-
board electronic
systems
SuperCap Cranking of Engines Replacement of Starter Batteries -Power supply
MC/MR under extreme
-SuperCap unit weather conditions
MC 110/14, supplies peak-power (-30°C)
within a short time to -Long de-energized
MC 200/14, crank an engine periods (vintage
-After cranking the cars)
"customized" engine the SuperCap -Low maintenance
unit gets charged cost
immediately

WIMA SuperCaps - Transportation


Fields of Application: Transportation (Tram, Subway, Train)
Product Type Application Function Figure Requirements Special Characteristics

107
SuperCap Recuperation of Braking "Rolling Stock" -Energy Fast supply of several 100 A up to 300
MC/MR Energy/Power Boost saving A in direct current operation
-High
"customized" -SuperCap unit stores energy dynamic
generated by braking and -High Operating temperature range from -30°
releases it within short time for efficiency to +65°C
acceleration -Peak-power
supply
-Reduction of Many years of maintenance-free
overhead operation with clearly more than 500.0
Peak-Load Levelling contact lines charge/discharge cycles
in historic
-Coverage of power-peaks -Integrated heat sink cities
-Saving of approx. Life expectancy of more than 15 years
30% of energy by
recupreation
Short-Term Energy Storage -Efficiency >95% Low weight as against batteries or
secondary batteries
-Network support in local traffic
systems by energy storage
Environmentally friendly materials
SuperCap Motor Start Replacement of -Power
MC/MR Starter Batteries supply under
-SuperCap unit supplies peak- extreme
"customized" power within a short time to (e.g. diesel-electric weather
crank an engine engines) conditions (-
30°C)
Saving: -Low weight
-Low fuel
-approx. 90% of consumption
weight -Low

108
-approx. 25% of fuel maintenance
cost

WIMA SuperCaps - Power Supply (UPS); Telecom/Data


Fields of Application: Power Supply (UPS); Telecom/Data (Memory Backup)
Product Type Application Function Figure Requirements Special Characteristics
SuperCap UPS UPS-Emergency Backup in Hospitals, -Emergency backup to Fast supply of several 100 A up to 300
MC/MR Telecommunication Systems, Oil and Gas avoid downtime after A in direct current operation
-Short-term power Extraction short blackout
"customized" supply when mains -Peak-power supply
power failure (cost-intensive processes) -Long life-time Operating temperature range from -30°
-Low maintenance
cost

109
to +65°C

Peak-Load Levelling Many years of maintenance-free


operation with clearly more than 500.0
-Coverage of power- charge/discharge cycles
peaks

Life expectancy of more than 15 years

Low weight as against batteries or


secondary batteries
- Micro-turbine start bridging

Environmentally friendly materials


SuperCap Short-Term Energy Memory Backup - On-Board Logic -Memory backup for
C/R Storage seconds/minutes
-Low weight
-SuperCap unit stores -Low maintenance
energy for a short cost
time e.g. after
voltage drop

-
T
r

110
a
n
s
f
e
r
r
i
n
g

d
a
t
a

f
r
o
m

D
D
R

m
e
m
o
r
y

111
t
o

f
l
a
s
h

c
a
r
d

Memory
Backup - Time
Switch

-Protection of clock information after voltage


drop

112
WIMA SuperCaps - New Energy
Fields of Application: New Energy (Wind, Solar Systems)
Product Type Application Function Figure Requirements Special Characteristics
SuperCap Power Supply Pitch Drive of -Power supply under Fast supply of several 100 A up to 300
MC/MR Windmills extreme weather A in direct current operation
-SuperCap unit conditions (-30°C)
"customized" supplies local electric -Emergency switch-
systems which need off system Operating temperature range from -30°
power within short -Life-time for 20 to +65°C
time years
-Low weight
-Low maintenance Many years of maintenance-free
cost operation with clearly more than 500.0
-Continuous charge/discharge cycles
adjustment of rotor
blade angle
-Pitch control Life expectancy of more than 15 years
functionally
independent of line
voltage Low weight as against batteries or
-Emergency stop at secondary batteries
blackout
SuperCap Short-Term Energy Short- -Energy buffer to
C/R Storage Term avoid downtime after Environmentally friendly materials
Energy short blackout
MC/MR -Intermediate storage Buffer in -Power supply under
of peak-voltage to Solar extreme weather
"customized" provide continued Systems conditions (-30°C)
power -Life-time for 20

113
years
-Low weight
-Low maintenance
cost

114
Recommendation for Processing and Application of SMD
Capacitors
Layout Form

The components can generally be positioned on the carrier material as desired. In order to prevent soldering shadows or
ensure regular temperature distribution, extreme concentration of the components should be avoided. In practice, it has
proven best to keep a minimum distance of the soldering surfaces between two WIMA SMDs of twice the height of the
components.
As a basic principle for wave soldering, alignment of the soldering surfaces in accordance with the transport direction of the
printed circuit board through the soldering wave is recommended.

.
L W a b c
Size code d
±0.3 ±0.3 min. min. max.
Solder Pad Recommendation 0.5 1.2
1812 4.8 3.3 3.5 3.5
0.5 1.2
2220 5.7 5.1 4 4.5
0.5 1.2
2824 7.2 6.1 4 6.5
0.5 2.5
4030 10.2 7.6 6 9
0.7 2.5
5040 12.7 10.2 6 11.5
6054 15.3 13.7 6 14
0.7 2.5

Dims. in mm.
The solder pad size recommendations given for each individual series (see SMD series concerned) are to be understood as

115
minimum dimensions which can at any time be adjusted to the layout form.

Processing

The processing of SMD components

- assembling
- soldering
- washing
- electrical final inspection / calibrating

must be regarded as a complete process. The soldering of the printed circuit board, for example, can constitute considerable
stress on all the electronic components.
The manufacturer's instructions on the processing of the components are mandatory.
.

Soldering Process

Re-flow soldering SMD-PET

Size code Tmax.


1812 220°C
2220 230°C
2824 230°C
4030 230°C
5040 240°C

116
6054 250°C

SMD-PPS
Size code Tmax.
1812 250°C
2220 250°C
2824 250°C
4030 250°C
5040 250°C
6054 250°C

Temperature/time graph for the permissible processing temperature of the WIMA SMD film capacitors for typical
convection soldering processes.

Due to the diverse procedures and the varying heat requirements of the different types of components, an exact processing

117
temperature for re-flow soldering processes cannot be specified. The graph shows the upper limits of temperature and time
which must not be exceeded when establishing the solder profile according to your actual requirements.

A max. temperature of T=210°C inside the component should not be exceeded when processing WIMA SMD capacitors.

SMD Handsoldering

WIMA SMD capacitors with plastic film dielectric are generally suitable for hand-soldering with a soldering iron where,
however, similar to automated soldering processes, a certain duration and temperature should not be exceeded. These
parameters are dependent on the physical size of the components and the relevant heat absorption involved.

Size code Temperature Time duration


°C/°F
1812 225/437 2 sec plate 1 / 5 sec off / 2 sec plate 2
2220 225/437 3 sec plate 1 / 5 sec off / 3 sec plate 2
2824 250/482 3 sec plate 1 / 5 sec off / 3 sec plate 2
4030 260/500 5 sec plate 1 / 5 sec off / 5 sec plate 2
5040 260/500 5 sec plate 1 / 5 sec off / 5 sec plate 2
6054 260/500 5 sec plate 1 / 5 sec off / 5 sec plate 2

The above data are to be regarded as guideline values and should serve to avoid damage to the dielectric caused by
excessive heat during the soldering process. The soldering quality depends on the tool used and on the skill and experience
of the person with the soldering iron in hand.

118
.

Solder Paste

To obtain the best soldering performance we suggest the use of following solder paste alloy:

Lead-free solder paste


Sn -Bi
Sn - Zn (Bi)
Sn - Ag - Cu (recommended)

Solder paste with lead


Sn - Pb - Ag (Sn60-Pb40-A, Sn63-Pb37-A)
.

Washing

Basically, all plastic encapsulated components, irrespective of the brand cannot be considered as being
hermetically sealed. They are therefore only suitable for industrial washing processes to a limited extent.
During the washing process, washing agents can penetrate the interior of the component by capillary action
through microcracks which might have occurred.
This is dependent on a number of parameters e.g.

- washing agents
- viscosity of the washing solvent
- temperature/time of the washing process
- mechanical washing aids such as
- ultrasonic
- water pressure
- rinsing and spraying pressure

119
The type of washing agent to be used is largely specific to the individual user or is often laid down by the
manufacturer of the washing equipment. The aggressiveness of the washing agent to be used can thus only be
judged in appropriate test series relating to each individual washing process. By and large, the basic rule is that
the washing process should be carried out as gently as possible.

Drying

During the washing process, aqueous solutions can penetrate the component. This can lead to changes of the electrical
parameters. Suitable drying measures should ensure that no residual moisture or traces of washing substances are left in the
component.
.

Initial Operation / Calibration of the Device

Due to the stress which the components are subjected to during processing, reversible parameter changes occur
in almost all electronic components. The capacitance recovery accuracy to be expected with careful processing
is within a scope of

| C/C| < 5%

For the initial operation of the device a minimum storage time of

t > 24 hours

is to be taken into account. With calibrated devices or when the application is largely dependent on capacitance
it is advisable to prolong the storage time to

t > 10 days

120
In this way ageing effects of the capacitor structure can be anticipated. Parameter changes due to processing
are not to be expected after this period of time.
.

Humidity Protection Bags

Taped WIMA SMD capacitors are shipped in humidity protection bags according to JEDEC standard, level 1 (EMI/static-
shielding bags conforming to MIL-B 81705, Type 1, Class 1).
Under controlled conditions the components can be stored two years and more in the originally sealed bag. Opened packing
units should be consumed instantly or resealed for specific storage under controlled conditions.
.

Reliability

Taking account of the manufacturer's guidelines and compatible processing, the WIMA SMD stand out for the
same high quality and reliability as the analogous through-hole WIMA series. The technology of metallized film
capacitors used e.g. in WIMA SMD achieves the best values for all fields of application.
The expected value is about:

< 2 fit

Furthermore the production of all WIMA components is subject to the regulations laid down by ISO 9001:2000 as
well as the guidelines for component specifications set out by IEC quality assessment system (IECQ-CECC) for
electronic components.
.

Electrical Characteristics and Fields of Application

Basically the WIMA SMD series have the same electrical characteristics as the analogous through-hole WIMA
capacitors.
Apart from the advantages shown in the diagrams of the electrical parameters in comparison with X7R ceramic

121
and tantalum capacitors, WIMA SMD capacitors have a number of other outstanding qualities compared to
ceramic or tantalum dielectrics:

favourable pulse rise time


low ESR
low dielectric absorption
available in high voltage series
large capacitance spectrum
stand up to high mechanical stress
good long-term stability

As regards technical performance as well as quality and reliability, the WIMA SMD series offer the possibility to
cover nearly all applications of conventionally through-hole film capacitors with SMD components. Furthermore,
the WIMA SMD series can now be used for all the demanding capacitor applications for which, in the past, the
use of through-hole components was mandatory:

measuring techniques
oscillator circuits
differentiating and integrating circuits
A/D or D/A transformers
sample and hold circuits
automotive electronics

With the WIMA SMD programme available today, the major part of all plastic film capacitors can be replaced by
WIMA SMD components. The field of application ranges from standard coupling capacitors to use in switch-
mode power supplies as filter or charging capacitors with high voltage and capacitance values, as well as in
telecommunications e.g. the well-known telephone capacitor 1µF/250VDC.

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Box Type SMD Film Capacitors:
Reliable Solder Quality under Mechanical and Thermal
Stress Conditions
Introduction

It is not only the electrical function in the circuit or the observance of particular electric parameters that is
important for the functioning of electronic components, but, in addition, the mechanical stability and reliability on
the printed circuit board. Especially in the field of SMD technology, the components are subject to much greater
mechanical and thermal stress. The following factors are of importance:

• Handling during production of the


components
• Packing and transport
• Storage of the components by the user
• Processing, assembly, soldering,
washing, testing

• Mechanical and thermal stress in


application

Picture 1: Box type SMD film capacitor

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Increased Stress Factors for SMD Components

Conventional wired components are subject to much lower stress. The criteria of packing, transport and storing
may be considered equivalent, but the stress factors during processing and application differ considerably.

When being assembled, wired components can be held and guided by the terminating wires. Except for possible
slight tension on the wires, mechanical stress does not occur on the active part of the component.

In contrast to this, during the assembly process the SMD components are usually handled by pick and place
equipment by means of vacuum suction on the component body and placed on the appropriate solder pad on the
printed circuit board. The resulting mechanical stress has a direct effect on the component. The component
case, or, in the case of non-encapsulated types, the body of the component has to absorb the resulting stress
forces.

Whereas in the case of the conventional wired component, the wire had the function of establishing the contact
with the printed circuit board / solder joint or with the circuit, as well as fixing and holding the component, the
SMD versions are soldered directly via the end contacts onto the appropriate solder pads of the printed board. In
addition, the wire was able to take up and absorb the mechanical stress so that it did not reach the active part of
the component. Both the solder joint and the component remained, by and large, unaffected by mechanical
stress.

With SMD components, however, mechanical stress caused by the effect of outside forces such as vibration,
bumps, warping of the circuit board, and also thermo-mechanical pressure or tension caused by differing
coefficients of expansion between the printed circuit board and the component, have a direct effect on the
component and the solder joint.

In addition, the much higher thermal stress during the soldering process of SMDs due to the integrated heating of
the whole circuit board with the assembled components, must be emphasized.

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Thus, thermal and mechanical strength, as well as the way the contact is carried out together with the electrical
properties, are important criteria for the evaluation of SMD components.

Substitution of Obsolete Polycarbonate (PC) Capacitors


After the discontinuation of Polycarbonate film (end of 2000) as a capacitor dielectric by the only manufacturer,
Bayer AG/Germany, we have removed all MKC ranges (metallized capacitors) and FKC ranges (film and foil
construction) using this capacitor film from our range of products latest after inventory of film has run out.
However, the question of which capacitors can be used to replace the PC series is still of interest. The following
comparisons may be of assistance in making decisions.

The special feature of Polycarbonate (PC) capacitors is the almost constant course of capacitance drift
versus temperature and the suitability for special applications in the field of higher frequencies
respectively.

Capacitance change with temperature Dissipation factor with frequency

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Substitution by Polyester (PET) Capacitors

Results: In the field of normal application temperature


0/+20 to +80°C Polyester (PET) shows a comparable
linearity of the capacitance course in the positive field
in comparison with Polycarbonate (PC) which shows a
slightly negative course. The capacitance inconstancy
versus time is basically identical with both dielectrics.

Capacitance change with temperature

Substitution suggestions for metallized capacitors:

Obsolete WIMA type PCM Suggested WIMA type PCM Replace also obsolete competitor series
WIMA MKC 02 2.5 WIMA MKS 02 2.5
WIMA MKC 2 5 WIMA MKS 2 5 MKC 1858 / CMK
WIMA MKC 3 7.5 WIMA MKS 4 7.5 CMK
WIMA MKC 4 >10 WIMA MKS 4 >10 MKC 1862 / MKC 344 / CMK

Substitution suggestions for film/foil capacitors:

Obsolete WIMA type PCM Suggested WIMA type PCM Replace also obsolete competitor series

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WIMA FKC 2 5 WIMA FKS 2 5 KC 1850 / CFR (CMK)
WIMA FKC 3 >7.5 WIMA FKS 3 >7.5 CMK

Note: size comparisons between series are possible for the most parts.

Substitution by Polypropylene (PP) Capacitors

Capacitance change with temperature Dissipation factor with frequency

Results: in comparison to Polycarbonate (PC), Polypropylene (PP) has a lower dissipation factor throughout the
course of the whole temperature field.

Substitution suggestions for metallized capacitors:

Obsolete WIMA type PCM Suggested WIMA type PCM Replace also obsolete competitor series
WIMA MKC 2 5 WIMA MKP 2 5 MKC 1858 / CMK

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WIMA MKC 3 7.5 WIMA MKP 4 7.5 CMK
WIMA MKC 4 >10 WIMA MKP 4 >10 MKC 1862 / MKC 344 / CMK
WIMA MKC 10 >7.5 WIMA MKP 10 >7.5

Substitution suggestions for film/foil capacitors:

Obsolete WIMA type PCM Suggested WIMA type PCM Replace also obsolete competitor series
WIMA FKC 02 2.5 WIMA FKP 02 2.5
WIMA FKC 2 5 WIMA FKP 2 5 KC 1850 / CFR (CMK)
WIMA FKC 3 >7.5 WIMA FKP 3 >7.5 CMK

Note: size comparisons between series are possible for the most parts.

Radial Box versus Radial Dipped Capacitor Technologies


The origins of radial box film capacitor technology lie in radial dipped film technology, which was first developed
by WIMA and other European manufacturers in the early-middle 1960s. The radial design offered obvious
advantages over the axial design. These included board real estate savings as well as improved electrical
performance (lower ESR and self inductance) and did not require the leads to be bent in order for the part to be
inserted on the printed circuit board.

1962 Radial dipped 1963 Moulded case

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- Improved electrical performance. - Defined case-size.
- Lower ESR and self-inductance. - Humidity protection.
- Less space required on PC-board in - Robotic insertion.
comparision to axial leaded devices. - Less space required on PC-board.
- Easy plug-in mounting.

1970 Resin potted case 1974 Box type

-Improved humidity protection. -Increased humidity protection.


-Reduced mechanical stress on leads/ -Reduced outside dimensions.
solder joints due to support on edge of box. -Easy robotic insertion.
-Good self-healing properties due to -Seating plane defined through "standoff-feet".
encapsulation without pressure. -Excellent self-healing properties due to
encapsulation without pressure.
-Standardized sizes.

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Humidity Protection

The poreous epoxy coating of radial dipped film capacitors cannot be expected to provide reliable humidity
protection where moderate to severe humidity conditions exist, even when potting compound such as bitumen is
used. In addition, since there is no clearly defined seating plane, components rest on the "laquered pants" that
can and do develop fissures at the lead exit points when parts are automatically inserted, thus further
compromising their ability to resist the effects of humidity.

Box type Dipped version


-Two casting steps guarantee high humidity -Very porous coating with visible air enclosures.
protection. -Mechanical stress during insertion leads to cracks around the
-Homogenous encapsulation without air lead exit points.
enclosures. -Insufficient humidity protection due to thin and irregular
-Case and lead exit points secure from high encapsulation.
humidity. -Bitumen or tar casting does not provide the expected
-Additional protection by cast sealing is not protection.
necessary.

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Uniform Dimensions

Radial box film capacitor provides uniform dimensions for purposes of optimizing space and second sourcing.
Further, it allows for greater flexibility in automatic insertion including robotic insertion of larger parts.

Box type
-All dimensions clearly defined.
-Allows for close placement of parts.
-Easy second source because of standardized box size.

Dipped version
-Only lead spacing is defined.
-All other dimensions are undefined.
-No standardized body sizes (second source).
-Need of additional space between the parts due to variations of
lead exit points and body dimensions.

Exact Setting on PC-Board

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Since radial dipped film capacitors rest on their leads rather than on the case or "standoff-feet", any vibration that
the capacitor element may be experiencing will be transmitted through the leads to the solder joints. This is of
particular concern in AC applications where self-generated electro-mechanical vibrations accelerate the ageing
of the solder joints.

Box type
-Capacitors rest on "standoff-feet".
-No stress on leads.
-Electro-mechanical vibrations do not impact solder joints.
-Exact setting on PC-board.
-Small footprint on PC-board.

Dipped version
-Capacitors rest on solder joints.
-Electro-mechanical vibrations can lead to accelerated ageing of
solder joints.
-More space required to avoid short circuits.

Flammability Resistance

The extremely thin covering, plus the presence of air pockets contained within the coating, makes the dipped film

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packaging of doubtful value with regard to passive and active flammability. This is especially the case when the
applications does not use any potting compound. On the other hand, the mechanical integrity of the box and cast
resin technology provides a high level of flammability resistance when the capacitor is used in AC applications
such as in a power line filter or in series with the lamp.

Basically all plastic film dielectrics are flammable. Only encapsulation protects the capacitor against fire.

Box type
-Uniform thickness of encapsulation.
-High flammability protection in accordance with UL 94 V-0.
-No cast sealing necessary.

Dipped version
-Epoxy material may or not be passively flammable.
-Thin coating gives quick access to winding element after short application
of flame.
-Air bubbles in coating stimulate the flames.
-Higher fire risk when tar is used.

When radial box film capacitors are used, the need for potting disappears, since the box capacitor provides
sufficient humidity and flammability protection, as well as mechanical integrity, in the face of externally or
internally generated shock and vibration.

The need for qualified capacitor applications to operate for many years without the maintenance or replacement
in often times difficult environmental and operating conditions, makes it critical that the components meet the

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highest standards of packaging technology. Without such standards, safe and reliable operation over the life of
the product cannot be guaranteed. The box film technology is designed to meet this challenge both in radial and
SMD version.

Snubber Capacitors for Complete Insurance of Power


Semiconductors
The trend of modern semiconductor technology towards increasingly powerful applications results in the fact that
switched currents and voltage levels are continuously increased and that simultaneously the switching speed is
also increasing markedly.
The developments in the area of power semiconductors include the component group IGBT (Insulated Gate
Bipolar Transistor) or IGBT modules.
The switching capacity with shortest switching times which can be realized using IGBTs necessitates an
extremely low-inductance circuit design. Even the low self-inductance of the power bus may induce dangerous
voltage overshoots between collector and emitter which may result in the destruction of the valuable power
semiconductors.

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Typical voltage
overshoot
during
switch-off.

To protect the components, so-called snubber suppressor circuits are used. The most important component in
this respect is a low-inductance pulse capacitor in order to attenuate or cut off peak voltages. In general, three
basic snubber circuits are used with IGBTs.

Circuit A Circuit B Circuit C

Capacitor Capacitor-resistor-diode Capacitor-resistor-diode

In this context, the capacitor serves to suppress dangereous induced voltages which are produced during

135
switching of the often very high currents. The most important criteria in selecting such capacitors are

- low self-inductance
- low ESR
- high pulse load capability
- low loss factor

In order to minimize self-inductance it is of importance to be able to install the capacitor as close as possible to
the power semiconductor to be protected. Furthermore, a high mechanical stability is necessary due to the often
rough environmental conditions existing in industrial applications.

Based on long experience with Polypropylene pulse capacitors in all conceivable applications, the series WIMA
Snubber MKP and WIMA Snubber FKP were developed to meet the demands of high-power converter
technology and are state-of-the-art components with regard to quality, reliability, and electrical performance. The
WIMA Snubber technology is unique

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Low-loss Polypropylene dielectric
High pulse load capability due to double-sided metallization or film/foil construction.
High voltage / overvoltage strength
Low-inductance design achieved by end-surface contacting
Various connection configurations.
Direct-contact terminals for safe contact at high continuous current load
Flame-retardant plastic case, UL 94 V-0

Production sites ISO 9001:2000 certified

WIMA Environmental Policy


All WIMA capacitors, irrespective of whether through-hole devices or SMD, are made of environmentally friendly
materials. Neither during manufacture nor in the product itself any toxic substances are used, e.g.

Lead PBB / PBDE


PCB Arsenic
CFC Cadmium

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Hydrocarbon chlorid Mercury
Chromium 6+ etc.

We merely use pure, recyclable materials for packing our components, such as:

- carton
- cardboard
- adhesive tape made of paper
- polystyrene

We almost completely refrain from using packing materials such as:

- foamed polystyrene (Styropor®)


- adhesive tapes made of plastic
- metal clips

WIMA Tray Packing System TPS


The WIMA Tray Packing System was developed by WIMA to meet the challenge to minimize the waste volume
and to prevent special waste by using recyclable materials.

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Photo 1: Pallet with capacitors removed from a Photo 2: To invert, the tray inside the cover of the
packaging unit. The leads are pointing upwards packaging unit is laid on top of the capacitors

Photo 3: The sandwich system is turned through Photo 4: Removal of the pallet now leaves the capacitors
180° positioned in the tray with their leds pointing downwards i.e.
"the right way round"

With the packing systems developed by WIMA, larger film capacitors are stacked in layers in grey cardboard
boxes, without the additional need for inner polystyrene packaging. In this system, the capacitors are protected
by plastic inner packing, known as "stacking pallets". These pallets are shaped such that:

• the capacitor leads are protected


• high pack density per packaging unit is achieved
• the capacitor can be removed from the packaging unit in the pallet form, for assembly
• capacitors can be held ready at the assembly site in pallet form with the leads upwards or downwards, as
required by the user.

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Other advantages of the system are that the storage space required can be reduced and that no additional
devices or operations are required to prepare the capacitors for manual assembly.

A significant reduction of packaging waste results because the packaging consists only of cardboard, paper
adhesive tape and recyclable polystyrene.

WIMA is also offering its customers a return service for the plastic TPS packing.

WIMA Part Number System


A WIMA part number consists of 18 digits and is composed as follows:

Field 1 - 4: Type description

Field 5 - 6: Rated voltage

Field 7 - 10: Capacitance

Field 11 - Size and PCM


12:
Field Special features (e.g. Snubber versions)
13 -
Field 14: Capacitance tolerance

Field 15: Packing

Field 16: Lead length (untaped)

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17 -
18:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
M K S 2 C 0 2 1 0 0 1 A 0 0 M S S D

MKS 2 63 VDC 0.01 µF 2.5 x 6.5 x - 20% bulk 6-2


7.2

Type description: Nominal Capacitance: Size: Special features : Tolerance: Packing: L


voltage:
(
SMD-PET = SMDT 22 pF = 0022 4.8 x 3.3 x 3 Size 1812 = X1 Standard = 00 20% = M AMMO H16.5 340 x 340 = A 3
2.5 =
SMD-PPS = SMDI VDC A1 47 pF = 0047 4.8 x 3.3 x 4 Size 1812 = X2 Version A1 = 1A 10% = K AMMO H16.5 490 x 370 = B 6

FKP 02 = FKP0 4 = 100 pF = 0100 5.7 x 5.1 x 3.5 Size 2220 = Y1 Version A1.1.1 = 1B 5% = J AMMO H18.5 340 x 340 = C 1
VDC A2
MKS 02 = MKS0 150 pF = 0150 5.7 x 5.1 x 4.5 Size 2220 = Y2 Version A1.3.1 = 1D 2.5% = H AMMO H18.5 490 x 370 = D .
14 =
FKS 2 = FKS2 VDC A3 220 pF = 0220 7.2 x 6.1 x 3 Size 2824 = T1 Version A1.3.2 = 1E 1% = E REEL H16.5 360 =F

FKP 2 = FKP2 28 = 330 pF = 0330 7.2 x 6.1 x 5 Size 2824 = T2 Version A1.4 = 1F ... REEL H16.5 500 =H
VDC A4
MKS 2 = MKS2 470 pF = 0470 10.2 x 7.6 x 5 Size 4030 = K1 Version A1.4.1 = 1G REEL H18.5 360 =I
40 =
MKP 2 = MKP2 VDC A5 680 pF = 0680 12.7 x 10.2 x 6 Size 5040 = V1 Version A1.5 = 1H REEL H18.5 500 =J

5 =

141
FKS 3 = FKS3 VDC A6 1000 pF = 1100 15.3 x 13.7 x 7 Size 6054 = Q1 ... ROLL H16.5 =N

FKP 3 = FKP3 50 = 1500 pF = 1150 2.5 x 7 x 4.6 PCM 2.5 = 0B ROLL H18.5 =O
VDC B0
MKS 4 = MKS4 2200 pF = 1220 3 x 7.5 x 4.6 PCM 2.5 = 0C BLISTER W12 180 =P
63 =
MKP 4 = MKP4 VDC C0 3300 pF = 1330 3.8 x 8.5 x 4.6 PCM 2.5 = 0D BLISTER W12 330 =Q

MKP 10 = MKP1 100 = 4700 pF = 1470 2.5 x 6.5 x 7.2 PCM 5 = 1A BLISTER W16 330 =R
VDC D0
FKP 4 = FKP4 6800 pF = 1680 3 x 7.5 x 7.2 PCM 5 = 1B BLISTER W24 330 =T
160 =
FKP 1 = FKP1 VDC E0 0.01 µF = 2100 3.5 x 8.5 x 7.2 PCM 5 = 1C Bulk Mini =M

MKP-X2 = MKX2 250 = 0.022 µF = 2220 2.5 x 7 x 10 PCM 7.5 = 2A Bulk Standard =S
VDC F0
MKP-X2 R = MKXR 0.047 µF = 2470 3 x 8.5 x 10 PCM 7.5 = 2B Bulk Maxi =G
400 =
MKP-Y2 = MKY2 VDC G0 0.1 µF = 3100 4 x 9 x 10 PCM 7.5 = 2C TPS Mini =X

MP 3-X2 = MPX2 450 = 0.22 µF = 3220 3 x 9 x 13 PCM 10 = 3A TPS Standard =Y


VDC H0
MP 3-X1 = MPX1 0.47 µF = 3470 4 x 9 x 13 PCM 10 = 3C ...
600 =
MP 3-Y2 = MPY2 VDC I0 1 µF = 4100 4 x 9.5 x 13 PCM 10 = 3D

MP 3R-Y2 = MPYR 630 = 2.2 µF = 4220 5 x 11 x 18 PCM 15 = 4B


VDC J0
Snubber MKP = SNMP 4.7 µF = 4470 6 x 12.5 x 18 PCM 15 = 4C
700 =

142
Snubber FKP = SNFP VDC K0 10 µF = 5100 7 x 14 x 18 PCM 15 = 4D

GTO MKP = GTOM 800 = 22 µF = 5220 5 x 14 x 26.5 PCM 22.5 = 5A


VDC L0
DC-LINK MKP 4 = DCP4 47 µF = 5470 6 x 15 x 26.5 PCM 22.5 = 5B
850 =
DC-LINK MKP C = DCPC VDC M0 100 µF = 6100 7 x 16.5 x 26.5 PCM 22.5 = 5D

DC-LINK HC = DCH_ 900 = 220 µF = 6220 9 x 19 x 31.5 PCM 27.5 = 6A


VDC N0
SuperCap C = SCSC 1F = A010 11 x 21 x 31.5 PCM 27.5 = 6B
1000 =
SuperCap MC = SCMC VDC O1 2.5 F = A025 13 x 24 x 31.5 PCM 27.5 = 6D

SuperCap R = SCSR 1100 = 50 F = A500 9 x 19 x 41.5 PCM 37.5 = 7A


VDC P0
SuperCap MR = SCMR 100 F = B100 11 x 22 x 41.5 PCM 37.5 = 7B
1200 =
VDC Q0 110 F = B110 13 x 24 x 41.5 PCM 37.5 = 7C

1250 = 600 F = B600 94 x 49 x 182 DCH_ = H0


VDC R0
1200 F = C120 94 x 77 x 182 DCH_ = H1
1500 =
VDC S0 ... ...

1600 =
VDC T0

2000 =

143
VDC U0

2500 =
VDC V0

3000 =
VDC W0

4000 =
VDC X0

6000 =
VDC Y0

250 =
VAC 0W

275 =
VAC 1W

300 =
VAC 2W

400 =
VAC 3W

440 =
VAC 4W

500 =

144
VAC 5W

...

The data on this page is not complete and serves only to explain the part number system. Part number information is listed on the pages of the respecti
range.

145