Digital tamil cinema

Digital cinema poised for big leap
By SudhishKamath CHENNAI. MARCH 16. D-Cinema is in. Digital technology has come of age, and is today competing with conventional film making technologies. In the conventional 35 mm film format, there are about 4,000 lines a frame. Today, thanks to digital technology, video has reached halfway, providing for up to 2,000 lines a frame. "This is called D-cinema or digital cinema," explains K.M. Suryanarayanan, senior manager (Technology) of Real Image Media. "D-Cinema films are shot on the hi-definition digital format," he said addressing entertainment managers at a seminar organised by ITCOT consultancy services recently. Kamal Hassan's latest project `Mumbai Express' is Kodambakkam's second venture in the hi-definition digital format after P.C. Sreeram's `VaanamVasapadum.' A year before that, Arul Moorthy of Digital Magic shot Kodambakkam's first digital film called `Muththam' on the Digi-Beta format that provides about 1,000 lines per frame. While Arul Moorthy and P.C. Sreeram had to transfer their video footage to film (reversetelecine) to make prints for release, Kamal Hassan will not have to, thanks to the digital projection systems that have been installed all over the State.
Projection systems

The savings on print cost is just one of the benefits of digital projection systems. The picture quality remains unaffected by the number of screenings. Qube cinema digital servers were installed in Abhirami multiplex a few days ago. These E-cinema (Electronic cinema) projectors play movie files in the MPEG format and cost between Rs. 10 lakhs to 15 lakhs. "D-cinema projectors which offer a higher picture quality cost about Rs.1 crore," Mr. Suryanarayanan says. "E-cinema will be the poor filmmaker's medium. These will become popular in multiplexes all around the State. D-cinema will be used by big budget filmmakers. D-cinema cameras, which can make for 4,000-5,000 lines per frame, are being introduced in the market. It is just a matter of time before film is entirely replaced by digital cinema," he adds. Cameras to shoot hi-definition films, however, are expensive today. "That is because the technology is just being introduced. The prices are likely to fall drastically when the demand increases," Mr. Suryanarayanan adds

In abirami complex The first movie which was released in this manner in Abirami complex was Thalaivar¶sChandramukhi. The film is successfully running crossing 160 days. This has marked the entry of digital revolution in Tamil cinemas. Recently, a function was held in Abirami Multiplex to felicitate Ram Kumar, the producer of the movie, for the digital running of the movie. He was honored by AbiramiRamanathan.
ThiruThiruThuruThuru will be the first Tamil movie to have a digital release all over the country. The music release of the movie saw veteran actor Kamal Hasan talking about the future of cinema in the digital age. ³I'm a great fan of the upcoming future - the digital cinema. This is digital cinema effort for which I've an axe to grind. I believe that it'd come in high. I'm already doing a digital cinema,´ says Hasan. A co-production by Real Image and the popular Cineplex Sathyam Cinemas, ThiruThiruThuruThurustars actor AjmalAmeer opposite newcomer RupaManjari.

Digital technology a sort of revolution
Staff Reporter Pyramid Saimira to renovate 167 theatres for the project CHENNAI: Digital cinema projected simultaneously across several theatres using satellite communication: this is what a private provider is planning for Tamil Nadu. "The new technology will be a sort of digital revolution," says Natarajan, chairman of Pyramid Saimira. "Producers are unable to release new films in many centres due to the high variable cost of prints. This is where our company Pyramid Saimira comes in handy for the producers, distributors and exhibitors. We want to take theatres on long lease. Our target for the first batch is 167 theatres. We will renovate the theatres and give all the facilities required for screening digital cinema. This project will cost about Rs. 25 lakhs for each cinema hall. In Chennai, we are in the process of signing lease agreements with six theatres." Explaining the projects, P.S. Swaminathan, managing director of the company, said, "The negative will be changed in digital HD 5 format and encrypted and put on the centralised server. It will then be up-linked to satellite. The theatre concerned will receive the signals, which in turn will go into the local server and then on to a digital projector. The digital projector would be used for screening on a bright background screen. "A major advantage would be the elimination of piracy. The theatres have very little in terms of print cost nor will they have to incur film transportation or other related charges."

Moonnamathoral V. Now. So. BaluMahendra. including `Abirami' Ramanathan. Samvrutha Sunil. Vineeth The first Indian film to be shot and distributed in digital format. one can surely expect a deluge of entries because by then this now-not-so-well-publicized decision of the government will get widely known.Ve. Radha Mohan has teamed up with cinematographer Guhan. For it was their petition in Gauhati High Court that demanded inclusion of digital films in NFA ± and the Directorate of Film Festivals agreed to the demand and conveyed it to the court. S. Sometimes sudden brake is applied to the story¶s speed by songs barging into serious sequences.Specifically. Scale of economy is the reason why films in Chhattisgarhi. Madan and Suhasini Mani Ratnam. Kumaoni. from 2011 (when NFA will be given for films made in 2010). and have been churning out all kinds of stuff ± from the purely masala to experimental. Jyothirmayi.[11] Background music has been scored by Praveen Mani to keep up with the pacing tempo. Cheran. the good ones among them can vie for national recognition too. Garhwali and so many other µsmaller¶ languages / dialects are made in digital format. After Mozhi. The NFA 2009 has already implemented this rule (the last date for entry got over on the 11th of August). Their films are shown on makeshift screens. a single film can be viewed in several (even hundreds of theatres) at the same time Pyramid Saimira has roped in quite a few names from the Tamil film industry into their advisory panel. Shekar. But now films made in digital format can enter for the NFA by fulfilling only one condition ± they have to be certified as a ³feature´ or a ³featurette´ by the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC). Payanam is shot in digital format in Red camera giving the team an unusual experience. . and DVDs are sold for home viewing. don¶t forget to thank filmmakers from Manipur (a really talented bunch) for this development. but only if they had a normal (celluloid) print release in theatres (even if of just one print). Luckily this movie does not have any song. Prakash Jayaram. So they switched over to digital. K. whether for creative or financial reasons. If not this year.Sherin. Till now. films made in digital format could compete. fasten your seat belts to check if Payanam will be another success story really hijacking the viewers¶ hearts when the movie will be released on 11th February. Ladakhi. he Manipuri film industry has gone completely digital quite a few years ago as filmmaking on celluloid has become completely uneconomical with the closure of all cinema halls because of militant/insurgent dictates. If you make films only in the digital format.

I. South Korea¶s best-known movie director. the cost of negatives is completely eliminated. These cameras are lighter and easy to manoeuvre. 2 Hindi and 1 Telugu) of Ram GopalVerma¶sRakhtCharitra.Manmadhabnambu red mx camera Madurai to thenivazhliandipatti digital FORMAT Film distribution will catch the digital bug before filmmakers decide to put down the analog dinosaur for good We may have bid goodbye to the bulky manual cameras we lug around on holidays and opt for sleek digital ones instead. lens and tripod for Rs 50-65 lakh. which had received several Academy Award nominations was shot on RED and posted on a Quantel IQ Pablo in 4K. FutureWorks Media Limited. Hollywood too has been an ardent admirer of the RED One cameras for quite some time now. a film like Boodha. made a movie shot entirely on the iPhone 4. As far as the picture quality and clarity is concerned. The Lovely Bones. which camera is best suited to a certain project. stereoscopic 3D and the versatility of use due to size. Park Chan-Wong. As most films these days use a lot of special effects. the producers will take a call. right there and then. Not just that. For instance. But like all things digital. ³Digital cinema capture has evolved today to such an extent that it offers a comparable option to filmmakers over film. Here¶s how digital cameras like the RED make life easier for filmmakers. Jumper.000 for a period of two years. G. there is a learning curve to shooting digital. lists a few more advantages of the RED cameras. Besides these. Wanted. Depending on the nature of the subject. It is entirely the DoP¶s prerogative to decide. not to mention films. But when it comes to making movies. weight etc are unique to digital capture. Apparently. even cameras have to constantly undergo upgradations. CEO. Gaurav Gupta. which is about to begin. Like any new format. The new Mysterion sensor that RED has launched is better than the previous one. this is exactly the same workflow that Ram GopalVarma used for RakhtCharitra and Cinergy Productions saved almost up to USD 250. Certain technologies such as very high-speed cinematography. it becomes easier for filmmakers to shoot with digital cameras.000 by using RED. Digital cinema capture has tremendous workflow advantages including the ability to see exactly what the final result is on the set. For some filmmakers. Green Zone. Film continues to be the benchmark but digital cinema capture is not far behind and is catching up really fast. And the biggest advantage that the RED cameras have is that they cost much less almost as low as Rs 24. film will continue to dominate in terms of quality for some time but the advantages of shooting digital make digital cinema capture an attractive option over film. Filmmakers can also bundle an entire package deal complete with the camera. is actually being tested on RED Cameras as well as film. District 9. The Book Of Eli. So once a filmmaker decided to incorporate a digital camera. The older version of RED used to get heated during outdoor shoots. The Informant!. . are filmmakers still romancing the good old film reels or is it time to go digital? There is no doubt that digitisation has seeped into every aspect of our lives. Joe: The Rise Of Cobra and the most recent The Social Network. Gamer. The RED Digital Cinema Capture System like other solutions such as those from Arri and Sony are continuously evolving and there has been hot competition between Kodak and Fuji with new negative stocks in the analog capture world. it is a subject of some debate as both film and digital have their unique advantages in imaging. Films like Pirates Of The Caribbean: On Stranger Tides.´ Some films that have been shot on the RED digital camera include all five versions (2 Tamil. Almost all films made these days are heavy with visual and special effects and thus digital cameras like the RED Digital Cinema Capture System are being rented out like hot cakes.

³Over the last 100 years. If the film is being shot outside. Roughly synonymous with the dolly shot. pointing the camera up and down (as opposed to moving the whole camera up and down). The fact that a film is being stored on hard disk. Digital cameras come in handy when it comes to distributing a film.e. Also known as a tracking shot or trucking shot.´ Camera movement Crab Dolly Dolly Zoom Follow Pan Pedestal (Ped) Tilt Track Truck Zoom A less-common term for tracking or trucking.´ He adds. Moving the camera position vertically with respect to the subject. Business Head. SanjeevGoswami of NishantVideotech. film or prints will soon be replaced by digitisation. which therefore enjoys a certain comfort level in spite of being just a myth. If it is aRs 30 crore film. then the DOP would prefer shooting it on film. But certain things like adding highlights and colour tones can be easily done on the digital medium. Technically this isn't a camera move. we will see lots of digital content shot with different camera formats including film. I have come across filmmakers who have had a wonderful experience shooting digital and some who have found it very painful. . but a change in the lens focal length with gives the illusion of moving the camera closer or further away. All rights reserved. which can crash any time or fall down and break can be quite unnerving for a producer although there are other ways of storing the data such as on another hard disk box as well.´ As of now. most technicians in the film industry opine that film will remain the medium for shooting for another ten years.´ On the digital platform there is no stock. a camera rental company says. The one common factor among all the happy digital filmmakers was that they tested and locked their post-production partner and pipeline at the pre-production stage itself. then he can use a lot of digital cameras. On negatives. Not only RED. but often defined more specifically as movement which stays a constant distance from the action. Another term for tracking or dollying. Horizontal movement. Film. the negative is right there in front of your eyes and you can see the product. no telecine. i. So the decision to shoot on film or digital is very subjective to the environment the film is being shot in. Gupta avers. A technique in which the camera moves closer or further from the subject while simultaneously adjusting the zoom angle to keep the subject the same size in the frame. no scanning and no processing of negatives. As far as the future of digital cinema capture is concerned. a filmmaker takes comfort from the physical presence of the film reel. ³You can¶t compare film cameras to digital cameras as Indian filmmakers have still not graduated to the digital medium. Vertical movement of the camera angle. EQR of Prime Focus says. But in terms of distribution. especially side-to-side movement. which is considered a little unreliable. the producer will always have a mental block against the digital medium. The entire world is going digital and more than 60 to 70 per cent of film is being stored digitally. The camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks for a very smooth movement.NirajSanghai. In the next two years. people have been shooting on film. ³If you shoot on film. Television Production Handbook Home Introduction Contents Ordering Forum Information ©1980-2009 Roger Inman & Greg Smith. so filmmakers end up saving a lot of money. but if the film has a lot of indoor shots where there is a lot of controlled lighting. The camera physically follows the subject at a more or less constant distance. there will be no prints made for exhibition purposes. ³It has a very bright future. film still has greater potential due to the latitude it enjoys. left and right. So as a capturing medium.

33 aspect ratio. In 1894 Thomas Edison introduced the Kinetoscope motion picture format.33 to 1.33 . For the next fifty years most film used the 1. and SECAM telvision standards all share the 1. That context is the frame. or 1. Sixteen millimeter. PAL. with an aspect ratio (ratio of picture width to height) of four units wide to three units high.Composition and Camera Movement Composition Composition exists in a context. eight and ³super eight´ millimeter film formats and NTSC. which is itself an element of picture composition.

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0). One might presume (although I¶ve found no evidence so far) that the 1. The aspect ratio of the golden rectangle is 1.3.5 . too. and the 35mm slide (1.25).78.33 Aspect Ratio From an optical standpoint. The shape of the frame is the first consideration in composition. So why don¶t we have square pictures? Artists and mathematicians from the ancient Greeks and Egyptians have focused on the ³golden rectangle´ as the perfect shape.4) are a few standards among many.4 x 3 or 1. Cinerama (2. and Panavision (1. Film evolved. High definition television has an aspect ratio of 16 by 9. the most efficient rectangular format would be square.55). The 8x10 photograph (1. Cinemascope (2. the 4x6 photograph (1.33 aspect ratio is a compromise between the most efficient ratio and the most esthetically pleasing.78 ± 2.618. Over the years a number of standard sizes with different aspect ratios became popular. .5) are a few examples.5). since it would use as much of the lens area as possible. or 1.


While this is not often possible. It is unlikely the viewer will see anything in this area. some general rules of composition should be kept in mind. which hides about five per cent of the picture. The red border around the frame represents the shadow mask.78 Aspect Ratio Ideally. Anything that takes place here is likely to be visible to the . The presence of the shadow mask has always caused a problem for films transferred to video because they were generally composed to be shown ³edge to edge. every shot in a television program should be composed as carefully as a still photograph.16 x 9 or 1.. The composition of the same image will be different with and without the shadow mask. The gold and green areas combined are referred to as the safe action area. The face of the typical television screen has been surrounded by a frame called a shadow mask.´ Now the same problem occurs when images are composed using a digital (LCD) monitor without taking the shadow mask into consideration.

the horizon (if you're shooting a corn field) . the screen should never be divided exactly in half by strong horizontal or vertical lines. It is virtually certain that any text in the green area will be visible to the viewer. If you are using a camera with a monitor that shows the entire picture.viewer. it should be divided approximately into thirds. Instead. be sure to allow for the shadow mask when you are composing your shots. Some viewfinders have "safe area" masks or lines to help you. The green area is known as the safe title area. Notice the difference in "head room" in the pictures below this text. For example. Unless your subject is perfectly symmetrical.

.should be either a third of the way from the bottom of the screen or a third of the way from the top. composition should not be perfectly symmetrical. but should rather balance positive and negative (filled and empty) space. With the exception of titles.




When shooting a profile (side view) of a person. there are several additional concerns. The tendency is to place people too low. By placing someone too high or too low in the frame. it's important to allow empty space in .When framing people. the individual can be made to seem taller or shorter than he actually is.

" .the direction the subject is looking. This extra space is called "nose room.


but to anyone or anything pointing or moving. The kind of framing a writer or director wants is usually described in terms of wide. or close-up. If it's used at the . There should be relatively more empty space in the direction of the pointing or movement.Insufficient Nose Room Nose room applies not only to people. A wide shot includes the entire su his environment. medium.

on the other hand. would have to include his arms an since these are generally important to understanding what he's doing. A medium shot o half of his body fall outside the fra A medium shot of a person dancing or performing Tai Chi.A medium shot shows most of the subject is doing. .

" would still be a medium shot. or just the eyes. The object is to focus on important detail either to increase the drama or impact on a situation or to allow the viewer to see necessary picture information more clearly. In shooting a group of people. perhaps the mouth alone. but the "subject" is made up of two people and the shot is framed tightly around those two. this is generally the head." "head and shoulders shot. A "one shot" is a medium shot of a single person. we have a few special terms." and "waist-up shot. If you can do it. A "two shot. For a speaker. a close-up might be a shot of the quarterback only. An extreme close-up focuses on one important detail of the subject. For an entire football team. the industry has a ." Camera Movement In the age of hand-held camcorders it must seem odd that there's an elaborate vocabulary describing how a camera can be moved.A close-up is used to isolate the most important part of the subject. We also use terms such as "head shot. if the subject is a person.

" A pan is a turning of the camera to the left or right. A tilt involves tilting the camera up or down. Pan Tilt The two camera movements you use routinely are the "pan" and "tilt. .technical term for it.

" That's why the term for raising the camera is "pedestal up. the focus must be adjusted." and the term for lowering the camera is "pedestal down." These terms have nothing to do with adjustments to the "pedestal. Truck Right In moving a camera from side to side you "truck right" or "truck left." or setup of the black level of the picture. which is an electronic adjustment. you "dolly in. ." Of course. whenever the camera-to-subject distance changes." To move the camera closer to the subject. not a camera movement." To move it farther away you "dolly out.Pedestal Up The stand for a heavy studio television or film camera is called a "pedestal.

com/discussion/. But professionals will go to extreme lengths to get a smooth dolly shot. of course.. See the Compostition and Camera Movement forum at http://tv-handbook.Dolly In Purists will point out that dolly shots (in or out) are fundamentally different in effect from zooming in or out. The instruction to do this is "rack" focus "in" or "out" for a particular object in a scene. in situations where important parts of a scene are not the same distance from the camera. Finally. Video camera movement is used for many purposes. to the point of laying special tracks to roll the dolly on. Such instructions are rarely used and are generally given for artistic effect. It may be used to make an object appear to be bigger or smaller. They're right." would be an example. cars to get their dolly shots. shopping carts and. "Rack focus into the cup on the table. People with more modest means have mounted cameras on bicycles. . it's possible to change the emphasis of a shot from one part of the scene to another by changing focus alone.

such as overlooks. Learning camera movement fundamentals isn't hard. to tell a story. or just different. The various camera movement techniques are done either with a mounted camera. Pan shots are used to show the viewer more of the scenery. or movement of just the camera lens. simply move the camera horizontally from left to right.where the camera and the photographer move together. scary. This technique is also often used to show views from high places. then finish with a still shot. then pan. Camera movement techniques are often used. You should practice panning at various speeds until you find the speed that works best for you. a moving camera . Technique 1: Mounted Camera Pan Mounting the camera on a tripod.It may be used to make things blurred. however. Technique 2: Mounted Camera Tilt . Pan shots should begin with a still shot. Practicing the various camera movement fundamentals will help you learn which camera movement techniques work best for you.

you should begin with a still shot. You should note that when you tilt from bottom to top. or to show the viewer a large object from top of bottom . Technique 4: Moving Camera Dolly This video camera movement technique involves the use of a camera dolly.A tilt done with a mounted camera is quite simple. You just move the camera up or down. practice this technique at various speeds until you find what works for you. but you either raise or lower the position of the camera. If you wanted to shot a tall person. Remember that you will want to be able to roll backwards as well as forward. tilt. try mixing it with other techniques. This video camera movement technique is a step up from the dolly technique. Technique 5: Moving Camera Floating Stabilizer Floating stabilizer devices are used to follow a subject around twists and turns. The use of a dolly opens up many possibilities. You can make your own dolly with a wheelchair. Technique 6: Moving Camera Boom . If you wanted to shot pictures of a baby. then try mixing it with other techniques to get different effects. Practice using this technique. This video camera movement technique is used to follow your subject. and once you have it down. or many other devices that have wheels. a skateboard.or from bottom to top. especially when used in conjunction with other techniques. Again. only it is done vertically. you would raise the height of the camera. the object looks smaller or thinner. you would want to lower the camera. This is must like panning. As with the dolly technique. When you tilt from top to bottom. you should learn the video camera movement fundamentals of this technique. You do not tilt the camera. without lowering or raising the position of the camera. As with panning. the object looks larger or thicker. The stabilizer is strapped to the photographer. Technique 3: Mounted Camera Pedestal This video camera technique is pretty much the opposite of the tilt technique. floating stabilizer devices remove those limitations. a scooter. a rolling cart. The purpose would be to make it appear that the subject is 'eye to eye' with the viewer. The movement of a dolly is limited. This technique is simply used to get the proper view that you are looking for. then stop on a still shot. and the camera is mounted to the stabilizer with metal jointed which are controlled by gyroscopes. like the camera dolly's you might see on a movie set. This video camera technique is used to follow the subject that you are photographing.

This technique calls for focusing the camera on one object in a close up shot. zooming can be used to more adequately portray the size or distance to a viewer. and you will want to use a tripod for this type of shot. Instead of zooming. and give them the style and flair that you see in Hollywood movies! . which can effect the viewers perception of size and distance. Technique 9: Camera Lens Rack Focus This is an interesting video camera movement technique. Zooming while using the handheld technique will make your shot appear to be shaky. When using this technique. Technique 8: Camera Lens Zoom You can get many different effects when using the zoom feature on your camera. and moves wherever. the photographer simply holds the video camera. Zooming can create many different illusions. down. and the boom moves up. causing everything in the background to be out of focus. you should avoid using the zoom feature on your camera. move closer to the object you are shooting. This works well when combined with other video camera movement techniques. as different situations will call for different speeds of zooming. and however. then causing the object itself to become out of focus while the background becomes in focus. Video camera movement techniques can really spice up your home movies. Technique 7: Moving Camera Handheld Using this technique. It is recommended that you use a tripod when using the zoom technique.A camera boom is a smaller version of the cranes that are used for construction. he needs to move to get the shot that he wants. Conclusion Learn how to use all of the features on your camera. This is done by changing the focal length so that one object will go out of focus while another comes into focus. The two objects must be at a correct distance away from each other for this technique to work. You should practice zooming at different speeds. and around. which can give your shots more impact. then combine the use of those features with different movements to get the most out of your shots. Alternately. These are commonly used in filming movies. A camera boom is used to get a view of subjects or scenes from above.

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