Chapter 8: Production Decline Analysis

8.1 Introduction Production decline analysis is a traditional means of identifying well production problems and predicting well performance and life based on real production data. It uses empirical decline models that have little fundamental justifications. These models include • Exponential decline (constant fractional decline) • Harmonic decline, and • Hyperbolic decline. While the hyperbolic decline model is more general, the other two models are degenerations of the hyperbolic decline model. These three models are related through the following relative decline rate equation (Arps, 1945): 1 dq = −bq d q dt (8.1)

where b and d are empirical constants to be determined based on production data. When d = 0, Eq (8.1) degenerates to an exponential decline model, and when d = 1, Eq (8.1) yields a harmonic decline model. When 0 < d < 1, Eq (8.1) derives a hyperbolic decline model. The decline models are applicable to both oil and gas wells. 8.2 Exponential Decline The relative decline rate and production rate decline equations for the exponential decline model can be derived from volumetric reservoir model. Cumulative production expression is obtained by integrating the production rate decline equation. 8.2.1 Relative Decline Rate Consider an oil well drilled in a volumetric oil reservoir. Suppose the well’s production rate starts to decline when a critical (lowest permissible) bottom hole pressure is reached. Under the pseudo-steady state flow condition, the production rate at a given decline time t can be expressed as: q= kh( pt − p c ) wf ⎡ ⎛ 0.472re 141.2 B0 μ ⎢ln⎜ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ rw ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + s⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎦ (8.2)

where pt
p
c wf

= average reservoir pressure at decline time t, = the critical bottom hole pressure maintained during the production decline.

The cumulative oil production of the well after the production decline time t can be expressed as:
8-1

Np = ∫
0

t

kh( pt − p c ) wf ⎡ ⎛ 0.472re ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + s⎥ 141.2 Bo μ ⎢ln⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ ⎝ rw ⎠ ⎦

dt

(8.3)

The cumulative oil production after the production decline upon decline time t can also be evaluated based on the total reservoir compressibility:

Np =

ct N i ( p 0 − pt ) Bo

(8.4)

where ct = total reservoir compressibility, N i = initial oil in place in the well drainage area,

p 0 = average reservoir pressure at decline time zero.
Substituting Eq (8.3) into Eq (8.4) yields:


0

t

kh( pt − p c ) wf ⎡ ⎛ 0.472re ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + s⎥ 141.2 Bo μ ⎢ln⎜ ⎜ r ⎟ w ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

dt =

ct N i ( p 0 − pt ) Bo

(8.5)

Taking derivative on both sides of this equation with respect to time t gives the differential equation for reservoir pressure:

kh( pt − p c ) wf ⎡ ⎛ 0.472re 141.2μ ⎢ln⎜ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ rw ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + s⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎦

= −ct N i

dp t dt

(8.6)

Since the left-hand-side of this equation is q and Eq (8.2) gives

dq = dt

dp t ⎡ ⎛ 0.472re ⎞ ⎤ dt ⎟ + s⎥ 141.2 B0 μ ⎢ln⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r w ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ ⎣ kh

(8.7)

Eq (8.6) becomes ⎡ ⎛ 0.472re ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + s⎥ − 141.2ct N i μ ⎢ln⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r w ⎠ ⎦ dq ⎝ ⎣ q= kh dt
8-2

(8.8)

.472re 141.15) is used: q = qi e −bt where qi is the production rate at t = 0.2.14) or q= bct N i ( p0 − p c ) e −bt wf Bo (8.or the relative decline rate equation of 1 dq = −b q dt (8..9) where b= kh ⎡ ⎛ 0.11) can be integrated − ∫ bdt = 0 t pt p0 ∫ (p dpt c t − p wf ) (8.15) which is the exponential decline model commonly used for production decline analysis of solution-gas-drive reservoirs.16) q q 2 q3 = = . (8.472re ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + s⎥ 141. That is.13) Substituting Eq (8.2 μct N i ⎢ln⎜ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ rw ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + s⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎦ .12) to yield an equation for reservoir pressure decline: pt = p c + p0 − p c wf wf ( )e −bt (8. Eq (8. = n = e −b .2 Bo μ ⎢ln⎜ ⎜ r ⎟ w ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ e −bt (8. the fractional decline is constant q1 q2 qn−1 8-3 .13) into Eq (8. the following form of Eq (8...2) gives well production rate decline equation: q= kh( p0 − p c ) wf ⎡ ⎛ 0.10) 8..11) By separation of variables.6) can be expressed as: − b( pt − p c ) = wf dpt dt (8. In practice.2 Production Rate Decline Equation (8. It can be shown that (8.

As an exercise.20) which implies that the data should form a straight line with a slope of -b on the log(q) versus t plot. the b-value can be obtained based on the slope of the straight line on an Np versus q plot.17) i.. taking logarithm of Eq (8. on the straight line will allow analytical determination of b-value because ln (q1 ) = ln (q i ) − bt 1 and (8.19) yields: 8-4 .23) If production rate and cumulative production data are available. Eq (8.2.2.19) 8.18) Since q = qi e − bt . Its value can be determined from production history data. q2). rearranging Eq (8.16) gives: ln (q ) = ln (q i ) − bt (8.3 Cumulative Production Integration of Eq (8. Np = qi 1 − e −bt .16) over time gives an expression for the cumulative oil production since decline of N p = ∫ qdt = ∫ qi e −bt dt 0 0 t t (8.18) becomes Np = 1 (qi − q ) . b (8.e. b ( ) (8.21) ln (q 2 ) = ln (q i ) − bt 2 give (8. If production rate and time data are available.22) b= ⎛q 1 ln ⎜ 1 (t 2 − t1 ) ⎜ q 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. ⎟ ⎠ (8. In fact. 8. (t1. this is left to the reader to prove.for exponential decline. Picking up any two points.4 Determination of Decline Rate The constant b is called the continuous decline rate. In fact. the b-value can be obtained based on the slope of the straight line on a semi-log plot. q1) and (t2. if exponential decline is the right model.

The following relation can be derived: ba = 12 bm = 365 bd .24) Picking up any two points. The following relation can be derived: (1 − b 'a ) = (1 − b 'm )12 = (1 − b 'd )365 . q2). the b can have different units such as month-1 and year-1.29) Again. and daily effective decline rates.26) b= q1 − q 2 . it can be shown that q q 2 q3 = = . bm.q = qi − bN p (8.. where ba.. traditionally the −x effective decline rate has been used. Thus Eq (8. N p 2 − N p1 (8. q1) and (Np2. The b is substituted by b' . b' m.2. and b' d are annual.. (Np1. and daily decline rates. q1 q 2 qn −1 Depending on the unit of time t. where b' a. in field applications.. monthly.30) 8-5 .5 Effective Decline Rate (8.27) Depending on the unit of time t. and bd are annual.. (8. the b' can have different units such as month-1 and year1 . the effective decline rate.25) q 2 = q i − bN p 2 give (8. 8. monthly. e ≈ 1 − b holds true for small values of b.16) becomes q = qi (1− b') t (8. Since e ≈ 1 − x for small x-values based on −b Taylor’s expansion. on the straight line will allow analytical determination of b-value because q1 = q i − bN p1 and (8. = n = 1 − b' .28) Because the exponential function is not easy to use in hand calculations.

Solution: a) Production rate after 11 more months: bm = (t1m ⎛q 1 ln ⎜ 0 m − t 0 m ) ⎜ q1 m ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎟ = 0.04082(12 ) = 61.27 stb/day b) The amount of oil produced during the first year: 8-6 . use the exponential decline model to perform the following tasts: a) Predict the production rate after 11 more months b) Calculate the amount of oil produced during the first year c) Project the yearly production for the well for the next 5 years. b' m = From 1 − b' y = (1 − b' m ) = (1 − 0.04 /month .27 stb/day If the effective decline rate b’ is used.Example Problem 8-1: Given that a well has declined from 100 stb/day to 96 stb/day during a one-month period.3875/year Rate at end of one year q1 = q0 (1 − b' y ) = 100(1 − 0.3875) = 61.04 ) 12 12 q0 m − q1m 100 − 96 = = 0.04082/month ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ 96 ⎠ Rate at end of one year q1m = q0 m e −bmt = 100e −0. 100 q0 m one gets b' y = 0.

858 stb 0.27 (1 − e −0. 8-7 .001342(365) ) = 6.09 (1 − e −0.00 (1 − e −0.48986/year N p .001342 In summary.001342(365) ) = 10.00 stb/day N p.858 stb by ⎝ 0.2 = 61.001342(365) ) = 4.54 (1 − e −0.5 = 14.001342 day ⎣ ⎝ 96 ⎠⎦⎝ 30.001342 (365 ) = 28.27 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟365 = 28.09 stb/day N p .04082(12 )( 4) = 14.001342 q3 = qi e − bt = 100e −0.1 = 100 1 − e −0.001342 q 4 = qi e −bt = 100e −0.4 = 23.3 = 37.04082(12) = 0.639 stb 0.001342 ( ) c) Yearly production for the next 5 years: N p.b y = 0.54 stb/day N p .1 = q0 − q1 ⎛ 100 − 61.001342 q2 = qi e −bt = 100e −0.834 stb 0.42 ⎠ N p .04082(12 )( 3) = 23.48986 ⎠ or ⎡ ⎛ 100 ⎞⎤⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 bd = ⎢ln⎜ ⎟⎥⎜ ⎟ = 0.061 stb 0.681 stb 0.001342(365) ) = 17.04082(12 )( 2 ) = 37.

681 10.32) where q0 is the production rate at t = 0.1) yields differential equation for a harmonic decline model: 1 dq = −bq q dt which can be integrated as q0 1 + bt (8.64 Yearly Production (stb) 28. Expression for the cumulative production is obtained by integration: N p = ∫ qdt 0 t which gives: Np = q0 ln(1 + bt ) .858 17.09 8. b (8. b (8. Eq (8.073 8.639 4.27 37.32) and (8.00 14.31) q= (8.33) gives Np = q0 [ln(q0 ) − ln(q )] .34) 8-8 .061 68.3 Harmonic Decline When d = 1.54 23.00 61.33) Combining Eqs (8.Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Rate at End of Year (stb/day) 100.834 6.

the decline data follow a harmonic decline model.34). an exponential decline model should be adopted.20). If the plot of log(q) versus log(t) shows a straight line (Figure 8-3). If the plot of Np versus log(q) shows a straight line (Figure 8-4).35) q= or q0 (1+ dbt )1/ d (8.38) gives Np = a ⎡ ⎛ b ⎞⎤ ⎢ q 0 − q ⎜1 + a t ⎟ ⎥ .8. the hyperbolic 8-9 .5 Model Identification Production data can be plotted in different ways to identify a representative decline model. the decline data follow an exponential decline model.1) gives: dq ∫ q1+d = −∫ bdt 0 q0 which results in q t (8. If no straight line is seen in these plots. integration of Eq (8.38) Combining Eqs (8.39) 8. according to Eq (8. If the plot of log(q) versus t shows a straight line (Figure 8-1). If the plot of q versus Np shows a straight line (Figure 8-2).4 Hyperbolic Decline When 0 < d < 1. Expression for the cumulative production is obtained by integration: N p = ∫ qdt 0 t which gives: Np = 1− a aq0 ⎡ ⎛ b ⎞ ⎤ 1 − ⎜1 + t ⎟ ⎥ . according to Eq (8.37) where a = 1/d. ⎢ b(a − 1) ⎢ ⎝ a ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (8. according to Eq (8. according to Eq (8.24).37) and (8. the harmonic decline model should be used.36) q= q0 ⎛ b ⎞ ⎜1 + t ⎟ ⎝ a ⎠ a (8. b(a − 1) ⎣ ⎠⎦ ⎝ (8.32).

Figure 8-5 shows such a plot. This work can be easily performed with computer program UcomS.exe.decline model may be verified by plotting the relative decline rate defined by Eq (8.1). q t Figure 8-1: A Semilog plot of q versus t indicating an exponential decline Np q Figure 8-2: A plot of Np versus q indicating an exponential decline 8-10 .

q t Figure 8-3: A plot of log(q) versus log(t) indicating a harmonic decline Np q Figure 8-4: A plot of Np versus log(q) indicating a harmonic decline 8-11 .

determination of a.32): q0 −1 q1 b= t1 (8.34). the model parameters a and b can be determined by fitting the data to the selected model.23). the b-value can be estimated on the basis of the slope of the straight line in the plot of log(q) versus t (Eq 8. For the hyperbolic decline model. For the harmonic decline model. or Eq (8.− Δq qΔt Ha D n ic r mo ne ecli olic Dec Hyperb line Exponential Decline q Figure 8-5: A plot of relative decline rate versus production rate 8.and b-values is of a little tedious. The b-value can also be determined based on the slope of the straight line in the plot of q versus Np (Eq 8. For the exponential decline model. the b-value can be estimated on the basis of the slope of the straight line in the plot of log(q) versus log(t) shows a straight line.6 Determination of Model Parameters Once a decline model is identified. 8-12 .27). The procedure is shown in Figure 8-6.40) The b-value can also be estimated based on the slope of the straight line in the plot of Np versus log(q) (Eq 8.

80 100.00 24.81 496.73 740.00 8. q*) 2 ⎛ b ⎞ t + t − 2t3 3.59 449. Finally ⎛b⎞ b = ⎜ ⎟a ⎝a⎠ t3 t Figure 8-6: Procedure for determining a.87 301.30 149.00 11.46 110.exe can be used for both model identification and model parameter determination.00 5. Pick up any point (t*.00 2.60 223. Select points (t1.00 22.00 6.72 8-13 .00 21.88 332.00 19.00 14. q1) and (t2.00 3.13 201. as well as production rate prediction.00 18.00 904.84 818. q2) 2.32 606.34 122.57 135.00 10. q*) 6.00 17.00 12.53 246. and project production rate until a marginal rate of 25 stb/day is reached.90 182.19 t (Month) q (STB/D) 13.00 7. Find q0 at t = 0 5.26 90.57 367.82 670.1.00 9.00 272.00 23.68 165.00 4. identify a suitable decline model.7 Illustrative Examples Example Problem 8-2: For the data given in Table 8-1. Use q* = q0 ⎛ ⎛b⎞ ⎞ ⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟t* ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎝a⎠ ⎠ a ⎛q ⎞ log⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜q ⎟ ⎝ *⎠ a= ⎛ ⎛b⎞ ⎞ log⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟t* ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎝a⎠ ⎠ 7.00 16. Read t3 at q3 = q1q2 q 1 q3 (t*.33 406. determine model parameters.53 548. 8.00 20. Table 8-1: Production Data for Example Problem 8-2 t (Month) q (STB/D) 1.00 15.and b-values Computer program UcomS. Calculate ⎜ ⎟ = 1 2 2 t3 − t1t2 ⎝a⎠ 4.

q2 = 135 STB/D Decline rate is calculated with Eq (8.23): b= 1 ⎛ 135 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0 . 1000 q (STB/D) 100 10 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 t (month) 8-14 . Select points on the trend line: t1= 5 months. According to Eq (8. q1 = 607 STB/D t2= 20 months.20).1 1/month (5 − 20 ) ⎝ 607 ⎠ 10000 Projected production rate profile is shown in Figure 8-9.Solution: A plot of log(q) versus t is presented in Figure 8-7 which shows a straight line. This is further evidenced by the relative decline rate shown in Figure 8-8. the exponential decline model is applicable.

Figure 8-7: A plot of log(q) versus t showing an exponential decline 0. 8-15 .15 0.11 0.06 0.12 0.07 0.09 0.14 0.13 -1 -Δ q/Δ t/q (Month ) 0. and project production rate till the end of the 5th year.1 0. identify a suitable decline model.05 3 203 403 603 803 1003 q (STB/D) Figure 8-8: Relative decline rate plot showing exponential decline 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 q (STB/D) t (month) Figure 8-9: Projected production rate by an exponential decline model Example Problem 8-3: For the data given in Table 8-2. determine model parameters.08 0.

34 5.44 4.30 3.90 3.80 1.09 4.20 0.68 t (year) q (1000 STB/D) 2.94 5.05 6.87 6.84 4.60 0.38 1/year .67 4.90 2. select q0 = 10.13 5.90 7.40 0.30 1.90 5.20 1.16 4.40 2.00 1.03 4.80 3.20 2. On the trend line.45 7.30 0.70 1.90 1.81 5.10 3.03 Solution: A plot of relative decline rate is shown in Figure 8-10 which clearly indicates a harmonic decline model.37 6.70 0.Table 8-2: Production Data for Example Problem 8-3 t (year) q (1000 STB/D) 0.680 b= = 0.50 3. Eq (8.000 stb/day at t = 0 q1 = 5.40 8.50 2.00 9.22 4.98 8.10 2.40 3.08 5.23 5.59 4.70 3. 2 Projected production rate profile is shown in Figure 8-11.80 2.56 5.80 0.25 7.40 1.60 3.50 1.70 2.000 −1 5.60 1.30 2. 8-16 .680 stb/day at t = 2 years Therefore.29 8.36 4.40) gives: 10.94 4.53 6.45 5.10 1.60 2.69 6.51 4.20 3.29 4.00 3.14 7.76 4.67 7.22 6.50 0.68 8.

0.00 q (1000 STB/D) Figure 8-10: Relative decline rate plot showing harmonic decline 12 10 q (1000 STB/D) 8 6 4 2 0 0.0 2.2 0.00 5.1 3.25 0.00 6.0 5.0 6.00 7.00 9.0 t (year) Figure 8-11: Projected production rate by a harmonic decline model Example Problem 8-4: For the data given in Table 8-3.3 0. Select points: 8-17 .15 0.4 0.00 4. identify a suitable decline model.0 1.00 8.0 3.00 10.35 -Δq/Δt/q (year-1) 0. determine model parameters. Solution: A plot of relative decline rate is shown in Figure 8-12 which clearly indicates a hyperbolic decline model.0 4. and project production rate till the end of the 5th year.

10 5.217 )(1.80 4.55 7.49 3.75) − (0.35 8.05 4.34 8-18 .4) ) b = (0.09 6.20 0.00 3.20 2.758) = 0.60 3.60 2.00 5.217 )(1.64 3.97 3.15 4.80 3. ⎛ 10.90 2.000 ⎞ log⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 6.2 + 3.280 stb/day).75) = 0.40 2.90 3.71 3.07 7.490 stb/day q3 = (9.80 1. ⎛ b ⎞ 0.35 4.670 stb/day Read from decline curve (Figure 8-13) t3 = 1.95 8.10 0. Pick up point (t* = 1.56 3.40 0.70 2.t1 = 0.64 8. q* = 6.217 ⎜ ⎟= 2 ⎝ a ⎠ (1.8 years.30 0.77 5.32 t (year) q (1000 STB/D) 2.60 0.18 5.06 3.80 0.28 8.61 5. q1 = 9.90 4.20 1.63 9.8 − 2(1.70 0.2)(3.280 stb/day t2 = 3.25 4.46 5.80 2.75 yaers at q3 = 5.87 6.280 ⎠ a= = 1.57 4.40 3.000 stb/day at t0 = 0.70 1.40 1.20 3.28 6.2 year .47 6. q2 = 3.10 1.46 4.88 3.50 2.68 4.30 2.32 7.10 3.92 4.50 3.70 3.30 1.90 1.4 yesrs.93 5.50 1.490) = 5.67 6.81 7.75 log(1 + (0.00 1.80 3. Table 8-3: Production Data for Example Problem 8-4 t (year) q (1000 STB/D) 0.38 Projected production rate profile is shown in Figure 8-14.30 3.8) Read from decline curve (Figure 8-13) q0 = 10.00 9.60 1.50 0.670 stb/day.280)(3.41 3.10 2.

28 0.00 4.00 5.0.36 0.00 9.0 t (year) Figure 8-13: Relative decline rate plot showing hyperbolic decline 8-19 .00 6.00 q (1000 STB/D) Figure 8-12: Relative decline rate plot showing hyperbolic decline 12 10 q (1000 STB/D) 8 6 4 2 0 0.0 1.38 0.3 0.0 5.24 0.0 2.2 3.00 7.00 8.34 -Δq/Δt/q (year-1) 0.32 0.26 0.0 4.00 10.0 3.22 0.

identify a suitable decline model.exe can be used for model identification. 516-519. C. M. C.0 1. 1986. Predict yearly oil productions: 8-20 . Economides.: “ Analysis of Decline Curves. 122-125. AIME.M.0 4.0 5. 1945.: Well Performance. determine model parameters. and project production rate till the end of the 10th year. Golan.0 t (year) Figure 8-14: Projected production rate by a hyperbolic decline model * Summary * * * * This chapter presented empirical models and procedure of using the models to perform production decline data analyses.. and Ehlig-Economides. 1994. Hill. and Whitson. International Human Resource Development Corp. model parameter determination. and production rate prediction.1 For the data given in the following table. Prentice Hall PTR. Upper Saddle River.0 2. J. M. References Arps.D. A.” Trans. 228-247. Computer program UcomS. Problems 8.: Petroleum Production Systems.0 3.12 10 q (1000 STB/D) 8 6 4 2 0 0... 160.J.J.0 6.

identify a suitable decline model.7 0.63 9. determine model parameters.4 Production Rate (1.05 6.4 1.84 4.5 2.29 8.3 1.8 2.9 2 2.7 1.25 7.67 7.5 0.45 5.1 0.5 1.22 6.2 1.2 3.98 8.36 8.6 0.6 1.08 5.6 2.3 3. and the reverses to be recovered before the marginal production rate is reached: 8-21 .81 5.9 1 1.68 5.76 4.23 5.56 5.87 6. predict the time when the production rate will decline to a marginal value of 500 stb/day.8 0.1 3.4 0.9 7.03 4.14 7.2 0.3 0.37 6.9 3 3.94 4.4 8.8 1.4 2.34 5.68 8.44 4.13 5.3 2.59 4.69 6.45 7.7 2.53 6.51 4.94 5.Time (year) 0.2 For the data given in the following table.2 2.000 stb/day) 9.67 4.1 1.1 2.

1 0.61 5.07 7.9 2 2.4 1.8 1.7 2.28 8.67 6.9 3 3.87 6.93 5.57 4.1 2.Time (year) 0.1 5.88 3.8 8.68 4.5 0. predict the time when the production rate will decline to a marginal value of 50 Mscf/day.15 4.77 5.06 3.4 0.9 1 1.7 0.2 0.8 2. determine model parameters.1 1.35 8. identify a suitable decline model.2 1.28 6.3 For the data given in the following table.3 0.3 1.35 4.4 2.81 7. and the reverses to be recovered before the marginal production rate is reached: 8-22 .95 8.32 7.5 1.2 2.97 3.7 1.46 4.6 0.5 2.4 Production Rate (stb/day) 9.2 3.09 6.63 9.3 3.47 6.8 0.92 4.55 7.46 5.3 2.8 4.32 5.18 5.25 4.1 3.64 8.6 1.05 4.6 2.

46 110.68 165.73 740.4 For the data given in the following table.59 449.72 8. determine model parameters.19 272.3 149.9 182.84 818.6 223.Time (Month) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Production Rate (Mscf/day) 904.32 606.57 367.8 100. and yearly oil productions: Time (Month) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Production Rate (stb/day) 1810 1637 1482 1341 1213 1098 993 8-23 .53 246.33 406.57 135.53 548.82 670.26 90.88 332.87 301.13 201.81 496. identify a suitable decline model. predict the time when the production rate will decline to a marginal value of 50 stb/day.34 122.

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 899 813 736 666 602 545 493 446 404 365 331 299 271 245 222 201 181 8-24 .