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BIBLIOTHEK
INPOGERMAMSCHER GRAMMATIKEN
BEARBEITET VON

F.

BUCHELER,
E.

H,

HUBSOHMANN,
WEBER, W,
D,

SIEVERS, H,

LESKIEN, G, MEYER, WHITNEY, E, WINDISOH,

A,

BAND
A SANSKRIT GRAMMAR,

II.

INCLUDING BOTH THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGE, AND THE OLDER DIALECTS, OF VEDA AND BRAHMANA BY WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY.

LEIPZIG,
DRUCK UND VERLAG VON BREITKOPF UND HARTEL.
1879.

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR,
INCLUDING BOTH THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGE, AND THE

OLDER DIALECTS, OF VEDA AND BRAHMANA,

BY

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY,
PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AND COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN TALE COLLEGE, NEW-HAVENJ CORRESPONDENT OF THE ACADEMIES OF BERLIN AND ST. PETERSBURG, AND OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE, ETC. ETC,

THIS

WORK IS

COPYRIGHT.

LEIPZIG, BREITKOPF AND HARTEL.
LONDON, TRUBNER &
Co. 57

AND

59,

LUDGATE

HILL, E.

C. 8.

EXTI> STA. HALL.

1879.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1879, by W. D. Whitney in the of the Librarian of Congress at Washington D. C.

ofrice

(The Right of Translation and Reproduction

is

reserved .)

Printers

:

Breitkopf

&

Hartel, Leipzig.

PREFACE.
It

was

in June,

two

in Leipzig, that I

1875. as I chanced to be for a day or was unexpectedly invited to prepare

the Sanskrit

grammar for the Indo-European series projected Messrs. Breitkopf and Hartel. After some consideration, by and consultation with friends, I accepted the task, and have
since devoted to
it

what time could be spared from regular engagements earlier formed. If the delay seems a long one, it was nevertheless unavoidable and I would gladly, in the interest of the work itself
duties, after the satisfaction of
;

have made
ary
to

it still

longer.

In every such case,

it

is

necess-

make a compromise between measurably

satisfying a

present pressing need, and doing the subject fuller justice at the cost of more time; and it seemed as if the call for a Sanskrit grammar on a somewhat different plan from those excellent as some of these in many respects already in use was urgent enough to recommend a speedy comare pletion of the work begun. The objects had especially in view in the preparation of this grammar have been the following:
-

To make a
primarily as they

presentation of the facts

of the language

in use in the literature, and only secondarily as they are laid down by the native grammarians. The earliest European grammars were by the

show themselves

necessity of the case chiefly founded on their native predecessors and a traditional method was thus established which
;

has been perhaps somewhat too closely adhered to, at the expense of clearness and of proportion, as well as of scientific

truth.

Accordingly,

my

attention has not been directed

toward a profounder study of the grammatical science of the Hindu schools their teachings I have been contented to take
:

vi
as

PREFACE.
to

already

reported

Western learners in the existing

Western grammars.

To

structions

include also in the presentation the forms and conof the older language, as exhibited in the Veda

to the

and the Brahmana. Grassmann's excellent Index- Vocabulary Rig-Veda, and my own manuscript one to the AtharvaI

be able to make public), gave mass of Vedic material and this, with some assistance from pupils and friends, I have song] it

Veda (which

hope soon

to

me

in full detail the great

;

to complete,

other Vedic texts

as far as the circumstances permitted, from the and from the various works of the Brah-

both printed and manuscript. the language throughout as an accented one, omitting nothing of what is known respecting the nature of the Sanskrit accent, its changes in combination and inflection,

mana period, To treat

and the tone of individual words
cessarily dependent especially by the older accentuated texts.

-

-

being, in all this, ne-

upon the material presented

To cast all statements; classifications, and so on, into a form consistent with the teachiogs of linguistic science. In doing this, it has been necessary to discard a few of the long-used and familiar divisions and terms of Sanskrit grammar -for

example,

the classification and nomenclature of

"special tenses" and "general tenses" (which is so indefensible that one can only wonder at its having maintained itself
so long), the order and terminology of the conjugation-classes, the separation in treatment of the facts of internal and external euphonic combination, and the like. But care has been

taken to

facilitate

the
it

transition

from the old
will

to the

new;

and the changes,

is

believed,

commend themselves

It has been sought also to help an appreciation of the character of the language by putting its facts as far as In this possible into a statistical form.

to unqualified acceptance.

respect the native
leading.
of the learner

grammar

is

especially deficient

and mis-

Regard has been constantly had to the practical needs of the language, and it has been attempted, by due arrangement and by the use of different sizes of

I have had. would have extended the work. What I have not found there or in the special collections made by myself or by others for me. krit grammars. as a matter of course. both in content and in time of preparation. to vii type. it is The custom of transliterating practiced alone in the smaller sizes. forms and processes of other related languages. for the same reason and for others. its forms and uses. To do this. prepared As regards the material of the language. which hardly call for statement. I have done so consistently throughout. the smaller grammar of Bopp (a wonder of learning and method for the time when it Avas and the volumes of Benfey and Mtiller. retained throughout. A grammar is necessarily in great part founded on its predecessors. Explanations of the origin of forms have also been avoided. I have called below "not quotable*' a provisional designation^ necessarily liable to correction in detail by the results of further researches. gives by itself a new character to all investigations of the Sanskrit language. far beyond the limits assigned to it. it make the work as usable by one whose object acquire a knowledge of the classical Sanskrit alone as those are in which the earlier forms are not included. While the treatment of the facts of the language has thus been made a historical one. is to all Sanskrit words into Eurowhich has become usual in European Sanspean characters. And. the full and arly excellent work of Monier Williams. has been at all comparable with the great Petersburg lexicon of Bohtlingk and Roth. having decided to leave out this ele- ment. and their classification For what concerns the verb. and reliable brief summary of Kielhorn. as every one . and. I have not ventured by bringing in the analogous to make it comparative. the existence of which . is. and it would be in vain to attempt an acknowledgment in detail of all the aid received from other scholI have had at hand always especially the very scholars. of course. because of the difficulty of setting even a small Sanskrit type with anything but a large European. in addition to all that was attempted beside. no other aid. within the limits of the language itself.PREFACE.

I think. To Dr. L. ject Former pupils of my own. (print- ing contemporaneously with this work. In respect to the important matter of the declension in the earliest language. look through with favoring me with valuable suggestions. not otherwise access: Weber ible to me. of Berlin. Schroder is due whatever use I have been able to make (unfortunately a very imperfect one) of the important Matriayani-Sanhita. this subcalls for public acknowledgment. has taken the trouble for a like purpose the greater part of the proof-sheets of the grammar. . Delbruck to glance over who. Avery and Dr. I have made great use of the elaborate paper in the Journ. Prof. and used by almost. I owe to him the use of his copies of certain unpublished texts of the Brahmana period. For this last favor I have likewise to thank Prof. in his Althis various indisches Verb urn and Edgren. but not quite. My manifold obligations to my own teacher. by tions. moreover. and he was kind enough in its to me my work inchoate condition. have also helped me. not less to be. Am.viii PREFACE far the . D. in a way and measure that syntactical contribuProf. as they came from the press. even the severest. is likely Should it be found to answer its intended purpose well enough to come to another edition. and I shall be grateful for any corrections or suggestions which may aid me in making it a more efficient help to the study of the Sanskrit language and literature. W. my endeavor will be to improve and complete it. W. fully GOTHA. Of the deficiencies of my work I am. Or. also require to be mentioned among other things. to the end of the subject) by me my former pupil Prof. July 1879. Soc. my treatment of it is founded on his. in connection with and with others. Lanman. aware than any critic of it. most aid from Delbruck. must have.

It is thus distinguished. and by a limited literature . orated.INTRODUCTION. and language which have datable monuments from as early as the third century before Christ. as the written and spoken means of communication of the learned and which even at the present day fills priestly caste that office. elab- popularly applied to the whole ancient and sacred language of India. perfected'). on the one hand. seems desirable to give here such a sketch of the history of Indian literature as shall show the relation to one another of the different periods and forms of the language treated in the following grammar. from the later and derived dialects as the Prakrit. 1087 d. and the position It of the works there quoted. regulated and established by the labors of the native grammarians. a Prakritic dialect which became the sacred language of Buddhism in Farther India. and is characters in the Sanskrit dramas (see . the Pali. The name "Sanskrit" (samskrta. belongs more properly only to that dialect which. 'adorned. and which are represented by inscriptions and coins. by the speech of the uneducated below). BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE INDIAN LITERATURE. has led for the last two which is thousand years or more an artificial life. forms of . like that of the Latin during most of the same period in Europe.

these. it is distinguished. the notice of differ- . its different language with that of contemporary It is certain that the grammatical study of those texts . on the other hand. we have only our inferences and conjectures to rely upon. firatigaJchyas (prati $ahham. both by the depth and exactness of their own researches 1 ). And. and though they are evidently the perfected fruits of a long series of learned labors. Only the concluding works in the development of the grammatical science have been preserved to us. and noting all its peculiarities of form. on the other hand. which should thenceforth be authorized to rule in the intercourse of the educated. lit'ly 'branches').x still INTRODUCTION. from the older dialects very or forms of speech presented in the canonical literature. in the history of the learned movement is still and opinions are at variance even as to points of prime consequence. 'belonging to attested each several text one having for subject each principal Vedic text. of the fixation the Veda and Brahmana. This fact. (gakhas. The time and the place of the creation of Sanskrit are unknown . was zealously and effectively followed in the Brahmanic schools this is by our possession of a number of phonetico-grammatical treatises. however. used according is the cardinal one in Indian linguistic history. the records of the latter are lost beyond recovery. What part. and by their com- parison of use. by learned treatment of an of expression. so it has also to a large extent determined the grammatical treatment of the language by European scholars. but much less sharply and widely. the transition to the languages of Modern tongues forming India. Much obscure. phonetic and other. and as to its occasion. It seems. speak plainly of a lively scientific activity continued during a long time. altogether likely that the grammatical sense of the ancient Hindus was awakened in great measure by their study of the traditional sacred texts. and as the native mode grammatical literature has determined the form of the language. in service there as such and yet later and more altered . and by the number of authorities which they quote.

Thus the whole more modern literature of India has been Paninized. if of course. leading to the exert a very strong reguavoidance more and more of what was. which is in tolerably wide and constant use for writing and speaking. yet the existence of grammatical authority. so to speak. in the constant reproduction of texts. -great comment'. norm of correct speech. hut it is not customary that a language has its proper usages fixed by rule until altered dialects movement is the danger is distinctly felt of its undergoing corruption. his rules are examined arid disKatyayana's lived cussed by Patanjali. He has had commentators in abundance. even if lingering in use. deemed infallible and of prescriptive value. The labors of the general school of Sanskrit grammar reached a climax in the grammarian Panini. A language. whose text-book. for all after time the authoritative. What are the to the gradual that . effacement of whatever they might contain was unapproved. The chief and most authoritative commentary on his work is that called the Mahabhashya. could not fail to lative influence. not a vernacular one. even is. Re- specting his period. by communication from teacher to scholar and the study and imitation of existing texts. and not by the learning of gram- matical rules.INTRODUCTION. and especially of a single one. but he has not been overthrown or superseded. and has undergone at their hands some measure of amendment and completion. nothing really definite and trustworthy is known but he is with much probability held to have . containing artful ancl the facts difficult formula-like of the language cast into the highly form of about four thousand algebraicrules (in the statement and arrangement of at the cost of distinct- which brevity alone is had in view. ness and unambiguousness became . and also. some time (two to four centuries) before the Christian era. almost sacred. in which strictures on. kept in life principally by direct tradition. inconsistent with his teachings. pressed into the mould prepared by him and his school. xi ences between the correct speech of the learned and the of the vulgar may have home in the same not easy to determine.

already. For although parts of this are doubtless earlier than Panini. 103) which never can have been a truly vernacular and living one. so far grammar as shall be found possible. or even to determine what and how much sometimes perverse) he had everywhere as foundation. of this process is not yet known. when inherently authorized character. a prose and a prose literature (except in the commentaries) hardly has an existence. proper course to not the way really to understand The time must soon come. Of linguistic history there is next scientific treatises of and to nothing in it all. though unratified by him. as constantly used below in the grammar. Nearly all of it is metrical : not poetic works only. but narratives. and what genuine usage traces may be left in the literature of usages possessing an . every variety. Arid. however. too. the reason of Panini' s rules (which contain not a little that seems problematical. speak and write the language correctly ized as author- by the grammarians This.x ii limits of the ' INTRODUCTION. then. the language. naturally enough. the whole proper Sanskrit literature. are done into verse . pursue. but only a history of style. to test in all details. toward explaining is the in India. it is impossible to tell just what the parts. may be in called so far an artificial literature as it is written a phonetic form (see grammar. levelling influence of the grammar. or wherever else the leading object is to learn to that is. or how far they have escaped in their style The whole. or it has come that is the is the endeavor shall be instead to explain the from the language. histories (so far as anything deserving that name can be said to exist). language from the grammar. is meant the lan- guage of those literary monuments which are written in con: formity with the rules of the native grammar virtually. The attention of special students of the Hindu grammar and the subject is so intricate and difficult that the number artificiality exceedingly small of those who have mastered it suffion such general matters) ciently to have a competent opinion has been hitherto mainly directed toward determining what the Sanskrit according to Panini really is. and this . By the term "classical'' or "later" language.

the deified powers of nature. of succeeding growing. and. when they had only crossed the threshold of the country. -Veda of verses (re) or hymns'. although the inter- relations of this period are as yet too unclear to allow of . adapted with more or less of distortion to help the needs of a ceremonial which was coming to be of immense elaboration and intricacy. and abounds in prose as The results of the very earliest literary productiveness of the Indian people are the hymns with which. to which the suspicion of artificiality does not attach. an increase of artificiality and an intensification of certain more undesuch as the use of passirable features of the language constructions sive and of the substitution of participles instead of verbs. to the extent of over a thousand hymns and ten thousand verses. Other collections were made also out of the same general mass of imitations. compounds for sentences. was becoming variously applied sung in chosen extracts. it is so much the higher consequence that there is an earlier literature. And. and of This being the condition of the later literature. the mass was ever change of habits and beliefs and religious practices. They were long handed down by oral tradition.C. and when their geographical horizon was still limited to the riverbasin of the Indus with its tributaries. At what period these were made and sung cannot be determined with any approach to accuracy: it may have been as early as 2000 B. well as verse. preserved by the care. with the : traditional material : doubtless later.INTRODUCTION. there was made for preservation a great collection of the hymn-material. for the xiii most part showing a gradual depravation. or attaches at least only in a minimal degree. and increased by the additions and generations. mainly its oldest and most genuine part. and accompanied the rites of their comparatively simple worship. they praised their gods. mixed with other material into liturgies. which has a truly vernacular character. arranged according to traditional authorthis collection is ship and to subject and length of hymn the Rig-Veda. at some time in the course of this history.

one of them only in a single known manuscript. Madhyandina and Kanvd . though distinctly less antique than that of the other. our speaking with entire confidence as to anything concern'Veda of chants (saman}\ ing them. and the Kathaka (the two last not yet published). its verses nearly all containing found in the Rig-Veda also. there are in existence several texts. name of brief prose passages. the Maitrayam-Samhita. the Brahmanas and . and also a number is lection the all. which have their in mutual differences: the Vajasaneyi-Samhita (in two slightly discordant versions. is scattered through the texts to be later described. and in part perhaps period latest the imitative work of a yet more modern time). in distinction from the prose brahmana]. because it contains the largest amount of hymn-material (or mantra. as it is called. they were strictly liturgical collections. rous differences of reading. and contains a certain amount of material corresponding to that of the latter.x iv INTRODUCTION. Two versions of it are extant. mingled with the former. but also numerous prose utterances.Veda. sometimes and the various and also called the White Yajur-Veda texts of the Black Yajur-Veda. To this last colrefused in the orthodox literature very generally of Veda. it is somewhat more than half as bulky as the Rig. Thus. but for us it is the most interesting of after the Rig -Veda. like the Rig-Veda. namely considerably differing the Taittirlya-Samhita. A not insignificant body of like material. and in a language is which. but appearing here with numefor chanting at the soma-sacrifices. Finally. 'Veda of sacformulas (yajusV: these contained not verses alone. nevertheless truly Vedic. Of these. another historical collection. rificial the order in which they were practically employed in the ceremonies. the Sama.Veda. and of various (although doubtless in the main belonging to the time of Vedic productiveness. collections called by the comprehensive name of Yajur-Veda. 'Veda of the Ath. only about a sixth as much. arvans (a legendary priestly family)'. and called (among other less current names) the Atharva-Veda. but made up mainly of later and less accepted material. these were passages put together Again.

and its smallest and most exceptional traits of phonetic form. Its differences from the latter the following treatise endeavors to show in phrases in the texts detail. this kind of care began in the case of text. etymological and other. Such matter comes to be called brahmana (apparently 'relating to the brahman or worship'.. preserved with all its peculiarities of dialect. But it is certain that the Vedic records furnish. showing some differ: ences from those of the other schools but those mentioned above are all that are now known to be in existence. and the chance of the discovery of others grows every year smaller. on the whole. its own. and which goes back a good way behind the classical Sanskrit. are indulged in. of the lists forms of and each so on. their meaning and the reason of the details and the accom- Along with the verses of and the panying utterances are discussed and explained. cannot be told. sacrificial formulas and Black Yajur-Veda are given long prose sections. it is separated into . is virtually without various readings. and has been crowned with such success that the text of each school. a wonderfully accurate and trustworthy picture of a form of ancient Indian language (as well as ancient Indian beliefs and institutions) which was a natural and undistorted one. this accuracy was secured: of peculiarities and treatises upon them. In the White Yajur-Veda. The labor of the schools in the conservation of their sacred texts was extraordinary.INTRODUCTION. in addition to the religious care text. and what of original character may have been effaced before it. It is not the place here to describe the means by which. pure and unobscured. The fundamental divisions of the Vedic literature here mentioned all each of these with a text of have had their various schools of sectaries. To assemble and sift and compare it is now one of the pressing needs of Vedic study. in which the ceremonies are described. illustrative legends are reported or fabricated. or lost in spite of it. xv the Sutras. whatever may be its differences from those of other schools. When sectaries. and various speculations.

the and a JaiminiGopatha-Brahmana. same name. work by itself. Brhad-Aranyaka. and of one which main a natural and freely developed one the oldest and most primitive Indo-European prose. has just (Burnell) been disschool. or . Thus. of mingled mantra and the Taittirlya-Brahmana is a collection brahmana. To a certain among them the bearings a fact the possession of common of which are not yet fully understood. there material: samhitas. how ever. are continued and added to down to a comparar tively modern time. the Pancavinqa and Shadvin$aBrahmanas and other minor works. like the samhita of the later. are extracted the earliest Upanishads ('sittings. Taittirtya-Aranyaka. belonging to the schools of the Rig. to the Atharva-Veda Brahmana. called Aranyakas ('forestsections'): as the Aitareya-Aranyaka. with the name of the Aitar ey a some other distinctive title. to the Sama-Veda. beof Vedic study. lectures on sacred subjects') which. to the Sama-Veda. Beside the Brahmanas are sometimes found later ap- in the pendices. 'Brahmana of a hundred ways'. or even from the Brahmanas. and offer spe- cimens on a large scale of a prose is style. Other similar collections are found. Notwithstanding the inanity of no small part of their contents. but supplementary and These works are likewise regarded as canonical by the schools. covered in India. and philologically they are not less important. and so on. since they represent a form of language in most respects intermediate between the classical and that of the Vedas. The Upanishads are one of the lines . of a similar character.Brahmanas. and is called the Catapatha-Brahmana. the and Kamhitaki. prefixed. the Brahmanas are of a high order of interest in their bearings on the history of Indian institutions.Veda. And from some of these. and they longing to various other schools bear the common name of Brahmana. and their condition of textual of a kindred excellence. and are learned by their sectaries with the same extreme care which is devoted to the is is preservation extent. beside the samhitci or text of verses and formulas.xv i a ' INTRODUCTION.

INTRODUCTION. again. mayacarika-sutras) they lay down the general obligations of one whose life is in accordance with prescribed duty. in the They. not of dogmatic explanation. to periods from six centuries Christ to soon after Christ). which has well-founded claims to being regarded as one of the very oldest works of the proper Sanskrit literature. with which the Brah- manas have to do in part (grhya-sutras). has served as a text into which . to which are others. come by natural development the law-books (dharma-$astras). way of prescription. or the date of any class of writings. and that they deal with the religious ceremonies: treating them. And out of the last two. In part ($rauta or kalpa-sutras\ they take up the great sacrificial ceremonies. contain some mantra or hymn-material. The works thus named are analogous with the rules'). Brahmanas in that they belong to the schools of Vedic study and are named from them. which make the oldest and a conspicuous figure in the later literature noted of them being that called by the name of most : Manu (an outgrowth. and many Respecting the chronology of this development. All dates given in Indian literary history are pins set up to be bowled down Every important work has undergone so many more again. if not the is variously assigned. It is so. struction is complicated with that of final redaction. with the great legendary epic of oldest (it the Mahdbharata. it is added believed. or especially the last. however. in a before still more striking degree. the less that is said the better. The ground-work but it of this is doubtless of b very early date. still more of any individual work. in some cases (sa. just mentioned. It is so with the law-book of Manu. they teach the minor duties of a pious householder. not found to occur elsewhere. too. xvii by which the Brahmana literature passes over into the later theological literature. school). Another line of transition is shown in the Sutras ( -lines. which or less transforming changes before reaching the form in that the question of original conit comes to us. of the Manava Vedic that of Yajnavalkya.

where a mythological or legendary conceived dramatically. Bhattikavya (the intent of illustrating written chiefly with the grammatical by use as many as possible of the numerous formations which. it is in the main. worked over and more or and it altered in the production. are of no mean order of merit. is transmission to our time. the Maghakavya. until it has become a heterogeneous mass. and the philosophical stituent parts. The beginnings of the latter date from a period when in actual life the higher and educated . They are pseudo-historical and prophetic in character. as the Meghaduta and Gitagovinda.xv iii INTRODUCTION. The story of Nala. a work of another kind: less other though also most famous epic. of modern date. the last. branch. that of Yama and his sister Yami. are two of the most noted of its the The Ramayana. The Purdnas. are best mentioned in connection with the epics. nor is there any conscious historical element in any of the works composing it. materials of various character and period have been inwoven. some of which. through taught by the grammarians. a kind of cyclo- poem is hard to separate into its conpedia for the warrior-caste. that of Agni and the other but there are no extant intermediaries between these gods and the standard drama. find no place in the literature). as the Raghuvah$a (ascribed to the dramatist Kalidasa). that of Vasishtha and the rivers. Real history finds no place in Sanskrit literature. The drama is a still more noteworthy and important The first indications of dramatical inclination and on the part of the Hindus are seen in certain capacity of the is hymns situation Veda. By its side stand a number of minor epics. and of very small value. Bhagavad-Glta. episodes. a large class of works mostly of immense extent. its generally believed to be in part allegorical. representing the introduction of Aryan culture and dominion into Southern India. of a single author (Valmiki). and set forth in the form of a dialogue well-known examples are the dialogue of Sarama and the Panis. Lyric poetry is represented by many works. of various authorship and period.

The most noted works in this department are the Pancatantra. according to the rules of which Prakrit could he made indefinitely on a substrate of Sanskrit. and the age of their text-books. it is doubtless some ceninquiry later than our era. learning (not to call it pedantry) intervened.INTRODUCTION. are matters on which much obscurity still rests. leading departments of Sanskrit scientific the legal and the grammatical. and their Then. sufficiently noticed. All of them seek the same end. more abundantly in the Brahmanas and Aran- yakas. his Cakuntala as distinctly his much turies to His date has been a matter of and controversy. but believed to be the oldest of the extant dramas. A in partly dramatic character belongs also to the fable. while most or all of them are undoubtedly Kalidasa is much later. and authors. however. The beginnings of philosophic- speculation are seen already in some of the later hymns of the Veda. The only other work deserving be mentioned along with Kalidasa' s is the Mrchakafl of Cudraka. There are six systems of primary rank. The evoand then especially in the Upanishads. of those remaining. partly founded on it. the dramatic incomparably the masterpiece. dialogue reflects this condition of things. the comparatively recent and popular Hitopade$a ('salutary instruction'). the emancipation of the soul from the b* . a Prakrit grammar grew up beside the Sanskrit grammar. which through Persian and Semitic versions has made its way all over the world. and the lower and uneducated used the popular dialects derived from it. and. although really standing in no accordance with approved religious doctrines. which animals are represented as acting and speaking. Among chief. the Prakrits. xix characters used Sanskrit. have been already literature. also of questionable period. and none of the existing dramas need to date from the time of vernacular use of Prakrit. and stereotyped the new element. lution and historic' relation of the systems of philosophy. and reckoned as orthodox. the most important of the Two by al far is the philosophical. and contributes a considerable quota to the fable-literature of every European language.

. is of little account. of bodies. differ in regard to the this end. although of that of Greece. but they means by which they seek to attain The astronomical science of the Hindus is a reflection and its literature is of recent date. in arithmetic and geometry they have shown more independence. and its proper literature by no means ancient. and its contiiiuing its existence in a succession of unification with the All -soul. in the use of its beginnings go back even to the Veda.xx necessity INTRODUCTION. medicinal plants with accompanying incantations. but as mathematicians. Their medical science. .

Guna and Vrddhi.. RULES OF EUPHONIC COMBINATION Introductory. Stems in r or ar. 81. F. 51 Combinations of Final s and r. 65 the Palatal Mutes . 79. Vowel-lengthening. Case. and h. Declension IV. Endings of Declension. Root-words a. Variation of Stem. u): A. in ant or at. Declension I.. 99159 Stems in Classification etc.. 104. . 145. 80: 8098 Uses of the Cases. 97. Root-stems etc. Declension III. . HI.. Conversion of Dental Mutes to Linguals and Palatals. 53 Conversion of s to s. 95. Declension II. 8. Weakening Processes. 832 . IV. Perfect Par- ticiples in vans. Number. Rules of Vowel Com- Permitted Finals. Accent in Declension. 26. 3379 Principles. 146. 60 . version of n to n. 27. Strengthening and . 116. PREFACE INTRODUCTION I. 138. Stems in Diphthongs. Surd and Sonant Assimilation. DECLENSION Gender. V.. 33 bination. I. Chap. .CONTENTS. . Stems in Long Vowels (a. Consonants. 140. 152. is. D. . 156. Accent. Deaspiration. B. 76 . the Lingual Sibilant. 71 and Sibilant. 72. 73. 50. Comparison. Vowels. 11. us. Ill.. 99. Stems in Consonants. E. 117. 46. Page. C. Derivative Stems in an. 155. Derivative Stems etc. V ix ALPHABET SYSTEM OF SOUNDS : 18 PRONUNCIATION . . II. 36 . NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 100. Reduplication. 74. Comparatives in yas. 92. Derivative Stems in as.. Stems in i and u. 129. 57 Con. Quantity. . Combinations of Final n. B. 78. etc. 63 Combinations of Final m. 66 Extension and Abbreviation. G. Nasal Vowel-lightening. 41. .. A. 127. 77 Increment.. Declension V.. 62. 123. in in.

Ordinals 166. IV. 201 Reduplication. 248. II. Precative. 185. . Personal Endings. THE PERFECT-SYSTEM Perfect Tense... Subjunctive Mode. 229. 241 VII.T. Nouns used proPronominal Derivatives. 307 The s-future. 207. 193 . 160. Perfect Participle. Modes the Perfect. 201 . 168 . 181. or su and tan-classes). Reduplicated Aorist. 299 302. Person. of the Present IX. Emphatic. 252. the 294. 232. IX. Augment. 171 ... Pluperfect. 177. 293. the s-aorist. 302. . 300. Uses of the Perfect. 160167 etc. VI. VIE. Participles of the s-future. Preterit of the sfuture: Conditional. 286. . the sa-Aorist. Relative. 278. 281. 5. [ . . X. the is. II. 290. 206 Tense. I. Aorist. Uses of the Aorist. 186 Optative. 7. >-aorist. Simple Aorist: sing. THE AORIST-SYSTEMS Classification. Fa-Class (fourth or diu-elass). Participles. Imperative. the a-Aorist. Secondary Conjugation. Accented d-Class (sixth or tud- 245. CONJUGATION Voice. 195 196 .. 2. 6. XII. VIII. 191 . VIII. 269. The Periphrastic Future. 270.Aorist. Modes of the 5-future. I. 181 168 Demonstrative. Na(ninth or fcrz-class). VI. 271 1. 221 Class (seventh or rwd/i-class). Verbal Adjectives and Nouns. 299 271. Re- duplicating Class (third or ftu-class). 208. class). Possessives 179. 176. 3d 277. 182. Root-class (second or ad-class).~ ^ J-rt^ III. 3. 254.xxii Chap. CONTENTS. Passive Aorist II. XI. Sibilant 4. Root-aorist. Conjugations and Conjugation Classes. 273 4 . 303 Uses of the Futures and Conditional. 303. Number. . > 207 255 General. III. 285. . 202. Class 238. 203. 179. Accent of the Verb. 185. a-Class or 6ftu-classj. 305. V. (fifth . of 255 270 255. Uses of the Modes. . 267. 211. 296. 182 Mode. THE PRESENT-SYSTEM . 179. Adjectives declined pronominally. nominally. Interrogative. Nasal Nu and w-Classes (first and eighth. PRONOUNS Personal. . 266. Accented Uses yd-Class or Passive Conjugation. THE FUTURE-SYSTEMS I. NUMERALS Cardinals. 298. and Imperfect.

335. 325. INFINITIVES. 455 . . Aorist. Perfect. INDECLINABLES Adverbs. 357 366 . DERIVATIVE OR SECONDARY CONJUGATION I. 310. XVIII. ative. etc. 456. PERIPHRASTIC AND COMPOUND CONJUGATION The Periphrastic Perfect. . B. 369. Infinitives. 355. Examples of Varines Sanskrit Type 457 ple of Accentuated Text. 343. B. Chap. 443. 334. 459. XVH. Primary Derivatives. V. Construction with Compounds. 455. Desider- Present-System. Future. Determinative Compounds. 313. III. 358 . XIV. . 457 B. 337.. Descriptive Compounds. Future.. XV. Irregular APPENDIX A. A. Other Verbal Compounds. Compounds with Governed Final Member. II. Secondary Derivatives. 323. etc. 431 . 370 Prepositions.CONTENTS. 310. 321 347 Passive. native. Present-System. 329. 350. Conjunctions. Participial Periphrastic Phrases. 443. PosCompounds. B. 453. . III. Gerunds. VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS PLES. 432. Causative. etc. 403. Perfect. DERIVATION OF DECLINABLE STEMS . sessive Stem-finals altered in Composition. 340. Dependent Compounds. 322. xxiii Page. Adverbial Gerund in am. 347 357 Prefixes. 315. 370 424 A. Adjective Compounds as Nouns and as Adverbs. 424 456 425. 347. 349 Composition with Prepositional . XVI. Uses of the Infinitives. 319. 428. 321.. Aorist. 307 ticiple . Present-System. Aorist. 339. Secondary Adjective Compounds. 373. FORMATION OF COMPOUND STEMS Classification. Perfect. II. Future. Anomalous Compounds. IV. . GERUNDS Passive Participle in ta or nd. XIII. Future Passive Gerundives. A. : PARTICI- 307 Participles: 321 Past Active Par- in tavant. Intensive.. 452. I. Interjections. Denomi- 331. 437.. 460 Exam- SANSKRIT INDEX 461 475 GENERAL INDEX 476485 . Copulative Compounds.. 369 .

Sama-Veda. Ramayana. RV. TS. Kaushitaki-Brahmana. Ragh. QGS. TaittirTya-Brahmana. Rigveda-Prati^akhya. Megh. TA. Mahabharata.XXIV ABBREVIATIONS. AV. $atapatha-Brahmana. Vajasaneyi-Sanhita. 9 or ak. Maitrayani-Sauhita. Kathaka. V. M. BB. Rig. . K. APr. Katha-Sarit-Sagara. Veda. Vajasaneyi-Prati^akhyj VS. TB. Gopatha-Brahmana. RPr. Atharva-Prati^akhya. $B. Qakuntala.Veda. Pancavin^a-Brahmana. Meghadiita. VPr. TaittirTya-Sanhita. ABBREVIATIONS. Mann. Atharva-Veda. Taittiriya-Prati^akbya. Qankhayana-Grihya-Sutra. Shadvin^a-Brahmaua. Tribhashyaratna. MS. SB. PB. GB. H. Aitareya-Brahmana. Bohtlingk and Roth (Petersburg Lexicon). MBh. R. Tribh. AB. Hitopade$a. Taittiriya-Aranyaka. SV. Raghuvan^a. TPr. KB. KSS.

of the same origin (Burnell). From the those of latter. its The nagari. Guzerati. Of the devanagari itself there as minor varieties. and the more fully in proportion to its claimed sanctity and authority. and deva-nagarl history of of 'nagarl of the gods. and others. also of individual hand examples Whitney. value. 1. derivatives. depending on (see 1 differences of locality or of period. in the same alphabet which they use of writing. or less evidently. THE natives of India write their ancient and sacred generally. Bengali. of which one shows distinct signs of derivation from a Semitic source. about the middle of the third century B. They are in two different systems of characters. Grammar. the southern Dravidian languages. or is Hindustan proper. while the other is also probably.CHAPTER ALPHABET. devanagari. both those of the northern Aryan languages. This alone adopted by European scholars : it is called the devanagari.' 2. oral tradition alone. The mode however. and assumes are to be kept in existence by 3. A more comprehensive name is is nagarl (perhaps. are varieties of northern and with them are related some as in Tibet of the alphabets of peoples outside of India culture or religion. purposes a great extent. and Farther India who have adopted Hindu first There practical is reason to believe that writing was for employed in India for and correspondence and business and the like The literature. . 'of the or 'of the Brahmans. obscure. to only by degrees came to be applied also to literary use. I. come the and later Indian alphabets. Southern Acoka cha- racter (of Girnar). ignores all written record. though much the Lath. name is of doubtful origin and city'). which in is employed throughout the heart of Aryan India. C. own vernacular.' Much The that relates to the the earliest written monuments edicts of known Indian alphabets is still date in the country are of the inscriptions containing the A^oka or Piyadasi. language in a variety of alphabets part of the for their in each country.

wherever given. and in the end equally or more effective. ALPHABET. the devanagari characters will be used below And. to try to familiarize himself with the devanagarl mode of writing. while the latter alone will be used in the other sizes. having learned the principal paradigms. be also transliterated in italic letters. n or is m kh (see 73) sonant 19 surd surd asp. in in in Weber's catalogue of the Berlin Rajendralala Mitra's of in- notices of MSS. The student may be advised start from the . At the same time. in accordance with only in connection with the first or largest size. The characters of the devanagarl alphabet.I. he comes to begin reading and and many will find the latter the more analysing and parsing 4. son. prepared for printing.. and will soon learn. A few specimens of types other than those used in this work will scripts. and so on). the laudable usage of recent grammars. practical. long. way. the published fac-similes scriptions. be given in an Appendix. Sanskrit MSS. in Indian libraries. are as follows short. to read the manu- and these are in some measure reflected in the type But a student who both in India and in Europe. asp. they will. and the European letters : which will be used in transliterating them. On account of the difficulty of combining them with the smaller sizes of our Roman and Italic type. 5. by practice. o nasal 1^ *T Sf 3" g q gh 3T 23 3T Ch 24 Mutes lingual 2S j d 5 % 5T Cfi th th 29 jh dh dh bh 26 3T HI n 31 n n dental labial 33 34 $ d ST b se ^ IT q p ss ph 39 4i m . makes himself familiar with one style of printed characters will have little difficulty with the others. Vowels simple : palatal labial $ l 3 ^rd u * u f 1} lingual dental FT I diph- ( palatal labial ^ e ai thongs Visarga I 37 o au Anusvara guttural palatal . it is not necessary that he should do so until.

palatal .

or is not combined with a preceding consonant: by another vowel. when it is initial. in print. that or preceded is. in the MSS. consonant by a hook above the upper line: 3ft ki'. In combination with a consonant. . originally dfi W. Ht bhi . so as to reach all the way down beside the consonant. kha. vowel-sign attached to it the virama: Thus the consonant-signs as given above in the alphabetic scheme are really the signs of the syllables ka. ka. etc. B. . EfT dha.4 alphabetic I. etc. combined with a preceding consonant a has no written sign at following (or else T The short ^ all: the con- sonant-sign itself implies a is a. f^R ki. scheme above are used only when the vowel forms a syllable by itself. is The hook above. jcfj. by a similar stroke. turning essential part of the to the left or to the right. thus. If more consonants than one precede the vowel. jft nl. other modes of representation are used. ft m'. (to ha]. Under A.. Ordinary Hindu usage does not divide the words of a senany more than the syllables of a word a final consonant combined into one syllable with the initial vowel or consois nant of the next following word. forming with it a single syllable. The -long ^T a is written by a perpendicular stroke 5fiT after the consonant: c. ALPHABET. Pr bhi. drawn across them above. tence. b. placed after and in either case is connected with the thus. the hooks were only later prolonged. 10. they almost never have the horizontal stroke character. ^T ha. ofj it. it is to be noticed that the modes of indicating a vowel are as follows: a. the characters*. Short ^ i is i and long ^ e. effj . their characters must be combined into a single compound character.. unless some other 11). which I is for short placed before the consonant and for long it. though this is added in all the printed forms of * Thus. historically the having been originally the whole of it. In the MSS.

14. a stroke called h. in order to avoid an awkward or difficult combination of consonant-signs. are written by a subjoined hook. to the combination of r with preceding is r. ^ hr. aUj with the #-sign after the consonant : kai. (off fee. 3\ 6\ I ku. are usually attached to the middle: thus. single or double. 5 are written The w-sounds. d. g. combined. like one word (9. (as in the Bengali alphabet). single or ETF fi double. |cftl feaw. In the /j-sign. is replaced by a sign like the a-sign : above. ru. see below. and gular : are still more irre- thus. I du. ^\ kr. Under B. (23). If. \fi\ feat. ally resorted to by scribes. it without an added vowel. its The /-vowel written with a reduced form of thus. or in print. the corresponding long efi kl: but would be written with a The diphthongs are written by strokes. short and long. As f. Sfj attached to the lower end of the consonant-sign: ku. and long. fofil feo. 3ft ke. 11. In some devanagari MSS. by having written beneath the virama ('rest. short . On account of the necessities of SX combination. opening toward the right: dr. it is to be noticed that the consonant all difficult to combinations are for the most part not at . du and du are somewhat disguised: thus. ^ dr. end). the hooks thus. the forms with ^ r and ^T h "^\ ^. the virama is in general called But it is also occasionfor only when a final consonant occurs before a pause. full initial character: has no real occurrence similar reduced sign. before the consonant thus. O du.vowels. stop'): thus. the Hindus write the words of a sentence continuously. The r. f^ hu. A consonant -sign. the however.12] WRITING OF VOWELS. as was pointed out above. for Jt o and thus. by hooks thus. <^T hu. % ru 1 . is capable of being made to signify consonant-sound alone. Sfj kf e. 12. above the upper line. ^t ko. ^ hr. the single stroke or one of the double ones. fi k^ < d. ^ Since. and it is used freely in published texts which for the convenience of beginners have their words printed sepa- rately.

ZTJ nma. of both). W praa. 31 pea. is : ^ nja. Other combinations. etc. The semivowel ^ in making combinations with . and in ^HT kna etc. in tta. sf cca. [12 make that or to recognise for one who is is familiar with the simple signs. of of rT t 3\ k in fF "% "^7 kid. t% dya. ^T bhya. ^ dna. of 5T chya. f^T tiha. of ^ d in dga. ^ A^a. ^T //a. O is usual when a vowel-sign added below: 5T cr. which generally becomes $T when followed by a consonant: thus. ^ 2T nya. ^ sta. ALPHABET.. Examples of the ^T Ma. and they are put together according to conveni- ence. 13. : is thus. ^ dda. ^ h: as ^r 7m. no trace of the constituent letters recognisable 14. are nna. 5T pw. The consonant to be pronounced it first is set before the other in the one order. dhya . STU ma. ^\ Ida. Thus. and the In a case or two. compounds of ^ ddha. or one above the other: is in some combinations either arrangement that is allowed. *T m and when following other consonants : ^T kya. ^ jfia. The same change thus. C?j pya. either side by side. ska. (. is The characteristic part of a consonant-sign to be added to another taken (to the exclusion or of the horizontal or of the perpendicular framing-line. ^j $va. ^ nma. there more or less abbreviation or disguise of the independent form of a con- sonant-sign in combination. of thus. however. ST f3T Examples of the side-by-side arrangement jja. r. ^ In some cases. ZT y. above-and-below arrangement are tna. is V3J $ya. ^T hya.. are : ITf gga. Tg stha. krna. 3R "5T p. ^ dma.6 I. H pta. ^ ksa. and above in the other order. ST of not quite obvious value. ^ dbha. ^T hma. F^I tka.

The manuscripts. and the consonant in subordination to it: thus. sometimes in the manner of a hyphen. grammar the whole series of possible combinations (many of them excessively rare) which are provided for in any There is nothing which due familiarity given type-font. ^ dry a. t3 psva. f[ ttva. and the type-fonts as well. 15. "5T pr. differ from one another their management of consonant combinations than in any other often having peculiarities which one needs a little practice to underIt is quite useless to give in a stand. of four consonants. used in the manuscripts. ft rr. more in respect. it the vowel which is written in full. treated in a wholly peculiar manner. }T ?T dra. If pro- nounced it after another consonant (alone or in combination). opening sign of r: 10 e): thus.is 16. "5T tra. are made according 1ST same rules. 51 a after final it is ^ e or sqj o (135). sty a. 5JT 9^ya. of three. to the right (like the subjoined R rka. of five consonants. sometimes to . especially European.16] COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS. or four. gra. A sign called the avagraha ('separator') mark the In printed elision of initial texts. El is written with T a slanting stroke T below: and. with modifica- tions of the preceding consonant-sign like those noted above. ^T nksya. thus. to is be combined with a following 5fJ r. fF^U rtsnya.. If analogous with that of the vowels. Further combinations. ^ rsa (fP rtsna). ^J strya. or even to the five consonant-signs. $3 dvya. is written with a hook above. with its initial charr is When acter. Examples are: of three consonants. Pf pra. or even in all. another consonant (or pronounced before it consonant-combination). ^J ^1 hvya. sra (and CET grya. SET dhrya. ^J ktrya. srva). with the simple signs and with the above rules of combination will not enable the student to analyse and explain. ddhya. sometimes as a mark of hiatus. is 7 other consonants. rF?I tsmya. ordinarily limited . vl namely.

But the kara is also omitted. i. ^0 630. are used alone. name for CHAPTER II. and a. Vowels. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. ^H 25.I. ^T7b 1879. ^ t and ^ both short and long form % a and TT a. ^^f^ te l bruvan. pin and pique. They are to be pronounced in the "Continental" or "Italian" manner as in far or father. and ^^-vowels. or to the letter followed by Thus. pull and 20. the sound or character a is called a. an utterance from the ex- . The numeral 1. but only ra or repha ('snarl' 18. 3 u and 3T u. $ 9. however. The Sanskrit has these three earliest and most universal vowels of Indo-European language. by a kara ('maker') added to the sound of the letter. is The In some sign texts. HT 'bravit. I Signs of punctuation are 17. H 5. The Hindu grammarians the characters : an alphabetic element of its class). express larger numbers. and representing them. call the different sounds. The r. 9 to 4. for te abruvan. ?t [16 to the use last so mentioned: thus. I. k is kakara: and so on. 0. <(000 1000. is never called the only example of a rakara. The a is the openest vowel. PRONUNCIATION. rule. THE in I. they are : used in precisely the same way with European digits thus. so abramt. if a vowel. In combination. akara. etc. a. II. ALPHABET. \ 3. b 7. 19. used to mark an omission and of something. it has also the value of a hyphen. TT 8. if -a consonant. The amispecific svara and msarga are also known by these names alone. ka. figures are 1 ^ 2. | 6.

All these authorities concur in calling the i and w-vowels respectively palatal and labial. The -vowels. son. 1. are the prevailing vowel-sounds of the about twice as frequent as all the others (including diphthongs) taken together. dimmed'. 24. i. but usually as the "neutral vowel" (English so-called "short ". see 237. in India). 241-3) from T|" : : Some but this is of the Hindu grammarians add artificial to the alphabet also a long I . 21. it 9 of kindred i panded throat with any of the . . The a. below. by Panini and by two of the Praticakhyas (APr. This peculiarity appears very early. stands. wels already mentioned the Sanskrit adds two r-vowels and the /-vowel. 75. blood.. are about twice as numerous as the w-vowels. a vocalic in syllable-making . since the sound does not occur in a single genuine word in the language. in no relation classes of consonantal sounds. and the way which they were obtained. only for the sake of an symmetry. articulating shades through y into of the u is similarly related. The and u are close vowels. To the three simple voothers. the short vowel is more than twice (2y2 to 3 times) as common 22. as involving in its utterance a narrowing and rounding of the lips. For more alphabetic precise estimates for of frequency. in of these and of the other see elements. And. The r and /-vowels. 36 VPr. being as the long. made with marked approach : organs to one another i is palatal. again. the both of them plainly generated by the abbreviation of syllables containing a ^" r or ^T / with another vowel the TR r coming (almost always along ar or f ra. to the labial class. being acknowledged etc. the palatal and guttural consonant-classes through v. in each pair. the FT / from FT al. and it is justly wont to It is. of course not original be ignored by Western scholars (except those who have studied . 23. The short a is not pronounced in India with the full openness of a. however. which call the utterance samvrta. 'covered up. to Panini's grammar. i.). 72). of but. and .vowels language. therefore.24] VOWELS. The Paninean scheme (commentary as guttural. as its corresponding short. 9) classes a but apparently only in order to give that series as well as the rest a vowel: no one of the Praticakhyas puts a into one class with k etc. The vowel assuming :fj r is simply a smooth or untrilled office r-sound. i.

27.or even . a vowel value to the pure r and ^-sounds. is found in every variety of word and of not rare. ri. addle.10 as. they are also in general results of another and higher increment of ^ i and of to them 3 which they are called the corresponding vrddhivowels (below. note) attempt to define more in which. 378). it [24 by a like abbreviation. 235). Their example giving and hence also the is widely followed by European scholars and quite objectionable) transliterations ri. are be found even in the Zend). . and is common only in some of the forms and verbal root (kip). 37. being just about as frequent as long u. Some nearly the of way the grammarians (see APr. the four diphthongs. The other two. in these vowels. 26. es They are so ranked in the Paninean scheme but the Praticakhyas in general strangely class them with the jihvcimuliya sounds. they wear the aspect of products of the increment or strengthening of ^ i and 3 u respectively. i. 25. In the Sanskrit. utterance. Of and ETT o. uttered angle. The short r position. to . 235). n. derivatives of a single not very The diphthongs. Like their corresponding semivowels. occurring only in certain The / is met with plural cases of noun-stems in r (374. The modern Hindus pronounce these vowels as ri. But all are likewise sometimes geneu. li having long lost the habit and the facility of Iri). SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. two. (distorting There is no -real difficulty in acquiring and practising the true . and they are called the corresponding guna- vowels to the latter (see below. "gutturals". Long f is very much more unusual. II. The vowel FT I is an -sound similarly like the English /-vowel in such words as able. the ^ e are in great part original Indo-European being sounds. our . ^ ai and to by the prevalent and preferable opinion held be of peculiar Sanskrit growth (there is no certain trace t au. r and I. a real r or ^-element is combined with something else. these vowels belong respectively in the general lingual and dental classthe euphonic influence of r and f (180) shows this clearly. li. has done also in certain Sla- vonic languages.

in this order. give rules respecting their pronunciation in a manner implying them to be virtually unitary sounds. The lighter or ywwa-diphthongs are much more frequent or 7 times) than the heavier or vrddhi. Consonants. fester'. . the heavier or vrddhi diphthongs were distinguished by the length of their aelement. The position of the organs in their utterance is defined to be one of openness. and the diphthongs are called sandhyaksara. 1 j by euphonic combination (127). as long e (English "long or e in they] and o-sounds. 175). 30. or of non-closure. antahstha. . but the relation of those elements is either defined as equal.tf). as ai (a -{.i] and au (a -\. which. combination-syllable'.diphthongs. usually pronounced as they are transliterated ". 80 ff. somewhat more than half as common as the simple i and u(6 vowels . 32. see below. and not an approximation . and the e and Both pairs are ai than the o and au (a half more). common 28. 76 ff. 'spirant'. without diphthongal character. elements in the vrddhi-diph40. 'maniThe consonants are divided by the grammarians into contact' or 'mute'. both in India and in Euthat rope. The recognisable thongs is distinctness of the two noticed by the Praticakhyas (see APr. especially. They will here be taken up and described i sparca. But their euphonic treatment (131-4) clearly shows them to have been still at the period when the euphonic laws established themselves. II. Mutes. to the vowels suara. The mutes. sparca. is The general name given by the Hindu grammarians 'tone'. As to quantity and accent. is. i 'homogeneous syllable'. 31. From them. while ranking them as diphthongs \sandfa/afaara). note). as they of course were at their origin. 'intermediate' or semivowel'. and usman.u).32 rated is DIPHTHONGS. and TT o. on the same evidence. i The Hindu name for 'consonant' is vyan/ana. tity or the a is made of less quan- than the i and u. 29. i. Such they apparently already were to the authors of the Praticakhyas. are so called as involving a complete closure or contact \sparca]. real diphthongs ai (a -f. the simple vowels are called samanaksara. as result of the alteration of a final *3R as e The ^ and 3TF o are.*) and au \a-\.

33. back in the mouth. according to the organs and each and parts of organs by which the contact is made series is composed of five members. differing according to the accompaniments of the contact. are . tj^p also sonant): for example. are 'fourth by the Hindu grammarians and 'last' or 'fifth'. t^t or and d. and labial. and ending with the frontmost 34. or sarhvara. 1 'first'.12 II. the glottis). and not in any manner a difference of force. while the mouth- organs are in the mute-contact. beginning with the contact made furthest to ward from point contact. The second and fourth of each mute series are aspirates : thus. lingual (or cerebral). and they are arranged in the order as just mentioned. . That the difference depends 'closure' (of 'having tone' and the descriptions of the on vivara. q p and ^ < b. that a sonant expulsion into and through the nose. 'third'. of the mouth-organs by divided into five classes or series (varga]. The surd consonants as ghosavant. and : What is q^ m is and also each other nasal to its own t^t series of mutes ^n to d. The first and third members of each series are the ordinary corresponding surd and sonant mutes of European languages: thus. The five mute-series are called respectively guttural. . All alike recognise a difference of tone. The members 'second'. whether of contact or of expulsion. 3[^. ?T Vf^ph. and respectively m. 'toneless'. 'opening'. is also recognised 35. is two sonant. The nasal 'passing through the mouth and nose together. and one nasal (which and in the labial series. They are only. by them. sounds are declared to be formed by or their nasality (anunasikya) to be given them nose') 37. palatal. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. give distinctly this definition. In each series there are two surd members. Nor is the character of the nasal any to more doubtful. known as aghosa. as separating the two great classes in question. ^k ^p and \g. 36. [32 which they are produced. coming forpoint. beside the surd ^ k we have the corresponding . dental. The Hindu grammarians (anunasika. by unclosure of the nose. 3^b and called ^bh. and the sonants grammarians are in accordance with these terms.

and the with the sonant spirant. are real mutes or contact sounds. They are accurately enough represented by the with which. (to i. That the aspirates. and upon it the opinions of the highest authorities are still much at variance.. aspirates both classes are sosman: which might mean either 'accompanied by a rush of breath' (taking usman in its more etymological sense). of each sonant non-aspirate this the ft-sound (below. or an J. or at least represent. and beside the sonant these. is beyond question. 1 9) attributes 'great expiration . after of mute-closure. original Indo-European sounds. 'small expiration'. The sonant (in the opinion of most). differs (like European th from the unaspirated t: such aspirates are found in many Asiatic languages. and even in some European they involve the slipping-out of an audible bit of flatus or aspiration between the breach of mute-closure and the following : it may be. hook. 38. deny that the modern Hindu pronunciation is of such a character. and to the non-aspirates alpaprana^ It is usual among European 2T scholars to pronounce both classes of aspirates as the corresponding non-aspirates with a following h: for example. By the Pratic. The sonant in aspirates are generally understood ft-sound and described the breach difficulties as made sonant a similar way. or 'accompanied by a spirant' (below. Ellis) is emphasized utterance of the beginning of the suceeding sound. th sonant aspirates. to name for aspirates them mahaprana. in imitation of the Latin treatment of the similar ancient Greek aspirates. any measure plausible only of the the scheme given in his comment 1 Panini has no . and so on.38 ASPIRATE MUTES. for example. and would also as cf make the same as last. called in the pronunciation of the vernacular as well as of the learned languages. we are accustomed to write them.akhyas. and define the element following the mute as a "glottal buzz". the corres- ponding sonant aspirate % gh. 1$ Tf. with a perceptible are . sound. while the surd . and and ph and ch. ch which is in . But would make the two classes of aspirates of ts. The question one of great difficulty. not fricatives It is all of the precise char- them. th nearly as in T m ph This is as in haphazard. we have seen aspirates are above) confessedly accurate only as regards the surd aspirates. etc. Sonant aspirates are the of still in use in India. surd aspirate ^ kh.^. quite diverse character. And some authorities define the surd aspirates as of each surd non-aspirate with its made by the combination own corresponding surd spirant. th as ts. also not doubtful in what way the surd M. whatever th etc. rather.). 65). (as English boatdh as in madhouse. But there insuperable theoretical of the in the way (as of accepting this explanation and some best phonetic observers A. 59). Of acter is more obscure and difficult.

The c being generated by the corruption of comes from an original k as does by another degree of alteration. 41. like English ng are defined the base of the tongue with the base of the jaw. changes also in other languages of the family. i38 unaspirated (nonthan the aspirates (5 times) original gh. the former organ. T^kh. : r( c. aspirates are generally regarded The former are more than twice as common as the latter. but the Sanskrit j includes in itself two degrees of alteration. s?F j. the palatal sibilant c (see below. Guttural series: ^ k. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. comes from a g . 42. 3" n. series is original gutturals. we may perhaps infer that in their utterance the tongue was well drawn back into the hinder mouth. these two (see below. The Sanskrit guttural series represents only a minority of Indo-European gutturals these last have suffered more and more general corruption than any other class of consonants. corresponding aspirates and nasal (the in singing}. \gh. The gutturals last. since the same words exhibit connected . the palatal sibilant c. From the euphonic describes them simply as made in the throat (kantha). jihvamullya. and in a very small number of words. see as a special Indian development. is found only as final (after the loss of a fol- lowing k). and comes from the original group sk. This whole also. 219 degrees are held disThe c is somewhat more common than the j tinctly apart).akhyas as made 40. ^ ch. the other to that of k to g in the Zend. by the Pratic. in like manner. The k is by far the commonest of the guttural series. by contact of and they are called. The much more frequent nasal) mutes are very (for . 180). These are the ordinary European k and ^-sounds. one cor: responding to the alteration of k to c. except as standing before one of the others together. with their 39. 37 jh. See these various sounds below. JT^. have come from gutturals. Palatal series derivative. We take up now the several mute-series. By processes of alteration which are proved to have begun in the Indo-European period. 3T n. 50 and 66) the special frequency of bh and and among them the surds are more numerous (2Y2 times) than the sonants. The sonant aspirate jh is excessively rare (occurring but once . influence of a k on a following s (below. and the aspiration h. from The Paninean scheme 'tongue-root sounds'. 64). The nasals (chiefly n and m) are nearly as frequent as the surd non-aspirates. The aspirate ch is very much less frequent (a tenth of c).14 II. The /. occurring considerably more often than all the other four taken The nasal. (about as four to three). of the series. the palatal mutes.

the palatal No palatal ever occurs as a final. The as lingual mutes are by uttered with the tip the native authorities denned of the tongue turned up and drawn back into the dome of the palate (somewhat as the usual English smooth r is pronounced). in a small number series. . according as it represents the one or the other degree of alteration. in many European grammars them from the e[" In practice. pronounced with the compound sounds of English ch and j 1 (in church and judge}. brought forward in the mouth from the guttural point. in languages. 15 in the and not half-a-dozen times it Brahma- where found. but with palate by the middle of the tongue. They seem to have been. 'palatal and declared to be formed against the . texts. as by also. lead to the suspicion that : at least. the original unaltered guttural shows itself it appears from the point reverts to its original guttural. n. above. this character from the beginning t. pass easily into the (English) ch and . the treatment of the palatals is in many respects peculiar. They are called talavya. Hence. and made against the hard palate at a point not far from the lingual one (below. dentals t is pronounced J d like d. of the ch as making the preceding vowel "long by t -f- position" (227). of view of the Sanskrit.45] in the Vedic nas) . gives them a not less absolutely simple character than belongs to the other mutes. literally is 'head-sounds. Lingual series: all 3" th. never occurs except immediately anomalous the so-called root ujh. . and so w. In some or. as corresponding surd and sonant. in the algebraic rules of the grammarians) do not interchange./-sounds. compare 37. The j is differently treated. They are called by the grammarians murdhanya. ?o dh. HT n. however. in the euphonic processes of the language. Z d. The nasal. may have had 45. cephalics'. PALATAL AND LINGUAL MUTES. among European Sans- no attempt : is made to distinguish like rT t. frequent origination from p (203). Such sounds. The value and its it. (201) one of the others of the 43. And c and j (except artificially. is either onomatopoetic or of or not Indo-European origin iin from j and h}. 44. 45). the upper all flat surface of the tongue instead of its point.ith the rest. capitals. also after before or. then. Their description by the old Hindu grammarians. it comes of words. as situations. which term rendered by 'cerebrals' kritists. The palatal the modern Hindus mutes are by European scholars.

so that these Greek tft-sounds. [46 The linguals are another non-original series of sounds. comes from assimilation of a dental after s (198 a) or h (222). . . In the Rig. besides later passages. dh. about 20 (including of which have derivatives) show an abnormal d. and are perhaps derived from the aboriginal languages of India. occurrence. letters When as may be regarded originated in these ways. 'dental'. sounds get a slight tinge of the quality belonging to the English and Modern The absence of that quality in the European (especially . briefly ks. etc. V^dk. the lingual normal in any other cases of their . SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. as final (142. Z^tk. s comes from s.16 46. such a th. coming mainly from the phonetic alteration of the next series. the dentals. and 30 (including 1 root) show a n. such a dh. only 15 words have 6. but also in part occurring in words that have no traceable Indo-European connection. much more rarely from circumstances stated are q. all Taken together. which is of very rare occurrence. becoming lingual c. only 1.Veda. n is often changed to n after a lingual vowel or th. of passages numerically less examined (below. at the roots of the by the tip of the tongue. . are Dental series: by the called Hindus <^t. the linguals are by far the rarest class (about iy2 per cent. ^n. n) (t. become markedly more frequent in the later litera- these : The conditions of their ordinary occurrence a.) d. or signs of the non-Indo-European character of the words in which they appear. 145). semivowel or sibilant in the same word (189 etc.) dental mute following s is assimilated to it. also dantya. They are practically the equivalents of our European d. of the class ture. e. of the alphabet) hardly half as frequent even as the palatals. a 218. t and d come occasionally by substitution for some other sound which is not allowed to stand euphonic below (180. of mutes 47. j. in b. and (or These are described as formed at the teeth teeth). The tendency to lingualization dentals easily is a positive one in the history of the language pass into linguals under the influence of contiguous or neighborand all the sounds ing lingual sounds. But the modern Hindus are said tip of the to pronounce their dentals with the tongue thrust well forward against the upper teeth. they are either products of abnormal corruption. but not the contrary : . In a certain number of 159). n. the abnormal occurences of lingual mutes were than half of the whole all number (74 out and most of them (43) were of n: were found more frequent in the an abnormal t. 75). t. II. nearly all 9 that have nd. only 9 roots. <[ d.

but no auit. or one made with the the tip of the tongue turned up into It thus resembles the English the dome of the palate. as which is is the also is greatly exceeded in fremost common of all the sonant ph the least common of the surd. 3} m. The name to this class of consonant. f y. The semivowels in their physical along with those series though not without some discordances of view by the Hindu grammarians. does so. None of the Praticakhyas. The nasal m (not- withstanding its frequent euphonic mutations when final: 212 ff. The numerical relations of the Owing to the absence (or almost the Sanskrit b labials are a little pe- entire absence) of b in Indo-European. sounds by the Hindu grammarians is antahstha. nor are they entirely consistent with one another in its description. smooth r. 48.. thority hints at a vibration as belonging to Whitney. quency by bh. 2 .52] the English) dentals latter is LABIAL MUTES. 'labial by the Hindu grammarians also. This would give it a position like that of the vibrated r.) occurs just about as often as all the other four members of the series together. they define it as made at 'the roots of the teeth'. aspirates. They are. b. s$ I. and. m. dentals are one of the three Indo-European original In their occurrence in Sanskrit they are just about as frequent as all the other four classes taken together. (isatsprsta). 50. of course. Semivowels: 3 v. the equivalents of our 1 . given ^" r. ^ X p -X *X -X ^X These sounds are called osthya. or "in imperfect 52. however. culiar. like this. Labial series: q ^ Cfi * ph ^ b. and he apt to linguals in writing European words. ^ bh. For the most part. "standing between' either from their character as utterances intermediate between vowel and 51. seems to have been untrilled. Grammar. The 49. They are said to be produced character. are clearly akin with the several and they are classified mute series with the organs "slightly in contact" contact" (duhsprsta] . p. The ^ r is clearly shown by its influence in the euphonic processes of the language to be a lingual sound. The Paninean scheme reckons r as a lingual. SEMIVOWELS doubtless the reason 17 ear of is why to the a Hindu the use the appear more analogous with his linguals. or (more probably) from the circumstance of their being placed between the mutes and spirants in the arrangement of the consonants. mute-classes.

one made by breach (at the It is. as they arise. It is one of the most common of Sanskrit sounds. the final i. The v is . words written with containing an I which does not show also forms the one letter are found in other texts. Such cases will be con- sidered in more detail later. they are very widely interchangeable. which is substituted for a lingual d (as also the same followed by h for a dh] when occurring between two vowels. [52 In point of frequency. a y is written. and it is pronounced as English or French v (German w) by the modern Hindus except when preof 57. separated. the Sanskrit y had i-character than belongs to the corresponding everywhere more of an European sound. rally. or in other parts of the same texts. . the two exchange with one another in cases innumerable. is not noticed by any Hindu phonetist. 53.1 II. Very probably. The <ET y in Sanskrit. And in the Veda (as the metre shows) an i is very often to be read where. in conformity with the rules of the later Sanskrit euphony. In the later periods of the language they are more written with the other. m. 55. of derivation tya unchanged before an ending. that of a stem maintains itself as ya. The constancy of the phenomenon in certain words and classes of words shows that this was no merely optional interchange. 56. in the Sanskrit. Some of the Vedic texts have another -sound. at any rate. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. and y. Thus. sides of the tongue) of the lingual instead of the dental muteclosure.vowel of a word remains i before an initial vowel . It is a disputed question whether r and I were distinguished from one another in Indo-European speech . and the I becomes decidedly rarer than the r (only as 1 to 7 or 8 or 10). of character an Z-sound. The T I is a sound of dental position. though always much 54. as involving expulsion at the sides of the tongue along with contact at its tip. both in roots and in suffixes: there is hardly a root with r. as in other languages gene- stands in the closest relationship with the vowel ^ i (short or long). more frequent. n. r stands very high on the list of with v. . and only it is about equal consonants exceeded by t. doubtless a lingual I. and is so defined and classed The peculiar by all the native authorities. written with a slightly different character (it is given at the end of the alphabet. then. The y is by its physical character a palatal utterance classed as a palatal semivowel by the Hindu phonetists. and an ending has i instead of y. 5).

v be read as w. 31 note). or svara. It is. or surd spirants. then. are called these and anu- usman (see APr. 60. one of plainest and least questioned character: 2* . this is The H the s.) distinctly define the sound as made between the upper teeth and the lower lip in India. steam. but unclosed. under the same circumstances as the y (above. a z^-sound in the Roman value of that letter though (as was stated above for the y] it may English sense well have been less markedly separated from u than English w. to Spirants. the usual pronunciation need not be yet the student should not fail to note seriously objected to that the rules of Sanskrit euphony and the name of "semivowel" have no application except to a zp-sound in the English sense a v-sound (German w) is no semivowel. 59. The term is not found in by different all treatises the guttural and labial breathings. only it others apply the term to to the three sibilants and the aspiration which will here also be restricted. Unjler the name usman (literally 'heat. these and the visarga. standing on the same articulate stage with the English M-sounds and . Of the three sibilants. the v stands related to an w. so also and that from a very early time the Paninean scheme and two of the Praticakhyas (VPr. remaining sounds of the alphabet. in which case it has the sound of English w. has a somewhat greater frequency is In the Veda. but a spirant. a v only according to the original that is to say. however. as the original w has in : most European languages been changed to v (English). i.vowel precisely as y to an /-vowel. more like French ou in oui etc. or unclosed in the middle. : the/. : which.60] SEMIVOWELS. But. 19 ceded by a consonant in the same syllable. By its whole treatment in the euphony of the language. 55). the Paninean scheme. of course. than the y. As a matter of practice. V is classed as It a labial semivowel by the Hindu phonetical authorities. and European scholars follow the same practice (with or without the same exception). flatm\ which is usually and well represented by some of the Hindu authorities include all the 'spirant'. 58. The organs to of utterance are described as being in the position of the mute-series which each spirant belongs respectively. identifies it with the ordinary modern v-sound. SPIRANTS. and TPr.

180 fF.20 it II. even in the same community. the Notwithstanding the euphony. The Rig. 182) only twelve words which : show a The y s under other conditions. a kind of is s^-sound. it is still very high among the consonants in the order of frequency. and Later grammatical treatises. s is much confounded with kh.a hiss expelled between the tongue and the roof of the mouth directly behind the upper front teeth. the too. to visarga. verted into the dome of the palate. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. This sibilant (as was noticed above. take note of the relationship (see Weber's are apt to p. Pratijfia. s final of a root has in some cases attained a more independent . by conversion to the other sibilants. : Its lingual character is and ities is it is shown by its whole euphonic influence. tongue rethen. it may coincide with some people's sh. 23.Veda has (apart from sah. or considerably more common than both the other two sibilants together. etc. In modern pronunciation in India.. then. 62. exchange the characters. is the only unexceptionable transliteration for the Hindu character. As to the character of this sibilant. adds. MSS. authorities. or with the tip of the It is. as and by European Sanskritists (French ch. 84). and of a purely sporadic character. It is. It is dental. s [60 is the ordinary European -. 46. and. that the tongue in its utterance . by all the Hindu Indo-European sibilant. i. rather . 63) with the other lingual letters. 61. great losses which it suffers in Sanskrit as it is classed one primitive The Ef *. In its audible quality. The exceptions are extremely few (9 out of 145 noted occurrences 75). to r. and will be more particularly explained below. it is a sA-sound trough-shaped) than a s-sound. in the considerable variety of sibilant-utterance. but a product of the lingualization of s under certain euphonic conditions.) is no original sound. : also. Yet the general and normal sh is palatal and therefore the sign s. described and classed as lingual by all the Hindu author(the APr. there is no ground for real question it is the one produced in the lingual position. marked in accordance (see below. it an ordinary sh German sch\ pronounced no attempt being made (any more than in the case of the other lingual sounds 45) to give it its proper lingual quality.

of comes mute- well as forward shift it of the of this derivation. convertible latter. "reverts" to k that is. when the euphonic . as s than as sh. ^ hy is ordinarily h. and does not revert to s 21 conditions are removed. for example.65 value. is much less to be approved. s/i-sounds. on its character as such. original k appears instead of it a s/j-sound. it is the usual and normal sA-sound. There is nothing in its euphonic influence to mark it as guttural. the r. the two t-sounds. but a sonant (or else an utterance intermediate between the two) and its whole value in the euphony of the language authorities as . the while. made with the flat of the tongue against the forward part of the palatal arch that is to say. written t and t . In point of frequency. but with a different part of the tongue and they are doubtless not more unlike than. As was mentioned above (41). from the corruption of an original &-sound. : The Paninean scheme ranks means nothing. then. it By some of the native phonetists is identified with the aspiration of the sonant aspirates . is that of a sonant: but what it is its precise value as it is very hard to say. 64. nor is there any- thing in history or euphonic treatment to cast doubt It is. does also a this : as retaining any trace of gutturally articulated character.akhyas bring it into no relation with the guttural class one of them quotes the opinion of some authorities that "it has the same position with the beginning of the following vowel" (TPr. perhaps. and it would be not less proper to pronounce them both as (the s probably rather further back). but shows anomalous forms (225 63. less often than c) . s and p. The Pratic. extent on the other hand. The remaining is spirant. it is to a certain to s. are made in the same part of the mouth . ii. SPIRANTS. variously pronounced By European scholars The two it is more often. defined by pronounced like the usual This not. 47) which so far identifies it with our h. by contact virtue as like loss c. to a considerable extent the same. one sh than to difference of s and f of s To neglect the pronounce the linguals and dentals alike. sometimes (though as In articulating point. It is all the native not a surd element. true character. and by their not infrequent confusion by the writers of manuscripts. ities The 5T g> This sibilant described as its is by all the native author- classed its and palatal. European surd aspiration its however. The very near relationship which is and f is attested by their euphonic treatment. it slightly exceeds the 65.

see below. The : h. The but comes in h. it sometimes exhibits "reversion" to its original. perhaps. nearly all cases from an older gTi (for the few instances of its derivation from dh and bh. or with h and a: all of them are alike sounds in whose utterance the mouth-organs have no definite shaping action. the other euphonic changes of final s and r have not passed through visarga as an intermediate stage. see below. It may be fairly questioned. as it is uniformly called by the Prati^akhyas and by Panini. the derivation of h from the aspirates (next paragraph). Before a surd guttural or labial. initial surd. is not an original sound. It by various authorities classed with ft. uttered in the articulating position of the preceding vowel. and by the treatment of initial h after a final that of l + mute (163). for example. neither of which is allowed to maintain unchanged. like j (219). as 7 to 1): more frequent. ii. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. a final A-sound (in the European sense of h). Whatever individual character they may have must be. 223. to include in itself 66. 48) gives just this last description of it. probably as 'be- longing to the end' of a word). for the c. And the Hindu authorities are considerably discordant with one another as to how far h is permitted one. (except in the rarest and most sporadic cases) make any account of them. It is a comparatively recent member of the alphabetic system. neither printed texts nor manuscripts symmetry. [65 This view with the element by which. gh differs from g. some of the native authorities permit. tute itself The visarga is not original. respectively. 67. by is supported by h from dh (54). indeed. or visarga (visarjamya. : . whether these two sounds are not pure grammatical abstractions. alternative a necessary substitute. devised the (like long /-vowel 23) in order to round out the alphabet to greater At any rate. 223). appears to be merely a surd breathing. as already noticed. It is a vastly more frequent sound than the unchanged gh (namely. the other with that Like the other roots belonging to the two classes respectively. It appears. 68. than any of the guttural mutes except k. and with a sibilant. while others require. conversion of final s or r into the so-called jihvamutiya and upadhmariiya spirants. before a how far a following 69.22 II. One Praticakhya is (TPr. sounds of guttural derivation. but always only a substifor final s or r. two stages of corruption of gh: k to one corresponding with that of of k to c.

the penultimate nasal of a root. Such are final in sentence-combination (213). 71. once more. . and has a perceptible i-character. Of the nature of this nasal afterpiece to the vowel no intelligibly clear account is given. are. 'after-tone'. the nasal utterance is made in the ^-position. is contact : it mouth- now.) to be made with the nose alone.) to be the sonant tone of the nasal mutes (RPr. having place between the vowel and the consonant. before r and the spirants teach the intervention after the vowel of a distinct nasal element. When and they are wont 70. called the anusvara. etc. are briefly as follows : The opinions of the Praticakhyas and Panini nasalized case. or it is an element of more individual character. As to its quantity.) to be nasal like the nasal mutes. n or w 7 a nasal sound lacking is closure of the (36). is also without- on the other hand. the vowel. 23 (German) ch and ^sounds. that The - anusvara. en. There however. it becomes a nasal that is.akhya a nasal and v (not before acknowthe others ledges vowel namely. un. sonant does not involve a contact element organs. certain cases and classes of cases where these other .) to be either vowel or consonant. there is no contact. or (TPr. to be transliterated by % is would seem. it is declared (RPr. is discordance of opinion both among the Hindu phonetists and their modern European successors respecting the real character of this element hence a little detail is necessary here with regard to its occurrence : and their views Certain of it.akhya holds that the result is everywhere a when n or m is assimilated to a following I in that . written (p. nasals in Sanskrit are of servile character. or. by reason of a similar loss of a nasal mute). in the direction of the at all. It is said (RPr. always to be assi- milated to a following consonant. the following cona nasal utterance with unclosed (being a semivowel or spirant). The question French on. some (RPr. turning it into a nasal vowel (as is. before y and In most of the other cases where the Atharva-Pratic.. whether this nasal utterance becomes merely a nasal infection of the preceding vowel. see farther on. VPr. of whatever character that may be. or nasal semivowel. n or m becomes a nasal I: that is. same position mouth-organs the nasal which gives the succeeding mute. similar The other Praticakhyas teach a r also). conversion into a nasal counterI part to the semivowel. except The Atharva-Pratic. If one of these nasals stands before a contact-letter or mute. whether it is sometimes the one in whether thing and sometimes the other. organs its which required to is make a nasal mute There in utterance there nasal resonance along with some degree of openness of the mouth. it is held by ..71] it ANUSVABA. mute corresponding of the to the a nasal utterance in the If. m and a nasal of increment (255) latter in general.) in its formation as in that of vowel and spirant.

are found in the MSS. 1 and -. some MSS. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. But a nasal semivowel is also allowed instead before a semivowel. as if it were ns (its historically older form). The assimilated nasal element. Some printed texts follow but most write a nasal mute . and the former is called the .24 II. or a nasalised bit of neutral-vowel sound (in the latter case. or anusvara. As between the two signs. n is treated (208. or tend to employ. If anu- cannot well* be any thing but either a prolongation of the same vowel-sound with nasality added. and a nasal vowel is allowed in the cases (mentioned above) where. Usually they are written above the syllable. however. sistent in its choice between the one and the other). The Praticakhyas (VPr. 73. Two different signs. Hence some texts they mean a real anusvara. RPr. into the ordinary consonant-place but the usage is not general.where a nasalized (anunasika) vowel is to be recognized. whether viewed as nasalized vowel. or independent anusvara. either before another consonant or as final (not before a vowel). 72. when (Sama and Yajur Vedas). or length by position (79). finally. in making a heavy syllable. the it same utterance. bring one of the signs down it is very doubtful whether the two are not and properly equivalent. It is evidently a fair question whether this discordance and uncertainty Hindu phonetists is owing to a real difference of utterance in different classes of cases and in different localities. So. nasal semivowel. without any reference to whether it is to be pronounced as nasal anunasika sign: but originally mute. They also meiitiou the doctrine of nasal is vowel instead of anusvara as held by some (and TPr. this slovenly and undesirable'habit . the altering influence of an is i svara a nasal element following or w-vowel on a following s ought to be prevented. and this distinction is consistently observed in many European printed texts. indicating the nasal sound here treated of. In Panini.) the anusvara combining with a short give determinations of the quantity of to and with a long vowel respectively make a long syllable.akhyas prescribe only a nasal mute. and elsewhere the 1. is uncertain and incon- the prevailing doctrine is that of anusvara every- even allowed in many cases where the Pratic.akhyas require it by exception. especially. (anunasika) vowel.. the . or whether to a different schoof the lastic analysis is of what is really everywhere the vowel. It common custom of the manuscripts to write is^a very the anusvara-sign for any nasal following the vowel of a syllable. and there they seem most naturally to imply a nasal affection of the vowel of the a nasal syllable. and also in a small number of specified words. and it where some of the Pratic. [71 wherever a final authorities also acknowledge a nasal vowel. has the value of something added. nasal semivowel. which not the case: see 183). employ..

the whole system of sounds recognised by the for certain transitional sounds. below. The whole spoken alphabet. so as to show. 75. then. Semivowels Nasals Anusvara Aspiration Visarga Surd Sibilants 111 asp.46 unasp asp. 230. ph Surd . Son.751 TABLE OF ALPHABETIC SOUNDS. This is written character. 1-27 b . m. may be arranged classifications in the following manner. so far as is possible in a single scheme. see 74. from the anusvara of more independent origin. more or less widely recognised in the theories of the Hindu phonetists. . n. pronounced in excepting to where it is an m convenient also transliteration special sign. the relations and important of its various members : Vowels Son. and this method will be followed in the assimilated m distinguish the by a present work. it 25 whenever assimilated It is is to be (213).

. 77. one from the Atharva-Veda. in addition to any other .. A by prolongation its first a-element: * See J. and having three moras. Hitopade9a. a third.). The protraction is of the last and the protracted syllable in a w ord.). above?' iddm bhUydS id$3m Hi (AV. or Examples are: adhdh svid asi3d updri svid asl3t (RV. and one each from Manu. Quantity of sounds and syllables. or made nasal. below? was more. accent the word is may have . or in a whole phrase syllable has usually the acute tone. in 10 different passages. in the Brahman a literature. and also of calling to a distance or urgently. forsooth.2(j II. 5TT$ a 3. or three times the is quantity of a short vowel. A protracted vowel marked by a following figure 3: The protracted vowels RV. ^of 1. three cases. III. 0. . Qakuntala. to define 76. e to a3i. it. is this is ! that?' dgndSi pdtmvdSh s6mam piba (TS. namely. o to a3u.). SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. vol. called the Hindus acknowledge or protracted. . two alternatives. are practically of rare occurrence (in fifteen. rather thus. in AV. forsooth. of 'oh Agni! thou with or thy spouse drink the soma'. S. A. gavad-Gita. the The Hindu grammarians take the pains of a quantity consonant (without distinction among consonants of different classes) as half that of a short vowel. of a balancing between r used in cases of questioning. Bhaand Vasavadatta*. diphthong is protracted thus. X.000 literature sounds each.OOC it occurred : sounds of continuous text. They also define the quantity of a long (dirgha) vowel or diphthong as twice that of a short vowel making no distinction in prefab-diphthongs 78. found by counting the in an aggregate of 10. 'was it. 'saying.. two from different Brahmanas. selected from different epochs of the two from the Rig-Veda. the characters [75 give the The figures set under average percentage of frequency number of times which of each sound. this respect between the guna and the Besides these two vowel-quantities. pluta (literally 'swimming'). more especially They are frequent). sometimes it takes also anusvara.

are. syllables (not vowels) distinguished by the grammarians as 'heavy' (guru) or 'light' (laghu). heavy if its vowel is long. 82.82] The sign of QUANTITY. The phenomena of accent all marians of ages alike. centual combination. stress involved. : always of secondary origin. are 79. IV. when so-called kampa 90b. of they make no account. and should be retained. For metrical purposes. or accent-pitches are two : a 'raised'). division of a verse) reckoned as either heavy or The distinction in of vowel-sound and that terms between the difference of long and short in heavy and light in syllable-construction is valuable. 85) the result of actual combination of an acute vowel and a following grave vowel into one syllable. Strictly. or short and followed by more than one consonant ("long by poAnusvara and visarga count as full consonants in sition"). The is last syllable of a pada (pri- mary light. a union of higher and lower tone within the It is limits of a single syllable. and fully by the same name. The primary tones higher (udatta. 'not raised'). therefore. or acute . (svara) 81. 80. in certain cases of the fusion of an accented and an unaccented element . is A third (called svarita a term of doubtful meaning). protraction is 37 also sometimes written as the result of acoccurs: see below.. Accent. or grave. and a lower : (anudatta. . there is but one distinction of tone in the Sanskrit accentual system the accented syllable is raised : in tone above the unaccented while then further. thus identical in physical character with the Greek entitled to be called and Latin circumflex. by the Hindu gramdescribed and treated as dependof any difference ing on a variation of tone or pitch. being (when not enclitic see below. It is also uniformly defined as compound in pitch. syllable is A making a heavy syllable.

from iva.). it be itself followed by an acute or circumflex. Jatya ('native') or nitya ('own'). in which case it retains its grave tone. shdgata (TS. written correspondingly c. tanvh (tanU-a). II. b. but almost always on a syllable pure long in which a vowel. : thus. the [82 that syllable retains compounded tone of both elements. indeed. tanuva. when an initial grave a te is absorbed by t> a final acute e or 6 (135): thus. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. 84. fcwa). the Hindu grammarians agree syllable in de- claring the (naturally grave) following an acute. whether in the same or in another word. when the acute and grave vowels they are fused into a long vowel or diphthong (128): thus divi 'va (RV. in tena and te ca. from su-udyata. in the make-up of a stem or form. 'bruvan. 85. 'bravit. the udatta or acute will be 83. presenting an originally In transliteration. is preceded by a y or v reacute t or w-vowel.2 into one syllable. budhnya (budhnfa). dM te d. part of them are apsu antdr.). from nd evd apniyat. budhnfya. This is called by European scholars the enclitic or depend- ent circumflex. The Praticakhyas distinguish and name separately the circumflexed of combination : tones arising by different processes called thus.unless. The marked with the ordinary sign of acute. Abhinihita. acute ya or : . thus. nadias. in the great majority of cases. to be svarita or circumflex . But further. the syllable na and word ca are but in tena te and te ca regarded and marked as circumflex svar they are grave. circumflex. nai 'vh friiyat (B. or belongs to a word in all circumstances of occurrence: thus. from so abravlt. Thus. and the svarita or circumflex (as being a downward slide of the voice forward) with what is usually called the grave accent thus. Ksaipra ('quick'). vyhpta lies from vi-apta. kva (from (fcanla). svhr (stiar).. when an a acute i or w-vowel (short or long) : is con- verted into y or v before dissimilar vowel of grave tone thus. are of such character that Praflista. suar. : . from abruvan. in this work. J and AV. d. nybk (nfak). suvar. to be read with restoration of the acute vowel as a separate syllable In some texts. when the same combination and so is further back. the circumflex is a. short or long. kanyh nadyas (nadf-as). va. : . its constant. The words of both these classes are in the Veda. apsvantdr from apsu antdr. etc.). svarita or circumflex is only rarely found on a vowel or diphthong.

. sudfcikasamdrk but . WT kva. . The enclitic circumflex islikewise divided into a number of sub-varieties. left All the grave syllables. has a brief perpendicular stroke above. rT%TfTT tuvijatd. but descends by a more or less perceptible slide in the course of the following syllable. and following b. one another. if several grave syllables precede all an acute at the beginning of a sentence. while the acute over. and the grave next preceding an acute or (independent) circumflex has a brief : . many of the systems of and becomes grave moremarking accent (below. seems to 29 mean that the voice. H^lfctiH^J JNIH sudfftkasamdrg gdvam jV__j . does not ordinarily drop to grave pitch by an instantaneous movement. 86. which follow marked circumflex are unmarked. in the different Vedic texts. which is most widely known. it in another word precisely as in the same word . the others are only slight modifications. more or less different from one another the one found in MSS of the Rig. whether independent syllable is left unmarked or enclitic. horizontal stroke below. stcfjtri rp^T tanvh. flex is The shown essential difference clearly of the two kinds of circum: enough by these facts a. they must sign. until the occurrence of another accented syllable causes the one which precedes it to take the preparatory stroke below. in treatment and designation. Thus juhdti. whence an unmarked syllable at the beginning is to an acute of a word be understood as acute .. Thus. 88). cannot be given syllable is initial. the two are identified independent circumflex. the The accentuation : older literature is marked in manuscripts only of the namely. ft te .Veda. which is borne up at the higher the end of the acute syllable. while the enclitic of the acute as the proper accent of is the mere shadow following an acute. . in two of (Taittirlya and Qatapatha). if The introductory grave stroke below. 87. cflf^fH karisyasi a . independent situations. however. however. in the circumflex maintains its character in all enclitic before a following circumflex or loses its circumflex character. and hence also. c. the independent circumflex takes the place a word. ^: mdrah. any more than For the most part. alike have the grave Thus. the two are quite differently indicated. with different names: they with are of too little consequence to be worth reporting. and in the TaittiriyaThere are a number of methods of writing accent. and of which most of Brahmanas Aranyaka.87] This pitch to METHODS OF WRITING ACCENT. is as follows the acute the circumflex. No Hindu authority suggests the theory of a middle or intermediate tone for the for the enclitic.

b. there will be adopted the acters . 89.Veda method. a according as it or 3 is set after the circumflexed fignre vowel. Mi4 dgne. with a single sign. the former by a small u (for udatta] above the syllable : method* : thus. pracaya or pracita ('accumulated': because liable to occur in an indefinite series of successive syllables). intelligible 90. and the signs of accent are thus applied: is short or * Introduced by Bohtlingk. and explained by the editors of them. written above. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. The most peculiar systems are the scanty and imperfect one of the Qatapatha-Brahmana. following a circumflex (either at the the near approach of another acute). and used in the Petersburg lexicon and elsewhere. written below and the highly intricate one of the Sama-Veda. however. In this work. In part.30 II. long. Thus : syllables. in immediately followed by acute or independent cir- another cumflex). has been overlaid by the Hindu theorists. as everything given in the devanagari charit will in general be is also given in transliteration. however. signs. and to descend to acute pitch in ordinary cases : the' concluding instant of case of it being brought down to is the an independent circumflex voice to which pitch grave pitch. The other methods it is not worth while to attempt to set forth. the case is otherwise. The unmarked grave or till end of a sentence. ascent of the higher (in cumflex. of marking only the accented syllables. is declared to begin on a higher pitch than acute. much more questionable character. In the Rig. with a number of added features. unnecessary to mark the accent except in the transliterated form where. In several. The theory of the Sanskrit accent. The circumflex. with a dozen different . marked. They may be found illustrated in the different texts. 1 This last case. thte independent circumflex is a slight stroke above. . of a especially of the Praticakhyas. are declared to have the same high tone with the They are called (also unmarked) acute. everything else which the Hindu theory recognises dependent on and accompanying them can readily be understood as im- plied. their peculiarities consist in other forms or places ' the acute is itself given to the grave and circumflex signs. by distinguished from the enclitic. whether independent or enclitic. the acute and the independent circumflex the latter by the usual svaritasign. *^3\ indra. of an independent circumflex followed by acute or cirreceives peculiar written treatment. as here given (a consistent and body of phenomena). a. as These being given. [88 88. In some methods.

te. apsv alntdh from apsu antdh. d. accentless word : is not allowed to stand at the begintreat- ning of a sentence a also not of a pada or primary division of pada is. 1874. XIII. the enclitic spicuous value. scholastic utterance of such a syllable is made a peculiar quaver which is called kampa or vikampana. or less akin with this. need not be given. more In the or roulade of the voice. * Hang. svid. see the chapter on Conjugation. na<.93] : ACCENT. . The particles ca. tva-. a depression below the grave pitch for the marked grave syllable before acute or circumflex. vocative is usually without accent except at the beginning for further details. without accent. The system ed in of accentuation as marked in the Vedic texts has assumand the traditional recitation of the Brahmanic syllables. see the chapter on Declension. in which the designated grave and circumflex (equally. ficance *. ndu. vas. sma. a. ed like an independent sentence. tvd. An a verse . fta. A : A : 93. in the Greek system) to define or mark a sentence-accent. of a sentence personal verb-form is usually accentless in an independent clause. accent. however. The cases of the pronominal stem a are sometimes accented and some- times accentless. cid. c. C. and the independent circumflex). Wedischer Accent. Bayr. i?am. are always without b. Certain other words also are. Akad. u. schools a peculiar artificial form. 91. in all matters relating to accentuation. iva. has sunk into insigni- 92. The same is true of certain pronouns and pronominal stems ena-. The Sanskrit accent taught in the native grammars and represented by the accentuated texts is essentially a system of No general attempt is made (any more than word-accent only.. approach to it is seen in the treatment of vocatives and personal effect of the verb-forms. the emphasis and modulation of the sentence in moThe only difying the independent accent of individual words. : md. except when standing at the beginning of the clause for further details. ('monotone') to the Panini gives the ambiguous name of eka$ruti pra- and says nothing of the uplifting of the circumflex to a higher plane: he teaches. me. while the undesignated. have acquired a conthe acute. vol. The other methods. 31 raybS 'vdnih from rayo avdnih . anudattatara). in Abh. vd. usually or always. calling it sannatara (otherwise cita syllables.

Some words have more than a single accented syllable. In this work. e. dnapacyuta. In a rare case or two. A final syllable protracted : 95. hiranyavacimattama . abhicas} ticatana. its : a. indre. Where specific they will only be so far accentuated accent in accentuated texts. also their further compounds. words and forms are quoted. abhimatisahd dnabhimlatavarna. see above. A few other compounds. so far as there is authority determining its place and character. krit On the is place of the accented syllable in a Sans- word there the no restriction whatever depending upon of the either number or the quantity rests preceding or following syllables. agriintim. its C. The particle vdvd (in the Brahmanas). as they are found with . or derivation composition without regard to any thing else. Dual collective compounds : as fndravdrunau. as brhaspdtipramitta. 96. agnina. word naturally barytone. Thus. ture. the place of the is of voice for a considerable part of the vocabulary it undetermined. : in which each member irregularly retains own accent as tdnundpat. indrena. vdnaspdti. SYSTEM OF SOUNDS. 94. Hence is a general habit with European scholars to pronounce of the Latin accent. inflection The accent or where the rules of place it. bahucyuta. parjdnyajinvita. agnau. Since the accent the is marked only of far in the older litera- and statements the grammarians. the accent of each word and form will in general be marked. but having 78. Sanskrit words according to the rules 97. brhaspdti. Such are b. d. with the sufficient deduced rules of accentuation.32 II. are to settle all from being stress cases. Infinitive datives in tavdf: as etavaf.

and inflected stems to which those endings are added. And once more. in declension as well as in conjugation. Grammar. again. roots are often used directly as inflected stems. THE actually used are . to which. are for the most part part the uninflected words analysable into derivative endings or suffixes. is a process of very and this kind of combination exceptional frequency in Sanskrit also has its own euphonic rules. where otherwise. either directly inflected stems. 100. Whitney. and the grammatical analysis of words into their component elements is to bases skrit Hence it became the method of the correspondingly complete. These are in part uninflected vocables (indeclinables. 102. Moreover. elements composing a language as words. on the other hand. The roots are. by the putting together of two or more stems. The as are also in or through more primary stems. The formative processes by which both inflectional forms and derivative stems are made. But. Introductory. 101. not a few stems and particles are irreducible to roots and. 99. and has continued to be that of their European successors. RULES OF EUPHONIC COMBINATION. by the addition of endings and to roots. the ultimate attainable elements to a great extent not actually ultimate.103] 33 CHAPTER III. to teach the language by presenting the endings and stems and roots in their analysed forms. ways in which these are to be combined together to make And hence a statement of the euphonic rules which govern the combination of elements occupies in Sanskrit grammar a more prominent and important place than in other grammars. native grammarians. and laying down the words. are more regular and transparent in Santhan in any other Indo-European language. . the formation of compound words. 3 . the result of processes of development too irregular and obscure to be made the subject of treatment in a grammar. but. those endings are added. particles) in the main. 103. in the condition of the language as before us. individual its 98. in the form . The inflected forms are analy sable into inflective endings. of declension or of conjugation. and roots. it lies . they are inflected forms.

in connection with the . Very many of both classes show a part of their derivatives a stronger and in a part a weaker form (260). in most cases.34 in III- EUPHONIC COMBINATION. by the evidence of the older dialect of the Vedas and the younger Prakritic dialects. yet. 106. so that it is impossible to take apart and understand the simplest sentence in Sanskrit Hence also a greatly added without understanding those rules. .) will be taught. in the first place to consider the euphonic principles and laws which govern the combination of the elements of words and (and the elements of the sentence) then afterward to take up the subject of inflection. the only difficulty affecting 107. as is usual. chapter. The formation of conjugatioixal stems (tense and mode-stems. in both of which these rules (especially as regards hiatus: 113) are very often violated. and the importance to the student of to trace those accustoming himself from the the beginning processes. the words composing a sentence or paragraph are adapted to and combined with each other by nearly the same rules which govern the making of compounds. is unknown to to be at any other language in anything like the same degree. then. Although. and endings. therefore. grammatically analysed condition. for the purposes of the present the existence of the material of the language in a We assume. the general plan of this series of grammars excludes subject of derivation. : 105. under the two heads of declension and conjugation to which will succeed some account of the classes of uninnected words. will be taken up by itself later for a brief presentation and it will be followed by an account of the formation of compound stems. or the formation of declinable stems. namely. This euphonic interdependence of belonging the to the subject which of words of a sentence. etc. in connection with the analysis of derived forms. We have. is [103 us which the language handed down to by the litera- ture. But the general subject of derivation. words. stems. in the form of roots. implying an erection into of necessary and invariable rules what in the living language were only optional practices. various classes of those words. 104. because of the comparative simplicity and regularity of the principal processes of derivation in Sanskrit. This is. back to the root. in connection with the processes of conjugational inflection that of uninflected . What is to be taken as the proper form of a root or not in all cases clear. degree of practical importance euphonic combination. is shown least in considerable measure artificial. an exception will be made in regard to the subject in the present work. is stem m .

The roots showing interchangeably r. made in part for the explanation of words claimed to be their derivatives. present-stems. partly because complicated with other questions. compare below. truer and more is original. or with f. arth. the difficulty is greater. giving rise to no practical difficulty. As regards the roots. kumar. b. The Hindus classify as : as didhi. by many Western Here they will be regarded as a-roots . even the latest European authorities are at variance. for example. In the other cases of roots showing a stronger and a weaker form. of convenience : compare below. From the to point of view of the Sanskrit the question often impossible determine. Here (mainly as a matter e. . roots. santv. simple roots a number of derived stems daridra . Thus : whole number of roots given by the Hindu authorities (which are over 2000) have never been found actually used in the literature. and the f. A number of roots ending in a which is irregularly treated in the inflection of the present-system are written after this : in the Hindu lists with diphscholars. or with both. c. mantr. example. ar. of a perfect The Hindu grammarians participle in vat or in vaiis or in us.108 ] INTRODUCTORY. and in part for other and perhaps unexplainable reasons. arising from practices of the Hindu grammarians. which have been more or less widely followed by their European successors. and although some of these may yet come to light. like. 237) the r-forms will be used. thongs e or at or o. is purely arbitrary d. of comparatives in yas or in yam. As between r and ar. or may a. and ir and Ir or ur and ur forms are written by the Hindus with r. it is certain that most are fictitious. sabhaj. reduplicated ones. as urnu . These are in European works generally reduced to their true value. they will be carefully distinguished from the authenticated. But it is impossible to draw any definite line between these cases . jagr. 35 speak of derivatives in stems we shall mat or in mant. and it may be left to further research to settle whether the one or the other is alone worthy to be accepted. and so. The o of such no forms made from the root justify it. choice is in great measure a matter of minor consequence unless further research and the settlement of pending phonetic questions shall show that the one or the other is decidedly the alone. usually give the weaker form as the normal one. especially. Those roots * of which the prefixes initial are regularly converted to as be- n and after certain are by the Hindu grammarians given ginning with n and s: no European authority follows this example. and derive the other from it by a strengthening change some European authorities adopt the one form and some the other the question is an unessential one. if at all considered. Here also the f is arbitrary and indefensible. whether. as avadhir. and denominative stems. : 108. Of the roots unauthenticated by traceable use no account will be made in this grammar n and s or. g. More than half of the have existed without finding their way into any of the preserved literary documents. 251.

the make compound Hence they combination (or more external putting together of stems to stems. the specific rules. The rules of combination are in some respects according as they apply to the internal of derivative and inflectional endings b. or of a desiderative Yet another class seem } root. Principles of Euphonic Combination. usually divided into rules of internal -putting together'). naks. elements seem to have on the whole that value in the existing condition of with due recognition of authorized differences of opinion on points. ap and the later ujh and vyas. however. and rules of external combination. psa.36 III. or elements of A class of derivative obscure or unknown origin added to simpler forms. [108 and others in which root-forms evidently of secondary origin have attained a or quite entitles degree of independent value in the language which almost them to rank as individual roots. as bhaks and bhiks. made in the final same con- figure as separate from their probable originals. and such as mna Jra. but Indo-European comparative grammar. jaks. ?rus. In both classes of cases. different. the general princiand likewise. sonants pra. cit Even the weak and strong forms of the and cint. Thus. )o contain a preposition fused with a afes. in ha jahati and ha jihite. as dudh. while manner. such a difference of use that they count as two or a difference of inflection as combined with a difference of meaning in a root has the same effect in vr vrnoti and vr vrnlte. as same root vad and vand. by the addition to roots and stems. a. Many have the value of "root-determinatives". to deal according character. to a great ples of combination are the same The differences depend in part on extent. 109. sandhi. or an evident present- stem becomes a separate root in as jinv and pinv. and dhma are reckoned only as side-forms of man and pya. as caks. to make-up of a word. as many things well as of the fact that further knowledge will set many now doubtful in a clearer light. mah and mahh may have . and others. Not a few roots occur of more or less clearly related groups. and the yet looser and more acciare dental collocation of words in the sentence. We must be content to accept as roots what the language. of roots roots show signs of reduplication. vyac. the members which are of various degrees of independence. presumably dham. a considerable class of roots show an added a. 110. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. With most rather of of such cases it is not the part of a Sanskrit a general to their historical grammar. development. .

132ff. The importance ordinary statement of of this it. The leading rules of internal combination are those which are of highest and most immediate importance to a beginner in the language. su}.. 177. in RV. There are but two or three words in the language which in their accepted written form exhibit successive vowels forming different syllables : they are titau. and. 112. Then. Hiatus. but not in internal. and the cases they form are known as padaAnd with some of the suffixes of derivation the same is cases. A more marked and problematic distinction is made between su and the verbal endings si. since his first task is to master the principal paradigms of inflection. * in external unnecessary belongs togiven below Moreover. as a dental. is somewhat exaggerated by the In dh is the only sonant mute initial of an . For the not infrequent instances of composition and sentence combination where the recent loss of s or y or v leaves a permanent hiatus. 37 the occurrence or non-occurrence of certain combinations in the one class or the other in part. for titasu. since the proper form of the words not to be determined without them. and determining their classification. with the that dh. their and the difference of ending occurring in conjugation. 111. suuti. however. they are indisthat pensable.. on the being much more persistent than the latter occurrence in external combination of certain changes which are apparently phonetic but really historical and. . most frequent and conspicuous of all. see below. repetition as well as the separation of what really gether. with words in sentences. 'wagon-pole' (for pray uga ?} BE. the rules for both kinds of combination will be in connection with one another. bhyas. on the difference of treatment of the same sound as final of a root or of an ending. sva. to avoid combination. the former . especially after palatal sounds and s. the case. 175 b.. the treatment of the finals of stems is in general the same as in the combinations of words whence those endings are sometimes (pada) with one another called jt?ae?a-endings. compose the sentence is The general principles of combination underlying the euphonic rules. .. in part. distinction fact. mivowels and nasals exercise a sonantizing influence Hence. before case-endings beginning with bh and (namely. the rules of external combination may better be left untouched until he comes to dealing or to translating. on the fact that (157) vowels and se. bhis. bhyam. A hiatus is avoided. etc. and in part to the fact more assimilable to palatals and linguals than bh. may be stated as follows : 113. as bh in declension treatment is in part owing to the one coming into collision usually final of a root is and the other of an ending.113] GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 'sieve' (perhaps .) and prdilga.

combination. their special assimilative influence. surd or sonant. after two consonants. either as between plainly shows. there the stem-finals or and endings of words. so and between those which are ible. involves a change of position. as the metrical form of is no avoidance of hiatus. . being allowed to stand unchanged only before a vowel or semivowel or nasal. It is with regard but ordinarily purely metrical. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. the most frequent and important occur in the adaptation of surd and sonant sounds to one another but the nasals and I have also in certain cases . to the hiatus that the rules of the grammatically regulated classical Sanskrit are most demonstrably and conspicuously different from the more living usages of the sacred dialect. or transfer to another series. b. An aspirate mute is liable to lose its aspiration. the surd s is the only one having a sonant correspondent. [113 the hymns has been already noticed that in the Veda. diverse as to be practically incompat- 116. is assimilated by being changed to its correspondent of the other kind of the spirants. The great falls changes in Sanskrit.38 It III. body of euphonic under the general which takes place both between head of assimilation sounds which are so nearly alike that the difference between them is too insignificant to be worth preserving. or a long vowel and consonant) are and v (especially But also a long vowel is sometimes to be resolved into to be read as i and u. a y between the words composing a sentence. In cases innumerable. a into a-a : this resolution is sometimes historical. Deaspiration. Assimilation. without change of articulating position . two syllables oftenest. assimilation involves the conversion of one sound to another of the same it series. between the members of compounds. a. or the sonant spirant h. to which . 115. in part. A mute. For details. no surd of either class can either precede or follow a sonant of either. 114. surd and sonant are wholly incompatible . Thus: In the two classes of non-nasal mutes and spirants. it may also follow no nasal. see below. Of changes within the series. namely it is convertible in external r. 117. as elsewhere. In part. ever precedes a sibilant in the a surd spirant (sibilant). however. or follow a The nasals are more freely combinable: a nasal may either precede mute of either kind.

The dental mutes and also: sibilant are made to palatal by a contiguous palatal. The : also 121. word (it 39 is bination their concurrence c. is found. A m (not radical) is assimilated a following consonant. Of conversions involving Thus "very : and. And e. still A : semivowel has both are less sonantizing influence . 118. and in external comis usually avoided by insertion of a surd mute. The dental s and n are assimilating frequently converted to or and n by the : . consonants. by the conversion of a final mute to a nasal or I respectively. like c. less often. r is often changed to its surd 5. . * by duplication or insertion. of derivative character lingual (from dental s} shows as radical final a peculiar and problematic mode of combination. tion. the assimilative process is sometimes carried further. the palatal sibilant. Before a nasal and i. in external combination. no lingual character. abbreviation of cer- In conformity with general phonetic law: see Sievers. 119. Lautphysiologie. of groups of And. of all changed instead to anusvara). only r and very I. a change of articulate posithe most important are those of dental sounds to lingual. of what- ever kind. influence of contiguous i even by sounds namely. freely rarely Before a sibilant. the other showing. 140. Moreover. a more sibilant sibilant s. on the other hand. The euphonic combinations of the palatal mutes. preceded and followed by sounds of every other in the interior of a word. b.). are made sion to their reverpeculiar and complicated by two circumstances a guttural form (or the appearance of the unaltered : . made lingual when it comes into collision few exceptions in external with a lingual sound. Extension and abbreviation of consoThe native grammarians allow or require nant-groups. But d. In composition and sentence-collocation. and lingual character. as being sounds derived by phonetic alteration from more original gutturals (42 ff. like c. initial vowels and semivowels and nasals also require the preceding final to be sonant. p. and the different treatment of/ and h guttural instead of them^ according as they represent one or another degree of alteration the one tending. 120. of the semivowels. the neighboring lingual sounds which have themselves and w-vowels and k A non-nasal dental mute is (with a combination) c. a. to palatal.121] interior of a GENERAL PRINCIPLES. and a vowel least * class. more to the guttural reversion. corrspondent But d. however. and the aspiration. certain extensions.

. 4. sounds Rules regarding the special changes of the derivative the palatal mutes and sibilant. 5. . [121 in tain other groups is and found often practised the manuscripts. Rules for strengthening and weakening processes. 8. The In general. 9. but in strengthening or weakening changes of the parts themselves. Rules of surd and sonant assimilation. Increment and Decrement. if nor an aspirate mute. 7. 6. 122. rules for more sporadic and less classifiable cases will be given in the most practically convenient connection and the Index will render what help is needed toward finding them. 3. and that must be neither the nor a sibilant. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. Rules as to permitted finals (since these underlie the farther treatment of final consonants in external combination). Besides these 123. and extension the lingual sibilant. will be as follows : Rules of vowel combination. It is impossible to carry through a perfectly systematic arrangement of the detailed rules of euphonic combination. Rules for the conversion of dental sounds to lingual and palatal. nor a sonant mute not nasal. not consisting in the mutual adaptations of the parts. 1. make up words. only one consonant the last vowel. for the avoidance of hiatus. the aspiration. there is more or less regular changes accompanying the combination another class of of the parts that a somewhat different character. Rules as to and abbreviation of consonant groups. including those in which a former final following the nasal reappears in combi- nation. allowed. Rules for loss of aspiration of an aspirate mute. nor a palatal. because the different varieties of euphonic change more or less The order followed below overlap and intersect one another. nor a semivowel (save rarely 5J^.40 III. Everywhere. 124. Permitted Finals. including those for final s and r. permitted occurrence is of consonants at the end of a word stricted. quite is narrowly reallowed after aspiration. Rules for the changes of final nasals. 2.

41 The concurrence of two vowels. 127. 113) Hence they are not to be the hiatus is really of very frequent occurrence. the above examples indicate. ail \a (ati -\-iva) . : Examples are: sa ca 'prajah (ca -f. Rules of Vowel Combination. cga "sit (raja -\-asit) . by the reduction of one of them to a semivowel. of the two different initials which in every case of combination yield the same result. or by development of a semi- vowel between them. with ^J r. to separate . read as written. As this work. or of vowel and is diphthong. els two w-vowels. this will be indicated by an apostrophe single if the initial vowel be the shorter. 125. without intervening consonant. rules of vowel combination. practically occurs. theoretically.127] VOWEL COMBINATION. and. Two similar simple vowels. short or long. The 126. although in them Vedic dialect are written according to the (as was pointed out above. The texts of the older or euphonic rules of the later. forbidden by It is avoided. are nearly the same in internal and in external sandhi. i adhiqvarah (adhi-~i$varah). as regards both the resulting sound and its accent. either by fusion of the two concurrent sounds into one. it will be the practice everywhere in in transliteration (but not in the devanagari text). with *. independent words and if an initial vowel of a following word has coalesced with a final of the preceding. two a-yowels two ^-vow(either or both of them short or long) form 5TT a . two r-vow^ l\ form ^ f but it is questionable whether the case ever . els. T37w. suktam (su-uktam). to STT ar .aprajah). a-vowel combines with a following to R o . coalesce and form the corresponding long vowel: thus. the euphony of the later or classical language. double if it be the longer. e/ An with an w-vowel.vowel to . according to the circumstances of the case. but with almost constant reversal of the processes of vowel combination which they have artificially undergone.

regards the accent of these vowel combinations. . in the Taittiriya texts alone such a case follows the general rule. divaukasah (diva - okasah). from divi iva. !f its own corresponding semivowel. va (sa } cvaj. we might expect the resulting syllable to be in general circumflex. jvarausadham (jvara ausadham) In some of the Vedic texts. to represent both the original tones. a circumflex that of circumflex with circumflex cannot occur with following acute yields acute. - rajaigvaryam (raja aigvaryam). are usually pronounced as one syllable. however.ah). an indisposition to allow the circumflex to rest on either long vowel or diphthong as its sole basis. indre " '/u the first combination. and in a single accentuated Brahmana text (QB. make ^: thus. the vowel a. . are and ft r. |127 to ^T 5JT theoretically'. to indra. instead. made first. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. level of pitch. : y or v or Examples are . is the combination of i and t. \\ hitopadegah (hita-upadec. ^ a*/ with or 5t au. The two vowels. maharsih instead of maharsiti. As to : . . and that of grave with grave yields grave b. maharsih (maha .. with ^ e or ^ ai.vowel. Examples are: I?RT rajendra (raja-indra). when the former of the acknowledged in the language 128. The e-vowels. the union of acute with acute yields acute. the circumflex is regularly written. and the result (not indrai " from indra e 'hi).rsih). the w-vowels. which becomes I: thus. to 3^al.). Panini in fact allows this accent in fused elements is every such case. before a dissimilar vowel or a diphthong. div\ 'va. > 129.* 42 III. acute and the latter grave. while u and u. regularly ET converted cf each into r. it is be noticed that. a. which. shdgata from sii-udgata. successive words is indra a ihi are to is be combined. But the language shows. as a matter of course. like When 'hi. as no upward slide of the voice on a syllable is but. on the whole. c. The only in most of the texts. to 3T #M. the final grave element of the former being raised to acute pitch a grave with following acute does the same. exception to this. is shortened: thus. and the acute element is suffered to raise the other to its own making the whole syllable acute. if r is written unchanged after the long.

wa). au becomes 35R av. and f No change of accent. as in the preceding regards case (128). In external combination. vowel or diphthong thus. ^TFT in general . ^ becomes SHIT ay. bhava (bko-a). Of a diphthong. of course. and hence also its own tone. 8 in accordance with the rules for i and u. Examples can be given only for internal combination. ^ e and EJT o (that is. occurs here. H^ 132. H*W r with : tanvas (tanti-as). i n ) : 131. xiv. inflected forms. is chang- ed to its corresponding semivowel. stry asya (strl-\-asya). >TR bhava (bhau-a). But in internal combination (never in external) the w-vowels are not seldom changed instead to iy and uv this especially in monosyllables.ima) the accent here. ER^ffcT abhyarcati . : vyusti (vt-usti). radical a-vowel is converted into y even before i in per- and and two consonants. Examples are flex . duhitrarthe (duhitr-arthe). madhv iva (madku -f. As : and such cases of circumflex are many times more frequent than any and all others. each original syllable retains its syllabic identity. we have the important ^ additional rule that the semivowel resulting from the conversion of the final element of a diphthong is ^ naya Thus. au) becomes (really ai 5(Sf : 28) ai becomes %m av . ^ y or : before any ay. (ne-a).132] ity VOWEL COMBINATION. the only combination requiring notice is that of an acute i or w-vowel with a following grave the result is circum: . since in external combination there are further changes: see the next paragraph. following grave. svuta (su-istaj. aha (iti -\- 43 aha) . so ninyima 130. ^ naya (nai-a). the final or w-element of 0. ^tf vadhvdi (vadhu-ai). or after otherwise a group of consonants difficult The cases will be noticed below. 6. vijndtr etdt (B. only a single Of a similar combination of acute case has been noted in accented texts the accentuation is namely. where of pronunciation would i A fect tense-inflection (nirit -|. in explaining be the result. fr nadyau (nadi-au).

below). it is lost before an w-vowel. in like manner. change. final ^ ai.44 dropped. The later grammarians allow the i/ in such combinations to be either retained or dropped. 3H"i(e(-*ii4l ubhav indragm (ubhau -\. The later grammarians allow it to be either retained or dropped. 133. -f- nagara iha (nagare 7^/ adadat (tasmai -f. before any vowel save a (for which. 138) lose it (the practices of different texts are too different to be briefly stated). the a alone remaining. final as: see The diphthong o (except as phonetic alteration of 175 a) is an unusual final. A a. is to omit the semivowel and leave the hiatus.adadat). After final ^ e or ^ o. uktam (striyai-{~uktam). and a where) a. Thus. ^ e (by far the most fre- quent case) becomes simply (except % a: see 135. but the uniform practice of the MSS. fiic<ef tav eva (tau -\-eva) . of every age. in at least one text (Kathaka). go (in composition only) does not lose its final final as becomes element. and in a few interjections. next paragraph). appearing only in the stem go (356). persistence of the hiatus caused by this omission is a plain indication of the comparatively recent loss of the intervening consonantal sound. as atho. is [132 and the resulting hiatus That a final 3f left without further is to say.. The resulting accent is as if the a were not dropped. The Instances of the combination of the remaining final and initial are not unknown. in the voc. following hiatus. with hiatus. with the see The of v of STR av from aft au is usually retained : thus. an initial ?J a disappears. in accordance with the strict requirement of the Vedic grammars (Pratigakhyas). but they are of sporadically rare occurrence.indragm) . In the last two classes it is uncombinable the vocatives sometimes retain the v and sometimes (below. in words of which the final a is combined with the particle u. sing. of w-stems. having its tone . III. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. but remains gav or go. it is dropped before every vowel. . / 134. In some texts. however. 135. t ta agatah (te -\- agatah). but rather absorbed into the preceding diphthong. a before an initial vowel and both then remain unbecomes (every- changed.

See APr. and for certain insertions. final e or o. If both are acute or both grave. 2578. the initial vowel of a root the combinations au. see In transliteration. etc.. If. namely. will indro 'bravit (ydd indrah dbramt). ar (ywraz-vowels). Examples are . Some combination. with initial r of a a of a preposition before roots beginning with e or o is usually omitted. so 'bravit (sdh abravit). see below. is in the Veda only occurrence. 54. The form a in composition may be cut off before otu and ostka. no change. b. o. number in which To the rules of vowel are certain exceptions. 136. there of the more isolated of these will be noticed where they come . y aa> As above. note. b. avagraha sign in the case of such an elision. ar (vrddhi-vowels). for exwritten and the spoken form of the Vedic texts. C. is seen in the result. as usually in the fusion of an acute and a grave element. The final vowel of a stem is often dropped when a secondary suffix is added. iii. uh from yvah sometimes makes the heavier (vrddhi) . ample. to the use of the 16. : 137. but is to be omitted in reading in less than one fifth (including a the written text preserves it). 249 ff. t hihsitavyd 'gnih (hinsitavydh agnih). the reversed apostrophe. instead of e. This elision or absorption of initial a after which in the an occasional later language is the invariable rule. : te 'bruvan (te abruvan). of course. The final o of a strengthened stem (238 b) becomes suffix as required by 127. be used in this \vork to represent it. the former becomes acute if the e or o is acute and the a grave. A final d. up in the processes of inflection a few require mention here. a. av before the ya (originally za). as above stated. or rough breathing. 45 duly represented in the combination. In internal combination : The augment a makes with at. The final a or o of a makes ar instead of ar. the e or o is grave or circumflex and the a acute. The final preposition. For the weakening and loss of radical vowels. the a is omitted in writing in about one third of the cases. yddrajanyo 'bramt (yddrajanydh dbravit). C. a. In external combination root. and there is no close accordance with regard to it between the In the Atharvan. the former becomes circumflex.137J VOWEL COMBINATION.

praudhn. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. civQyai. i. is only the first in each series. are uncombinable (pragrhya) . final.4(j III. Certain final vowels. d&tu. or as final of such a stem in composition). Thus. both of declenand of conjugational forms. alone or as last and every root is liable to member of a compound. vnyo. s (and. c. (or dj. a. d. (nom. d. in the character of a declined stem. indra. only t very small : namely. 138. yitsme. only t. in a few rare words. landliu asate imau . are closely limited. agnau. both simple and diphthongal. n. to and those which would etymologically come occupy such a position are often variously altered. All the vowel sounds. vowel of an interjection. The sounds allowed to occur as finals in Sanskrit words. 141.). Thus. and r is very rare (only as neuter sing. inal b. he. in general accordance with their treatment in other circumstances. n. forms asme. u and e as dual endings. dkari. The or only. f. tve. akmuhini (from pra-uha etc. The variety of consonants that would ever come at the end of either is an inflected form or a derivative stem in the language in forms. may be sounded at the end of a word. civdya. no. in derivative stems. the non-aspirate surd. or are sometimes omitted altogether. final I or and the Vedic pronomu : a final o-vowel with the particle thus. as aho. of a stem in r or or. 139. But almost all consonants occur as finals of roots. pi. themselves unchanged before any sional giri The vowels /. nadk. a preceding a diphthongal combination with thus. moreover. a. protracted final vowel (78). the others surd . . camu. Of the non-nasal mutes. standing by themselves (not in euphonic combination with something following). j). The pronoun ami. But neither f nor I ever actually occurs. s. janayitfj dyne. A final o made by combination of mo. e.). following vowel. u. m. r. be found. allowed. 140. Permitted Finals. prauha. atho. or maintain Thus. arohatam. A A u of a Vedic locative case.

pTERI bhisdk. the 3" n is allowed. the semivowels. 47 and both sonants whenever they would etymosu/ift for suhfd. budh becomes The the final roots exhibiting this and so on. 31 n final thus. : vak. change are stated below. The R -x (which \ of all final consonants . but is n in is found (remaining a after the loss of a fol- lowing never occurs. but the of great weight authority. v there is no occurrence. 155. the *T mon. to t. dnan from nam. The palatals. Of the nasals. at the end of a word. Of and 145. O anhomuk. are converted into this. favor the surd. 147. Tims. aynimdf for agnimdth. PERMITTED FINALS. In a few roots. dagh becomes dhak. none may stand unaltered s Of the sibilants. of -v. form here (as often else- where) an exception palatal efi to the rules for the other mutes. ET y x 17 H s: 145) changed as final to visarga. The . Of it alone is an admitted surd and is very rare. virat. But the below) : ^1 k) very small number of words. (IT m and ^ n are extremely comm and H s are of all final HI consonants the most frequent). rare "SnTT perhaps only in the root 5f^ prach) becomes t : thus. loses its when the their final sonant aspirate) thus aspiration. There was some question among the Hindu grammarians as to whether mute is to be estimated as of surd or of sonant quality. original sonant aspiration of the cj k. Wiut. 142. logically occur. m of a root is changed to n (compare 212. sf / either reverts to its original guttural or becomes in accordance with its treatment in other combioccur. and the invariable practice of the MSS. nations (219): thus. Thus. The sfi/^ does not but is by the native grammarians declared convertible 143. especially the former quite rare . No is allowed as oTTfi *S final. The 3T c reverts to its original *X k: thus.145 aspirate. the FT I is 144. Jbjc^j^e^ ^s. final. The ^ r (like its nearest correspondent. dgan from gam. The $5" L ch (extremely T. however. vlrut for vlnid/t.. initial reappears: compare below. prat.

^" r changed to a The is either reverts to its original $T^? or. to j/srcms). appearing as 3T k. dhvas : but no example of the conversion to occur : 146. with ks treated as s. ^N n. and dmyak from ymyaks (see this aorist below) namely k. Apart from the vowels. The *T s likewise changed to of s J. visarga the former and anusvara are nowhere etymologis only the substitute for an original so far as *T final H^5 or ^ r. ayat (for apraks-t apparently for asraks-s. The compound (not ^{ ks is prescribed to be treated as simple is *T a rare one. And AV. we have adhak. of forms of the s-aorist etc. below). then. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. dbhrat.). q m. etc. 147. 'six'. becoming sfj k by 150. The aspiration j^ ^ h is not allowed to maintain but (like / and $F g] either reverts to its original guttural form. sonant their aspiration of a few roots (given at 155) reappears final when h is thus becomes unaspirated. the visarga. (adhdks-t etc.48 III. #. But the case and its actual treatment in the older language irregular. The numeral its a. . from ysrj (wrongly referred by BR. : The change Final radical dhvat from see 168. to is t is of very rare occurrence see below. it becomes 148. the usual are : finals. In the only RV. the latter occurs as final only it some later grammarians allow to be substituted for m- 149. see beoriginal And. ical finals The . andk from for Also araife. according to the accepted rule. with changes in inflection is changed to ^ t (in accordance and derivation see below. 5R . ^ from original V^dh (223). has in two cases srah e. is perhaps better to be regarded as safes. 222. or is changed the to Z t both in accordance with low. asrafc. (i. sras). its treatment in inflection. also as in inflection. its in some roots. .). 218). cases where the ks has a quasi-radical character the conversion is to anafcs. is like [ would otherwise be the commonest) breathing. to t: said by the grammarians to be changed appears thus. 226. Where the rT t. nearly in the order of their frequency. itself. but also aprat.

). urk from urj. Ind. 151. and r the various transformations of these sounds have nothing to do with the visarga to which as finals before a pause they have come doubtless at a comparatively recent period of to be reduced. For in say. in saihsfdbhis Excepting (TS. tudants becomes tudant. in an isolated example or two. vdrk from )A>r/. udanc-s becomes udank.- and. Of final t to fc.) from ysrp. however. c. and VS. St. are to be excepted the s mitted finals. and not for the visarga. till only one remains. ^l. 49 ^ k. 207 ff. dmart from The case is not a common one. and in the feminines prks'i for prtsu. bination bbh are not unknown in the older language: thus. and this tudan . V).). Examples are: a. Thus. only one consonant. the last is dropped. tristubbhis. : For relics of former double finals. xiii. has once (as asiknl beside asita). suhurt from suhdrd. see below. - m. those of only sporadic occurrence are 3" n. anustub bhi. Grammar. but also now and then in a verbal form.. In general. of V chand] is in like manner reduced to achan. Kan. ^ p. is retained after r thus.. tIT t . as. Of k or j to f. adbhyds. Words will everywhere in phonetic history this work be written with final s or r instead of h.. K. Anomalous conversions of a final mute to one of another class are occasionally met with. Of a labial to a dental in kakud for and beside kaktibh : . of the anustubh and tristubh to a guttural : anustuk ca. tdjdk (beside tajdt]. is allowed to stand at the end of a word. 3d sing. but that given it by the rules as to perFrom this. is to that all the processes of external combination a stemcomposition and sentence-collocation final or word-final is in general to be regarded as having. if radical and not suffixal. d. tristiigbhis (Weber. PERMITTED FINALS. kakubbhyam.). by permitted substitution. and this udan. and again the last. as b. jytik. preserved by the later language under the disguise of apparent euphonic combinations. if two or more would etymologically occur there. not its etymological form. final of samydt and dsrt (TS. and achdntst (s-aor. In Taittiriya texts. SV. 109 ff. of whatever kind. ymrj. 152.152] rf t. prthak. avisyak (Parask. rdhak . from ap or ap (chap. and the rules of combination will be stated as for the two more original sounds. an d in adbMs.. : Whitney. n. these look like cases of dissimilation yet examples of the com. But a non-nasal mute. 4 . in a few words that have assumed a special value as particles: thus.). as savisak in km (AV. 150. the first. and so on.

dabh (but only in the later older language has dipsa). when a final sonant aspirate (f U dh. desiderative dhipsa. But from dah. 155. dhatthas from dadh-+-thas. duh. akhkhali. it is doubled by prefixing found written double own corresponding later. But in theMSS. The same analogy is followed by dadh. bh . if such a mute its is to be doubled. etc. which (in Sanskrit as in Greek) forbids a root to both begin and end with an aspirate. 141. duh. in some of the forms of conjugation.. when The in gh in h roots which dagh. of external combination presuppose aspirate surd (152). it stands imaltered only before vowel or nasal. are hardly ever found in situations that call for their application. An aspirate mute is changed to its corresponding non-nasal mute or before a sibnon-aspirate before another a vowel or semiilant. if it non-aspirate. Hence. [153 153. of comparatively recent origin. also. original aspirate of such roots is restored. druh. (for show this peculiar change are : original gh} dah. both Vedic and especially. guh. from ydha. duduksa etc. since the processes the reduction of the aspirate to a non- the rules as to changes of aspirates concern almost only the sonant aspirates. the abbreviated substitute of the present-stem dadha. + . EUPHONIC COMBINATION. aduksat. drhh. and guh are found in the Veda also forms without the restored initial aspirate: thus. budh in bh . adhatta from adadh ta. presence does not interfere with the euphonic law. an aspirate mute is not seldom be one of rare occurrence for : example (BV. dih. initial That say. thus. Such a case can only arise in internal combination. gh.50 III. also ^ A. daksnt. juguksa. jdjhjhatl. Deaspiration.. for which the The same change appears when the law as to finals causes the loss of the aspiration at the end of the root: see above.). the initial sonant consonant g d or is its Sf V) to becomes the aspirate. as representing an original 5J gh) (JJ thus loses or ^" its aspiration. Practically. being of later development and rarer occurrence. badh. 154. and grah (in the later desiderative jighrksa)] in dh bandh. In a few *T roots. since the surd.

158.si initial. need be taken account of. of surd and sonant assimi- is The r. regularly and usually. atthds. If. attd (yad dpi.). on the other hand. the initial vowel or seinflection mivowel or nasal of an ending of derivation or exercises . to which it changed in external combination under circumstances that favor 159. an initial even a vowel or semivowel or nasal. dtsi. cagdhvdm (}/cak -\-dhi etc. the assimilation 4* in . 4. in external tristub diggaja. the rT t final sonant aspirate of a root is is followed by or 5T th of an ending. 157. qagdhi. Final vowels. a surd utterance. brhddbhdnu. With the exceptions above is stated. 160. nasals. requires the conversion of a final surd to sonant. combination. in internal combination etc. sadahd. by assimilating the following -\. however. there is especially one very mark- ed nations and important difference between the internal combiof a root or stem with suffixes and endings. 156. abjd. along with all has been pointed out above (152) that in the rules of external coms and r. It bination only admitted finals. : there a nasal are a few exceptions only . has a corresponding surd in s. the collision of surd and sonant sounds avoided in combinations final to the and. thus. jyog jiva.160] ASSIMILATION. dtti. and ^T / are nowhere lia- ble to change in the processes lation. and the external combinations of stem with stem in composition and of word with word in sentence-making: namely. sonant of whatever class. others being regarded as reduced to these before combining with initials.5) consonant before may a (161). dbhud ay dm.). In internal combination. 51 Surd and Sonant Assimilation. however. Under this head.no altering influence upon a final consonant of the root or stem to To a final this rule which it is added. sad aqitdyah. In external combination. a reverted palatal 5 sometimes before d before the participle-suffix na (161) (216. : Thus.

becoming I: thus. combination. I.. it mute may be simply made sonant. either rrf^ In practice.. uttuptam. 162. : labdhvh. Thus. and then the h may either remain unchanged or be converted into the sonant aspirate corresponding with the former: thus. and the it. And RV. either Idd ndmas or t&n ndmas. transferred to the initial of the ending. Even in internal d of a root becomes n before the participle-suffix na : thus. as. as the sonant aspiration is not lost but transferred. above) the other direction: combination is made and is the aspiration of the final (lost according to 153. bhinnd. (sat -\-hota). 163. or ther assimilated. Even by the general grammarians and before matra. bdd mahan or ban mahan. as laMhd (yiabh-\-ta). the restoration of the initial aspiration (155) does not take place. In dadh from ydha (155. is treated in the and compare same manner thus. the MSB. gh with t or th becomes gdh. position): and the suffix maya final required in the compound (really a noun in com- vanmdya. 161. sdnnavati. sannd. dhatthas. h. the more normal method is followed the . Before a nasal in external combination.ta). but fully assimilated. tunnd. dh with the same becomes ddh. Moreover. (Vldbh -\-foa). being changed to the may be still furnasal of its own class. a final mute made sonant. almost invariably followed. In practice. mrnmdya. a final has dhaktam instead of dagdham from ydagh. dugdhd. runddhds (^rundh -f. Thus.thus or bh with the same becomes bdh. Before ^h (the case occurs is only in external com- bination). tod- . tdl labhate. Examples are: vag ghutdh. anustub bhi. Before a final t is not merely made sonant. the conversion it into a nasal is almost invariably made in indeed. vag me or vhn me. tristub nundm or tristum nundm. dhattas. and the initial aspirated : thus. grammarians of the Prati$akhya period are nearly unanimous in requiring The phonetic difference between the two is very slight. is by the Praticakhyas required and not permitted it is merely. tas). dogdhum from duh rudhd and lldhd from ruh and Uh etc. the latter method is tad hi or rrf% tad dhi. dh is made surd. 222.52 III. sdddhota dhita (tat -\-hita). EUPHONIC COMBINATION. thus. end). as baddhd (ybadh -f. as representing original gh. the [160 sonant. In this combination.

cases like the latter (as -\-dhi). s is extreme- .). dhvadbhis. of final s and r. For t as apparent ending of the 3d sing. s The euphonic changes of H and ^" r may best be considered together. as in cassi. as corresponding surd and sonant : in a host of cases H s becomes r in situations requiring or favoring ^T the occur- rence of a sonant . the future vatsydmi and aorist haps by dissimilation) dvatsam. cassva. namely. becomes t at the end of the word. and before bh and su: thus. The same true of the change of vans to vat in the declension of perfect participles (chap. to 165. the final s of certain other roots. the desiderative stem jighatsa. treated as in external combination thus. the final s of the first member is treated as if a t (203). in s-verbs. : used the grammarians. V. r becomes ^~ H s where is required. : madbhts and madbhyds from ma's . is cadhi. 167. In a very few cases.169] FINAL s AND r. of the conversion here for is open to grave doubt. 53 Combinations 164. acirbhis. cattirsu. usddbhis from usds . Sporadic cases of a like conversion are found in the Veda 168. VIII. pursu. because of the practical relation of the two sounds. it is yas-\-si). sratsu. dhvat. In internal combination. Final radical s remains before a surd in general. Before a so: nant for (that is. In the compounds ducchuna (dus-funa) and pdrucchepa (parus-cepa). from svdvas. not belonging an ending of derivation) remains unchanged before both surd and sonant sounds. 166. sradbhyas. in it is dropped : thus. svdvadbhis etc. a surd and. 169. less often. (not found in use). adhvdm (but dh) conjugation. Final r radical or quasi-radical (that is. see chap. final radical s before s is changed to t (perthey are. is it rather seems the substi- tution of a f-stem a s-stem. As flected forms. the final consonant of derivative stems and of inboth of declension and of conjugation. aclssu (but the last is also written ackhsu: 172): it is however dropped in dsi (for assi : Before a sonant (that is. pi: parsi. from yghas. in composition and sentence-collocation. and usually before s. bh) in declension. svdtavadbhyas from But the reality svdtavas . According as to noun-stems. caturthd. may be by abbreviation [232] addhvam): in edhi the preceding vowel anoma- lously altered. the two are far less exchangeable with one another and this class of cases may best be taken up : first. and even before su in declension thus. from yvas. But genuine examples of such change do not appear to have been met with in use.

a and s and r yielding precisely the same result there are certain forms with regard to which is uncertain whether they end in s or r. on the other hand. 170. Examples are: to b. and that of a stem before a derivative of ykr. nalah kamam. sibilant in in In the Veda. mainly determined by the intimacy Thus.-abl. before kalpa and kama. (or ur} of the gen. 171. the final of a preposition or before a verbal form . and opinions sing. idds pade c. before pati. and the conversion to visarga. as already noticed (145). becomes visarga before a pause. The first three of these rules are almost universal to the last there are numerous exceptions. % thj the surd mutes of its own class. yacah prapa. ing noun: as divas putrdh. payaskalpa. tasyag chaya. b. tataq ca. the exceptions to which are detailed or the antiquity In the later language. is euphony. by 180. changes form a subject of first-rate imThe r.54 ly III. purusah khanati . in the Veda. to c. caksus te . namely or Ef s . It and ~& th it is assimilated. portance in Sanskrit quite rare. but also. retention of the sibilant in sentence-collocation is The Vedic full detailed in in the Praticakhyas. . and us of verbs. its like The chief classes of cases are: . to d. in a few particles. of the Such are us 3d plur. the retention is and frequency of the combination. the final sibilant the office of a preposition before a verbal root is wont to be preserved. [169 frequent. niya spirants but in practice is these breathings are unknown. Ir 3\ k Before the guttural and labial surd mutes it is also theoretically assimilM. a. d. Q p and Cfi ph becoming respectively the jihvamuliya and upadhma(60). a. even in sentence combination. the sibilant being retained (or. found only in certain forms of r-stems and being and its The euphonic treatment after all vowels except it of a. The H s. Examples are namaskara. vrksah phalavan. especially in compounds . EUPHONIC COMBINATION. the Vedic grammars. and so on. the retention of the compounds is the general rule. ayuskama. tatas te. Before the palatal and lingual surd mutes ^ c and ^ ch. differ respecting (or ur} them. becoming the sibilant ST Q of either class respectively. converted into s). and ated. filling of a preposition or a word vacaspati. of b. of a genitive before a governan ablative before part: as . of r-stems. rT t It is retained unchanged only -when followed by or c.

is b. If the initial There are one or two exceptions to these rules: sibilant has a surd mute after it. manur gacchati. Examples b. of other less yds pdtih. 40. The endings tremely common) 175. a.7 H s s. indrah curah or indrac qurah. 135. retained. a. though the sibilant is also not infrefound written. With regard to this point the usage of the different MSS. see below. 199. Final 5R7 before any sonant consonant and to before short it ^ a. etc. devapatir iva. and editions greatly at variance. fay or adrstakamah sarvair gunaih agner manve. . but the quently later dictionaries and glossaries make the alphabetic place of a word the to visarga is the same as if the sibilant were read instead. apsu . have been pointed out above. as putvd. European editors generally write visarga . is also discordant. Examples are H s is changed to the sonant ^ r be preceded by [ a or TT a. brahmanyo vedavit.175] COMBINATIONS OF FINAL classifiable cases: s. and the fact that the loss of a is only oc- casional in the older language of the Veda. H s is ^ or it assimilated. ^ sibilant. The resulting accentuation. and the hiatus thus occa- sioned remains. 3^q as and ^TH as (both of which are ex: follow rules of their own. the conversion either at pleasure. becoming the same is changed into visarga. ^JT> ^^. d. : either vowel or consonant (ex- cept ^ r see 179). note) prevalent practice. For a few cases like duda$a. ii. Before an initial sibilant either STc. 'smi. instead of being 174. Thus. hantavyo H s. are : manuh svayam or manus svayam . and in part they allow The usage of the MSS. duna$a. Final 3^f as before any other vowel than ^ a loses becoming simple ^ a . its are : nalo nama. vayava stha or v&yavah stha. tanur . Before a sonant. tris himdvatas part. paridhfs pdtati. the final s may be dropped altogether and by some authorities is required to be so dropped. Before (s. as to which of these changes should be made. 172. as follows as. crir iva . indeed. The native grammarians are in some measure at variance (see APr. Examples 173. it : unless.' catustanam or catuhstanam. is changed m o and the 5f a after is lost. the s is allowed to become visarga. 55 dyaus pitd.

aharpdti (VS.5(> III.). sabardugha. The maintenance and ai of the hiatus in in that of o and e (above. RV. in general. sa osadhih). se 'd ague. dnarvi$. tvesdr. frutdr. in vddhar and vadhary (RV.). usds (voc. and the remaining confor example. 1334). the same conditions. after a or a. Final as is once changed to o in RV. Also before a surd. all vowels and all sonant consonants. . as 5TT a . in amnas (no occurrence). and one or two other more doubtful words. thus. r is preserved in a few Vedic compounds svbrsati. sa dadarca. whether vowel or *T s. in jinvdr. vasarhdn. maintains itself unchangpratar-jitj dhar dkmna. vrhadacva uvaca. and in usarbudh}. dkar thus. svar). tiguous vowels are combined into one J saw sadhih (for sa id ague. bhimdr. ugrdr. and in a series of words in a single passage of TS. but in nearly every case there is to be as after other vowels assumed. viz. shows the same form which H-\ s would show under a. ado pito. but probably only as a matter of formal 178. Examples are 176. V. purpati. as is or an would be treated same situation: see 132 : 4. That in the is to say. in avds (once. rather.). : suarcanas. But Original final r. : ed before a sonant jyotih. iva. Exceptions the rules as to final as are: sas and eshas (also syas in the Veda) lose any consonant thus. In and vanarsdd and vanarsdd (RV. Final 5TTCT as before any sonant. A few instances are found (almost all Vedic) of s apparently changed : to r after a.). so 'bravit. except in its oldest occurrences. punar eti. In the Veda. and the hiatus thus occasioned remains.. in bhuvas.. c. bhutdr. dhurs&h. svarsd. and K. se 'morn. in bhiivas (second of the : : trio bhus. Opinions are divided as to what this should have been. before a surd consonant: thus. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. we see the same change even before a surd consonant. consonant. svarcaksas. and (K. dhursdd. Some of the native grammarians assimilate the case of as to that of assuming the conversion to ay in both alike convenience in rule-making. esha purusah . and more rarely in the later language. the rule for the maintenance of the hiatus is sometimes violated. loses its becoming simple these cases. [175 e. Final ^" r. d. only) putdr.). treated as an original o. a. in vanargu. aditya to ndmaiikti. seems to indicate a recent loss of the intermediate sound. b. 177. The pronouns their s before : b. ai. sa imam. yvarpati. but The exclamation Ihos loses its s before sada tu sah. evidences of the former thus. in forms of udhas being sometimes found in the kindred languages and dhas (see chap. a stem in ar beside that in as.

are decidedly against it. whatever the position of that element thus. either by retention of an original r or by conversion of * to r.181] CONVERSION OF s TO s. svb rohdva. double r is nowhere admitted: if such would occur. dental but. are excessively rare. in one or two Vedic cases: aksd fnduh. following r prevents the conversion And it is but seldom made in the forms and derivatives of a root containing an r. c. sisrtam. 179. sarisrpd. unless the H s be final. punartta. In ajusran the final s of a etc. Conversion of v 3U H to changed to the lingual if immediately preceded by any vowel save Ef a and ET 5. causing tip to reach the roof of the mouth during mouth more easily their at a point further back than the dental one. if they occur at all. gdvisthira. the I Actual cases of the combeing a dental sound. as variable assimilating influence of a preceding is peculiar compared with the inand problematical. but the Pratic. sometimes avoided by b. dfirpada. not usually found after any vowel save a and of it. like s. even in the later language. 181. parisrut. is made A long by compensation. The dental m The vowel to a is assimilating influence of fc the obvious enough. or fola. however (Yajur-Veda). r. The general Hindu grammar prescribes the same change after a I also. root is preserved even immediately before This dissimilating influence of a following r. 57 is vdrkaryd. and the preceding vowel. tisras. and phonetic considerations. the r optionally retained On the other hand. aha evd. sibilant s is 1 80. s to s The vowels that cause the alteration of may be called for brevity's sake "alterant" vowels. To this rule there are a few exceptions. r. sisarti. s is instead the lingual a. if short. The recurrence of s in successive syllables is . In some of these. that of and the other vowels appears the tongue in preceding lingual vowels and semito be due the somewhat retracted position its of utterance. or by fi k or ^" r lowed by ^~ r. thus. s. In the interior of a Sanskrit word. usra. r is lost. In tial some Vedic texts. tistire.akhyas give no such rule.element : (whether r or r). But : A tamisra. nistrta. ar becomes o before ini- r. one r is omitted. vispardhas. the a. as visfard. bination. thus. As a consequence of this rule.

in certain desiderative formations: see bel'-w.58 leading the former ydsislmahi. busd. apparently on account of also that of yhihs. sya. Such cases grow more common later. paruhsi. has the forms bfsa. etc.). of original -sdh (turdsdh. . : : suffixes sna. kas. bha--. . in RV. nins. puns and the nins and hins. (for kaksta. and the stems kistd. . Zas. thus. $ese. juhosi. from havis . havihsi. coctska. etc. desna. : RV. asthivdnt. 225 ff. havissu or havihsu. The numeral sas. or a union-vowel and desiderative alterant vowel or havisa. after a final consonant of root or stem. 182. anaisam. b. and concerning the treatment of this s in combination. cucruse. baskdya. Further. is more probably 183. not s. pdsyh. s. tvastar : see 218. se. kdsthd Fick). sisice and sisicus sisicatus). But the s of puns (chap. upasttit. its being followed by anusvara : does not prevent And thus. The : principal cases of alteration of inflectional or derivative. falling On the s other hand the occurrence of in Sanskrit : (as was pointed out above. as already noted. is found once in (JR. si. Jwvisas. vdsat (for vaksat?). of which the last is common and found as early as the Brahmanas. viksu. is Four roots. but Similarly. kavdsa. we find: drastum. from nam). b. 221). roots- with its derivative pesuka. see below. sva . see below. and. 183. for a single root pis. casala. jdldsa. unchanged. [181 sisakti unchanged: but ydsislsthds. because of its is value as hins (hinasti etc. future. manusya Roots having a final sibilant (except p) after an alterant vowel are with the exception of fictitious ones and pis. s thus. V. pa- russu or paruhsu. a. bhas. The nasalization of the alterant vowel or.) remains its the retained sense of value as pums . hins regarded as ending in s. dsa. altering effect upon the sibilant the alteration takes place in the initial s of an ending after the final s of a base. ynins (RV. bfsaya. bhavisyami. only) nims. by anomalous alteration and probably apdsthd and safes. (but Other cases are sporadic rbisa. jisnu. etc.). s III.. 184c. 62). beginning with su. whether the latter be regarded as also changed to s or as converted into visarga : thus. casa. sisaksi. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. snu. of sibilant-aorist. more questionable (perhaps 184. bination are In endings. The final s of a stem before an ending or suffix thus. words is nearly limited to cases under this rule others are rather sporadic anomalies except where s is the product of c or ks before a dental. caksusmant. C. as in Thus. a. akarsam. . manusa. caste. dsadha. in other its words. s in internal coms .

is ny asadama. arid and prati stambh) Such cases are ava stambh (against ni stambh (according to the grammarians) ava svan. yudhisthira. is sanisvanat. agnistomd. Once more. especially of particles as u su. 185. Both in verbal forms and in derivatives. and not worth and tlie giving here. In a few cases. after an alterant vowel thus. the initial s of the second gosthd. the final alterant vowel of the first member not infrequently (especially in the Veda) lingualizes for example. the final i or initial s of the root to M of a preposition or other like prefix ordinarily lingualizes the which it is prefixed since such combinations are both of great frequency and of peculiar intimacy. . suseka. analogous with those of root or stem and affix . when the desiderative-sign "becomes s: thus. apasthd. when its final. CONVERSION OF s TO s. thus. is both of an even between the words composing a The cases are detailed in the Prati^akhya belonging to each text. visita. in the Veda. especially in composition thus. vy asahanta. pary asasvajat. susvapa. pitrsdd. satrdsdt (but satrasdham) 187. the ation initial . abhy of initial radical s asincan. abhisttc. when the : in accordance with the principles already root contains an r-element. In other compounds. purustutd. divisdd.188] c. larly. also . of a root after a reduplication coskuyate. : The initial s. the of a prepositional as nissidhvan. anusvadhdm. and when a recur- rence of the sibilant would take place. vi tasthe. irregular radical s But there are also others. aviskrta. . jyotiskft alteration. pitrsvasr. are laid The principal exceptions down namely. abhi- 186. sisanisati from ysan. tapuspa. }/sa/i. of a more character. The s final s of the first member : of a s compound often becomes prefix. : send. initial 188. : pratisthh. s Excepted in general an initial radical in a desiderative stem. scale. by 146. becomes t: thus. A very few cases occur of the same alteration after an a-element: thus. vi tasthire. not infrequent and are of very various character. complete account of the treatment of initial after a prefix would be a matter of great detail. trisandhi. savyasthd. 59 : The initial s sisasati. on a considerable : in external combination. Much more anomalous after an the occasional alteration a-element of a prefix. usually altered after a certain prefix. But the same change occurs also. retains the altered sibilant even after an interposed a of : augment or reduplic- thus. annstubh. Thus. a s dustdra ffor dusstdra). kdm u svft. and. ntsikta. M ma. upastut. the same final s. paramesthin. vy astabhnat. reguretained instead of being converted to visarga before a labial or guttural and of a sentence. mute (171) . si- syade. sisanksati from ysanj. thus. as havispa. a. abhy astham.

n if m or in the by *T s. ksubhand. hdrani. dyaus pits. nu sthirdm. are the result of it. thus figure to ourselves the rationale of the of the process: in the marked proclivity the tip language toward lingual utterance. especially of the of the tongue. and in other scattering cases: as u oftenest te. [188 : pronouns : as hi sdh of verb-forms. rudrdndm. not only if the altering letter stands immediately before the nasal. drdvina. rugnd. a lingual. thus. OY ft r or ty f : and this. there intervene (a consonant moving the front of the tongue dental. dveshani. tends make its next nasal contact in that position: and does clivity is satisfied hang there and unless the pro- by the utterance of a lingual mute. a. tvdm. when once reverted into the loose lingual position to so. (ignis tva. is turned insame word by the preceded or semivowel or vowels that is to say. datfni. especially from yas stuhi. 190. The dental nasal JT ^ n. but at whatever distance from the latter it may be found: unless. isdni.$0 also of III. The rule has force especially When suffixes. before before a guttural or (171): as iris putvd. nis te. cfkirsamana. instead of being turned into visarga. or the organ is thrown out of adjustment by the utterance of an element which causes it to assume a different posture. vrknd. reknas. ghrnd. . : namely) a palatal (except T y) . the guttural position is and the y relative. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. krindmi. rudrena. divf stha. purand. ~$ r. tri sadhdsthd. : are added to roots or stems containing one of the altering sounds v&rinl. vdrini. as the influence of k on favors the succession of a lingual): shows. too weakly palatal to interfere s). krpamana. This is do not move the front part following s not the case with the gutturals or labials. which of the tongue (and. sddhis tdva. 189. vdstos pdtih. itself lingualises a This is a rule of constant application and (as was pointed out above) the great majority of occurrences of n in the language . kdrna. cdksana. b. Conversion of n to n. prntiti. dyus krnotu. lyus cucis and wherever a final s is labial pronouns (especially toneless ones): as but also in other cases. when immediately followed Tf by a vowel or by ^ n or to the lingual HI lingual sibilant y or cf v. A final s. indeed. with the alteration (as its next the i-vowel. as hf sthd. of inflection or derivation. by the utterance of a non-contact lingual element. vdrine. . preserved. or a We may nasal.

grdmani. in all forms and derivatives. durgdni. contain r or end in euphonic r for s (174). : or its integration by being made the base of a derivative. Derivatives by suffixes containing n sometimes have n by influence preposition ni : of a preposition: f. if it Thus: a. prd bhavdni. brdhmand. urunasd vrtrahdnam etc. strictly . pan myate. The only exceptions its p of * importance are (as nrt. in the Veda. 'like': thus. The The final n of a root is lingualized in some of the forms of an arid han: thus. prahdnana. nrmdnas. are : Examples tc. 193. impv. after another preposition thus. brdhmand. becomes in prdnasta]. svargena. dur (for thus. The 1st sing. rdnyati. is The n of the sometimes altered. a preposition or similar prefix to a root. rdnanti. nand (very rare). trindman. nir antar. rdrana. pdri nas. nabh. e. (but vrtraghnd . The initial n of a root is usually pari. prd nudasva . brdhmanvant. pranava. from }/ran. purydna. pari hinomi. pitrydna. ending ani is sometimes altered : thus.are an altering sound in another word. thus. 61 n of a root or stem comes to be followed. 194. prdnd. In compound words. an altering cause in one member sometimes lingualizes a or n ot the next following or member ending. tryangdnam. as : nayamasi. hi and mi: thus. oftenest thus affected thus.- 195). but also the vdr ndma. nrpdna. brdhmani. within certain limits. {ndra enam . para naya. pravdhana. CONVERSION OF n TO n. to contiguous it is Especially. and even. prayana. brahmanya. in the Veda. pranidhi. so altered. and nay when b. Finally. usrdydmne. and regularly (for nis). like the initial of a root. ardnisus. pranipdta. prd hanyate. class-signs nu and na are altered after the roots 'nitz. punar particle nd. dus) : after para. drughand. n in its inflectional derivative The exercise of the altering influence can be seen to depend in part upon the closeness or frequency of the compound. extended. When This rule (like that for the change of s to si applies and especially when the nasal and the cause of its alteration both lie within the limits of the same integral word 191. in inflecby such sounds as allow it to feel the effect of a preceding altering cause: thus. pra. vdr nd. prd c. d. but (also like the other) to compound words words in the sentence. 192. prd minanti (but the latter not in the Veda). agner dvena. from brahman. prai 'nan. very often lingualizes the n of a root or of its derived stems and forms. parindma. Roots suffering this change are written with initial n in the native rootlists. a n (usually initial) is lingualized even by The toneless pronouns nas and ena. . the final tion or derivation.194] b. either its initial or final n. and a few other cases. nirnfj. durndfa. pardnutti.

'six': sannabhi (and one or two others not quotable from the namely. final t A is directed to be assimilated to an : initial lingual mute : thus. of the cases of as results of a lingualized abnormal occurrence of d are explained in a simiand afterward omitted sibilant before d : thus nlda from nisda. a s. The immediate combination to [195 of a seems in some cases trpnoti hinder the n with a preceding guttural or conversion to n: thus. etc. tat-thalirii. and compensatory lengthening. (226 b) itte : Thus as : A dh after d from a very few a of a root or stem ddviddhvam ditto. 199. In the other (comparatively infrequent) cases where a dental is preceded by a lingual in internal combination. Some lar way. surd mute or nasal. or the dental sibilant. 199 b. loss of the final lingual after assi- But tadhi (Vedic: ytad -\-dhi] shows milation of the dental. tat-tlka. pi. Exceptions are: a few compounds with aaa. satsu An . sdnnavati. fore a lingual. HI. initial dental after unchanged y and su of the loc. the dental a. literature). A small number of words follow the same see below. rule in external combination: 199. so written. from }/id. a. cases are the following: A dental when immediately preceded by the corresponding lingual. in contact with. see below. labial etc. final a becomes t before su (226 b) do not. other instances occur: and : saddhd pi. b. is everywhere converted into and sn are very common of the aa Under is rarely this rule. Those cases in which course. j/mrd from mrsd (Zend marezhdd). For words exhibiting a like change in composition. . In external combination. a is lingual or palatal mute or the dental usually assimilated.62 195. vrtraghnS ksubhnati. the visarga being put instead former sibilant: thus. pi. For n be- b. of 198. of aaa) saddhd and sodha]. anomalous gen. jydtihsu instead of jy6tissu. fall under this rule. ypld from pisd. : ratsu. follows the a final lingual usually remains same rule thus. and sanndm (aaa -(. see 205. The 197. Only (also .) becomes lingual. . EUPHONIC COMBINATION. tad dayate. the combinations at. sth. (but in Veda trpnu). When a dental mute comes sibilant. (except of su loc. and very rarely in the later. becoming lingual or palatal respectively.nam trnna (ytrd-\-na). 196. Conversion of dental mutes to linguals and palatals. tad dhaukate but the case final never occurs in the older language.

dnat chuci. 224 b: Between final sddafa. of every period. vdnsi. 202. in the language of every period. puk c/. ajnata. anustup charadi. 63 In a few compounds. and before There is but one case of internal combinaan initial palatal. peremptorily or optionally. after a lost lingual sibilant or its representative namely. rkjna. reading also vtpat The MSS. the insertion of a t is permitted according to some authorities. converted to ^ . According to the grammarians. moreover. or only sporadically made. jajne. du~ : ndfa. 5f j. of p authorities regard the conversion as to ch as everywhere oblig- others only optional followed by a mute. mahsydte. namely 201. sdt sahdsrah or salt sahdsrah. For n before a surd palatal. becoming 3T n. f becoming respectively rj c and oT n. in certain Vedic compounds with dus : duddbha. required: thus. mute save m. 204. 203. t and initial s. and and in practice almost ST $ may be. becoming ^ c or ^ and / before sf A but it is / does not occur). or. tfghahsati. see below. vdhsat. tion. vdhsva. (the only instance after yajna. 208. rhjni.204] DENTAL MUTES TO LINGUALS AND PALATALS. of All the require this assimilation n. with compensatory lengthening. and. duddf. with change of its vowel to an alterant quality (as in vodhum and sodhum: C. An final rT t before an initial palatal c before rf mute ch. yacnh. dundfa. is assT similated to it. sodant. 200. bination of t instead of ccA. itself made palatal: c) . both rT t and ^ n assimilated. Combinations of final n. dudhi. becoming anusvara. Final radical n is assimilated in internal combination lo a following sibilant. then the following always Some atory. a And some require the same conversion after every chutudrl. some except. The cases of assimilation of a dental to a contiguous palatal occur almost only in external combination. are Before the palatal sibilant 5T p. more often neglected. A. : ^ n coming is to follow a palatal mute in inter- nal combination Thus. in the MSS. is. generally write chuci. it is treated before bh and su in declen- . sodhd (also saddhd and saddhd]. Thus. certain compounds of sas. as result of the com- and p. ch. sr (^f\ jh ^y final ^T n is assimilated before grammarians. there appears a lingualized dental.

ns th. But the cases are extremely is [204 rare. nc ch. The assimilation of n in external combination to a sonant palatal and the palatal sibilant c have been (2O2. Its analogy with the conversion of into nch (203) palpable. before which the n becomes anusvara : c. phenomenon. of Veda does not present an example . which are fully explained in their Praticakhyas. be- coming (like m in 21 3 c) a nasal to I. For assimilation of n to a preceding palatal. hq This rule. sion as in external combination.4 HI. inserted after final n a sibilant of each of those class- thus. following are those of external combination. ns t. and RV. respectively. is already treated The n fore also declared to a sonant lingual dh. t. : According to the insertion of the most of the grammarians of the Praticakhyas (not RPr. as a phonetic rule of unvarying application. Before the lingual and dental sibilants. has rdnsu and vdhsu (the only Vedic examples). cases. since cases in- volving the other initials occur either not at (the or only with extreme rarity any of them). with this rule. the rule applies only to n before c and all. note) are for original ns . final n remains unchanged but a t may also be inserted between the nasal and the sibilant thus. t in such cases In the MSS. a historic survival. initial occurs. 206. abharan. It is probably a purely phonetic very frequently made. 208. and the different texts have with regard to it different usages. ns th. The MSS.). a transition-sound to ease the double change of sonant to surd and nasal to non-nasal utterance although the not infrequent cases in which final n is stands for original nt (as bharan. ii. A n is : also assimilated to a following I. The remaining cases 205. and a radical n occasionally follows the same rule. really involves The large majority of cases of final n in the language 26. In the Veda. there es is Before the surd palatal. but not uniformly. hs t. 2O3). see 201. it is is a necessary one. was extended by analogy to Practically. when once its historical ground (not far from three quarters: see APr. thn sdt or thnt sdt . be assimilated (becoming n) bebut the case hardly ever n). mahhn sdn or mahhnt sdn. . all others. even before a vowel. had been forgotten. and dental mutes. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. the insertion is not always made. general attempt write the combination in accordance 207. (d. and the retention of the sibilant in such. in general. s and s. agnimari) it may have n p aided to establish as a rule. Final n of a derivative suffix regularly and in usually dropped before a consonant in inflection and composition composition. which in the classical language has established itself in the form here given. lingual.

shows itself also in other Vedic forms of combination. ganvahi. for the sake of unity. u. rafminr iva. b. mon is treated like as. from dganma. in internal combination. insert respectively k The nasal n and n before a sibilant and t as n (207) inserts are allowed to t: thus. 209. although the Vedic metre seems to show* that the duplication was sometimes omitted. are doubled before any initial vowel thus. 211.j/fam). frequent in the older texts. thus. in. final m. is Final radical JT m. prafdnbhis. the second nasal of an original consonant following the first. This is also to being an assimilation be regarded as a historical survival. In like manner. (from before pra$am: pra-f. n. svdtavdnh pdyuh. becoming the nasal of the same Before class with the mute. n. derived noun-stem ends in m. with nasal vowel. or spirant as- similated to a following mute in the latter case. Final f m in external combination is a servile . f as it would be after when pure. jaganvans (which appear to be the only quotable cases). the 65 is less c. 125. and (much more rarely) thus. sununr yuvanyuhr ut. aganmahi. fn as a.. According to the grammarians. which. nfnr abhi. from the particle kdm. (as when final: 143). being assimilated to any following consonant * Thus : Kuhn. fns (long nasalized vowel with final s}. to say. 213. before a following vowel : that is thus. prafdnsu QB. has once the anomalous kdmvant. if The same retention and consequent treatment of they were ans. nfnh patram.213] it COMBINATIONS OF FINAL n AND m. with pure vowel (177): upabaddhdn ihd. becoming h before a surd (170j : sonant sound (174). in the former. No bh and su : thus. becoming anusvara . uns. When of the p does not appear between : n and n is assimilated. it is changed to n. Ins. Final an becomes an (nasalized a) ans. devdn case. dnk somah. It is always written in the MSS. This is an extremely comOnce or twice. un. the inflection of root-stems. may be briefly stated here together : original final s after a nasal. occurring as finals after a short vowel. (apparent) final an. pratydnn ud " : esi. praty- Combinations of 212. the same change is made in m or v |/gram. 'hd. 210. iii.. becoming n (as before j 202). those vowels s is treated after nasal r before a z. the s appears as h before p: especially in RV. mahdn asi. Whitney. in his Beitrage etc. sound. e thus. . Grammar. udydnn aditydh. The nasals n.

do not take any notice of the case. derivatives samrdjnl by an anomalous exception. But if h be immediately followed by another consonant (which can only is allowed to be assimilated to that following be a nasal or semivowel). sibilant. Thus. rc/ca. mrokd. and the editions in general to distinguish the nasal tones arising from the assimilation of m before a following semivowel from that before a spirant. is but is because the h has no position of the mouth-organs peculiar to The Praticakhyas uttered in the position of the next sound. The vakd. It has been pointed out above (73) that the assimilated m is that generally represented in texts by the anusvara-sign. d. It remains unchanged before a vowel or a labial r of the root raj in samrtij mute. maghd. seka. 216. the nasal counter- part of each respectively (see 71). is by no means arkd. mrgd. before and samrajya. and in this work it is transliterated by (instead of a nasal m mute or Also. vraskd: final j becomes g in tyagd. Before a mute of any other class than labial. doha. prdtika etc. of In another series derivatives with a.(J5 III- EUPHONIC COMBINATION. yaja.. final h becomes varga. sanga. meghd. . bhagd. vrajd. reversion to guttural form : and nasals. semivowels. dogha. cases are the following 1. pakd. parka. in derivation. Before a of suffix a. alteration in many cases where other similar sounds are retained. and h. and in dughana. tokd. marga. bhdga. . arghd. bhoga. a sibilant. only [213 a. according as they represent the one or the other of two different degrees of alteration from their originals. yaga. The palatals and h are the least stable of alphabetic sounds. dlrghd (and drdghiyas. w). 215. rare. markd. pucd. undergoing. it becomes the nasal of that class. Before the semivowels y. appears mdgha. But and its also. also. the altered sound : examples are ajd. or h. Before r. bhangd. m to be The palatal mutes and 214. the m consonant. moka. These sounds show in some situations a reversion to the original gutturals from which they are derived. even before vowels. b. rokd. foca. vfka. yoga. The treatment of j and /j. The MSS. drdghistha) drtigha. c. fo'fca. is different. This itself. v it becomes. vega. urjd. it becomes anusvara make no attempt (see 71). yugd. yuja. e. according to the Hindu grammarians. a nasal semivowel. in virtue of their derivative character. roga : gh in aghd. final o becomes k in ankd. that the general grammarians allow pronounced before any and every consonant as anusvara. I. sarga. vevijd.

as final c becomes k (above. pakvd fkvan. Before r. rukmd. and in rogana. if followed in in- combination by any other sound than a vowel or semivowel or nasal. Before the suffixes as and ana. g. mid. man. vanku. vivid. has vivakmi from yvac. 2. once). rukmdn. mrgvan. fdci. vagnu (with the final also . the initial becomes guttural after the reduplication in the present or perfect or desiderative or intensive stems of the roots a. van me. 8. vagdhi. etc. pacya. the altered sound is used : thus. vagbhis. ugrd. Before m (of wa.). Such cases as bhogya and yogya are doubtless secondary derivatives from bhoga and yoga. . the examples of reversion are few. mrgra. vaktdr. bhrgu. Before r/. made Yprc. fagmd (with sonant change) vdkman. we asrgram. . o/f. rikvan. 217. and the usage apparently divided : thus. pupukvani: also before the union-vowel i in okivdns (RV. 5fi k would vakti. 4. yujya. van. The RV. and vagmm (with sonant change) . ojman. combination : also to c in external 142). yajya. is The reversion derivation exhibited final only before the suffix a (and in the participle dughana. An exception of h in is ydjvan. 7.. and shows everywhere the same form which a show in the same situation. ci. uvdktha.217] COMBINATIONS OF FINAL PALATALS. vaksykmi. vhg api. ulita. but vdjra and pajrd(?). rgmtn but djman. min). han. the guttural generally appears: thus. rkvd. A like reversion shows itself also to some extent in conjugational radical stem-formation and inflection. reku. sonant) and participles bhagnd. tuji. the same rule applies thus. the guttural reappears. RV. Thus. ji. (of Before v the suffixes : va. : 6. ternal Final rf c of a root or stem. reknas.. abhogi): 3. and apparently prgna from 5. vin. etc. vak ca. as a rule (the cases are few): thus. rtici. hi. fupukvand. vagvfa (with further sonant change). sdkman. except of j (becoming g) na : thus. the altered sound appears (except in the doubtful e. and han becomes ghn on the elision of And before ran etc. for radical j in asrgran. Thus. the guttural only rarely appears ptf/cas. vaksu . bhujyu. yugvan. and participial vans] the guttural is regularly preserved thus. And. in dnkas. okas. : 67 namely. before the participial ending Before n. rugnd. bhdrgas. asasrgram (all have g in RV. reverts to its original guttural value. fukvan. rofcas. Before an i-vowel. f (219) shows much with c. yajyu. fukrd. rurukvdhs. cit. the cases are few. CUfukvdns. ririkvahs. bhujmdn. tigmd. vaksi. ukthd. The j which is analogous with less proclivity to reversion than that which corresponds 9. of 3d pi. anku. Before w. rocisnu..).

by ^ sz "$" s% final before (145). fify . vij. mumucmdhe. riricre. rat. though containing the root yaj. raj. asrgram. ratsu. inflection are : [217 ucydte. appears. dsrj . and and 5T ih. 5). bhrajj. by bh or au. or. in KZ. t or 3 d). vrj. 216) we find a g sometimes from r of the mrj-class: thus. Final sT / is in one set of words treated like rf c. mrddhvdm. mtirsti. considerable number hibit the distinction. didestu. yuj. avicran. ucmdsi. anj. etc. by 180. xxiii. bhisdj. But a few roots exhibit the reversion of bh and su. Examples of c remaining unchanged in vaci. yoksyami.). mrj.. vidbhis. yuksu rastrd . Examples of vici. dviksata. by a dental mute (t. dididdhi. final c to k before are die. pl. 384 ff. srsti. belong only about one third as many namely. bhaj. always loc. bubhujrire. sraj. as when ( re- gularly becomes the lingual veksykmi . from yvj': . and Ibhuj. : yaj. srj. trie in internal combination. ayujran. or is followed. yukli. pi. and H sw of the loc. dyukthas. In derivation (above. tij. stems formed with the suffixes aj and y . mrddhi. bhanj. 219. dyugdhvam. other class on the of j-roots are not placed in circumstances to exbut such roots are in part assignable to one or the The distinction evidence of the related languages*. sprc. yunkte. ndk. are: vivicyas. Final 5T ? reverts to its original 3\ &. Thus. i urj. only when the j occurs as final. mrstd. Thus. . : also. "Q^s rT t of a verbal stem or ending before 197.383. vraj. only before (whence. yungdhi. dh). H bh. but c vit. * See H&bschmann. hrdisprk. ruj. remaining unchanged before vowels acnomi. yoktra. as trsndj. raj 'color'. 218. mdrga (in apamarga) and sarga. latter or mrj-class rtvij. and vif viksu. mute vdsti. it everywhere VI it becomes Ef s (whence. yugbhis. endings. in V. 7 -v in another set like ST f. and before Vedic while 3d mid. th. etc. and also when final (145): they and optionally nac (always. . has in V. asasrgram (beside saarjrire) from the ywj-class occur only yuyujre. dyukta. from mrj etc. vidbhis.: dmrksat. drc. svaj. saj. Again. sraksy&mi. vacmi. radbhis. pi.). nij. Examples are diksamcita. \ and $ remains irregularly unchanged before p in the compound sf vifpdti. ^f ks]-. with j. either in inflection or in derivation. tyaj (riot V. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. in noun-inflection. namely. vanij and To the A. vista. dh. bhraj. drgbhis. asrgran. majj. To the former or yuj-cl&ss belong (as shown by their quotable forms) about twenty roots and radical stems: namely.6 III.

root. dh) in turasndbhis. exhibiting a similar diversity of treatment. dsrsta. vrktin. and further. As final. it has a Vedic gerund A. grammarians to make such forms as gordt. in As final and noun- (before bh and is directed to be changed to the lingual mute. from it also makes it sonant : . dsrastam. or of a tense-stem (s-aorist see below. . thus. In the one class. it disappears itself. if thus. caste. dugdham. su]. As to its treatment when final. and in noun-inflection before bh and su. roksyftmi. see 146. the h (like c] becomes a lingual mute turasnt. gorddbhis. in under the rules of combination almost which it is treated as if it were c form) : and perhaps its more original also the derivative pracnd. following the rules for c: thus. from guh with tar comes gudhdr. in the not very frequent cases . and its treatment as if it were d/iuk. dugdhd. from meh with turn comes medhum. we have a guttural reverin verb-formation and derivation thus. : The compound ks is not infrequent as final of a root (generally of demonstrably secondary origin). simple f : thus. cdkse (caks -j. same root. praksy&mi. its euphonic effect is peculiarly complicated : it turns the dental into a lingual (as would c] but t . saksiyd. 69 220. dhuksu. it is treated as if a single sound. and the preceding vowel. vraksydti. sadbhts. it thus. as duh. sion (as of and sah. 222.222] COMBINATIONS OF FINAL ch. inflection Final ch is falls only in the root prac/i. class. fall into two classes. vrdstum. is lengthened by way of compensation with ta comes rudhd. in vraska. Its participle is dvraksam.) and. and aspirate (as would dh: see 160). (as of c] still its original gh: thus. dcasta. In the other c) as ruh 5 only before : : But before a dental mute (t th. The roots in final ^ like those in ^j. saksdni. dhugbhis. chap. ap- pearing in the same kinds of combination. end). vrknd . dhoksy&mi. turashtsu. vrasta. of its internal combination. we have a reversion of h to a guttural form. ddhok. (with mUrti] and a gerund murtva is given must doubtless come from a simpler form of the Of jh there to no occurrence : the grammarians declare it be treated like 221. nation. in external combidruksat. the compound fc the rule for reverts to fe is said to follow Its c. verb-inflection and in derivation. tvdstar. from ruh short. from leh with ti comes Udhi. satsu from saks or sas (146. They is c. gordtsu (from gordks] and we actually have sdt. In the single anomalous root vrapc. h. Murtd is called the to the participle of murcfc. (and prac prstd. ddhuksam. prtanasad ayodhydh. XI.se ) cdksva . Jcs. are We taught by the .

. atrnet (the grammarians teach also trnehmi and trneksi: if such forms are actually in use. (the only occur- and pranadhrk and dadhfk. it: b. The root accordingly to nah comes from original dh instead of gh. they. upanad-yuga. brJi. roots of the rwft-class we find also in the Veda the forms gartaruk. are : : classes. drdhd. trnh. trdhd.1) meghd and dlrghd from roots of the rwft-class. druh. to stand in These anomalous vowel-changes seem that connection with the the cases showing them are the only ones where other than an * See Hubschmann. made by fact false analogy with the others). dih. RV. from lih lidhvum. Irregularities of combination are r is : The vowel : not lengthened to fe-element first thus. also But muh forms do not appear to have been met with in use. The roots of the two found in use. we have examples only from dw/t. syllable has metrical value as heavy or long).70 lih HI. rih or li/i. brdhd (the only cases compensate for the loss of the and in the Veda their . Before the r verb-endings.) the participle mudha and agent-noun mudhdr. as well as mugdhd and mugdhdr . we have (216. sddhum. snih (and the final of umih is similarly treated) of the second or rttA-claSB yah.o instead of lengthening But from sah in the older vodhdm.. duduhre etc. itself disappearing under the law of the existing language aspirate which admits no sonant sibilant. 224. language forms with a are more frequent: thus. dsadha (also later). vodhdm. however. . sing. number of other ft-roots are not proved by their occurring forms to belong to either class . bank. and its reversion is a dental instead of a guttural mute: thus. duh. is as if we had assume as transition sound a sonant aspirate with the euphonic effects of a lingual and of a sonant (160). (not in sprh(?). naddhd. : ruh. they must have been sadhar. guh. as above. too. natsydmi. vodhdr. with tas [222 with d/warn comes or thas comes to lid/ids. with h : A thus. drh/i. In derivation. and hence puruspfk rence) does not prove ysprh to be of the dwft-class. mih. 223. The root trhh changes the vowel of its class-sign na into e instead of lengthening it: thus. trnedhu. before the suffix a. This etc. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. The roots vah and sah change their vowel to. sah. sadhd. a. trnedhi. lingual sibilant zh. are with more or less confidence assigned to the one or the other by comparison with the related languages*. thus. upanddbhis. and druh and snih are allowed by the grammarians to do likewise: such forms as drudha and sriidha. as shown by their forms of the first or dw/j-class dah. From nom. muh.

b. the product of lingualization of s after certain alterant sounds. AV. dvisthas. dus (evidently identical with ydus). has been noticed further only -flit.226 COMBINATIONS OF FINAL before the s. The conversion of * to * (or d) as final and before &/t and su is parallel with the like conversion of p. . occurring (save as it may be assumed in the case of acts) only once in RV. final lingual s is treated in the same latter manner a. difficult of ex- planation. in the Brahmanas. from yvis. has only dviksat and dviksata. and the are assimilated This is e. and it su. From and pins. in (RV. dvestum. occurrences. for pinas-s pinas-t}. (in rare self. vivid dhi. when the in (182) cases) it comes its to stand to revert to original. and dh is made lingual after thus. The lingual sibilant 225. Before s in internal it combination becomes k: This change It is thus. prefix however. from ci as secondary form of y$as. where a s cannot maintain itand be treated as a s would be That. T 226. treated under the same circumstances.). in aiyes (RV.).) adviksam. Other examples are quotable from yykra (B. and they are by the Hindu grammarians prescribed to be formed from about half-a-dozen other roots. in the (adverbially used case-form All these.). in sajus from yjus). anomalous phonetic character. a common and perfectly natural combination. we might expect final radical s. dvidflkvam.g. Before t and th : Thus it : remains unchanged. the final of vah in the anomalous compound is changed to d instead of d: see 404.) vives and dvives. 71 sibilant representative of alterant vowel (180) comes lingualised the h. It is a very infrequent case. except the first two. dstoddhvam becomes a lingual mute : (from astos-dhvam}. (-dvit and -prut). (145). dvidbhis. (QB. and practically dveksi. dvistas. (except su of loc. and the desid.). and once in AV. dvitsu. moreover. although those texts have more than 40 roots with final s. stem fifliksa from y^lis. is of dveksy&mi. RV. viddhi. are more or less open to question. its usual and normal lingual sibilant. pi. Since is s. as also in external combination . is only true in a very few instances. anadvah Apparently by dissimilation. and in atfs. Namely. and the desid. The only RV. The same holds good of the altered s of a tense-sign thus. Up. from yvis. has the irregular form pinak (2d and 3d sing. above) are viveksi. it : Before dh. Compare sodafa etc. as palatal 5T $. also of very rare occurrence. and of j and h in the mrj and ruh classes of roots.. from yis. pinddhi. bh. In general. fis and pis (Khand. examples (apart from pinak. c. stem ririksa from yris . etc. and perhaps with the occasional change of s to t (167 8).

EUPHONIC COMBINATION. required authorities. i. sometimes write chcfy. and after In RV. Other cases of extension of consonant-groups. at Opinions are variance as to how far this duplication has an an acknowledgment of the fact that ch makes a heavy syllable even after a short vowel (makes "position": 79). 100. Between r and a following insertion of a svardbhakti or 'vowel-fragment': consonant the Praticakhyas teach the see APr. or initial after preceding word by the grammarians either allowed or required to be doubled. becoming cch (which the MSS. first The a vowel of a consonant of a group is whether interior. This duplication see is allowed by Panini and required by the Praticakhyas it altogether. note. The various duplication. as Initial. the duplication is universally omitted. and far it is only how is 228. initial ch is doubled after a long vowel of <J only. and optionally everywhere after a long. also h or I or -u. are the following the insertion : Between a non-nasal and a nasal mute. [227 Extension and Abbreviation. or more than one of them. note. any consonant (save a spirant before a vowel) by the grammarians either allowed or required to be doubled 154). the particles d and md. by prefixing the corresponding non-aspirate : Some of the authorities include. Between h and a following nasal mute the Praticaktiyas teach the : see APr. : 230. in this rule. and inscriptions. note. and. from combination of t and n with c: 203) after a vowel everystill where cch. by some of the grammatical a. the others as Some regard it authorities as twice assume long this insertion only before a spirant. texts. authorities disagree with one another in detail as to this is According to Panini. A doubled consonant after r is very common in MSS. i. ch doubled within a word after either necessarily after a short a long or a short vowel. 99. After r. and certain special cases For the required usage in the other Vedic after a short vowel are excepted. insertion of a nasal sound called nasikya c. is taught by the Prati^akhyas (and assumed in Panini's commentary): see APr. 101 2. (an aspirate. or nasal counterparts. see ch (not The Kathaka writes for original ch their several Pratoakhyas. i. as before a spirant before any other consonant . as also in native text-editions and in the earlier editions prepared by Euro- pean scholars in later ones. b.. in both. but is to be doubled. with mention of authorities who deny For certain matter is too the Praticakhyas the meaning of the whole obscure to justify the giving of details here. along with r. of so-called yamas ('twins'). etymological ground. ch is not allowed by the grammarians to stand in that form after a vowel. 227. exceptions. As a general rule.72 III.

So in inflection. utthdtum for utsthdtum. the ordinary usage of the MSS.). not majjnd. yundhi for yungdhi.) admits it after I as well as r. a quarter or an One (VPr. tv after a As every tattvd vowel may also may be. written as datvd and tatvd. In general.). taptam for tapstam. of importance enough to be here noticed* that A s is sometimes two surd mutes thus. ddvidhvam or (from ydvis) as the true form of a second person plural. or with both thus. XI. though the full group also often written. notice is is required by APr. a half or a quarter mora before the former. impossible to determine by the evidence of written usage whether regard adhvam or addhvam (from yas). the former of two non-nasal mutes dropped. Strengthening and Weakening Processes.. usual (the other of it). so karttika (from krtt i] written as kartika. antdm for anktdm. It is eighth before the latter. puts a svarabhakti also between a sonant consonant and a mute or spirant. That is to say. Under this head. should Hence we ddviddhvam 233. bhinthd for bhintthd. majfid etc. achantta (and for by 231. Other instances are only sporadic thus. 73 namely. for example. After a nasal. as simple. may be : This abbreviation. chintkm for chintt&m. fapta for fapsta. the collocations tasmat tute (for stute) and puroruk tuta- (for stuta-: K. and then those that the changes that consonants adding. a double mute (including an aspirate which is doubled by the prefixion of a non-aspirate) in combination with any other consonant is by the manuscripts written 232. uttabhnoti for utstabhnoti. c.. following ( The RPr. b. Among occasional omissions of an etymologically justified is member of a consonant. Praticakhyas take no allowed by Panini. and APr.234] ABBREVIATION OF CONSONANT-GROUPS. The initial s of the roots and stabh after the preposition ut: thus. It is the practice of the MSS. is kartana is also properly kdrttana. yundhvdm for yungdhvdm. chindty asya for chindtty asya. and almost invariably be properly written ttv. we have always. so dattvff and As are. The tense-sign 8 of the s-aorist (chap.) after a final consonant of a root before the initial consonant of this. 231.group. variously described as a fragment of the vowel a or of r (or I). see the Prati^akhyas. 234. : lost (perhaps after assimilation) between stha a. For one or two other cases of yet more doubtful value. 229) and those in which the duplication is etymological. from. introduces an element called sphotana 'distinguished) between a guttural and a preceding mute of another class. majjdn. whether homogeneous only with the nasal. hrdyotd foxhrddyotd. the compound rkthd (re -{-stha: : PB. achanta] for achantsta. we take up affect first affect vowels. . makes no difference between those groups in which a phonetic duplication is allowed by the rules given above (228. an ending: thus. are it Even in composition and sentence-collocation the same abbreviations made: is thus. indhe for inddhe.

instead of assuming certain roots to be bhr and vrdh. bhuta and mta. the simple vowels wear the aspect of being in general the original or fundamental ones. further prefixion of a to | a vrddhi-vowel. office of connectives. being of conregular occurrence both in inflection and in derivation. ^ most stant 235. in each case. bodhati and cetati. or vrddTu-change f I (26) ever suffer change to vrddhi. : { of corresponding a a degrees is then as follows simple vowel it e u u o r I Guna Vrddhi There is a a a nor does ai f in a au ar ar to al nowhere any occurrence of . which is combined with the guna-vowel differs A other according to the usual rules. i. The series m of course. r. buddha and citta they assume Thus. by the the ffwia-vowel. But r is so clearly seen to come by or weakening from an earlier ar (or ra) that many European prefer to treat the the rules of respectively. is Thus.74 HI. would have the same changes and the vrddhi of would 237. The from the corresponding simple vowel by a prefixed ^-element. and consonant elements that have come a brief notice of the vowel to bear the apparent Guna and Vrddhi. undergo either TheoI retically. remains unchanged own guna. u. example and making from them bharati and vardhati. in two several degrees so that formation direct a. as r. is gunating processes sometimes expressed. for both guna and vrddhi. for . so-called guna and vrddhi-changes are the and frequent of vowel-changes. abbreviation grammarians puna-form : as the original and the other as the derivative. by the same rules which from bhu and nl and from budh and cit form bhavati and nayati. of 5 i or the corresponding guna is (a-\-i=) ^ e. From the special point of view of the Sanskrit. and bhrta and vrddha. But in as it all a remains unchanged a is its or. [234 for convenience's sake. still The historical relations of the members of each vowel-series are matters of some difference of opinion. and the others of being products of their increment or strengthening. 236.e ==) ^7 at. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. situation guna be al. the correspond- ing vrddhi 5f 51 (a -f. I to be raised to guna or vrddhi under specified conditions. a.

in initial syllables in secondary derivation thus. ndyati from )/m. and ddraksam . b. prch and draksydmi prach. of ar are so various 241. as agnaye from agni. Mainly from such considerations. though' not without constant recognition of the other. dnaisam from )/m. but nindati from ynind. guhati from yguh. as tanomi either conjugational class-signs. dideva from ydw. ydvis. ohate from }/uh. especially. prthivl. nor to a long vowel unless it be final thus. and the question between one of minor consequence. In root and suffix-syllables. and is in many cases seen to occur in connection with an accent on the increased syllable. from ydrc. krpa and dkrapista. cetati from j/ceV. vaidyutd from vidyut. b. dohas. but also prthu and pratk. dataram from datr. Especially often. dohmi from yduh. as dvfati from or in derivation. even by the Zend). dogdhum. stauti from ystu. In root-syllables either in inflection. The WfflUttt-increment is specifically Indian (being unshared. but jivati from yjlv. pitdram from pitf. heavy syllable : Exceptions to -the rule are occasionally met with : thus. the ending with a consonant rules prescribing guna in processes of derivation and inflection do not apply to a short vowel which is "long by position". of increment: thus. And a few cases occur of prolongation instead from ydus. 239. bhaumd : : from bhumiy parthiva from But 240. in further deri: vation or in inflection. a. the r-form is genreverse. In formative elements from tanu. and It is found its occurrence is more infrequent and irregular. : . which may fairly be settled by considerations of convenience. save in a few doubtful cases. manasd from mdnas.241 1 GUNA AND VRDDHI. instead of guna : thus. dkarsam and Mrdyati and karya from ykr (or kar). bhandvas from bhcinu. or suffixes of derivation. The ^ma-increment is an Indo-European phenomenon. dusdyati The changes of r (more original ar or ra) as to call for further description. where by such reversal a difficult combination of consonants is avoided thus. The vrddhi-increment is not liable to this restriction. hantavyd from hdntit. The ^ma-increment does not usually take place : in a that is to say. hedas from yhid. It is found a. as dvesa. instead and ar : namely. them is erally assumed in this work. : : dvestum. sdkhayam from sdkhi. 75 bhar and vardh to be the roots. The increments of r are sometimes ra and ra. 238. and give the rules of formation for them in Both methods have their advantages.

2w 'choose'. and r in r (or ar : is made long only Lengthening is a much more irregular and sporadic change than increment.lengthening. in pr> m T> v ?> sporadically in with ur (especially others'! : which ur. titarti. for example. (or ryr). by regular processes and even (V. in trca. 244. is by no means common.). again. tirtva. |242 242. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. before y : Final radical i and u are especially liable to prolongation as in passive ir b. r The (quotable) str. tatara. r 243. Compensatory lengthening. ir and Thus. and f-roots are r. . made long. 246. firna. before y and Radical is and us (392). in prnu from ru. since the lengthening analogy with that of a is u) in part and (except where in evident indistinguishable from its increin certain plural cases of stems ment. in trta and trtlya from ri. For the purpose of artificially indicating this peculiarity of treatment.) turyama. 199b. chap. there being more than one of the same form. ir and ur. -tirya. The 'wear (quotable) f-roots are *r. 2mr 'die'. or also with ir and. or absorption by a vowel of the time of a lost following consonant. tuturyat. 222). tarfiryati. 198 b. and its cases will in general be left to be pointed out in connection with the processes of inflection and derivation a few only will be mentioned here. a. the root intended is given in the Petersburg lexicon. Igr 'swallow'. V. V.. the r exchanges both with ar. idr 'burst'.) are to be classed here. Iff 'crush'*. are liable tr to prolongation into tar}. . Vowel-lengthening has regard especially to of i i and u. igr 'praise'. : 245. 247. before Final radical all and gerund and so on. more irregularly. such roots are by the Hindu grammarians written with long f or with both r and f : no f actually appears anywhere among their forms. have the same prolongation in declension. ending in r In a (for number of roots (about a dozen quotable ones) more original ar). The final vowel of a former member of a compound is often v. hvr. Prolongations of final a. cases. ijr out'.I 7(5 ill. Ipr 'fill'. (or we have tarafi. in a part of the forms. Certain instances of it as pita for pitars have been pointed out above (179. 3kr 'strew'. speaking of each formation. Perhaps such cases and dhanl for dhanins (chap. and ur (from r-roots 242) are : : liable to prolongation consonants except those of personal endings tva and na: and in declension before bh and namely. Vowel . The treatment of such roots has to be described in turana. In a few even from rir comes from the contraction of other syllables than ar and ra: thus. especially in the Veda. . but also tt'rati. after a labial. and before are most * Numbers prefixed to roots denote the order in which. from atarisam.

The final d of one or two roots is treated in the same manner thus ma. rdhydmd. i Usually the prolongation takes place where it is favored by the metre. in 2d act.. marjagrabhd. jlvayathd (and one in tana: avistand). impv. dchd.. ivd. VOWEL-LENGTHENING AND LIGHTENING. ddhd. as vidmd. xix. mdrdvant.). their comparative frequency). vahasvd. nahi. . maksti. much less and u is in a large number of cases prolonged. tanvi (loc. jayatd. instr. mi. Examples fatamagha. impv. bibhrtd. variety : Verb-forms ending in of in great number and 2d as sing. act. adyd. [1874 Benfey. mrjmd. sthd. is a sporadic phenomenon only. Of verb-forms ending in i. rtdvasu. vetthd. cd. sing. .250] frequent. tvfsimant. vayundvfd. 1st act. risdmd. mid. ghd. Of the class-sign nd (of the fcn-class of verbs : chap. the final vowel of a word generally a. Radical a weakened as perfect to the semblance of the union-vowel etc. prnuhi. Gott. but cases are 11 are found of every variety. as ruhemd. parlndh. a. t/ena. The alteration of short a to an i or w-vowel in the formative processes of the language. tdtrd. praWt. sG. Abh. Particles: namely. Words of which the finals are thus treated are: a. pi. 16 note. virudh. and before vowel-endings dropped altogether. as $rudhi. anydtrd. as end. utd. u. as pibd. and tlie various Prati^akhyas). jahi. vanuydmd. impv. a and I or i-forms so interchange that it is difficult them or to determine the true character of the root. ihd. in sua.. b. as asya. perf. attd. 2d and 3d sing. cakrmd. tend. act. aud rarely gen. nayathd. angd. the d is in "weak" forms changed to i. 249. evd~. but sometimes even where the metre opposes the change (for details. tuvlmaghd. tti. dthd. IX. pi. . often 248. xxi. dldihi. : And from some to classify roots. vasuju.). dcyd. thus act. svend. i in certain verbal forms dadima from ydd j/fta aorist adhithds from ydhd etc. act. (not rarely) puru. ydtrd. sumdya. ekdda$a. frn'ufa. gamayd. Cases besides these are few: stmd c. anurudh. prd . Case-forms others. except in r or ar roots (as explained above). C. ancya. Ges. see APr. ma. in ta and tha. To these may be added the gerund in ya. only the 2d sing. fca. perf. vifvanara. (nearly in the order 57/a. dpd. But the lightening of a long a especially to an /-vowel no other vowel is so is a frequent process : unstable. is : b. (voc. vedd. 2d perf. aplju. smd. dadhisvd. sing. ktitrd. Vowel-lightening. devavi. In the Veda. so especially sing. present jahimas from is etc. ubhaydtrd. hd. anadatd. puruvdsu. (as also its loss). 1st pi. dtrd. yddi.. vive^d. as abhigUryd. idisvd. 6].). iii.. 250. ktld.. and uru and a. harindsyd. act. sadandsdd. abhi : . fdktlvant. Radical a shortened to the semblance of stem-a in a number of . as yuksvd. cwfera. 2d sing.

a distinction of strongand \yeaker forms is very often made by the presence or er absence of a nasal element. of roots Thus. istd. IX. See below. dpaptam. are given by the Hindu i-forms. agrahlsam. syllable thus. before of aorist and future and desiderative stems. etc. etc. yaj come iydja. Thus. . as tistha. as dadhus. tain All the simple vowels come to assume in ceror cases the aspect of union-vowels. istvd. the participle and gerund gltd and passive glyate. janitf. stheyasam. : few d. formations. vavadlti. b. a of root or ending. ukta. Certain a-roots. From 3 da come the present dydti and participle ditd or dma. because of their peculiar exchanges with * and the present stem. ghndnti. see chap. ucydsam. EUPHONIC COMBINATION. by adaptation of a term used in the native grammar. from tsti. That character belongs oi'tenest to i. dada. dhdtave. dhdpayati. Both in roots and in endings. khdnitum. Union-vowels. the stronger form is doubtless the ing consonant. I . as jivitd. jajnus. under the various the To this change is generally given by European grammarians name of samprasarana. etc. adhat. . dey<i. dhasyati. dslt. rocisnu. 252. jagmus. before a followIn general. see chap. uktva. come the present dhdyati and participle and gerund dhltd. dhitva . etc. By ra to r. etc. as jijivima. especially before y : as. Radical a sometimes becomes e. ijydsam. is Long bravlti. A short a. : . as dhvam. uktf. [250 also in a aorists. .7$ III. under and gltvti. : is not infrequently lost between consonants in weakened . The iiregularities of these roots will be treated below. in tense-inflection. of verbs: thus. occasionally also present. ukthd. and the other forms from da. which the s is very widely used : a. but in the present condition of the language. cms. in verb-forms. from Qdha 'suck' (dhe) grammarians 251. savitr it is also often introduced before s and t of the 2d and 3d sing. For details respecting these. a process of abbreviation of a i. essentially akin with that of ar or the va (usually smaller initial) number of a much number becomes becomes w. rajni. c. the other forms are made from dha. dkhyam. especially in forming as roots ending in e or ai or o. djnata in noun-forms. rajne. From 2$ra 'sing' (gai) come the present g&yati. and the ya in certain verbal forms and derivatives. more original. 253. 254. piba. insertions between root or stem and ending of inflection or of derivation. used sometimes instead of short: thus. and the more irregular and sporadic occurrences of u and a-vowels in the same character. reduplicated forms. Nasal Increment. from vac come uvdca. etc. tarltr. grahlsydmi. 'cut' (do) the various formations. see below. in derivation. as dniti. especially perfect. XI. mute or anusvara. jlvisydmi. roditi as in djlvisam. jijlvisami. 255. and the other forms from ga.

sasa/ii. from mddhu. dharii and dhanibhis and dhani . almost universally dadhau. jighahsati . a. are. dhayas. bhdrantam and than any from rajan we have raja and rajabhis. Reduplication. in the formation of derivative noun-stems cdrcara. and anc. mddhunas. johaviti. svadhayin. sthayuka. pipasati. as papri. Reduplication of a root (originating doubtless in its complete repetition) has come to be a method of radical increment or strengthening in various formative processes namely. whether of stem or of root. mdnasi and mdnahsi. grath and yranth. of roots: ac and dan? sras and mms. fivena. faydyati. 260. in deri- vation. in great measure to seem. the nasal n has come vowels to be used with great and. from yhan we have hathd and hatd etc. md- 258. has 79 extent also to be introduced processes. : : : : : Rules for the treatment of the reduplication in these several cases will be given in the proper connection below. as dddamt. inserted between from ayni. from fivd. from dhanin. After long . in present-stem formation b. e. and in composition raja. thus. $ivani. bhdrata. marmrjyate. in and perhaps vivtiyas and gayati. dhuni. fivanam. in the later history of the language. with increas: ing frequency as a union-consonant. in aorist-stem formation: as adidharam. Inserted y. yaym. in the processes of inflection and derivation. yaht. aynina and ayninam . c. cikitu. 259. the distinction and description of these varieties forms an important part of the subjects hereafter to be treated. yatdm. as tathna. of the the strengthening and weakening same root or stem not seldom exhibits. is : less stable other consonant. On the other hand. A final radflrial 256. varieties of stronger and weaker form.260] the nasal NASAL INCREMENT. from ygam. Inserted n. bibhdrmi . throughout as janghanti. a y is not very infrequently found as apparently a mere union-consonant before another vowel: inflection. As. ydti. d. by reason changes indicated above. thus. vid and vind. in perfect-stem formation. and to some used. drh and drhh : of endings. . ddhayi. m 257. malimlucd. dcucyavam . as an actually strengthening element. . where a weaker form is called for thus. cakara . yata. in intensive and desiderative-stem formation. under certain conditions in formative and inflective come Examples dac. mddhurii. t ical (m does not occur as final of a stem) is sometimes treated in the same way: thus. A n.

it needs only to be remarked that the dual is found without the addition of the numeral dva. also form a class peculiar enough to require to be presented by themselves. will be and the words designatbest dealt with in a separate chapter . devadattasya fastau. Spas. adand pronouns. and. Number. namely mascu- feminine.80 [261 CHAPTER IV. in Greek and Latin. The genders are three. VI.). agvinau. : . words are are three singular. which exhibit many peculiarities. 'two'. 264. 'Devadatta's two hands'. indrasya hdri. in the changes of inflection. adjectives is so close that they cannot well be separated in treatment. Gender. THE general subject of declension includes nouns. ing number. but devadattasya dvav acvau stah. num- ber. 263. wherever the duality of the objects spoken of is a thing well understood thus. Declensional forms show primarily case and since. as in other languages. of their many words singular. the numeral dva. and they follow in general the same laws of distribution as. but they also indicate gender though the distinctions of gender are made partly in the stem itself. as in the other older Indo-Euro- pean languages. is dual only. The only words which show no sign 'four': of gender-distinction are the per- sonal pronouns of the first and second person (along with the numerals above chap. all of which are inflected in essentially But while the correspondence of nouns and the same manner. 261. jectives. The numbers plural. used only in the plural: as daras. for example. the pronouns. line. found to occur only in the 265. 'Devadatta has two horses'. DECLENSION. or numerals. dual. and neuter. 'wife'. 'the two (horsemen) Acvins'. 'two'. to no inconsiderable extent. hy the nature use. they also appear. 262. 'Indra's (two) bays'. As to the uses of the numbers. are. and few A 'water'.

'second'. The nominative is the case of the subject of the sentence. 'Indra calling himself (pre- tending (TS. by its participles and infinitives 269. i. the accusative is construed especially with verbs of approach and address. sd manyeta puranavit (AV. there which that object could be attained. The order in which they are here mentioned is that established for them by the Hindu grammarians.). 'sixth' (sc. The vocative no other order by not considered and in this work. and accepted from these by Western scholThe Hindu names of the cases are founded on this order the nomiars. having a more or less participial or infinitival character. and with rupdrh (making shape kr: thus. 81 Case. and with bruve etc. accusative. in Sanskrit. instrumental. Uses of the Nominative. 'first'. itive. krsno rupdrh krtvd for 'taking on a black form' himself as one that is black). course. and vocative. putting the nominative first. adjectives. 'he may regard himself as wise in ancient things'. gen- locative. The use of the accusative Whitney. identical in form is is . of objective predicate. cially . It is found used yet more and a host adverbially as adjunct of place or time or manner of adverbs are accusative cases in form. Grammar. to be) a Brahman'. dative. and even sometimes by nouns and A few prepositions are accompanied by the accusative. a predicate 'think one's self to be'. Two accusatives are . or as predicate. 268. The cases are (including the vocative) eight : nominative. often found as objects of the same verb.). but also.).. and. the gen- itive sasthi. in one or another number. 'call somam manyate papivdn (RV. vibhakti. by a number of other derivatives. 'division'. will be given in the singular (where alone it is ever distinguished from the nominative otherwise than by accent) at the end of the series of cases. Uses of the Accusative. whether attributively. as direct object of a transitive verb 270. the accusative dvitlya. and of any word qualifying that object. and of any word qualifying the subject.270] U SES 266. etc. The accusative is espethe case of the direct object of a transitive verb.. 6 . As more indirect object. fndro brahmano bruvdnah (TS. e.). it named by the native grammarians as a case like the rest. in apposition. ablative. 'he thinks he has been drink- ing sorna'. as attribute or appositive or The construction of the verb is shared. is brief compendious statement given in the following paragraphs A of : the uses of the cases 267. 'case'). As somewhat peculiar constructions may be mentioned nominative with manye one's self: thus. etc. OF THE NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE. as leading case. The object sought in the arrangement is simply to set next to one another those cases which are to a greater or less extent. : native is called prathama.

rarely ati. So-called primary derivatives in in have the same character : thus. the variety a. in the course of.). Derivatives in oka. 'Indra breaks up even what is fast'. 274. 'he wins a garment'. restricted in Sanskrit chap. in ana.). rte. with verbs of going. Derivatives in u from desiderative stems have wholly the character of present participles : thus. uttarena. to'. C. is strong'. very frequently future forms (chap. and as peritar. bhavantam abhivddakah (MBh. yam yajndm paribhur vdjram papih somam dadir gdh (RV. 'in restraining him'. antar or antara. derivatives in a. e. fying 'him I make formidable. The root itself. to'. Of verbal derivatives having a participial character that is considerable: thus. Of predicate words qualimore'. 'across'. Damayanti': rajdnam didrksuh (MBh. as mdm kdmena (AV. avarena. him a priest'.j. Examples only occasional: of an accu ative with an ordinary is noun or adjective are anuvrata so used: 'devoted to Damayanti': and kama.). in the later language 'intending to salute you'. as.). as 272. The accusative 'after. : 'addressing him'. accusative is very often found also as object of verbs which the goal of motion. bestow- d. mam kaminl (AV. Nouns in eth largesses'. praise Agni'. in the older language. XVI. g.).). bestowing kine'. 'loving me'. is direct construction of cases with prepositions is comparatively (see the subject of Prepositions.) in the later: thus. hdntd y6 vrtrdm sdnito phrastic *ta vajam data maghdni (RV. damayantim abhipsavah (MBh. 'opposite to.g2 and of or its infinitives IV. h. to see the 'desiring to win king. so far 271. 'what offering thou surroundest (protectest)'.). Case-forms which : have assumed a prepositional daksin- value are also often used with the accusative ena. an example is tdm ugrdrh krnomi tarn brdhmdnam (RV. in the f. as fndro drdhd cid drujdh (RV.). 'bearing the thunderbolt. 'with the breakers of whatever tarn nivarane (MBh.).). 'thou shouldst give the object. XII. oftenest found prati. older language: thus.). abhi. used with the value of a present participle dsi (RV. very frequently in the Brahmana language : thus. winneth booty. thus. 273. [270 : and participles hardly needs illustration 'I an example two are: agnim Ide. 'and the wolf destroys his calves'. ndmo bhdrantah.). veduko vdso bhavati (TS. drinking the soma. 'through lov- ing me'. DECLENSION. 'against.). damayantim anuvratah (MBh. 'between'. Derivatives in uka. 'bringing homage'. The a. bring- in the related languages are not transitive.).). bh&yo d&tum arhasi. enam abhibhdsinl (MBh. in atnu. 'desiring b. as antarena. With the also anu. Other cases are more sporadic thus.. they share the construction of the verb. urdhvam. in the older language. 'who slayeth the dragon. in reference etc. as vldu cid : drujatnubhih (RV. babhrir at the end of a compound: thus. It stands especially as . vatsahc ca ghdtuko wrkah (AV. The derivative in i from the (especially the reduplicated) root. and others.).

'he milked from her poison'. chap. saying : man to respectability'. much more stood often. 'he said prdkrocad uccdir ndisadham (MBh.).). to the Nisha- 275. 'he 'he shall become liable to five be slain by pancatvam dgatah (H. of such a verb with an abstract noun makes peculiar phrases e.). tarn abravit. vidarbhdn 'they agaman to Vidarbha'. ?apatham ?epe. gurutvarh nararh imparting. The same case is used adverbially to express manner or accompanying circumstance.).). J A causative verb. sa of 'becoming': thus. construction. as.). : : thus. apo dwam lid vahanti (AV. : thus. of found also in Sanskrit as. gatvd (MBh. this is an extremely common (i. The Svith'-case : originally the association instrument our prepositions with and instrumental is denotes adjacency. 'he swore an oath'. bringing. tdm grham prave?ayati. 'he naturally. duration of time: as tisro go a hundred l leagues'. the verb may take two accusatives. died). Verbs of speaking follow the same rule to him'. ratrir dlksitdh sydt tisthat 'let him be consecrated upright three nights'. 'go'.).278] ing. USES OF THE ACCUSATIVE. The accusative is freely used along with other same verb. samatdm eti. b. verbs of having recourse. 'who spoke to thee . 'they carry up waters to the sky'. Uses of the Instrumental. especially. one in each construction. even to such an adverbial compounds (below: chap. devd~n yaje (AV.).). (TS. 'having travelled three complete days'. 'he goes to equality' 'becomes equal'). nayanti (H.).). 'they went to vanagulmdn dhd- and the like : thus. accusative. or accusative of the implied object. true of the 277.). for example. sending. 'running to woods and bushes'. XVI. 6* . other less usual cases are.). a 'I 'we have resorted to tbee for succor'. 'conduct . tarn idam abravit (MBh. wherever the sense admits. ask the waters for medicine'.): and many adverbs have this is the accusative form (see Adverbs. ap6 ydcdmi bhesajdm (RV. makes her enter the 278. tvdm vayarh $aranam gatdh (MBh. With verbs meaning and the use sa gached me'. by beating) Nala'. she said this to her'. As to a yet more adverbial adjunct : to a verb. especially extent as to forma class of compound words. e. 'she cried out loudly J dhan'. : is. And when cases as objects of it is usable with a verb in two different constructions. was resolved into the elements' (un- derwent dissolution. takes a double accusative house'. appealing.). nally But the point of place or time also is occasio- found represented by the accusative (instead of the locative). the accusative 'to is used denote space traversed as yojana$atam gantum (MBh. tdm visdm (MBh. The cognate course. vantah (MBh. went heaven'. XVIII. Thus.). yds tvo vd~ca (AV. accompaniment.). and verbs of sending.). 83 (MBh. evd dhok (AV. passing over into the expression of means and (by the same transfer of meaning which appears in it by}. sd samvatsardm urdhvb trin ahordtrdn (AV. 276. badhyatdm mama (MBh. jitvd rdjyarh nalam 'having won the kingdom from (i.). divam yayuh (MBh. 'he for a year'. asking : as.).). 'I make offering to the gods'.

'through pity'. padbhydrh hatd gajdih (MBh. krpayd. instrumental The construction of a of the agent is common from decidedly more so later. and show nothing anomalous or difficult. for time. so as to 282. 'they led [him] as it were a ship through the water'. no small extent the place of an active verb with (RV. 'may Agni come hither along with the gods'. 'I shall go'. But the relation of simple accompaniment is more often helped to plainer expression by prepositions. : also space or distance or road. 'he causes ktam. Of a. gavdm sahasrena vikrinite. 'talking with the Nishadhan'. 'whither wilt thou go. (MBh.). paksibhih pinddn khddayati. expressed by the instrumental carried on the shoulder'. jagmur vihdyasd (MBh. 'come hither by god-travelled paths'.). The part of the body on (or by) which anything is borne is usually passed through thus.).). 'by the hunter a net [was] spread'. e 'hd ydtam pathfbhir devaydnaih (RV. The instrumental frequent ears kecit : of means or instrument or agent is yet more bhadrdm kdrnebhih prnuyama (RV.). and this construction (i.).). d. 'by reason of that truth'. Thus. b. kukkurah skandheno 'hyate (H. 'he sells for a thousand c. kiyatd kdlena pradhdnatdm labhante (H.). cattle'. 280. yamena vyddhena J 'given by Tama'. And this passes easily over into the expression is of occasion or reason (for which the ablative more frequent) : thus.).). [218 Nearly all the uses of the case are readily deducible from this fundamental meaning. mayd gantavyam (H. 283.). jdlarh vistlrnam (H. 'death by the sword'. 'they went off through the air': vidarbhdn ydtum ichdmy ekdhnd (MBh. : (MBh.). dattdh the passive passive verb (or participle) with an the earliest period. 279.4 IV. tena satyena.). dvdparena sahdyena kva ydsyasi (MBh. The second object of a causative verb is sometimes put in the instrumental instead of the accusative as. The instrumental agnir devebhir is often used to signify accompaniment : thus. tulyah brightness the following may be noticed: and the like thus. equality. dafdbhir krindti dhentibhih 'he buys with ten kine'. DECLENSION. fastrena nidhanam (MBh. 'in how But the expression of 'within the long time do they obtain chief rank?' space of. 'I wish to go to Vidarbha in the course of one day'. samdrn jyotih equal with the sun'. ffibhir idyah (RV. and hence also time udnd na ndvam anayanta (RV. Price (by which obtained): thus. 'put on e. teno 'by him [it was] said'.). is also sometimes made by the accusative or locative.). = : the cakes to be eaten by the birds'. their feet'. 'some were slain by the elephants with thus. : as. Accordance. with Dvapara for companion?' kathayan ndisadhena. yeshdrh na pddarajasd likeness. tulayd krtam (H. and becomes participle with instrumental taking to its subject. d gamat (RV. 'a dog is is extended to such cases as be carried by) a balance'. the dust of whose feet I am not equal'. Medium.).). Many instrumental constructions are such as call in translation for .). special applications. (RV. 'to be praised by sages'. traversed. 281. 'a 'to suryena (AV.).). 'may we hear with our what is propitious'.

assign. 'why art thou angry at us?' d. 'let the four quarters bow themselves to me'. like. In more physical connections. 'he was parted from (compare English parted with}. saha takes an instrumental as its regular and natural com- plement. and the like : thus. the instrumental with the ablative with words signifying separation (RV. and the the dative is used freely. share out.). Words signifying show. putrebhyo mrda (AV. mate *va sons'. yet the true instrumental relation is to be traced. devebhyo namaskrtya (MBh. 287. memo dadhuh (MBh.).). a word compounded element. yo nd 'who gives not to a friend'. 284. 85 usually other prepositions than 'with' or 'by'. him protection'. takes sometimes the instrumental. 'with which thou hurlest at the impious'. especially if the etymological sense of the words be carefully considered.287] USES OF THE INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE. : In some of these constructions the genitive and locative are also used see below. The dative is the case of of that toward or in the direction of or the indirect object in order to or for which anything is or is done (either intransitively or to a direct object). 285. for the benefit of.). obeisance.). sa taya vyayujyata (MBh. Thus. everywhere distinctly to be traced. 286. c.). : thus.). and in a great variety of constructions. as sakam. is : used interchangeably thus. avtr ebhyo abhavat suryah (RV. sam. mdhyam : namantam e. dddati sdkhye (RV. their minds upon enmother to gracious as a kim asmdbhyam hrnlse (RV. and the like thus. pradfyac cdtasrah (RV. thus. 'having paid homage to the gods'.). 'they 'be set and the her like.). Bhima'. Words signifying inclination. and the two are sometimes interbut the general value of the dative as the 'for'-case is almost changeable . md~ 'ham atmdna vi radhisi (AV. 'with' The prepositions taking the instrumental like : and the are those signifying thus. saratham. ydcha 'smai fdrma (RV. the dative is used with Words signifying give. a. in general. with the adverbial words containing sa as an and. sardham. with sa. have a regard or feeling. tebhyah 'having promised to them'. nive$aya camping'. vatsafr vfyutah 'let 'separated from their calves'. 'without' (along with the compounds of spoken of in the preceding paragraph). or Words signifying hurling casting: as ycna dudSfe dsyasi (AV.).). Uses of the Dative.j. to rtuparnam bhlmaya pratyavedayan (MBh. In with reference its to. more distinctive sense. the uses of the dative approach those of the accusative (the more proper 'to'-case). 'they announced Rituparna pratijnaya (MBh.). however. Words signifying give attention.). More anomalously. announce. sun was manifested them'. me not be severed from the breath of her' life'. saha. as signifying for. And this use passes over into that of the dative of . But vi also the preposition uma. arid the like to 'bestow upon b. 'the declare.

XIII. pdtdm no vfkdt (RV. sa ca tasydh sarh- tosdya na 'bhavat (H. One to or two special applications of the ablative construction are words implying fear be noticed: a. yasya dandabhaydt sarve dharmam anurudhyanti (MBh. vrkam (AV. The protection. which is extremely common. the ablative also in technical language signifies 'after': thus. separation. and other kindred relations are expressed thus. for which see chap. in the sense of 'makes for'. 'having heard Hence ablative : also. and so 'is intended for. tac chrutvd sakhlganthat from the troop of friends'. 'the bright one has been used where procedure or issue from something as is signified thus. 290. Uses of the Ablative. (AV. 'because e contains an element of a'. [287 Thus. 'making an arrow for hurling'. afcaramicritatvdd ekarasya (Tribh. distinction. 'and he was not to her satisfaction'. take thy hand in order to happiness'.).). 'the wind spoke from the sky'. of fools'. procedure as from a cause or occasion is this is is especially frequent in the later language. from the wind'. vatdt te prdndm avidam (AV.). 291. removal. 'be it ively l (and oftenest tends toward'. express removal. upadeco murkhdndm prakopdya na cdntaye to the exasperation. sugopd (i. thou art a good herdsman.).). (H. isurh krnvana dsanaya saubhagatvdya hdstam (RV. grhndmi (AV. not to by be cheated).). 'far (RV. The ablative with (terrified recoil from): thus. 'passion arises from greed'.). release. of the thunderbolt Perhaps by a further modification of this construction (the effect following the cause).).gg IV.). The ablative is from a source or starting-point (RV. asi na ddbhdya (RV.).). DECLENSION. senses The ablative is the : 'from'- in the various of that preposition it is used to and the like. ablative is used where expulsion. 'from fear of whose rod all are constant to duty'. 'good counsel [tends] not the conciliation.). md prd gdma pathdh : from the path': are asmdd astu hetih (AV. 'after s\ 292.). distinction.). borders on instrumental construcof) Thus.). also with the copula omitted).). issue. 'I te rdstrdya mdhyam badhyatdm sabound on in order to royalty for me. a standing construction. sakarat.). and so 'must'. . cukrd krsndd ajanista : born from the black one'. case. or 'is liable to'. te sedhanti pathd 'they drive away the wolf from the path'. These uses of the dative are in the older language especially illustrated the dative infinitives. vdjrasya ciisndd daddra (RV. it signified by the and in technical phraseology tions. 'from (by reason the fury he burst asunder. Thus. lobhdt krodhah prabhavati (MBh. Such a dative is much used predicatorder to destruction for my enemies'.). (MBh. 'save us from the wolf. ye prdcyd died abhiddsanty 'I have won thy life-breath asmdn dt 'who attack us from the eastern quarter'.). not one for cheating' e. 'can'. 288. in pdtnebhyah pardbhuve (AV. vdyur antariksdd abhdsata (MBh. 289. The dative is not used with prepositions. 'may we not go away from us be your missile'. end or purpose.

.). ablative of b. 'everything was 'at 87 afraid of her 1 at her ydsmdd rejanta krstdyah (RV. the measurement of interval implied in d. as strengthening or denning the 'from'-relation.). Other prepositional constructions offer little subject for remark: vina takes the ablative as well as instrumental (284). fast'.). a partitive genitive is used with the comparative (as with the superlative). 'until the end of this sacrifice'.). with adjective or verb or prepoappear to arise out of this by a more or less distinctly traceable connection The use of the genitive has become much extended. and the construction means 'all the way to. 'we set this down elsewhere (away) from thee'. the ablative is the regular and almost constant construction thus. in security from ill-will'.). 'before': Also purd (and purds]. Thus : In the Veda. Other genitive constructions.294=] tdsyd jdtdyah birth'. as. (RV. Also d. than any proper governing force. 294. tdsmdd d nadyb dry completely up from the root' 'since that time ye are called rivers'. prd ririce mdrah prthivydh (RV.).). usually has the ablative. c. a defines manner which more nearly. samudrdd ddhi jajnise (AV.). a 'syd yajndsyo 'till 'drca/i (VS. 'let it the way from': as. ddhi and pdri are much used as directing and strengthening adjuncts with the ablative as. 'until her marriage'. d.). : the ocean'. 'through fear of you'. and especially in the later language. 'thou art bom from a.. sdrvam abibhet (AV. . in the later the accusative.).). 'Indra is greater than the heaven and the earth'. espe. but all these have rather an adverbial value. 'what is more painful : than that?" (MBh. dein signating something relating to the latter the nature of the case. ndma is siha (AV. 'sweeter than the sweet'. ndisadhad any am 1' .). The comparison (distinction from): thus. With a comparative (or other word used in a kindred way). 'another than the Nishadhan' sa matto ma/tan.). 'from': fafamdndh purd niddh all (RV. The adjectival . until' : as. and hence with words 'setting purd jdrasah of protection and the like. d sodayat the sixteenth year'. . cdrantam pdri tastMsah in (RV. or the connection. 'earlier than all beings'. The ablative is used with a variety of prepositions and words sharing a prepositional character. svaddh svddiyah (RV. 'born from the Himalaya (forth)'. 'before old age' as and hence also. a pradandt ((. Occasionally. 'moving forth from that which of : stands b.). kirh tasmdd duhkhataram (MBh. in the sense of 'hither from.). it proper value of the belongs to and qualifies a noun. yusmdd divd bhiyd (RV. 293. 'any other . mitrdd anyah (H.). rte in the older language (M. the sense 'forward from 1 . purva vfyvasmad bhtivanat (RV. whom mortals tremble . jato himdvatas pdri (AV. sition. than a friend'. d m&lad dnu fusyatu (AV.).. or an instrumental (of holding together the things compared).).). USES OF THE ABLATIVE. 'he is greater than tad anydtra tvdn nf dadhmasi (AV. But usually. reversed in direction. genitive is Uses of the Genitive.

[294 attribution of a noun-character cially in the later language. by to the adjective. The a. with verbs meaning partake : drink. and a few others. varan pra- daya 'sya (MBh. by a transfer of the possessive genitive from noun to the adjective being treated as if it had noun-value: thus. and characof honor').). or locative. take vlriidhaih vlryavatl (AV. material. dear one). genitive In part. in as : 295. 'father of sons'. fatarh kamah putrasya. tasya adjective. 'understanding the duties of a king'. piba sutdsya (AV. by pregnant construction. is or another word of of similar value. 'a hundred female love of the son' . the the complement of implied relation commonest of all. The so-called partitive genitive with a superlative. e. samah or anurupah or sadrfah. 'son of ('man the father' .). is classifiable genitive of possession or appurtenance. to him' (his 'dear to him' thing). yasya kasya prasutah c. putrdh pituh. by which the genitive becomes substitute for a dative abounds in the later language. as a less complete or than an accusative thus. 'full'. abhijna rajadharmanam. (H. 'resembling him' (his (i. so that it often bears the aspect of being a substitute for other cases dative. its normal adjective construction this is. the subjective and objective genitives. mddhvah 'cause to drink the sweet draught'. rajfto niveditam (H.). 'the father's dasmam. pituh 'which of us'. the so-called partitive genitive. with : verbs signifying give. (his son). and so on. 297. b. communicate. 296. 'drink (of) the Soma'. genitive as object of a verb is: A possessive genitive of the recipient. on the part of pronouns is made almost entirely by the genitive case. ke nah. slaves'. This construction. the mighty (mightiest) one'. etc. 'worthy'. DECLENSION. Adjectives meaning 'capable'. whomsoever born' frestham viranam. and the like thus. 'having bestowed 'it bestowal). pita putranam. The expression of possession etc. impart.88 IV. b. with verbs meaning as . as instrumental. Ipsito be sacrificed to of sacrifice). and not by a derived possessive adjective (516). tasya 'viditam.).). In great part. payaya (RV. is dependent on an adjective: by a construction similar to that of verbs which take a genitive object: thus. tasya priya. upon him' (made them his by was made known to the king' (made his gifts by knowledge). do not occur. most cases. Examples are: indrasya vajrah. teristic Genitives of appellation ('city of Rome'). probably) partitive genitive. heroes'. 'of plants the genitive by a more original and proper right. The genitive into the usual varieties. naranarinam (MBh.).). The a. including as elsewhere. locative. by mortals' (their object 'desired of men and women' (their 'of object of desire). a matter of course : thus. and by pregnant verbal construction.). his like). A (in less absolute object (eat.). "best d. and is extended sometimes to problematic and difficult cases. 'India's thunderbolt'. 'to 'unknown unknown havya? carsariindm (RV.

things'. like updri. A genitive in its usual possessive sense is often found as predinot seldom with the copula omitted thus. 'that he may think of me'. with (RV.. 298. be mdtsy dndhasah to perceive.). 301.with verbs regard with feelings of various kinds : vdsisthasya stuvatd indro a$rot (RV. The prepositional constructions of the genitive are for the most part with such prepositions as are really noun-cases. dtL : A thus. cukopa (MBh. ydthd 'so mama keva: lah 'that thou mayest be (H. 'that I may rule good over them'. in the general looseness of use of the genitive. or occasionally.). as tvdm i$ise vdsunam (RV. ydtha 'ham esam virdjani (AV. 'at this is time of the day'. pavyatas (MBh.). 300. 'whoever hurled at thee'. 'thrice a year'. genitive is used in the older language with certain adverbs of time 'once a 1 sakfd dhnah (RV. like adhds. 'among'. wholly 'all mine'. good fortunes are his sampattayas tasya who has a con- 299. but this construction is unknown in the earlier language.). It is said by the grammarians to convey an implication of contempt: thus. with verbs meaning 'thou art lord to rule have authority. at him'.).). situation in it time as well as place is indicated by the case . tote. have become assimilated to these. 'amid' or Unimportant variations of the sense of and 'at\ Of course. 'by day'. sometimes used absolutely. and (AV. of thee'. it a vaidarbhyaJi preksamanayah panakalam amanyata (MBh. 'above'. care for. instead of a locative (303 b). note. as yds ta dsyat (AV. while the Vidarbhan was looking on' (or. 89 'bestow or filled as d'idata no amftasya (RV. and the like also with other prepo: . The genitive used adverbially hardly a few genitives of is time occur in the older language: as aktos.). injure. and have the government of such thus. meaning as. A few more real prepositions take the gensitional itive : either usually. and rare in the later. spite of 1 but it found without te any such 'I implication: thus. for which it seems to be a substitute. of with verbs meaning throw at. 'he thought ing at play. c. in is time for stakit) . thou enjoy the juice'.). satisfied upon us as immortality'. or 'he was angry of bibhlmas tava (MBh. trih samvatsarasya. and with some others. so as to touch and overlap the boundaries of other cases. A genitive of accompanying circumstance. with a qualifying word. 'by night'. Indra listened to Vasishtha who was tasya praising him'. the thing imparted) etc.). words which. ydtha mama smdrat (AV. vastos. Uses of the Locative.).301] impart with: (of USES OF THE GENITIVE. 'on .).).). antdr. idanim dhnah (RV. agre.). arthe. asya properly but its sphere of use has been somewhat extended. day . The locative is the case expressing situation or location . cate. the ''irT-case. verbs 'do meaning enjoy. 'we are afraid A genitive more doubtful character. 'in' are those of is also. will count its fruits samkhyasyami phalany while you look on . -. sarvah samtustam yasya manasam tented mind'. and applied .). at all.

'in fury Indra slew the dragon'. devd divt sthd (AV. 'with reference to. on the one hand. : 'when 'a pro- pitious time having arrived'. a. vyitstdu 'at (RV. aparddhe krte offense committed.90 to IV.). I call at ca there midtime in case of an na me kopah (MBh.). na devesu na yaksesu a one'. The normal condition of the absolute construction is with a participle of the day'.). viddthe santu devdh (RV. [301 yet less and knowledge. the : 302. tdm it sakhitvd Imahe (RV. 'I call to thee at the arisen sun 'pi have tvd sura udite have madhydndine divdh (when the sun has risen). avasanndydrh rdtrdv astdcalacuddvalambini can- .). 'and even no anger on my part'. to sphere to state of things. But the accusative occasionally used in this sense. nydyo yam mayd drsta dnayane tava (MBh. is accompanying the noun thus. This construction is. 'which of you gods are in heavtddrk (MBh.). te vacane ratam (MBh. which is known even in the earliest stage of the language. is 'in the tenth year'.). pdrvatasya pfsthe (RV. stlrne barhisi samidhdne agndu (RV. 'on the ridge of the mountain'. 'the cause of (in the case of) a woman's chastity'. The takes locative : of time indicates asyd usdso the place thus.). kale fubhe prdpte (MBh. in horses. mitrdsya sumatdu sydma (RV. point of time at which anything 'at the shining forth of this dawn'.). : Transitional examples are (RV. The locative of situation in space hardly : needs illustration. satltve kdranam striydh (H. in cattle'.ro jaghdna (RV. The locative of sphere or condition or circumstance is of very frequent use: thus. passes over into a well-marked absolute construction.). just that time'. in the later language a very : for friendship'. 303.). or generalized into an expresrespecting'.). 'at the tenth step'. and takes wide range. and out of this of action and feeling physical relations. dacame pade (MBh. 'this 'him we beg l the expression by the locative of a condition of or of a conditioning or accompanying circumstance. Moreover. e mdm bhaja grame devesu gosu (AV. instead of the locative. sion for 'in the matter or case of. An example or two are ye. On the other hand. by a pregnant construction. means was devised by me for (with reference to) bringing thee hither'. but becomes more frethings in which anything takes place. 'may we be in the favor of Mitra'. 'delighted in thy words'. to accompanying circumstance last grows the frequent use of the locative as . German in with accu('into' sative instead of dative compare English there for thither].).). the barhis is strewn and the fire kindled'. DECLENSION.). b. 'be generous to him in retainers. to denote the locative is used place of rest or cessation of action or motion or 'on to' instead of 'in' or 'on'.).). 'may the gods be at the assembly'. touching upon genitive and J dative constructions thus.). etasminn eva kale (MBh. dvddace varshe (MBh.). made dhim ind. 'he was not capable of preventing'. quent later. 'not among gods or Yakshas is such en'.). na cakto 'bhavan nivdrane (MBh. the case absolute.).

in many words and classes .). among'. 'it tatha 'nusthite (H. gods' . summit of the western mountain'. sending. into the plants' (H. upa and dpi 'within. the matter for the sake of. and exchangeable with them: goes to (to thus. dhehi (RV. stitute But the noun may be wanting. C. The stem however. in situations where an accusative or a dative a. as to be upon) the earth'. bestowing. 297a) might be looked gachati (RV. The pregnant construction by which the from the the earliest time. is : sometimes redundantly added 'it the other parti- thus. creatures' anurdgam ndisadhe 'affection for the Nishadh- rdjd samyagvrttah sadd tvayi (MBh. In the Veda.). participle may be wanting (a copula sati or the like being to be supplied): to thus.306] dramasi the (H. In all ages of the language. construed with the locative. and many others.). or may be replaced by an adverbial sub(as euam. as of arriving. above. the ciple participle sati etc. 304. Declensional forms are to the stem. 'having before promised us prayache "$vare dhanam papdta medinydm (MBh. sd id devesu truly. toward 305. tathd. 306.). mdrtyesv d. itself.). tatha krte sati. 'among mortals'. The prepositions construed with the locative stand to it only in its the relation of adverbial elements strengthening and directing meaning. 303 a): thus. 'compassion toward an' .). communicating. 'the night 91 and the moon resting on having drawn to a close. such locative constructions are most frequent with d and ddhi: thus. 'the cause of fear being remote'. The locative 'in is frequently of. asmdbhih samanujndte (MBh. It is .). 'the 'establish glory in tejo mdyi dhdrayd 'dhi (AV. locative comes to express the goal or object of motion or action or feeling exercised is not uncommon by no means to ordinary construction the two : pass into be sharply distinguished from one another. evam ukte kalind (MBh. with a doubtful territory between. antdr. USES OF THE LOCATIVE. arthe or krte. being thus done'. 'he fell to (so skandhe krtva (H. ma instances not always 'with b. Often also with nouns and adjectives in similar constructions (the easy to separate from those of the locative meaning reference all to': . for. 'set this offering of among the immortals'. while. plants upon the earth' . 'putting on the shoulder'. It occurs Especially with verbs. 'it being thus spoken by So likewise the being thus accomplished'. dure bhaye.). the juice that is 'who pour in the juice 'do not offer wealth to a lord'. fully assented to Kali'. 1 . dayd (MBh. be among) ours the imam no yajndm amftesu (or.).). placing. samfrutya purvam asmdsu (MBh. made by the addition of endings or base of inflection. '[it] being by us'. me': less often. on the other hand.). sarvabhutesu.). are used in the is same way. prthivydm ddhy osadhih. used adverbially or prepositionally : thus. yd dsincdnti rdsam osadhisu (AV). iti): thus.). 'the king always behaved properly thee'. in the plants). 'that. (or a genitive.

In the nominative. especially as assuming a cases and a weaker in others. the which. Here. (150) by consonant-stems. I Among the pronouns. Respecting all these points. am: see below) belongs to feminine stems only. Neuters a-stems alone add m (as but show in this case the bare stem in the accus. . making excepted is the pronominal element snia. endi a consonant and r and after M in the radical division. is wantending is * it is also euphonically lost ing in derivative a and -stems in general have no ending. tional instances. and neuters show a form in d. [306 liable to variation. and 1'em. usual masc. but early language. is IV. it is desirable also to give a brief general view of them. am is a frequent masc. have the aspect of being such).). neuter accusative elsewhere after vowels. and the older language Stems in a make in sometimes lost by case end in ena and those in a make it end in aya. the (sometimes eria in V. and fern. stronger form in some And between stem and ending are sometimes inserted connecting elements (or what. Endings: Singular. ending (and is found even in du. It is taken (with interposed y] by the great class of those in derivative a: also by those in derivative i. in the a to both a and a. in the recorded condition of the language. In the ing accusative. . the details of treatment. only in . instances occur. And later it is allowed to be taken by feminine stems in radical i and M. of immediate addition of it is contraction with them. however. 307. the a is variously combined. and even by those in i and u : such have it in the earliest language in only rare and excep- A (or hyam}. and pi. The ablative has a special ending. and (as reckoned in the later language) in derivative u. will be given in the following chapters. m am being added after is or am is the masc. DECLENSION. d (or #). and fern. end in combines In the personal pronouns is found bhyam fuller ending ai (like gen. like the nominative. which with e to smai. as exhibited by each class of words or by single words. The instrumental ending for all genders alike is With final i and u. as and loc.92 of words. and m and The a.vowels. the The dative ending modes of combination is in general e. masc. i and with it likewise of and u final are various appearance by contraction not unknown (and disin the oldest language). it The a-stems ay a (apparently] are quite irregular in this case. however.). nom.-abl.

(or ur stems precisely as ai : and r and a-stems and w-stems (unless the final vowel is saved by an interposed make the case end in n] au. lengthen those vowels. the case ends respectively in e and : most consonant-stems but in neuters. With is : (or ar) it yields us taken by feminine taken in the dative see above. and fern. and fern. and neut. is i The locative ending e in consonant (fusing with a to in the latter). Elsewhere. and derivative i in tive is : : . one for instr. but its irregularities of treatment in combination "with a stemfinal are considerable. only three case-forms accus. The vocative neuters in an and in may drop the n. in the dual). Stems in i and u. ai and abl. the a being lengthened before it (except in the personal pronouns of 1st and 2d person. 308. and not quite always In a-stems. (occasional confusion of the uses of the second and third is seen earlier). or fused to es and js os respectively. Stems in a make the case end in e.. and even. In masc. Vedic locatives from /-stems end also in a and i. Everywhere else.voc. ending is as: amu] adds sya. . dat.. But the pronouns of 1st and 2d person in the older language distinguish five dual cases see 492. it is either directly added added with interposed n. i and w. is in the later language usually au.. and fern.308] a-stems. . Stems in an in the older language often lose the *. The masc. and these have the same ending in the pi. i and w-stems.. by a difference of accent: 314 one for nom. and voc.-gen. derivative 1 and u are shortened radical stems in long vowels use the nominative form. Stems in a change a to e. fuller The as 169. With r (only in the old language). and one for gen. and abl. CASE-ENDINGS. and accus. The pronominal element sma makes the locative smin. in the same or in i and u. but the Veda has some relics or traces of the older forms (ay-i [?] and av-i] out of which this appears to have sprung. and loc. and the oldest language has sometimes a vocative in s from stems in nt and ns. and is taken under the same circumstances see above.-gen.. Stems in r change this to ar. ending for nom.. The i : (unless by accent: 314) is distinguished from the nominative only in the singular. -accu s. 93 masc. it is the unaltered stem there. The dual has except so far as the vocasometimes distinguished from nom. Dual.. The ending am is the locative correspondent to dat. The genitive of -stems (and of one pronominal w-stem.. end'.. but instead of this the Veda has prevailingly a. as. o. and so also in . masc. the ablative is identical with the genitive. in the old language. the usual abl. and use the bare stem as locative.

-dat. bhiam. The neuter ending is only *. without any exceptions. mi. ending is as.-loc. which they extend also into the singular. 309. this case is like the nominative. and a alike become e (ai). and for the dative the peculiar bhyam (almost never in V. -abl. The locative ending is su. instrumental. after the universal I ending (except optionally radical and M. which is am. where in the later language the case always ends in ais. In the nominative. though later it adds au. . and in a few scattering Vedic instances) takes after final vowels an inserted consobefore ri. or by both. DECLENSION. and sometimes by further shortening of the preceding vowel. the general masc. n elsewhere short vowel is lengthened before s. uni are frequently abbreviated by loss of the m. the case in asas is The old language. of which abundant traces remain). in e. in the The accusative ending is also as in consonant-stems and radical division of i and w-stems (and in the old lan- Stems in short vowels lengthen those guage even elsewhere). the regular and usual Vedic form. often makes instead of as from a-stems. it is often to be read as two syllables. . nom. and the Of genitive. but in the earlier either in ais or the more regular ebhis (abhis in the two personal pronouns minal stem a [501] makes ebhis only). [308 Veda remains regularly unchanged. before which final a is made long. becoming e. is bhyam. with final a this combines to e. with the ending bhyas (in Veda often bhias]. The universal ending for the instr. In the Veda. it is very frequently to be pronounced in two syllables. bhiam). The neuter ending (which is accusative also) is in general i . In the Veda. In the neuter. a Plural. and also fern. and before this the final of a stem is apt to be strengthened. In the and the prono- The dative and ablative have in the plural the same form. having for the ablative the singular ending (as above pointed out). a nant. s in the pronominal declension. .94 the IV. and in a few examples From derivative ?-stems. and in the feminine s. as a-am. . vowels and add in the masculine n (for ns. But in the Veda the hence resulting forms in ani. distinguish the two cases. a becomes e. the only change before it is that of a to e. os : before this. before which But the two personal pronouns only a is altered. by prolongation of a vowel. however. is The universal ending of gen. Pronominal a-stems make the masc. is instead of yas from a-stems. the case-ending is everywhere bhis except in a-stems. or by insertion of a nasal.

as recognized by the native grammarians (and conveniently to be assumed as the basis of special descriptions). 95 The vocative. is this : . The normal scheme of endings. STRONG AND WEAK differs STEM.311] CASE-ENDINGS. from the nomina- by its accent. 310. tive only as in the dual.

and neut. pi. same groups of cases by the names strong and 312. sing. In neuter inflection. the pi. pi. with a consonant du. the only strong cases are the nom. as. pi. and is always in made before as of nom. to loc. nom. forbidden in dat. sing. the weakest class. sing. du. Insertions an added n often makes between Stem and E nding. instr.- with a vowel (instr. dat. gen. In the. its presence appears to have worked the most considerable transformation of original shape. as above denned. and H rU N ^^pratyag. and loc. nom. pi. belong to cases sing.. ending ena from u-stems (later invariable. of stems is ..-acc. while. where the interchange in the old language of the forms of a and i-stems with those of an and inis pretty complete and the w-stems follow their analogy.. 313. having endings beginning the latter. the instr. yrfWl prafic-1. in those stems that make a distinction of weakest the nom. where in the great mass of cases. the ending is virtually nam after a vowel. The y after a before the endings di. it Even weak and in words which exhibit no variation of stem. In the i and M-stems of the later language. masc. sing.-loc.bhis. nom. [311 sing. pi. and may be mainly left to be pointed out in detail below.95 IV. Elsewhere. it masc. and SfcfNrTCT pratw-os. but the aspect of the matter in the Veda is very different. other is separated by its presence from the fern. du. . .). dat..-loc. sing. and it is seen sometimes in Final r has ywraa-strengthening in loc. instr. is of least questionable origin in nom.. also. and the same for example. and it is in the weakest cases made a usual distinction of neuter forms from mas- culine. nor loc. am is taken by s in pronominal a and a-stems. and it is not excluded even from the feminine. sing. belongs only to masculine and feminine stems. pi.. nom.. such as is made elsewhere (258).. Other variations concern chiefly the final vowel of a stem.-acc. HC^I pratyak.. and from the earliest period.. neut. most widely and firmly established in the gen. and dm is most probably an insertion. its After vowel-stems. neut. pi.. which in the later language in rnasc. is often con- venient to distinguish so on. du. earlier predominating).-acc. it does not always take place.-abl. : and middle form.. This appendage appearance before an ending.. the neuter shows no special inclination to take it. is it the Veda. The place of n before gen.-acc. Of consequence enough to mention here is only the puna-strengthening of a final i or u. to the middle pratyafte-i. pi. (inst. thus.-acc. pi. compare SJHlRl and 3rU ^i pralyanc-as> H^ neut. du. there the appearance of the n is everywhere sporadic . fern.-abl. and e of dat.. gen. neut.-acc. The class of strong cases. neut. gen. DECLENSION.).

316]

ACCENT
Accent
314.

IN DECLENSION.

97

in

Declension.

at all,

is

a rule without exception, the vocative, if accented accented on the first syllable.
the

As

And
form,
written

in

Veda

(the

case is

a rare one),

whenever a

syllable written

as one is to

be pronounced as two by restoration of a semivowel to vowel the first element only has the vocative accent, and the syllable as
is

circumflex (by

84 a):
;

thus, dyaiis

(i.

e.

dfihis]

when

dissyllabic,

but dyatis when monosyllabic

jykke when for jfake.

But the vocative

is

accented only

when

it

stands

at

the

or, in verse, at the beginning also beginning of a sentence of a metrical division or pada; elsewhere it is accentless or enclitic thus, dgne yam yajn&m paribhur dsi (RV.), 'O Agni but upa tva 'gna e 'masi (RV.), whatever offering thou protectest
:

!

1

;

'unto thee, Agni,

we

come'.
usually an adjective, but not seldom also a

A
noun
accent

word qualifying a vocative
is

in the genitive (very rarely in
:

any other

case)

constitutes, so far as

concerned, a unity with it thus, sdkhe vaso or vdso sakhe, 'excellent friend'; sUno sahasah or sdhasdh suno, 'oh son of might'; and suditi suno sahaso didihi (RV.), 'with excellent brightness, son of might, shine forth'.

Two
accent
;

coordinate vocatives, whether noun or adjective, have usually the same
this rule.

but the Vedic texts furnish not a few irregular exceptions to

For brevity, the vocative dual and plural will be given in the paradigms below along with the nominative, without taking the trouble to specify in each instance that, if the latter be accented elsewhere than on the first
syllable,

the accent of the vocative

is

different.

regards the other cases, rules for change of accent in declension have to do only with monosyllables and with stems

315.

As

more than one syllable which are accented on the final for if a stem be accented on the penult, or any other syllable further back as in sdrpant, vari, bhagavant, sumdnas, sa/idsravaja the accent remains upon that syllable through the whole inflection
of
;

(except in the vocative, as explained in the preceding paragraph). The only exceptions are a few numeral stems see below, chap. VI.
:

(including monosyllables) are subject to variation of accent in declension chiefly in virtue of the fact that some of the endings have, while others have
not,

316.

Stems accented on the

final

or have in less degree, a tendency to

draw the accent

for-

ward upon themselves.
a.

Thus

:

The endings

of the nominative

of the nominative plural have no tendency to take the accent

and accusative singular and dual and away from the

stem, and are therefore only accented when a final vowel of the stem and the vowel of the ending are blended together into a single vowel or diphthong. Thus, from dattd come dattm't (= dattd -f- au) and dnttas (= datta -\- as);

but from nadt come nadydu (=nadi-\-au) and nadytt* (==nadt-}-aa).

Whitney, Grammar.

7

98
b.

IV. DECLENSION.

[316

with a

All the other endings sometimes take the accent; but those beginning vowel do so more readily than those beginning with a consonant.

Thus, from nans come navti and naubhis; from mahant, however, come mahaid but mahddbhis.

The general
317.
falls

rules of accent,

then,

may be

thus stated

:

In

upon the ending in of middle and weakest)
:

the declension of monosyllabic stems, the accent all the weak cases (without distinction
thus,

nava,

naubhyhm,

navam,
:

nausu

;

vagbhis, vactim, vaksu. But some monosyllabic stems retain the accent throughout thus, ptfbhis, gdvam, g6su. For such cases, see below, 350, 361 c, d, 375, 390, 427.
vaci,

318.
middle)
a.

Of

shift the accent to

polysyllables ending in consonants, only a few the ending, and that in the weakest (not the

cases.

Such are

:

Present participles in ant or ill : thus, from tuddnt, tudatd and tudattis and tudatam; but tudddbhydm and tudatsu.
b.
brhatds. c.

A

few adjectives having the form of such participles,

as mahatd,

Bases of which the accented
:

final loses its syllabic character

by syn:

copation of the vowel

thus, majjnd, murdhne,

ddmnd*

(from

majydn

etc.

423

.

Other sporadic cases will be noticed under the different declensions. Case forms used adverbially sometimes show a changed accent: see
chap. XVI. (lllOff.).

319. Of polysyllabic stems ending in accented short vowels, the final of the stem retains the accent if it retains its syllabic
thus, dattena and datthya from dattd ; agnina and agndye from agni; and also dattebhyas, agnibhis, and so on. Otherwise, the accent is on the ending and that, whether the final and the ending are combined into one, as in dattais, dhenau, agnln, or whether the final is changed into a semidhenus, and so on vowel before the ending thus, dhenvu, pitrh.
identity
: : ; :

But

am

of the gen.

pi.

from stems in / and

ti

and

r

older language always does, take the accent, though separated by

may, and in the n from the

stem: thus, agnlnnm, dheniindm, pitfndm. In RV., even derivative i-stems show usually the same shift thus, bahvindm. Of stems in a, only numerals
:

(chap. VI.)

follow this rule:
in
I

thus,

saptandm, dafdndm.
final

320. Root-words

and u as

members

of

compounds

retain the

accent throughout, not shifting it to any of the endings. And in the older language there are polysyllabic words in long final vowels which follow in
this

respect as in others the analogy of the root-declension (below,

355 ff.).

Apart from these, the treatment of stems in derivative long vowels is, as regards accent, the same as of those in short vowels save that the tone is not thrown forward upon the ending in gen. plural.

323]

99

CHAPTER

V.

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.
321.

THE

accordance in inflection of substantive and
is

adjective stems

so complete that the two cannot

be sep-

arated in treatment

from one another.
for convenience of description,

They may be
as follows:
I.

classified,

Stems in
Stems in Stems in

f

a;
i

II.

^

and

3
*>

u;

III.

ETT a,

and

"37

u

:

namely, A. radicalB. derivative

stems (and a few others inflected like them); stems
;

IV.

(or q[ V. Stems in consonants.

Stems in

ft r

or);

There is nothing absolute in this classification and arrangement it is No general merely believed to be open to as few objections as any other.
;

of Sanskrit

agreement has been reached among scholars as to the number and order The stems in a are here treated first because of declensions.
the great predominance of the class.

322. The division-line between substantive and adjective, always an uncertain one in early Indo-European language, is There are, even more wavering in Sanskrit than elsewhere. unless we however, in all the declensions as divided above words which are distinctly adexcept the stems in r or ar
-

and, in general, they are inflected precisely like nounjectives stems of the same final only, among consonant-stems, there are certain sub-classes of adjective bases with peculiarities of in;

:

flection to which there is among nouns nothing corresponding. But there are also two considerable classes of adjective-com-

pounds, requiring special notice

;

namely

:

member a bare 323. Compound adjectives verbal root, with the value of a present participle thus, su-dfc, 'well-looking'; pra-budh, 'foreknowing a-druh, 'not hating'; vedahaving as final
;
:

vid,

'Veda-knowing';
in

vrtm-han,

'sitting

the

lap'.

Every root

is

'Vritra-slaying'; liable to be

upastha-sdd,

used in

this

'

^00

V.

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.

[323

in all ages of the way, and such compounds are not infrequent see chapter on Compounds, below (XVIII.). language This class is originally and essentially only a special class of compound the simple as well as the compounded adjectives, since in the earliest Veda root was sometimes used adjectively. But the compounded root was from the beginning much more often so used, and the later the more exclusively,
:

so that practically the class is a separate

and important one.

Compound adjectives having a noun as final member, but obtaining an adjective sense secondarily, by having the idea of 'possession' added, and being inflected as adjectives in the three genders. Thus, prajakama, 'desire of progeny', becomes an adjective meaning 'desirous (i. e. having desire) of progeny'; sabharya (sa-\-b/iarya), 'having one's wife along'; and so on.
324.
In a few cases,
ceding
also,

the

final

noun

is

syntactically
(at i

object of the pre-

member:

thus, atimatra,

'immoderate'

matram, 'beyond measure');

yavayaddvesas, 'driving away enemies'.

325. Hence, under each declension, a root or a noun-stem of that declension

we have
is

to notice

how
final

inflected

when

of an adjective compound. to accent, it needs only to be remarked that a monosyllabic word ending a compound loses the peculiarity of monosyllabic accentuation, and does not throw the tone foward upon the ending.

member As

Declension
Sterns (masculine

I.

and neuter)

in a.
all

This declension contains the majority of declined stems of the language.
326.
Its

the

endings deviate more widely than

any others from

the normal.
327.
ing
.<t.

Endings: Singular.
ace.

The nom. masc. has the normal end-

The
The
all

(masc.

and neut.) adds

m

(not am);

and

this

form has the

office also of

nom, neuter.

instr.

in the oldest
cases).

changes a to ena uniformly in the later language; and even Vedic this is the predominant ending (in RV., eight ninths of Its final is in Vedic verse not infrequently made long (ena), where

favored

by the metre.
(for

But the normal ending a
is also (as if

thus,

yajnd,

suhdva,

mahitvd

yajnena
has aya

etc.)

not rare in the Veda.
to a),

The
language.

dat.

by

adding aya

alike

in

all

ages of the

The

abl.

has

t

(or

more probably d:

it

is

impossible from the evidence

329]

DECLENSION
is is

I.,

^-STEMS. ENDINGS.

101

of the Sanskrit to tell which

the original form of the ending), before which

a

is

made

long:

this

ending

found in no other noun declension, but only
numbers).

in the personal

pronouns

(of all

a; and this ending is also limited a-stems (with the single exception of the pronoun amusya chap. VII.). Its final a is in only three cases made long in the Veda; and its y is vocalized
to the final
to
:

The gen. has sya added

(asia) almost as rarely.

The
final of

loc.

ends in

e

(as

if

by combining the normal ending

i

with the

the stem), without exception. The voc. is the bare stem.

328. Dual. The dual endings in general are the normal ones. The nom., ace., arid voc. masc. end in the later language always in au.
In the Veda,
eighths
of

however,

the

usual

ending

is

simple a

(in

RV.,

in
e,

seven

the

occurrences).

The same

cases in the neut. end in

which

appears to be the result of fusion of the stem-final with the normal ending i. The instr., dat., and abl. have bhyam (in only one or two Vedic instances resolved into 6/u'am),

The gen. and
as if

with the stem-final lengthened to a before it. have a y inserted after the stem-final before os (or In one or two (doubtful) Vedic inthe a had been changed to e}.
loc.

stances (as also in the pronominal forms

mos and

yos),

os is substituted for

the final a.

329. Plural.
asas instead
is

The nom. masc. has
final

in the later language the
as.

normal

ending as combined with the

But in the Veda the ending frequent (one third of the occurrences in RV., but only one
a
to

twenty-fifth in the peculiar parts of AV.).

The
are
left

ace.

masc.

ends in an
arid,

(for

earlier

ans, of which

abundant traces

in

the Veda,

under the disguise of apparent euphonic com-

bination, even in the later language: see above,

208 ff.).
n
as in the gen. pi.

The nom. and
ani
(like
i).

ace.

neut. have
see

in the later language" always the ending
or else with

the an-stems:

421;
this

before

normal

But

in the

Veda
to

ending alternates with simple a (which in
in

RV.

is

to

ani as three

two,

point

of

frequency;
the

in

AV.,

as three

to four).

The
antly

instr.

ends later always in ais
ebhis
(in

;

but in

Veda

is

found abundas aj's;

the

more normal form

RV., nearly as frequent

in

AV., only one fifth as frequent). The dat. and abl. have bhyas as ending, with e instead of the final a before it (as in the Vedic instr. ebhis, the loc. pi., the gen. loc. du. [?], and

The resolution into ebhias is not infrequent in the Veda. The gen. ends in anora, the final a being lengthened and having n inserted before the normal ending. The a of the ending is not seldom (in less than half the instances) to be read as two syllables, aam: opinions are
the instr. sing.).

divided as to whether the
small

resolution

is

historical

or

metrical only.
as

A

very

number
occur in

(half-a-dozen) of examples of simple

am

ending instead of

anam

RV.

102
The
loc.

V.
ends in

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.
that
is

[329

em

to say,

with the normal ending, before
s

which the stem-final

is

changed

to e

(with consequent change of

to s:

180).
;

Of accent in this declension, nothing the syllable accented in the stem retains its
out.

requires to

be said

own

accent through-

330.

Examples
7

of declension.

the inflection of a-stems

may

As examples of be taken 37R kama, m., 'love';
'mouth'.

~%3 devd, m.

'god'; EfTHT asya, n.,

Singular: s"

N.

kamas
A.

devds

asydm

\SF^
devdm
asydm

kamena
D.

devena

asyena

cftlHm

^TTT
devaya
asyhya

kamaya
Ab.

khmat
oJllHUJ

devat
*^

asynt
*%(

<^e|Hl

H4 t-tj
-^

kamasya
x
L.
of-) |J-|

devdsya

asydsya
dtijj^^j

kame
V.

deve
^

asye

deva
Dual

hsya

N.A.

V.

kamau
I.

devau

asye
1?

D. Ab.

^iT^^UH
kamabhyam

^TPTTT devabhyam

asynbhyam

G.L.

^nHraiH^
khmayos
Plural
:

devdyos

asydyos

N.V.

kamas

devas

334
A.

DECLENSION

I.,

a-STEMs.

103

kaman
sRTifc^

devfin

asyani

~|t^
devais

SCTHT

kamais
D. Ab.

asyms

kamebhyas
G.
,

devebhyas
_

asyebhyus

r

kamanam
L.

devanam

asanam

,

37m
kamesu
devesu
Vedic forms are:

asyesu

Examples
Sing.
sporadic).
:

of the peculiar

instr. ravdthena,

yajnd (such genitive forms as dfvasia are purely

Du.

:

nom.

etc.

masc. devd; gen.-loc. pastybs (stem pastyh}.
devdsas;
neut. yugd; instr. devebhis;
gen. cara-

PI.: nom.-voc. masc^
(/tam,

devanaam.

nouns, there are no irregularities in this deFor irregular numeral bases in a (or an], see the next chapter. For the irregularities of pronominal stems in a, which are more or less fully shared also by a few adjectives of pronominal kindred, see the chapter on Pronouns.

331.

Among

clension.

Adjectives.
Original adjectives in a are an exceedingly large probably the majority of all adjectives. There is, however, no such thing as a feminine stem in a; for the feminine, the a and its is changed to a - - or often, though far less often, to i An example declension is then like that of sena or devi (365). of the complete declension of an adjective a-stem in the three genders will be given below (371).

332.

class,

;

333.
times
for final

There are no verbal roots ending in
for

substituted

the

final
it

an or

am),

and

is

a. But a is somea of a root (and, more rarely, then inflected like an ordinary

adjective in a (see below,

354).

noun ending in a, when occurring as final mem334. ber of an adjective compound, is inflected like an original adjective in a, making its feminine likewise in a or On the other hand, a feminine noun ending in derivative a shortens its final to a to form a masculine and neuter base.
.

A

104

V.

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.
Declension
II.
*

[335

Stems
335.

(of all

genders) in
i

and

u.

The

steins in

^

and

3

u are

inflected in so close

accordance with one another that they cannot be divided
into

two separate declensions. They are of those in ^ genders, and tolerably numerous

all
t

the three

more nume-

rous than those in

3

u, especially in the feminine (there are

more neuters

in

3

u than in

^

i)

.

The endings
widely

of this

declension

from the normal,

also differ frequently and and the Vedic irregularities are nu-

merous.
336. Endings: Singular. The nom. masc. and fern, adds to the s. The nom. and ace. neut. is the bare stem, In the Veda, the final u of a few neuters is lengthened without ending.

stem the normal ending

(248 b): The

thus, iwfi, puri.
ace.

masc. and fern, adds

m

to the stem.

Vedic forms in iam and

warn, and, with n,

inam and wnam,

are excessively rare,

and doubtful.

The

instr.

fern,

in the later language takes the
it,

while the masc.

and neut. insert n before
and va
(or ia

normal ending a simply, making ina and una. But in

the Veda, forms in ya

and ua] are not infrequent in masc.

and neut.
fern,
is

also while ina is found, very rarely, as a fern, ending. Moreover, ya is often (in two thirds of the occurrences) contracted to I; and this even sometimes shortened to i. An adverbial instr. in uyd from half-a;

dozen stems in u occurs.

The
ing
e,

dat.

masc. and fern, gunates the
.aye

flnal of

the stem before the end-

making
as

likewise;
this case,

These are the prevailing endings in the Veda but the more normal ye and ve also occur; and the fern, has in
ave. in

and

the

instr.,
is

sometimes the contracted form
all

I.

In the later

language, the neuter
to insert

required in this, as in
:

the other "weakest" cases,

n before the normal ending

sporadic; and the neut. dat. has also the forms we, ave, aye,

but in the Veda such forms are only like the other

genders.

The

abl.
s

and gen. masc. and

fern,

have regularly, both earlier and

later,

the ending

with gunated vowel before it: thus, a, os; and in the Veda, the neut. forms the cases in the same way; although wnas, required later, is also not infrequent (mas does not But the normal forms yas (or occur).
ias)

and vas

(or

uas) are

also

frequent in both masc. and neut.

As masc.

ending, unas occurs twice in

RV.
has
for

The
5ti,

loc.

masc.
both

and
finals,

fern,
i

regular ending in the later language
this is in

replacing

and u.
it,

And

the

Veda

also the

most

frequent ending;

but,

beside

the

i-stems
this is

RV.) their

loc.

in a: thus,

agna; and

form (about half as often in found once even in the neut.

338]
The RV. has
(the

DECLENSION

II.,

i-

AND M-STEMS.

105

a number of examples of iriasc. and neut. locatives in avi normal ending and the u gunated before it) from w-stems; and certain doubtful traces of a corresponding ayi from i-steins. Half-a-dozen locatives

in
are

i

(regarded by the Vedic grammarians as prayrhya or uncombinable

:

138 d)

made from /-stems. The later language requires the neuter locatives to be made mi and uni ; but the former never occurs in the oldest texts, and

the latter only very rarely.

The
am.
(less

later

grammar

allows thedat., abl.-gen., and loc. fern, to be formed

at will with the fuller fern,

terminations of long-vowel stems, namely ai, as, Such forms are quite rare in the older language even from i-stems than 40 occurrences altogether in RV. three times as many in AV.);
;

and from w-stems they are almost unknown (live in RV. and AV.). The-voc. gunates the final of the stem, in masc. and fern., alike in
the earlier

and in the

later

language.

In the neut.,
:

it

is

later allowed to

be of the same form or the unaltered stern
in the older time also
;

and

this

was probably the usage

not instances enough are quotable to determine the

question

(AV. has u once, and VS. o once).
in

acc.-voc.

337. Dual. The later and earlier language agree masc. and fern, by lengthening the final of

the stem.

making the nom.The same

cases in the neuter (according to the rule given above) end later in ini and uni; but these endings are nearly unknown in the Veda (as, indeed, the

cases

are

of

only

rare

occurrence):

AV. has

inl twice
I,

VS. has uni once; RV. has ul from one M-stem, and
from one or two i-stems.

(RV. perhaps once); once shortened to i,

The unvarying ending
to the

of instr.-dat.-abl., in all genders,

is

bhyam added
fern.

unchanged stem.
of all

The gen. -loc.

ages

adds

os

to

the

stem in masc. and

;

in

neut., the later language interposes,

as elsewhere in the

weakest cases, a n;

probably in the earlier Vedic the form would be like that of the other genders; but the only occurrence noted is one unos in AV.

338. Plural.
ing
as
to

The nom.-voc. masc. and
stem-final,

fern,

adds the normal end-

making ayas and avas. The exceptions in the Veda are very few: one word (ari) has ias in both genders, and a few feminines have Is (like i-stems); a very few w-stems have uas. The
neut. nom.-acc. ends later
in Ini and uni (like ani from

the gunated

Veda has
The

I

and

i

(about
w,

equally

frequent)

much

oftener than

a: 329); but the mi; and u
of

and (more usually)
accus.

more than half

as often as uni.
tin,

masc.

ends in In and

for older Ins

and uns,

which

plain traces remain in the

Veda

in

nearly

half the instances of occurrence,

and even not infrequently

in the later language, in the guise of phonetic combination (208 ff.). The accus. fem. ends in is and us. But both masc. and fem. forms in ias and uas are found sparingly in the Veda.

The in st. of all genders adds bhis to the stem. The dat.-abl. of all genders adds bhyas (in V., almost never bhias] to the stem. The gen. of all genders is made alike in inam and unam (of which the

106
a
is

V.

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

338

final in the later

not seldom, in the Veda, to be resolved into aam}. Stems with accented language may, and in the earlier always do, throw forward

the accent upon the ending.

The

loc.

of all genders

adds su

(as

su:

180)

to the stem-final.

laid

The accent is in accordance with the general rules already down, and there are no irregularities calling for special

notice.

339.
/-stems
'gait';

Examples

of declension.
5|ftl

As models of
irf^ gdti,
.,

may be taken
Singular:

agni,

m.,

'fire';

snff vdri, n.,

'water'.

/

N.

jyiUH
agnis

agnim

gdtim

agnina

gdtya

wanna

agn&ye
Ab. G.

gdtaye,gdtyai

varine

agnes

varinas

5^
agnau
V.

gdtau,

qn
agne
Dual:

m
g&te
gdfi

gdtyam

van',

N.A.V.
agn
varinl

gfn
agnibhyam
G.L.

Jiin

gdtibhyam
^IrJlH^

vtiribhyam

agnyos
Plural
:

gdtyos

agndyas

gdtayas

varmi

Gen.-loc..-dat.: masc. Instr. Voc. agnma. f ucaye.. as above. bhuri. neut. Nom. tiiJl-nH^ agninhm L. agnfin. 107 varm i. wanting. : masc. fern.yuvatt. agues. yuvatyos and jamios. neut.wct. dhenus *S O "s TO O mddhu TO^TT f cdtrum dhenum o truna dhenva mddhuna . masc. N.341] A. fern.-voc. As models of w-stems f. bhurlni. ^H O ^T^T O *x TO O mddhu fdtrus A. md/. Vedic occurrence Singular. dat. rayyd and urmid. loc. dgatau.. agnd. : masc. uti. fem. i- AND W-STEMS. all the forms are added below. ST5T ?dtru. : masc..: masc. JTJ 'honey'. Gen. matdyas. Singular:/ N. DECLENSION II. wanting. : bhumyam.. ddites. agnibhis varibhis D. Norn. tmn/nam(?).: masc. rfiiftH . saptdra$mau. masc. fern. In order to mark more plainly some of the forms which are common later. hetyds and 6/mmias. 'cow'. yayiam. apratd. neut. agnau. agnts etc. neut.. tlfijHJ^ agnibhyas rrfrRiq^ gdtibhyas JIrffaF[ onf^HJ^ varibhyas G. bhures. : tici. : fern. wanting). gdtlnam JlfcFJ ^{ImiH^ varmam srftig ^T3 varisu the absence in Vedic language of of agnisu gdtisu 340. Plural. Gen. agndyas. masc. dcitti. neut.. udita. Instr. kavinam. harl. fern.-abl.-acc. and in the order of their frequency. Nom. Dat.-abl. may be taken mddhu. : as Dual: neut. ajdyiC?)-.-abl. Instr. rslnaam 341. {. above (neut. . fern. masc. agndye : . n. utid. prutyai . m. Ace.. : Accus. fern. and as above. R ST^H O 5T^J7 dhenu./tdrmt(?). hdrios. agriin. vedl. dhdnasatayiC?). neut. fern. etc. as above. ksitis. Loc.Ab. tujaye. anuvrktf. as above. s TTWHH"^ gdtibhis snfrPm"^ f . ftica7/a(?). bhumis. 'enemy'. dhasfna. and neut.

sfndhos. pit-was. mddhuna. as above. ddhenua and panua. Abl. neut. mddhvas and rnddhuas.V. neut.A. papva and krdtud. V. fern.Ab. : masc.108 V. fern.: masc. Singular. neut. Instr. pipve. : fecfave. pdrave. saramas. Ab.L. masc. fern. wrw. manyos. mddhune. aput/a. masc. mddhva. mddhuni ^ dheno Dual : mddhu. inddhos. mddhuni o cdtrubhyam dhenubhyam mddhubhyam mddhunos G. fern. The forms the same Vedic occurrence are given here w-stems in manner as for the i-stems above. cdtros dhenos dhenvas . tpPTTH cdtrubhyas dhenubhyas o % mddhubhyas ex *x sr^nnTR cdtrunam dhenunkm mddhunam L - 00 dhenusu of oo mddh for the 342. mddhune JT^RTT Ab. STST dhenu I. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. isvds. ketiina. *> dhenus mddhuni cdtrubhis dhenubhis madhubhis ^T^T^JH D. mddhunas.D. mddhunas qdtrau V. : Norn. ketum. cdtrvos Plural : dhenvos N. Accus. sucetunam^} . masc. ueut.-gen. G. and fern. ww. urduc. : Dat. ex vas A. dhenum. [341 catrave dhendve dhenvai . dbhiruam. dhendvas ex mddhuni ex.mddho N. . isvai.

f. mddhuas and nu'idhvas. Pad. etc. without inserted n or guna. : masc. Gen. a. There are occasional instances of confusion of the two classes of forms. : as above (but -vos or -uos). in adkhayau. below (431). and in the other cases takes the normal endings.. neut. and when it when uncompounded and mean'lord. resolves the y to like the ?. also gen. b. : Nom.-gen. much more numerous (many Original adjective stems in i are few. Sing. their forms etc. and fern. and accus. adds au : the liarly rest is like agni.. sing. for which the corresponding forms of krostr are substituted. h.: masc.. is reduced to sdkha (without ending). d.-dat. the abl. and loc. 'wife'. Ari. puru. have the normal endings simply. pnrn. has the meaning ing 'husband'. purau.-abl.-abl.): bases in an (aksdn exchanging with and complementing forms from see the bases in an. Adjectives. sdkhyau. it declined regularly in composition. sakhayas. hostile'. 433. Dual. 343. has in RV. W. sanita. and dat. the nom. stiktnn. puruni. safcfta. The Veda has usually sdkhaya du. Thus : sdkhayam. sing. as above. neut.. nom. 'friend'. c... and fern. neut. as above. rdjjvarn. futfikratvas . greedy. sdkhyus. dddhi. Plural. mddhvas.344] DECLENSION II. f. Nom. which in the nom. 'curds'. Accus. rbhtivas.. 'jackal'. is g. lacks the strong cases. : : masc. dhendvas.. 'thigh'.. PI. Loo. 'eye'. and only a very few /-stems.-loc. sflnuni. patyus. sakhibhyam. 'eager. masc. The stems dsthi. ves (beside dksi. etc. sdkhe... namely sakhay. and sdkthi. used to make up part of the inflection of pdnthan see below. and the loc. and often sfikhia. master' . adds us. petty e. m.. Du. Kr6stu. sing. Jam'.. ?/-stems. 'bird'. 109 . sing. sunavi adno.si/mir/. e. has for the five strong cases a pecustrengthened base (vriddhied). rfwn. sdkhyos . unless sakha be substituted. are defective. masc. dat. pafvds .-acc. has in the Veda aryds in pi. (but with the resolution -unanm in part). abl. fern.-gen. those in u are derivative verb-stems forming a . Irregular declension. fsus. as above. is inflected like sdkhi in the instr. Instr. sing. forming patya. sfndhiiu. 'road'. fern. pdtyau. The stem : pathf. 'bone'. The instr. jdnunl.. has the gen. wrvf. sdkhye. etc. There are no irregular S&khij m. sakhius. Voc. The compounds is are usually declined simple word. and sing. 344. vfa). i- AND M-STEMS. : as above. j&nyus in the Veda. loc. m. fern.-voc. Instr. stikhya.

and loc. : tanu. has prtanajf : Roots in u sometimes u to u thus.. 345. while roots in a sometimes apparently weaken a to i (in -dhi from ydha). 346. Eft rivative feminine stems in a and ^ . Stems in long vowels: a. in the Veda. which is then inflected like vadhu Some adjectives form their feminine in two of (below. The stems ending in long vowels fall into two well-marked classes or divisions: A. t when used . ending in ^ .. r : 380) regularly add a as root-words or as root-finals of compounds and hence there are no adjectives of the root-class in this declension. vibhu. Roots ending in t or u (or. the neuter adjective is allowed to take either form. -loc. since most feminine adjectives. Declension III. and tanvi. however namely.. (354). monosyllabic stems - mostly bare roots atively and their compounds. Yet.-gen. with a comparB. and in which neuter nouns differ from masthe gen. 365). 347. a few words ending in a short radical as if this were sufflxal: (once). with a small num- ber in 3T u which in the later language have come to be inflected like them. . sustu. u}. de- small number of others inflected like them. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. and so on.110 V. in participial adjective Their inflection is and has been included in the rules given above the stem is in In those weak cases. More rarely. abl. But adjectives in u preceded by one consonant sometimes form a derivative feminine stem by adding i: thus. u. [344 like that of nouns. etc. and re perhaps becomes ri (362). blbhatsu and blbhatsu . as final Compound adjectives having nouns of this declension member are inflected like original adjectives of the same endings. u are declined thus. or even in all the three thus. . go (361) becomes gu in composition.. 1. prdbhu. belong to it. tank. these ways. to make a feminine-stem. the dat. also shorten and the AV. bahvi. urvi. vibhvi. the u is prolonged to u prthvl. 5TF and a or considerable classes of feminine nouns. The latter division is by far the larger and more important. dual culines in the later language by an inserted n (we have seen above that this difference does not exist in the Veda). dsmrtadhru. sing. general the same in all the three genders.

4. ending accent in all is a instead of au. Monosyllabic stems.. as. AND W-STEMS. Before am of gen.). or monosyllables having the aspect of such. 111 A. except in the strong cases and in the ace. abl. a-. Root-words. with few exceptions feminine. pi. 3. sing. pi. the singular as well as the other numbers but instances of its occurrence in uncompounded stems are not found in the Veda. (with or the stems is by the normal manner of consonant-stems accus.-gen. as adjectives (rarely).. Those in a are so rare that it is hardly possible to make up a whole scheme of forms in actual use those in i and u are more numerous. as nouns. : Root-words. a is lost here also no instances of the occurrence of such a form appear to be quotable). and must be extremely rare everywhere. of various origin and character. for con- venience of description. The earlier Vedic dual : . . be divided into the following subclasses 1.. they are alike in masculine and feminine forms.. but 2. RV.. still very few. ning with vowels. which is like the the i To : apply the accent . loc. final i is changed to iy and u to uv . not ^ m.. or other roots with long Compounds having such words. and w-stems. n may or may not be inserted in the Veda it is regularly inserted.). . Stems in i and u are in the later language allowed to take optionally the fuller endings at. As an appendix the to this class we may most conveniently of irregular inflection. and in adjective compounds. The inflection of these in endings throughout. mostly ending in diphthongs. including in the Veda many which later are transferred to other declensions. describe half-dozen bases. 350. the rules for monosyllabic is thrown forward upon the endings the weak cases except the accus. as last member. Polysyllabic words. but no such forms are ever met with in the Veda (except Wiiyai [?]. once). which is like the nominative (according to the grammarians. pi. am in the singular (dat. 7-. and those inflected like them. with a single exThe vocative is like the nominative in ception (dhiyhm. ^f am. They may. final vowels. The simple words are.350] DECLENSION III. Before the endings begin349. 348.' in the peculiarities like those of the other vowel-declensions are wanting. while final a is dropped altogether. once).

dhibhyhm. / >TH - "^^T^ jas A. f. dhiyau bhuvau c\ *\ f D. f. ^ -\ j* Ab. bhuvas |% dhiyi. V. A. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. N. [350 nom. au I. bhuvh it Rnr. bhuvai ^ ...o.. no Vedic examples Singular : N. bhubhyam -X JOS Plural : dhiyos bhuvos N. sft ?\ dM. sra^ bhuve. Jas dhiyas bhuvas . jas Dual. dhiyam bhuvi. sfTC dhiyas bhuvas fas. o o -s j&s L. four cases which actually occur: of the of a-stems are found. du. 'progeny'. Ab.**. extended from the etc. first and is bhfy f. dhls irrgrf bhus o -\ am dhiyam f^HTT bhuvam dhiya I>. fim dhiyai H^. . Jas A. bhuvam V. Examples inflection nosyllabic of declension.L.. c?Azy<?. The of these rather arbitrarily loc. f sffcEpw f jabhyam G. dhiyas. 'earth'. and gen. As models of mowe may take sfT/#. sing. 351. 'thought'. to But the a-stems appear (the instances are extremely few) keep the accent upon the stem throughout..112 V. dhiyas bhuvas.

. Ab. dhmam _ bhmam. . Grammar. L. e-. -dhtyau -dhyaii -bhuvau -bhvab. when i and u become y and v. Ab. -dhfyas -dhfyi -bhuvas -bhtivi -dhyi -bhv* Dual: N. A. G. two consomants precede the itu. -stem is as above. AND W-STEMS. The grammarians prescribe and uv when the monosyllabic stem has more 8 Whitney. dhibhyds bhubhi/ds STHT^ isTFT?) -s I _-\ >I janam. the dissyllabic forms. D. the usage varying. -dhibhyam -dhfyo -bhubhyam -bhuvos -bhvbs G. and have been omitted from the above singular (feminine). A. after one consonant. . DECLENSION III. but they are never found in the Veda. as. bhunam c\o _. sfFTO "** f tfr-TTR "\ FC(TT C\ "^ jabhyas G. I. 113 sTTTR . or when any root in a or i or u is found in a like position. : Singular N. -bhuvam -Ihuva -bhtive -bhvam -bhvh -bhvl -bhvtis -dhiya -dhiye -dhya -dhye -dliyhs D. The accent is as above) or into a semivowel simply y or v). : nowhere thrown forward upon the endings and therefore. with is and are regularly written iy . V. -bhubhyas -bhiivam (-dhmam -dhim to -dhyam -bhunam -bhusu fuller . . arm o uta o w bhum 352. the inflection of an But 1 and w-stems the final vowel before a vowel-ending follow a divided usage is either converted into a short vowel and semivowel (iy or uv. -dhfyas -dhibhis -dhyhs -bhtivas -bhvhs -bhabhis D. RADICAL -. Jam . ~x x dhibhis jabhis bhubhis 1 D. A. V. final I or u. Plural: N. L. I. _ -bhvam . the resulting syllable is circumflex. dhiyam. Ab. ^ As the admissibility of the endings ai. -dhlbhyas \-dhiyam L. : -dhs -dhfyarn -bhus -dhyctm A. V. When the nouns above described occur as final member of a compound. . I.352) I. scheme If iy as probably unreal. L.Ab. Monosyllabic stems in composition. Thus . and am in the grammatical authorities are somewhat at variance.

apathi. and sporadic cases from yet others occur for example. pravi. Veda where. are found even in the Veda.). Of stems in i. The dative of the stem used as infinitive is Irregular transfer of the accent to in at (as if <!-}-): thus. yarn! (m. 354. is to be seen in the with participial value. -da. laksmi. . and by no means common in the earlier. dhanasais : (all RV. and abundantly in composition: dta.). vesa^rfs (TS. [352 the character of a noun. prakhyaf. am.). avadyabhiyd (RV. since the ya arid va forms and the rest are always to be read as dissyllabic and ua or ua. over seventy are found in the Veda. the forms in as.).). ufdna (nom. nadi.) and gramanibhis supuna (AV. 7/ama). rathi. . aas. a AT. Half of the feminines are formed from masculines with jn/rusa). masculines. kalydna). is found only in accus. paradat. Stems of this division of more than one syllable are very rare indeed in the later langThe Rig-Veda. it may be best . noticed.) are sometimes to be read aam. in a which : 355.). ddhid (AV. sing.). and so on. svadhd. pratimd. ufdne). has only dtasu not derivable from dta. purusi (m. described on a Vedic basis. pr.) has the anomalous nom. fraddhd.V- NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 1 b. and. pratimaf. a (du. and senanfbhyas (VS. 433 4. dhrayas (RV. the difference of the two forms is only graphic. moreover. -stha. and others. kalyani (m. others still : have no corresponding masculines The masculines thus. : ia or la 353. vayodhafs and ratnadhebhis. half-a-dozen occur in the Veda: pdntha. 'frame'. presents a not inconsiderable body of them the class nearly dies out later. surmi.). by the disuse of its stems or their transfer to other modes of declension. other modes a masculine stem. however. and others. a. and inflected as of the second declension. wpana (and loc.). Still more numerous are the feminines have lost their root-declension examples are prajd (of which the further compounds in part have root-forms). aa. mahd. from I and u ganafrfbhis (RV. mdntha. are about ten in number: for example. change of accent: thus. -ja. citibhrdve (TS. uage. and rbhuksa are otherwise viewed by the later grammar: see below. rtanfbhyas (RV. stari. or . 'great sing. and y and v when it is more purely a verbal root No such distinction. Of stems in a. Thus. (TB.) compounds. and as however. others show no change of accent: thus. Of the a-stems. yrtapdn. nearly all femi- nines. the ending in compounds is seen in a case or two: thus. 365) as feminine the i and u shortened to * and u. -bhu. But compounds of the transferred for to class above described are not of : infrequently shortened to a inflection the a declined like a stem of the derivative a-class (below. as well as dat. and become frequent later. Polysyllabic Stems. and all accented on the final. A few further Vedic irregularities or peculiarities may be briefly as dissyllables. compound stems in -ga.

: circumflexed thus. Plural : N. accented to final. nadi tanu tantia Dual: N. And a few have no are cam'U.356] c. [rathibhyas] nadibhyas tanUbhyas rathinam [rathisu] cases nadlnam nadisu etc. and the . tanvam. The RV. f. tanvhs etc. No loc. Ab. rathias [rathibhis] nadfas nadibhis tantias tanubhis D. V. L. lected as earlier is The stem nadi is se- example partly in order to emphasize the difference between the nadi language and the later in regard to the words of this division : later the model of derivative : inflection. <i feminine adjectives in U carisnu. rathiam rathfa raihie nadiam nadia nadte tanuam tanua tanue tani'ias D. as usual. sing. really reads starybm etc. e^-STEMS. nrtu. sing.-acc. G.Ab. after two consonants the resolved forms iy and uv are written instead. rathis nadis tanUs A. L. prdaku (prdaku). The masculines with change of accent: or without change. RADICAL a-. I. nadi. tann. rathm [rathibhyam] [rath-Cos] nadia D. is the equivalent of the later The nom.. of course. agru (dgru). from over thirty stems. only. fant/am. f. jighatsu. du. masculines in The majority of them are the or u (above. madhu. tanui rdthi (?) V. ma/csw(?). DECLENSION Of stems and all III. from any : I-stem occurs. 'body'. AND these. invariably belonging to is them Veda: in the written text. m. 1-. tanunam tanusu. namely. pva^rU (fvtifura). The ending a of the nom. almost are according in the to their true phonetic form. A. The mode of declension of these words : may be il- lustrated by the following examples ratM. written above The nadiam. Ab. etc. radftd. 8* . the stem-final resulting syllable is made a semivowel. [agruvai. tanft. G. caranyU. feminines. 344): thus. krkadapTi. and such contractions are more often made in the AV. A.-voc. only two or three.. Singular N. I. cm. few are nouns in w. nadibhyam nadios [tanubhyam] tantios G. the number on the is smaller: too. I. four times and . 'stream'. and also where the combination yv would otherwise result: thus. No one of the selected examples occurs in all the forms forms for which no example at all is quotable are put in brackets. and their forms are of the utmost 356. rarity. A thus.. as corresponding masculines: thus. rath fas nadfas L . are 115 nearly all in u. 'charioteer'.] and mitrayuvas. in s from z-stems is found in the older language about sixty times. to determine what the form would be. prafU. twice. A. cakrfya. nadyhm.

sing. vadhUm. (or dyu. nausu. and puaprucfm. m. one or two others. fvafruai. nava. and following the rules for monosyllabic accentuation (317) except that the accus. loc. the dat. There are certain monosyllabic stems ending in diph- thongs. 363 ff. -yuvas is once or to tanv\ in a passage 358. doubtful cases. palalid and the abl. But in the Veda the accus. masculine. navas. are also used the briefer forms ram rai. two. raye. sing.. The stem 'wealth'. [357 357. in connection with the stems in i and u. rabhyds. 359. with two or three other Atharvan. The process of transfer to the other form of I and u-declension which has nearly extinguished this category of words in the (below. navi. rayau. division: Irregularities of eamtZ as loc. dravitnud. ray as. dtaptatanus and sdrvatanus. sing. with normal endings and monosyllabic accent. but forms have been met with in use. rayi . tanui is lengthened twice abbreviated to -yUs. (instead properly so called. there as or is another doubtful case or two of the same kind the final U is regarded pragrhya or uncombinable (138j. the and the in Is instr. pi. rayos. 'ship'. ray a. with which they have stems stems stems most affinity. navam. kuh&m. naubhyam. might be better described interposed before vowel endings.). rayas. do. rasu.-gen. rayam. ayrtivai. instr. navau. and which may be most appropriately disposed of here. which are too few and too diverse in inflection to make a declension of. but in RV. Stems ending in diphthongs. hiranyavcifis and sahdsrastarii. f. tanUm. is either ray as or ray as. rayam.. The stem nau.. they are excessivelater language. and pi. for accus. In the sing. fuaf ruds .. has its beginnings in the Veda dutidm. (or m. nave. once. div}. sing. in o: go and dyo 361. in ai: rat. is entirely regular. wo find the ace. form. and ly scanty: namely. The accusatives plural and us are nowhere met with. f. . sing. b. is apparently inflected in the same way.). sing. rabhyhm. sing. a. is said (it does not appear to occur in accented texts) to be like the nom. tanuam (with punarbhuvas. prdakuds. novas. naubhis. Thus: naus. ray as. navds. sing. once. The stem few of its glati. and is regularly inflected as such.jj(3 V. : They are : in an nau and glau . NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. taking the normal endings throughout. all nom. 360. are very few in this of camv"i} occurs a few times. sing. Thus ras.. loc. as ra with a union-consonant y (258) : . naub/iyds. Adjective compounds from these words are very few. navos . navam. those which occur are declined like the simple stems: thus. and . anomalous accent). rabhis. vadhvdf. pi. 'ball'.

except accus. d. gdvos . remaining irregularly upon the stem In the Veda. is such cases) also gava. gavau. sing. is yet more anomalous.. and pi. pi. and the gen. or f. but it is more convenient The stem dyo is inflected precisely like to put them together. 'sky. du.). The ular. The complete declension is as follows go. sing. etc. which The native grammarians becomes div before a vowel-ending. gavas. gobhyas. as above described. is gonam. c. sing. The rest is regularly made from with the normal endings. : DIPHTHONGAL STEMS. Dual. (but in V. go. m. gdva. gobhyam. The stem go. but with accent always : thus. another form of the gen. sing. gdvi . [dwau] dyavau [dyubhyam dyobhyam] . to gau. gave. gdvam. f. is gos (as if from gu). it has (like rat) the brief forms ghm and gas. usually m. it is strengthened In accus. 'bull' or 'cow'. and gam. The stem dyo. sometimes anomalously accented rayas.362] (which alone is DECLENSION III. gobhis. forms not actually met with in use bracketed) (with : Singular. treat the two as independent words. having beside it a simpler stem dyu. forming (like nau) gaus. 117 is of Vedic occurrence) and ras.. and ghs (as in all other are not infrequently to be pronounced as dissyllables. is much more irreg- In the strong cases. the nom. day'. abl. gom. gos.-gen.

the usual s-ending is wanting: tarl. pdrumi. laksmi. assimilated in inflection to the great class of derivative i-stems (except that they retain the ending s of the nom. the final of a-stems is treated as if changed to e. (half-a-dozen) are in the Veda declined names. -loc.. and so far different from the Vedic inflection see below.. by Thus : transfer stantive The great mass of derivative feminine a-stems. and pi.118 V. and os of gen. suffers the exception pointed out In the earlier. and a very few t-stems namely. pdliknl. and in the later language. and sing. The The as. end. specified [352 which have not been above as belonging to the also. accus. m and s respectively. sing.). rtfhini. the Vedic words of that class are. 363. du. sing. Before the endings a of instr. and adjective. transferred to this I are recognized by the grammarians as if declined like the root-division. tantrl except in the u-stems which have pre- served the ending of the other division. of i-stems sing. . other or root-word division . mdtali c. but in the Veda. add simply loc.. sing. and these are separated from the final of the a-stems by an inter- posed y. inflection of these sub- The stems has maintained through the whole history of the language. ending a very often (in nearly half the occurrences) blends with the final to a. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. and are transfers from the other division. of the . ai. sing. most of the to a I and w-stems of the other more predominant mode a. derivative division: The w-stems are few in number. division. tdvisi. : Very few derivative stems in in use. 364. retained mode of inflection. the instr. in occurs a few times. This it The class great is mass of derivative feminine e-stems. The ya to i. above (355 b] that feminines made with : change of accent follow this mode of declension only when the accent on the T: thus. division are as follows : The points of distinction between this and the other In nom. dat. Endings. A very small number of masculine z-stems as etc. is not The i-stems of this division in traction of an earlier ending in ya. without exception in the later language. of inflection. general are regarded as made by conTheir inflection has become in the later language somewhat mixed with that of the other division.-gen. they are a few rare proper and r&stri and sin (only one case each). abl. take always the fuller endings am. and even A loc. is in a I few Vedic examples contracted to i. itself with little change being almost precisely the same b. in the Vedas as later.

. in pi. final a becomes e. senayas L.364] In DECLENSION all III. kanya. DERIVATIVE -. however.. In the remaining case of the same class. du. the Vedic ending is i (a corresponding dual of ii-stems in does not occur). both earlier and later. stems ending in 'army'. i-. pi. . the accent of an final is or having acute thrown forward upon the ending. 'woman'. . appears in later AV. s-forms are for as. In voc. In nom. take ?RT sena. AND W-STEMS.-acc.. and the accent remains upon the former (in RV. seriam I. ^TT f. The I (and u) -stems a marked language. I 119 u-stem the weakest cases above mentioned. final t and u are shortened. as in i and w-stems). kanyh devi vadhus cT^nr kanyhm devim ^cETT vadhum SR^^I senaya kanyaya =fI*^JT7T devya 5^?J devyai rfctllH devytis vadhvU D. ending du is unknown in RV. sena A.-voc. oh^lMIH kanyhyas vadhvUs senayam V. / 364. The RV. the case there (and one of very frequent occurrence) adds s simply. the gen. and nom. f.G. f. and accus. 'goddess'.. of course. H^iltT senayai kanyhyai vadhvai Ab. a n is always interposed between stem and ending. it is usually thrown forward upon the ending. of declension. etc. inflection Examples of derivative f. both are used indifferently as is nom. Singular : ofSJ vadhu. nom.. . The regular later pi. we may devi. the latter borrowing the du. Of a-stems. and a very small it ending as has only a doubtful ex- number AV. difference between the other earlier and forms of the very rare in division... ample or two in RV. ends in e. and pi. kanyayam devyam vadhvftm sene devi vadhu . sing. 'girl'. has a few examples of dsas The remaining cases call for no remark.. B. and though yas-forms occur in the Brahmanas. N. As models of the long vowels. along with zs-forms. the du.. indistinguishable from ow-forms.

The assumpending di.Ab. the stem etc. to be treated in the same manner.A. pi. thus. cfl^tlhHH senabhis ^cjlMH devibhis kanyhbhis vadhubhis D. bahvlndm. sr^RJFT c\ -x am G. gauri . sing. tion of the same substitution is suggested. kanyhs devyas vadhvas S^m sx4v senas kanytts devis vadhus ex . nom.120 Dual: V. of Vedic forms are sing. The sporadic instances of transfer between this division and the preis ceding have been already sufficiently noticed. : a-stems: instr. loc. deviam. gen. Ab. and instead of it is used the dat. vadhu above. in a few RV. pdmi. aramgamdsas (a case or two). V. kanyabhyas eft^tl devibhyas vadhubhyas o eJM'SIH ^l^l^m senanam MIH rfcjHlH kanyhnam devinam vadlmnam L. but not in the majority of instances rddasios. pi. 364 N.v. is a few times to be resolved into ia). sene kanye devyau vadhvau } I. pdrm. du.L. devi. Half the 6fa/as-cases are p. nom. nom. 362). . and 2.D. to be read as bhias. Examples 1.-gen. and accus. the a and am of nom. is kanyhsu devisu vadhusu a stern belonging to the other division (like tanu. The final of is to : be read as devid. y) sing. t-stems: devis. very rarely. 3. are. senabhyas G. sing. ending as almost unknown. the abl. the am of gen. 365. _ kanyhbhyam dev^bhyam vadhubhyam 5f5n^ kanyayos Plural : devyos vadhvos N. 356). mamsd pi. a vowel (not frequently. In the language of the Brahmanas. senasu In the Yeda. devias. accus. aam. senas A. pi. but not required. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. (this simpler form is especially : common from stems in td and vafdsas (about twenty examples Lanman. instr. pi.

also thus. has been sufficiently treated above. The accentuation is that of a root-word. etc. (same as from ii-stems. striyds. b. hariprfyam. sing. : pi.). instr. are those of the other division. sing. like the masc. (compare purti: 342). We ^ the purpose ally efF7 papa. that direction'. only a few examples. striyai. and fern.). The occurrence of original adjectives in long final vowels. 341). 121 passages. so far as masculine and feminine forms are concerned. take for is 1 for all genders. 'from 'let her relatives sleep'. from come the masc. 'woman's milk'.). DERIVATIVE -. and fern. stri is not quotable). stri striyam or sfrfm. subhti. pi. 367. The noun strf. -ace. strindm. strfyas. masc. striydm. 'woman' (probably contracted from sutrl. 'genefollows a mixed declension thus.3 AND W-STEMS. forsooth. but the The stem examples given by the grammarians are fictitious. and mayobhu.). sing. To form a neuter stem in composition. Brahmana examples are: tdsydi di$dh (TS.6): svdpantv asydi jndtdyah. sing. final and these .). and it is necessary once in AY. (a masc. strlsu (but the accusatives strim and stris are not found in the older language. (nom. and fern. : . and fern. 'not'. but in in the older. .) stribhfs.). supud and mayobhtivd. and from stem-forms which might be masc. shorten the final to a in both masculine and neuter thus. like the simple words (only with in and un in ace. striyd. form). to the ydjyd'. jydyasl ydjydydi (AB. stem a. i.: compare 354). stris. fern. f. and the voc. form. derivatives in a : Compounds having nouns member are common only from of the second division as Such compounds with nouns 'childless'. strf. and of compounds having as final member a stem of the first division. and in the older language almost Of neuters from z-stems have been noted in the Veda only ace. from a-stems occur only half-a-dozen examples of a nom. unknown. striyos . and neut. strfyas or stnbhyds. masc. in i and u are said to be inflected in masc.. and suadhfas. strfydu. the rule of the later language is that the final long vowel be shortened and the stem so made is to be inflected like an adjective in i or u (339. apraja. . of which the feminine usu- made in m a in the later language. 366. B. striydi payah (AB. ace. gen. the forms (conspicuously the nom. 'that. in as.368] DECLENSION III. vibhti. 'superior ratress'). dhenvaf vd etdd retail (TB. a. stri is directed to be shortened to -stri for all genders. 368. 5. sing. 'progeny'. aprcy'a. sing. Adjectives. stribhydm. a. It is convenient to give a complete of an adjective-stem in [ paradigm. is the seed of the cow'. (iv.. Such neuter forms are very rare. and praja. 'evil'.

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.A. papayas papyas H(L(>J |i-| TO pap ay am papyam V. Ab. papam papim papaya papya papaya Ab.V. papayai papyai TOTH^ papat papayas papyas G. [368 m. TOt papas papam papa A. papi Dual: N.L papayos Plural : papibhyam os papyos N. papau I.122 Singular : V. N. papabhyam G. pape pape papyau D. papibhis HNH4H s papebhyas MNl^^UTT _ f -x papabhyas paplbhyas . papam TO^T papena D. papas A. papni paphni papas HNM papan MNIH papas papabhis D. f.Ab. papasya L.

with nf and usf. m. These are in general the normal. ends in ar. m. ending and lengthened before them. This declension is a comparatively limited one. nsf (in V. fuller in the strong cases. /--STEMS. savyasthr. ..) the stem-final or before a vowel-ending. chap.). The accus. pi. has ar as stem-final. sir (in V.. participially). s as fern. nf. f.. (or ar). which has a double form. is In the weak cases (excepting the loc. as . The that of stems in inflection of these stems is quite closely analogous with i and u (second declension) its peculiarity. changed regularly r But as regards the : strong cases. . the stems of this declension fall into two classes in one of them which is very much the larger. is r.). m. svdsr and ndnandr..) ends always in a (for original ars). and the irregular words sir and the r is vriddhied. sing.. and yhtr. the r is gunated. in the other. the loc. m. (129). papisu Stems in r 369.). see The feminines in tr are only matr. besides these. almost entirely composed of derivative nouns formed being with the suffix rT tr (or tar\ which makes masculine cT|" nomina agentis (used also relationship . containing all the nomina agentis. sing. sing. Endings. and the feminine numerals tisr and catasr (for which. sing. compared with them. the accus. consists mainly in the treatment of the stem itself. 370. VI.371] DECLENSION IV. In both classes. or becomes ar. briefer in the weak ones. savyasthr containing most of the nouns of relationship. or changed to ar. but with the following exceptions The nom. adds am to the (strengthened) stem. ending. sing. and a few nouns of But it includes also a few nouns of relationship not made with that suffix: namely devf. with the . (masc. 123 MM HIM papanam papanam paplnam papesu papasu Declension IV.. which in the weakest to cases. and fern. and also the nouns of relationship naptr and svdsr. : has r (like i and w-stems) n as masc. The voc. 371. f and. duhitr. Forms of the Stem.

in a majority The stem trisyllabic: wsr. as if in is but it s to analogy with I be read as if the regular . pi. [371 sing. sing. From In stf come only tdras (apparently) and stfbhis. 372. kartdri. but ndri.. the gen. r. on the corresponding syllable throughout. f. i the stem-final before wr (or us: 169. sing. for i Accent. The above tain deviations are the rules of the later language. ndnandari is once to be read ndnandri. Other irregularities of nr are the sing. usar. f.. The Veda writes always nrndm in gen. : forms already given above). Once occurs usri trisyllabic form. pi. without inserted n. sing. of declension. dat. in loc. 'father'. ndras. changes r to (as in it. Thus : instead of The ending in nom.. pitrtis. etc.. m. the r is almost always to be read as a separate syllable. the RV. . For neuter forms. f becomes The two monosyllabic stems. has the voc. -loc. Singular : ^THT dath A. nfbhis. As models of this we may take from the first class (with 'giver. 'dawn'. The gen. usrds usrds. the gen. has once svdsram. pi. The i of loc. do not show the monosyllabic accent thus (besides the .. usdri the exchange of and see 181 a). usram). The older presents cer- from them. ^oFfT svdsa focTT pith dataram svdsaram pitdram . On the contrary. usrdm (which is metrically and w-stems. its r is and loc. nr r. and stf. gen. ET^f ar in the strong forms) the stems ^JrT datr. m.-gen. (for also and loc. it continues. sing. etc. and lengthens But the r of nr may also remain short. 378. of cases metrically long. : The accentuation follows closely the rules and ?<-stems if on the final of the stem. in the weakest cases.). and : nardm instead of nrndm is frequent. end). du. and the accus. du.. the ending has the accent. except in the gen. before the ending os : thus. 373. pi. is (as universally in the Veda) regularly a du (only ten cm-forms in RV. and ^RT svdsr. and w-stems) inserts n before am. where it may be (and in the Veda always is) thrown forward upon the ending where. 'sister'. from the second class (with ar in the strong forms) the stem farT^r. sing. pi. v NOUNS AND - ADJECTIVES. Examples mode 5TTJ" of inflection. narc.. as acute. In the gen. see below... is lengthened to I in a few words thus.124 The abl.

V. ^3T datur pitur datdri L.A.373] 1. datros Plural : svdsrbhyam pitrbhyam pitros N. The feminine stem cisely like RT 'mother'.L. pitdrau datrbhyam G.. . svdsrbhyas pitrbhyas dafr'ntim L. . DECLENSION IV.Ab. piffnhm datrsu pitfsu atr. t "N.D. its is inflected preis ^r. "s dataras A. pitdri V. datre pitre Ab. pitdras datrn svdsrs pitfn 3JNPl datrbhis svdsrbhis pitfbhis D. /--STEMS. datarau I. dntar Dual pitar N. V. 125 fwr datrk svdsra pitrh D. G. excepting that accusative plural matfs.Ab. datrbhyas G.

Neuter forms. the usual employed: thus. loc. qualifying antdriksam.2). and bhartfni and janayitfni. menteur. substikrostu. balihft From some r-roots. dhmatdri. and such in- When a feminine noun is feminine derivative in I stances are not uncommon. when occurring as final member of a compound thus. matfn. x. common tendency nomen (compare agentis Fr. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. m. A. The RV. The stem krostf. a t Roots ending in : r (like those in i and u: 345) add make a declinable stem. etc. * V. dhdtrnl The weakest jectively : 344). for ex- ample : Sing. in M. however (as of are allowed also to be : and w-stems used adformed like the corre- sponding masculine cases thus. is to be qualified in like manner. see above (378). Thus. dhatri. shows the same tendency very curiously once in the accus. b. Thus. as. pitdra. 376. etc. 'karmakrt (]/ 'kr\ vajrabhft (ybfy). 339. precisely accordant plete neuter declension with that of vhri or mddhu (above. avdsara. Du.. b. under influence of the Retterin. Adjectives. in apposition with masculine nouns (RV. dhatrh No such neuter forms chance to occur in Germ. 341).. pi. The grammarians prescribe a com- also for bases in tr. we have in TB. a few more or less doubtful cases. menteuse) to give the a more adjective character. datdra. There are no original adjectives of this declension for the quasi-adjectival character of the nouns composing it. the Veda.. sing. dhatfni Plur. gen. janayitryas and janayitrydu. sthatar. Better. sing. are sthattir. dhdtfndm dhdtfni. [374 The peculiar Vedic forms have been sufficiently instanced above.. 374. I. in TB. sthatur. the the nom. and for the nom. 35. instead of -tr. dhdtar dhdtfbhyam dhatf nos G. making it correspond in gender with the noun which it (appositively) qualifies. qualifying dpah and ahoratre . to : see below. dhartdri (Lanman. qualifying ndksatrdni . . N. qualifying indriydni. pi. p. du.. : datrk. of nr. 422). but they begin to appear in the Brahmanas.126 V. nardm. sing. grahitfni. are made stems in ir and ur (yfo). The feminine stem is made by the suffix i: thus. cases. instead of matfs. . 383 a. only ones of other than sporadic occurrence being and the gen. 375. 'jackal' (lit'ly tutes in the middle cases the corresponding forms of 'howler'). also. bhartryas and bhartrydii. bhartf and janayitf. a. dhatf dhatfni dhdtfbhis dhatfna dhatfnas dhdtr. Other neuter forms in RV.

379 c. 377. and not with the declensional endings. Variations. Stems ending in Consonants.-acc. datfni. simple. DECLENSION V. the same final are inflected precisely alike peculiar (as usually in the all and neuters are only in the other declensions) nom. nasal sometimes appears in the from the weakest. in the masculine would doubtless have the Declension V. of all numbers. and B and us . when the gradation threefold. in sin- gular and dual from the is weak or. In this declension. or of three (strong. middle. of adjective 127 are in- Nouns in in r as finals compounds flected the . but stem in ^ * (never in 5TT a). according to the usual rule are made in in the plural from the strong stem. these have to do almost exclusively with the stem itself. are not form a special feminine deriv- The majority ative of consonantal inflected in the feminine. as between stronger and weaker forms. same manner as when in the neuter. 379.. 378. A is . though some of them exhibit inflection.-acc. the radical stems etc . and weakest): see above. singular from the middle stem. mddhuni. since. as forming a single comprehensive declension. however.-voc. For special cases.-voc. All stems ending in consonants may properly be peculiarities of classed together. they and feminine peculiar neuter endings in nom. Exceptions are in general the stems of divisions and those in as and namely. a . are very general among consonantal stems : either of two degrees (strong and weak). by adding that ending to the weak form of the masculine. of numbers. CONSONANT-STEMS.). stems. in dual ending in short vowels (asyatu. masculines and feminiiies of . As )&rmi. in the case of stems etc. peculiar neuter forms. see below. 311. The (311).

under divisions and E. from one another but these sometimes differ in stem-form. and irregularities of treatment of the final of the stem in this case are not infrequent. or in both.1 28 V. the general law as to finals (150). 380. 7) be questioned whether they are not late analogical formations. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. Comparatives in yas. (division A) are treated in the same way. Derivative stems in as. van). in inetc. the radical stems etc. vant). pi. Derivative stems in ant (ant. Perfect active participles in vans. vii. and -bhanji (KB. are never distinguished in form nor are. the nom. 381. monfinal). The gen. but examples of such neuters are of no Vedic text offers one. the nom. The endings are throughout those given above . excessive rarity in the older language and in the Brahmanas have been noted only -hunti (AB. to constitute division A. or those identical in form with roots. mant. is. Thus: B. especially radical stems. pi. shift of accent in the oldest 382. found nowhere is. vin). is By s of the nom. man. ing to the grammarians. sing. D. the fern. xxvii. sing. Accordin -ansi. us. is [379 else special neuter plural flection. and accus. C. : (310) as the "normal". There remain. A A few of the compounds of the root anc or ac show an irregular language: see below. cases which from the stems in Thus. 2. and may be best described together. 410. then. Derivative stems in in (in. and abl. number of others which They will be taken up in the order thus indicated. as. or in accent. 2). Derivative stems in an (an. -unsi are very common at every period. -insi. .). always lost. G. it be well to separate from the general mass of consonspecial classes antal steins certain which show kindred pe- culiarities of inflection. see below. will For convenience and clearness of presentation. it may -vrnti (PB. E.7 et al. us. by ending. and : Change in the place of the accent is limited to stems and the participles in dnt (accented on the osyllabic For details. masc. to1?. min. xvi. gether with a comparatively small are inflected like these.

added die. root. to the infinitive use of various cases of the root-noun in these two- forms. No proper root-stem ends 354) examples adds a t in a short vowel. (V. tvdc. srdj from ysrj. see chap. rtt. path. element 'foot' . mus from ymus. although there are (above. and dytit if Of roots in r. 'heart' . 401). gfr. vrif from and from roots in final r come stems yvrafc (?). t/5 from yvas 'shine'. vrt.. dp. stut. and psur from ypsar. pur. vdnivan. a root : thus. are not always precisely identical in form with thus. and those inflected like them. (see below. hfd. Grammar. the root Such stems. mdh 'great'. dhtir. pad. 'direction'. mur. but -Urt. 'verse' . : in ir and ur : thus. 'water' . gir. -jft. as. but having the aspect of root-stems. the adjective use as final of a compound is very common b.). . 383. and the examples are comparatively few. as containing no traceable suffix tainly connectible 'skin' : thus. root at will in this but in the classical Sanskrit the power of using any way In all periods. however. in uncompounded use are tolerably frequent in RV. 'mouth' kakubh and kakud. Root-stems. Words of this division : in the older language thus. however. XIII. As regards the frequency and use of these words. as has just been seen. 3tur. demonstrable 'song' . of transfer of such to vowel-declensions thus. Stems more or made with 9 : Whitney. this is taken } a few of them (mtt. to having in them no re. hrtit. With these may be ranked the stems with reduplicated yaviytidh. vr. sasydd. dhr. ttir. . -crtit. and some of them continue in later use. hvr add the t. The Veda offers examples of nearly thirty such formations. while others have been transferred to other modes of declension or have become less extinct. about sixty. 129 A. clearly derivative. dyugdt. : Root-stems. kr. . are found more than a hundred of them . The stems of this division may be classified as follows a. CONSONANTAL ROOT-STEMS etc. stir. i or u or r to make a declinable form: Roots in r > however. but Thus suffixes of rare or even isolated occurrence. vac from yvac. sr spr ) hr. d. a-ffr. and samhdt}. is lost. . Stems made by the addition of t to a final short vowel of a root. As C.383] DECLENSION V. Monosyllabic (also apparently reduplicated) stems not cerwith any verbal root in the language. in AV. The roots ga (or gam) and han also &Ar. make -gdt and -hdt by addition of the t to an abbreviated form in a (thus r adhvagdt. 'road' . 'summit' Thirty or forty such words are found in the older language. dhvr. A. . navagdt. jur. as ciktt. also make stems in ir or ur. the same is true as was stated above respecting root-stems. from dyu) in independent use.

ddm. ydn (for yunk). derivatives (V. samvdt. Urn. without changing its gender. such as vistdp. dos. also used concretely : use of their adjective value below. and the numerals for '30.. (475). fdkrt.) in tat (perhaps abbreviated from lated forms 3. The stem -drf. quantity of the stem-vowel. stems in ad: thus. vehdt. sing. jnds. are hrd (also -hard). sartt. trihfdt etc. 407 ff . nomen actionis. e The independent neuter stems mds 'flesh'. 6. fdkrt. bhasdd. c. paravdt. dsrj. svardfk. udvdt. : tati].): see below. upardtat. sravdt. trsndj. For path and pums. 4. Strong and weak stem-forms. isfdh. 1. kdprth. avdt. cardd. as long or short. ydkrt. cases of the follow- nom. : extended stems. nivdt. The stem member the root ac or anc: (V. g. bhds. tadfk. a few stems ending in a sibilant apparently formative : thus. kidfn. 40. nintj(?). bhdsj mds.130 1. ndpat. 400). (ydruh. . rohtt.. satydtat. accus. [333 derivatives (V.. . the masculines are much less numerous than the feminines. druhi. enemy' And some of the feminines bordering on the masculine value. raghdtf?). as final of a compound (V. which substitute more . and the indeclinables fdm and y<5& : also the derivatives ydkrt. 50'. Through the whole division. masc. devdtat. bhis . a few iso- thus. preceded by various vowels: thus. Gender. a remnant of unclassifiable cases. safcdt. dhrsdd. 385. pravdt. yosit. sarvdtat t. and the neuters rarest of all. divtt. A : nasal appears in the strong as final J/MJ. : thus. dhrsdj. Compounds having b. and masculine as nomen agentis (which is probably only a substantive But the feminine noun. utfj. sometimes thus. vtpaf. hater. and not always thus. 386. dsrj. enmity'. or by a difference less in the often. and also 'harmer. drsdd. stems in j. The root-stems are regularly feminine as 384. be inimical') means thus 'harming. by other methods.) from prepositions with the suffix vat: arvavdt. but only in the nom. is often : e. martit. svbr. The two classes of forms is distinc- tion of these usually made either by the presence or absence of a nasal. v NOUNS AND - ADJECTIVES. vandd. vrkdtat. have a completely concrete meaning. prkstidh. 3946. in . vdghat. 2. hartt. vanfj. : 387. see below. and for dant. other derivatives in preceded by various vowels tadft. sadrn and pratisadrn : but also Idrk. etc. anyadrn. sandj bhurfj. ytinja (but also ytijam and yuja). ing words a. du. -das. The vowel a is lengthened in strong cases as follows .d. vahdt. ds 'mouth'. sing. vdr.). 5. yCinjam.

). jnasds. : 403 5 . surd and suras (but sure). neut. In dvar. and vdnas and bfhas (in vdnaspdti. in a few instances (V. sing. rant and ransw. (V. pi. 388. occur as follows sddd.. 390. sing. vfpas. Attention may be called to a few exceptional cases of combination . 'nose'. sridhds. are: is both -pat and -pat. hrutds. it. a. through classes of cases. Monosyllabic stems have the regular accent of such. as well as the treatment of the latter when it occurs at the end of the word. dvisds. by elision of a or : contraction of the syllable containing a. and sardt and sarddbhyas corresponding to a nom. of differentiation. Of ap 'water' (see 393) . the rules of euphonic combination (chap.).. Other modes see below. vdnsu. Of the roots vah and sah. brhaspdti}. contracted (V. and RV. c.) sur in weak cases : classes). 'foot': in the compounds of this word. tana (also tana) and tdne. and AV. sing. Ddn is apparsardghas (instead of sardhas : 222).): madbhis and mddbhyds from mas 'month' the wholly anomalous padbMs (RV. pi. along with prolongksamd instr. ksdmi. CONSONANTAL ROOT-STEMS etc. c. padds. yaj pathds and -rapas. accus. 143. throwing the tone forward upon the endings in the weak cases. srucds. On the other hand. but irregularly see . third) nidds. pathds. nom. isds. sing. and sometimes in vacds. . in only a minority (hardly more namely in druhds (beside v&cas : etc. all The strengthened forms bhdj and raj are constant. sap. neuter stems.: AV. upon the datds. and VS. is the same lengthening the nom.390] DECLENSION V. ksdmd . usds. apds. in nom. In svar. Sporadic cases (V. Of nas. which becomes ksmds abl. in made e. -voc. masds.). weak cases d. ksapds. Of the roots vac. ently for ddm. In of a: thus.. by pi. A. .. durds. unless they end in a nasal or a semivowel. has always padbhis} from pad.) are to be consulted they require much more constant and various application here than anywhere else in declension. d. voc. indeclinable. . Respecting their combination with the final of the stem. nddbhyas. nabh. pas. Exceptional instances. : a of the ending stems . ksdmas pi.) vdnivanas. Of pad. du. end. 379. see above. also in its compound in rltyap . But the accusative plural has its normal accentuation as a weak than case. in the middle cases also . Brahmanas. in which a weak case has the tone on the stem. take consonant.) to dur in (but with some confusion of the two later it is (RY. Agnfdh is abbreviated from ayni-fdh. a strong case is accented 9* . svdni. 402. while -pddbhis and -patsu occur the (?). f. sac. appear in a few stems ksam (V. ksdmi loc. puthsds. According final to the grammarians. mahds . dhhas. 389. in the later language. 131 end of compounds below. b. at the b. and as regards adjective stems ending in a root. In -han: ation sing. III. a strengthening nasal before the But no such cases from neuter noun-stems appear ever to have been met with in use. The endings are as stated above (380). pi. vipds. -ace.

Vimrdhdh is of pra-fs. in the neuter.. As inflection. G. padas trivnti vacds. H^(H vagbhytim padbhyam marudbhyam marutos trivfdbhyam G. 'foot'. 391. For the sometimes anomalous accented as accentuation of stems in ac or anc. : Singular N. f. And is and kasdm (AV. H ^^marut.A. if pres were a simple stem. f^eJH trivrt.. with constant prolong- ation). vact padi maruti trivrti Dual: N.V. 'HIS pade marute trivfte f^^rlTT padds trivftas L. vacas padds marutas trivfnti . presd. of inflection with strong and stem. of a monosyllabic root-stem in composition.V. vacos Plural : pados trivftos N. vace Ab. uom. 'wind' m. an example of take the normal monosyllabic cHrT vac.. r "^ vacas A. 'three-fold'. sing. vak A.132 V. see 410. instr.V. i_ _ " padau marutau trivrti D. Thus : or 'wind-god'.. m. we may weak stem 'voice' (from y^ff vac. Examples of inflection.L. instead of doubtful character. perhaps a false reading). NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. pi. q^~ pad. of polysyllabic inflection. pad marut trwrt vacam padam pada marutam trivrt maruta trivfta D. : i390 on the ending in mahds. Ab.. vacau I.

394. m. 133 vagbhis padbhis marudbhis trivfdbhis D. The vocative inflected later language. lengthen their vowel (245 b) when their final is followed by another consonant.. pumansau. padam marutam trivrtam C patsu marutsu trivftsu 392. pumsu. The stem dp. The stem path. it will be noticed. ( water'.Ab. adbhis. pumsi. 393. pumbhis. and losing its s (necessarily) before initial bh of a case-ending. is inflected only in the plural. Thus puman. 'man'.395 DECLENSION V. has the in an instance or sing. below. girau. girsu (165) puram. aphvn. pi. . nor do they appear to have been cited from the later. somewhat similarly perfect pitman in the : pumshm. defective in declension. apds. : . g'irbhyUm. and likewise (by analogy with this. m. pumansas. forms are confused and (in in use. two in RV. or by an abbreviation akin with that noticed at 231) in the loc. . and so pur. (where the following s is lost) thus. apsu. the apd and gen. giros giras. glrbhyds. 'road'. is (in accordance with that of the : below. see 183. and nom. CONSONANTAL HOOT-STEMS etc. is very irregular. of the weak forms. girh etc. f. f song'. Upas. sing. pumbhytim. giram. pumsds.). ^Ir (^ijj. and with dissimilation of its final before bh to d (151 d) : thus. instr. pumsos . apds.. and u and ws. girbhis. aclhsuj and so on. pumansam. is that of a true The forms with &/i-endings nowhere occur in the older As to the language. and afis. In AV. pi. acisa. f. aclrbhis. forming only the weakest cases. adbhyds. pumse.. is 395. plural. The accentuation monosyllabic stem. an instance or two) apds as nominative. giram. and accus. puman... 433. . The stems in ir and wr. But RV.. padbhyds mariidbhyas trivrdbhyas vacam L. substituting pumcihs in the strong cases. purbhis. often. pumsa. and also in the nom. acisam. The stem pums. retention of s unlingualized in the weakest cases (whence necessarily follows that in the loc. pursu. A. and the middle from pathl : see under anstems. pumbhyds. vagbhyds G. while the strong are made from pdntha or pdnthan. 462 a) participles but pumas in the earlier. dpas being employed as accus. pumsds. from yzV.

Thus. On the other hand. 'ordure'. nds. 398. mdsa. Such are pdda.. we find mds. From pft occurs only the loc.). dadbhyds. found in the older language). the ace. is perhaps of participial and has.). 'blood'.. found 'fore-arm'. ddntam. and tid. Adjectives. ddn. data. It makes a derivative feminine stem. certain stems of this division. mds. sing. which continues in use. origin. 'water'. 'heart'. nifd. pura. however... 400. only a case or two are found. [396 396. m. dfd. is anything but the nom. 'great'. bhrdjd. etc. n. sing. (the neuters. making But the usage in the older language : not entirely in accordance with this require- thus. n. Of have beside them defective stems in an: see below. f. sing. as meaning 'earth' etc. allowed by the grammarians a full inflection. 399. more commonly in the later. thus. About a dozen are quotable from the RV. like a participle. Thus. dhura.. the strong cases of this word are required to be made from ddnta. ds. same case with double ending. and uddn and tidaka (432). : 397. Hooth'. are said the accus. nom.. of course. m. them ment respectively from hfdaya. nidd. A number of other words of this division are demaking part of their inflection from stems of a differhfd. ksapd. prtsti prtstisu. ddnta. sing. and weak But in the middle cases it has the monosyllabic and not etc. m.. The stem ddnt. for the most part only in a few scattering cases. once) the 'nostrils'. is common in RV. But mah.134 v NOUNS AND - ADJECTIVES. do's. accus.. in the older language. pi. -mdda. in the older language. n. is numbers and also). 'month'. ent form. fective. pi. and perhaps a few others. dvdra and dura. -drya. f. 'meat'. -ace. and ndsa. Original adjectives having the root-form are comparatively rare even in the oldest language. (also dsrj f n. pi. thus (V. and other cases later are but very scantily represented. A number similar cases occur. By the grammarians. mahi. sporadically in the older language.. ndsikd.. masa. mds. -ddfa. mdnsd. fdkrt. participial accent occurs also -datas instead of -dantas. 'night' (not mds.. mdhs or 'nose'. ksipd. pftand. the In nom. ydkrt. pft. vistdpa. 'mouth'. Some transition of the alternative stems mentioned above are instances of : from the consonant to a vowel declension of other thus. dadbhis. of and du. strong datds ace.. ndsa. and (RV. Of none of them.. the forms ddnt and ddt. 'month'. beside asdn and dsya. f.. 'flesh'.. n. n. nip. A few irregular stems will find a more proper place under the head of Adjectives. : . pi. du. 'liver'. though it dies out rapidly later. all 'army'. by the grammarians to lack the nom. are used to fill up the deficiencies of tho'pe of another form.. . n. 432.

of all numbers. 'with offered bowl' : . CONSONANTAL ROOT-STEMS etc. 'slay'. 420 ff. and those with pad. Only rarely is a derivative feminine stem in I formed ff. having a root as final member. 'sun-skinned' . h in contract with : Thus Dual. A. : in the older language.-acc. Singular. cdtuspad. of the same form.). with the value of a present participle. sing. 'kindriti-ap]. flected Further. 'having streaming waters' . loc. vrtrahdnam . is lost. only from the compounds with ac or one (407 (402). those with han Irregularities of inflection appear in the following : The root han. friendly'. also.. becoming ha in the nom. A. suhurd.). sahdsradvar. following n reverts to its original gh. when the vowel sing. hearted.-voc. are not very rare examples are yatdsruc. 'four-footed The inflection of such compounds is like that of the simple root-stems.). Possessive adjective compounds. as ekapadi. 'furnished with a thousand doors'. are abundant in every period of the language. rityap (i. and losing its n in the middle cases and its a in the weakest cases (but only optionally in the 402. is insomewhat like a derivative noun in an (below. 135 401.403] DECLENSION V. But compound adjectives. dvipddl. and the neuter varying only in the nom. e. as final of a compound. . s&ryatvac. masculine and feminine being throughout the same.

I. -sdt. namely anadvdh (anas -\-vah. The its s is root sah. and middle cases from avayds. -vdhdu or -vdha. Of very common compound : middle anadud (perhaps by dissimilation from anadud}. in nom. from Thus : Singular. in the weakest anadu/i. are made in van and van a v ant-stem}. has the irregular nom. the only The corresponding feminine stem anaduhi (QB. 406. and its a while is it sometimes either prolonged or remains unchanged. anc makes.. (of very infrequent occurrence) either 405. {. to make The root ac or 407. -sdha. Its stem-form in the bearing' or 'cart-drawing' 'ox'). -sdha (du. is said to form the nom. a considerable class of familiarly used adjectives. avayas is probably from ava -j. character of root. 'a certain priest' or sing. sing. pasthavdt. 'conciliate'. _. If the Its only quotable form is avayds. certain its sacrifice'. (RV. -sdhe or -sdhas or -sdhas or -sdhas. sing. of quite irregular formation and inflection. The compound avaydj (BR. part of these A : . f. and in the 404. Dual. and AV. and voc. G. its nom. strong cases is anadvah. from anks.) 'a 'make offering'). anadvaham anaduha anaduhe ' \ ) anadvahau 3 ~-i- anadvdhas anaduhas anadudbhis | D. sing.yyd. anadvdn . dnadvan anadvahau is dnadvahas middle case-form quotable from is Anadudbhyas (AV.). -sahas or -sdhas. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. once) the older language. sing.). which has the same meaning. L. avayas. vas. N. in some of which it almost loses its and becomes an ending of derivation.136 able) is VI. tvdrh sdt) remains unchanged after an i or w-vowel. A.. TS. only strong forms of compounds with vah have been found to occur: namely. Compounds with anc or ac.anadudbhyam \ \anadudbhyas I } anaduhas t anaduham anaduhos anadutsu anaduhi } | V.. -vdham. (j/yaj. masc. 'overcome'. -vdt. in combination with prepositions and other words. ) Plural.) or anadvahl (K. The quotable forms -sdhe. irregular formation and inflection is one of vah. a adjectives have only two stem-forms strong in anc (yielding an. has in the Veda a double irregularityalso in its single oc- as changeable to * even after an a-vowel currence as an independent adjective (RV. are : -sdham or -sdham or -sdham. 'burdeni. each once). stein is a derivative from ava-{-yyaj. and voc. and -vdhas. [403 said to be further irregular in making the nom.). e. (as if Moreover. in vas and the vocative in vas or In the earlier language. in both strong and weak cases.

: 'backward. V. A. 'forward. before which the a is contracted with a preceding i or u into i or u. others distinguish from the middle in ac a weakest stem in c. we may visvanc. pratyak vfsvak pratydncam pratyak pratlcd pratice vfsvancam vfsvak vfsucd vfsuce pratlcds pratlci visucas vCsuci . CONSONANTAL ROOT-STEMS etc. As examples of east' . inflection . Singular N. The feminine is made by adding and is I to the stem-form used in the weakest cases. 1 pratydnc. west' pratydn 'going apart vfsvan . 408. accented like them. 137 and a weak in ac .410] DECLENSION V. take prhnc.

and even in polysyllabic stems. u) nom. praticl. Their inflection is almost entirely regular. and later texts usually keep the accent upon the stem: it : thus. the contraction to samici. As examples we m.. prdca. Derivative stems in as. stems in the nas. without any apparent reason for the difcompound is accented on the final syllable. ^TJ^T havis. sing. make the same prolongation a or ^ i or 3 before the inserted nasal (anusvara).. to samici. dngirase havise H^HH mdnasas JbH^-^HH dngirasas ^fc^^^ havisas . anUcl (RV. 411. [410 the sometimes the other. the others and made with the suffixes ^js 3H V 413. and a single feminine. ending in the weakest cases provided their stem shows thus. (of 5f neut. 412. The stems The and of this division are prevailingly neuter. but pratlcd. us.-acc. adhardcas. and almost and some are obscure).. mdnas dngiras havis mdnas dngirasam havis mdnasa dngirasa havisa mdnase Ab. 'An- giras'. Examples JHT mdnas. But masculine and feminine stems in of the ending in ^H as lengthen the vowel pi..-voc. *X : of declension. If v NOUNS AND - ADJECTIVES. the accent is to the i shifted in RV. has praticlm once). is The change of accent the endings. and also mostly made with suffix 5fH as small number with clTT tas ^ are few. and the nom. may take 'mind'. n. or But AV.G. anucds. all ^f as are quite (a numerous. N. B. but there are also a few masculines. n. " v ^H^H*Sdngiras. 414. is.138 the tone and ference. arvdca. Singular 'libation'. against all usual analogy.

but give it the irregular nom.) sing.): thus. du. to$tisd. L. and b. From svdvas and svdtavas occur in RV. c. B.A. DERIVATIVE STEMS IN as. dngirasas manobhis D. Vedic irregularities. instead of du is as usual elsewhere. mdnahsi I. The fern. usdsam. rasam havisam o mdnahsu dngirahsu tftHH havihsu 'eye'. ' n. occurs (RV. proper the are 416. in like manner the JanHs has the nom. like an as-stern. manobhyam G. are met with. as regular stem-form of the name noticed above (355 a). dngirobhis havirbhis mdnobhyas G.V. dngirobhyas havlrbhyas mdnasam L.Ab. ucanas or ufana or uyanan. . The masc. sing. 139 mdnasi V. u^dnd and voc. TJ^I^IH"X cdksurbhyam. The grammarians regard ufdnas. and surddhds for surddhasas. dngirasau havisi D. often usds. is. mdnasi I.. ri^fq 6\ a. prolongs its a in the other strong cases (besides nom. In instr.V. vedhdm for vedhdsam. and so on. From tofds is once found (RV. usasas. e. janUs.416] L. us. angirobhyam havirbhyam mdnasos Plural : dngirasos havisos N.. forms v3 cdksusa. masc. ending d 'dawn'. sometimes met with in the later literature. (only quotable example of a middle du. pi. once) usddbhis instead of usdbhis usdsd. r O "X cdksus. sing. In like manner. nom. DECLENSION V.A. even nom. d. dngirasi havisi mdnas Dual: ngras hdvis N. case). in van... O 415. nom.Ab. pi. One or two apparently contracted forms thus. m. Forms from the as-stem. cdksunsi. masc. fern.

final . 'quick'. Adjective are dirghayus. vedhds. in as (like dngiras. sing. dirghdyusau -yusl dlrghdyusas -yunsi dlrghdyusam etc.140 As below. apds. 'wonder' and 'wonderful' of this . m. V" 'heat' and 'hot' . the stems in as making their nom. is Original adjectives in as do not occur. and accus. yacds. dlrghdyurbhis etc. ) f. 'long-lived' is The stem-form the cukrdgocis. ra. dual. as tavds. A few neuter nouns in as with accent on the radical or appellatives in as. 419. all 'favorably minded' brightness'. n. masc. of this division are those 420. forms from as-stems dhan or altar and udhan see 430. the nom. few other similar adjectives are without corresponding nouns. n. and ^T van. sumanasam isumanasau ) -nasi all sumanasas genders. \ 421. tar&s. ydcas. 'mighty'. 418. and in several instances adjective and noun stand side by side. sumdnas -nas -nas A. for example. 'time' in the forms the nom. without difference of accent such as appears in the stems in as: e. N. -nansi and the other cases (save the vocative) are alike in From N. dirghdyus. sumdnas. to V. The stem later language). 'unrivalled' (defined as meaning aneha. m. with syllable have corresponding adjectives accent on the ending: thus. f. and each gender is inflected in the usual manner. in like manner: >. many tdpus. g. are as follows above). same for : singular. The stem has a triple form. The stems made by the three suffixes EFT an. together with a like few of more questionable etymology which are inflected them. compounds having nouns very division as member common . 'active'. -yus dlrghdyusa dlrghdyurbhyam etc. n. vdpus. R man. masc. plural. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 417. one/ids. But in us are found adjectives as nouns (about ten of each class). Derivative stems in an. apas. and fern. Thus. C. : thus. I. of the In the strong cases is of the masculine. tdras. 'beauteous'. to [41 e or udhar. f. 'beauty'. and fern. Adjectives. 'having brilliant genders. the vowel ending prolonged to . dirghdyus A. from sumdna$. They are masculine and neuter only. sing. 'work'. A 'pious' 'quickness'.

: 'name'. DERIVATIVE STEMS IN an. pi.-acc. the a may be either rejected or re(compare the corresponding usage with r-stems 373). The vocative sing.. In the loc. it 141 in the weakest cases is in general struck out al- or before a case-ending bewith a consonant. sing. ' self. to avoid a too great accumulation of consonants.424 ETT DECLENSION V. the final ^ n is dropped. S(H*S ttirH^ atmdn. du. 'king'. in the middle cases. is in masculines the pure stem . 5f have the lengthening as weakest cases. have the loss of a but this only optionally. The rest of the inflection requires no description. to 5fT a. taken ^TsR rajan. The ginning ^ n is also lost in the nom. an acute d of the suffix is lost. And after the m or v of man or van. sing. either this or like the nominative. m. as strong cases. m. as final in the masculine. <i. weakest cases. As such may be 'soul. the tone thrown forward upon the ending. "^ n. ^TsTT tjirHi raja atma *rm nama rajanam atmanam nama rajna atmdna namna rajne atmdne namne raj'nas atmdnas namnas .-acc. when these are preceded by another consonant^ the a is always retained. Thus: /' Singular N. in neuters. Examples ? of declension.-voc. also.. f a in the neuter). not necessarily.. naman. tained : 422. The logy peculiar cases of the neuter follow the usual ana- (311): the nom. C.-voc. in the is 423. 424. it needs only to be remarked that when. As to accent. the nom. of both genders (leaving 5TT together.

. atmhnau namnl. namani V. [424 rajni. cented murdhna.. murdhni or murdhdni]. du. atmdnam L. murdhnds (ace. .142 L. writes once $atadavni.. and so in all similar cases (loc. MlrMH ro/a?^ SIHH atmdsu The weakest cases of murdhdn. fiifr^ rajnos Plural: N. { atmdbhis namabhis |sl^6| H^ atmdbhyas JbllrHHIH HIH^UH^ namabhyas rajabhyas G. V. . the ending of the nom. ^isiMH^ rajanas atmhnas namani SIHIM rajnas atmdnas rajabhis D. ^head'. but AV. etc. be read fataddvani. as elsewhere. murdhnam.-acc. nama rajanau I. murd/mos. naman. a. sing. Ab. is usually a instead of aw.). murdhdn. V. m. murdhne. Here. 425. is common RV.-voc. kdrman. would be acpi. The briefer is form (with ejected a) of the loc. b. sing.. almost unknown to the older language. rajani atmdni namni. (in sing. nom. But throughout both Veda and Brahmana.Ab.. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. L. tman Dual: N. or identical with the stem. masc.D. etc. c. A. an abbreviated form of the loc. of considerably more frequent occurrence than the regular form): ' thus. RV. such forms as dhamani and samani are much it is to more common than such as ahni and lomni. du. namani {(sc-UM^ rajabhyam atmdbhyam MrH*TlH^ a^wiawos namabhyam G. Vedic Irregularities. with the ending i omitted. beside murdhdni etc. ddhvan. and a few similar cases occur in In the Brahmanas also. and of the neut..

From a few stems in : man is made an once) abbreviated inst. which is the usual Vedic form from stems in vant (below. rtauas. And draghmd (RV. mdtarifvas. uksdn. abbreviation of dtmdn . evayavas. remains. infinitive Still bhtimana. 'generous' (later. Thus : .. has once the weak form maghdnas in nom. yosan. The voc. maghdvatsu.429] d. uksdnas vidmdne. pusa. few steins do not make the regular lengthening of 426. The RV. (not maghdvabhis etc. a name 428. has once yUna for yuvana. perhaps by a transfer to the uarU-declension: thus. almost exclusively of Indra). bull' (but : to demand a where a is written. e. and yuvan. for example. pi. beside brdhmani : compare the similar series of endings from a-stems. The names of divinities. 'maiden': vfsanam and vfsanas are also met with). The stem maghdvan. rnaghdvadbhis. vibhavas. maghdva. sing. and two or three other scattering forms anarvdnam.-acc. In the ddvdne. 453 b). is. cune. pi. instead of ani : thus. DECLENSION V. is contracted in the weakest cases to maghon: maghdvanam. instances which the omitted in the written form of the metre shows.. making a part of their forms from other stems.). For words of which the a is not made long in the strong cases. g. trdmane. mahina. ydmanas. vfsan. In the nom. 'bull' (but RV. &/mna. mahimnd f. etc. 329. is perhaps (Grassmann) for drdghmdnd.. also. etc. cvftnam. Parallel with this is found the stem maghdvant (division E). 'virile. cvabhis. sing. The stems qvdn. and from the latter alone in the older language are made the middle cases: thus. prathina. etc. in 427. have weakest cases the contracted form cun and yhn (with in the strong and middle cases they retention of the accent) the . cuna. pusdnam.). with loss of for m as well as of a etc. jemana. etc. sing. more numerous are text. pusdn and aryamdn: thus. maghona. maghone. C. in the a always a. 'young'. In the Veda. 429. Other of the weakest cases than the : loc. brdhma and brdhma. And in a number of additional instances. m.. a. cvti. in vas. sing.). are regular. Thus a in the strong cases (except the nom. etc. cvdbhyam. see the next paragraph. khidvas (?). ending in a or (twice as often) a. thus. prena. Thus. thus. prataritvas. are sometimes found with the a of the suffix retained thus. the as the (accus. pi. RV. A number of an-stems are more or less defective. etc. is found also from a few in van. uksdnam once). DERIVATIVE STEMS IN an. varina. : A puma. fmdn.. In dual. datives ddmane. 143 is neut. etc. dana. to be restored in reading. b. the Vedic metre seems b. 'dog'. an abbreviated form common.

pdnthanam and pdnthanas are rare compared with the others. Earlier occurs also the dual dosdnl. 'blood'. yusdn. In ahas.. has once pathds. dhabhyas. RV. other cases from the an-stems . pathi. The stems mdnthan. pdnthanau.. pathds patham. 432. . sakthni or sakthdni. pathmdm. and the weakest from path. pathos. and asthdbhyas sakthdni. adds a s. udhahsu. pdnthas.-acc. . the middle cases dhabhis. The stem Udhan.. dsrj. later : from pdnthan from pathi from path (accus. In composition. m.. 'broth'. 'stirring-stick'. yakdn. . dhar nom.144 V. dksi so on . aksna. The stem dhan. and the rest of the inflection is made from stems in i. is reckoned in the language as making the complete set of strong cases. as final member. The neuter stems asdn.. epithet of Indra. pi. exchanges in like manner. qdkrt. b. even in AV. etc. the middle (with the nom. dhani (and. pi. sing. asthdbhis. but dhna etc. is in the later language used only in the strong and weakest cases. a. dhobhyam. the strong stem pdnthas. but has become later an as-stern only (except in the fern. (PB. occur : thus. 'udder'. the ahan. 431. m. oldest language. only dhni or dhani. 'water'. sing. ace. udhar or udhas (so RV. 'day'. 'road'. are required to make their nom. nom. 'eye'. . m. ace. : AV. 'liver'. pathlsu . aksdni and aksdbhis asthdni. dhobhis. pi. sakthdn. In V. pdnthanas. Thus 433. alma... The corresponding middle cases are made from pathi. nom. uddn. yusa. pathds. sing. 'mouth'. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. pdnthanam. : see above. patha. ahar or ahas is used as preceding member . 'bone'. In the older . dosdn. -ace. with the irregularity that the nom. n. dadhnds. pathibhis. with long a. language. aksdn.. pi. 'curd'. is only pdnthd: and pdnthas. dhasu also occur. udhabhis.). pathe.. sing. with udhar and udhas. which usually follows their analogy) coming from dhar or ahas : namely.-voc. form in the later language only dadhdn. etc. pathdyas and gen. in the old language. however. dhni or dhani.. pathibhyam. or the derivatives aha. ydkrt. the weakest cases. cakdn r asdn. an given by the grammarians the same inflection with but only a few cases have been found in use. in V. thus. are pdnthan. In the oldest language (RV. udhnl of adjective compounds): thus. udaka dos.. only the latter). 'fore-arm'. occur from . The neuter stems 'thigh'. 343 f. aha). udhnas.-voc. in all numbers (in from the parallel stems language udakd]. and rbhuksdn. has aharbhis}. asya. older The stem pdnthan. n. pdntham. 'ordure'. From patht occur also the nom. asthdn. ahar. asthne.). 434. sing. [430 430. pathlbhyas. udhan or udhani. which are fully inflected.

). since almost any noun in a in the language may form a possessive derivative adjective with made by adding The stems i. sutvan. and neut. mdntham. The stem is masc. which are after quite another model. the 435. as ydjvan. m. and f^R vin. -aha. rbhuksdnas. in the neuter. Whitney. Their inflection is quite regular. sing. somarajm. . Stems in vin.. 'pressing the soma'. and those in still fewer. yajvari. and also in the nom. only (two jitvan. Derivative stems (adjective) in 438. sing. 10 . DERIVATIVE STEMS IN an. . jrpr min. D. 'strength'. but also the ace. the corresponding feminine is in a. n. rbhuksdnam and nom.439] the DECLENSION V. Original adjective stems in an are almost exclusively those in van. mathlndm the cor- responding cases from pdnthan) from the the nom. : lose 437. -raja. are allowed to be widely formed in the compounds of this division. the masculine lengthens the < The voc. sing. the corresponding feminine being ^ in in are numerous. And feminines in a.. thus. balin. corresponding fern. and gen. 'conquering'. 'possessing strength. pi. bdla. in. however. strong'. is in the masculine the bare stem. The remaining divisions of the consonantal declension made up of adjective stems only. pi. C. f. are very few. where i by way of compensation. rbhuksds and voc. occur in RV. or three sporadic cases of its use as fern. Grammar. pi. rbhuksas. 145 (like former the sing. like the corresponding Vedic forms of pdnthan. except that they lose their final ^ n in the middle cases (before an initial consonant of the ending). mm 439. They are mascuand neuter only. Adjectives. stem is made in vari: thus.. either this or the nominative. durnamnl. replacing an. jitvari. balirii. But nouns in an occuring the n. or substitute a stem in a as for final that in members an: of compounds often -adhva. masculine forms are said to be allowed in use also as feminine but usually a special feminine is made by adding I to the weakest form of the masculine stem thus. sing. are The stems of this division are those formed with line the suffixes ^f in. Adjective inflected member are noun in an as final compounds having after the model of noun-stems and the a . 436. ace. this suffix: thus. 'sacrificing'. latter.

They are masculine is neuter only. SIMM balini balinos sJM^j balisu V. baline balibhy Ab. Example Singular. As such may be Plural. . IH ant (or at\ being. balina balibhis D. Thus: Dual. n. balk bali n. of inflection. (khlH balinam GJM bait balinas bafini I. x m. 442. m. 'strong'. srf^RT balinau balini A. the w-declension latter it differs from the agrees with the aw-declension the vowel of the ending. with a very exceptions. will . N. 1. balini balinau The derived feminine stem like in is of course. never losing only in 440. in either the earlier language or the later usual* Vedic dual ending in a instead of ait. active participles. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. balibhyas balinam L. sjidHi bali <MHH! balini ini i ^M^H^ balinas inflected. corresponding feminine made by ad- ding ? I. balinas G. Derivative stems (adjective) in ant (or at}. it 439 these respects. except the E. These stems the suffix fall into two sub-divisions: ?IrT those made by few 2. in- 441. taken srf^FT balm. those made by (or the possessive cfrT J7H niant and and Sffi^vant T^rnat and the vat}. There are no irregularities in the inflection of stems. present suffixes and future . b&lin b&lin.146 In all V. any other feminine in derivative (365). be noticed.

Even these verbs are allowed by the grammarians to make the nom. Vavrdhdnt (RV. the latter is with. the remaining cases.-acc. Further. from either the stronger or the ticiples by the grammarians allowed to make the nom. once). neut. cdksat. and the present participles of verbs of the tod-class or accented a-class (752). pi. the participles of roots apparently containing a contracted reduplication namely. 447. Examples of declension. the nominative. the ati if it is lost. But. Those verbs. form The vocative of each gender like 446. however. fffsat. pres. a stronger and a weaker..447] DECLENSION V. The nom. the future participles. the n retained. Such are the verbs forming their present-stem by reduplication without added a : namely. in accordance with the rule for the formation of the feminine stem (below. ending respectively in 5JfT ant and EFT ^- The former taken by all is taken in the strong cases of the masculine. du. as usual. comes. As such may serve 10* . DERIVATIVE STEMS IN ant. vavrdhdsva. from yhu.- acc. and have no distinction of 444. masc. participle-stem jtihvat . and of verbs of the ad-class or rootclass ending in a. like the desiderative participles (1032). ddfat.-acc.weaker stem and the present par. sdfcat] and the aorist participle dhdksat. strong and weak stein. The inflection of these stems to is quite regular. the nom.-voc. 147 Participles in ant or at. pi. active lose ^ n of the usual ending f^f nti (550) lose it also in the present participle. present-stem juhu. 449). from all other present-stems ending in a are required to make the same from the strong stem. comes (150) loss of the two final end in ER an by the reguconsonants from the etymois logical Qff^ants. lar sing. : dasat. 443.-voc. 1. in anti. In the dual neut. which in the 3d pi. those of the reduplicating or /m-class (655) and the intensives (1012): thus. neuter. E. intensive participle-stem jtihvat. inten- sive-stem johu. which has the n notwithstanding its reduplication. are voc. 445. accent is dntl if (as is in the feminine stem) from such participles. from a stem in a: compare vavrdhdnta. Steins accented on the final syllable throw the accent forward upon the case-ending in the weakest cases (not in the middle also). The stem has in general a double form.

/ N. Singular : 'being'. ^opT bhdvan ^cfrT 51^*T Ef^rT bhdvat addn addt juhvat juhvat A. bhdvatas L. addntamaddt juhvatamjujivat bhdvata D. addntas addnti juhvatas juhvati bhdvatas I. sT^r^ juhvat.Ab. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. bhdvatos Plural adddbhyam juhvadbhyam juhvatos : N.L.G.V.148 V. D. bhdvadbhyas adadbhyas juhvadbhyas . juhvati bhdvan bhdvat Dual: N. adata juhvata bhdvate adate juhvate Ab. bhdvantas bhdvanti A. 1447 J^ bhdvant. Hc(fri adatds t^lci adati juhvatas bhdvati V. juhvat A. : 5^ addnt. bhdvanti adatds addnti juhvatas juhvati bhdvadbhis adddbhis juhvadbhis D. Thus 'sacrificing'. 'eating'. bhdvadbhyam G.Ab.V. bhdvantau bhdvanti addntau adati juhvatau juhvati I. bhdvantam bhdvat I.

devaydntl or devayati. bhavisydnti or bhavisyati. (as well as bhdvantl. participle-stem. accent. etc. from and the desideratives and causatives (chap. thus. from ydlv (stem divyd). sdnti. But these strong forms present-stems in unaccented somewhat doubtful character. Participles from tense-stems in accented d may add the feminine-sign either to the strong or to the weak stem-form. bhdvantl. jlvanti. from devayd (denom. instance in as a. is made by adding shall either the strong or the weak stem-form of the masc. E. or may make their feminines of in dnti or in atl (with accent as the tud or accented d-class (chap. or make their feminine in anfi. x 454 c. plural neuter.-neut. would be everywhere of rare occurrence. has tdksati and jaratl. with irregular (Gr. as The future neuter either given in the paradigm above). b. Such are the present-stems the s-futures (chap.). of |/&/m). The rules as to which of the two forms be taken are the same with those given etc. IX. below. XIV. from ytud (stem tudd]. bubhusanti and to bhdvdyantl.). Exceptions this rule are rare. DECLENSION V. dual bhavisydnti or bhavisyatl. XII.): from ybhu (stem bhdva). to 449. lengthened a compare the forms in -manti and -vanti. neut. adathm juhvatam H^Tfg bhdvatsu ^f addtsu f^rH juhvatsu participle bhavisydnt may form in nom. a. and caus. tuddnt. bubhusa and bhdvdya (desid. Anomalous accent only seen in a case or two pi. of ybhu}. of as indeed. DERIVATIVE STEMS IN ant. either yantl or yatk. from bhavisyd (fut. RV.). above respecting the nom.): thus.. namely: add ending in unaccented a Participles to the strong stem-form. in nom. may make also juhvanti (beside juhvati. Such are the bhu or unaccented a-class and the dlv or j/a-class of pretense-stems i from sent-stems (chap.449] G. . yhnt (}/ya). 530) quotes a few cases from the Nala. tuddntl or tudati . and No Vedic example they been noticed anywhere in the older them is found. nor have The cases concerned. language. of dcvd). of nom. : acoddte is and rathiraydtam. XIV. either tuddntl or And juhvat. IX. nere noted). du. etc. and the denominatives (chap. tudati. etc. with The : V.. The feminine ^ i as already stated. 149 bhdvatam L. is doubtless to be regarded as a proper name. Bopp The AV. The Vedic deviations from the model The dual ending du is only one sixth as common is above given are few. and its like from of a) are quite contrary to general analogy. divyantl. 448. dual neuter.

d. as neuter noun. etc. plur. sing. 'shining'. mahad). if the from the intensives c. in anil NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. iyafi and Myati as nom. 396. The formed by these two suffixes are . devayati (RV. but with the mah&nt. yunjad from yyuj. c. -stems participle in ati is quotable d are found there rnjati and sincati (RV. etc. (BL). fyanti and the loc. pi. Verbs of the ad or root-class (chap. .). 'small' RV. sing. and iyanti and kiyanti as nom. which is perhaps of participial origin. durasyad and fatruyad (AV. All these form their feminine in ati only : thus. so far as noted. in from the older language. 450. mahun. : of the former. rhate). Possess!ves in adjectives mant and vant. it is inflected pi..). inflection. mahantau etc. : and neut. A few words are participial in form and though not in meaning. (only once. in afi) only. and (in Veda only) rfifani. mahata pfsant. jfihvatl from yhu. inflected like a participle. dedifati from dedif (intens. neut. 'world').). mah- mahanti: instr. ciple From denominatives. of ydif). IX. has ydntl once. 451. see above. 'tooth'. Thus : a. forms: Untas.). masc. 'great' like a participle (with brhati and brhdnti in du. as dvisantl rudantl and kurvanti (N.(?) Mydti are found in RV 2. etc.150 The forms fern. ydnti or ydd.. 'speckled'. For ddnt. from the remaining classes of present-stems and the feminine is formed in ad (or. thus. (neut. neut. 'movable. Thus. kurvad from ykr . brhati. adad from yad. jdgat. neut. mahad. du. pi. 'great' irregularity that the a of the ending is lengthened in the strong b. a reduplicated formation from ygam. tudati and pinvati (AV. The pronominal adjectives iyant and Myant are inflected like adjectives in mant and vant. and as feminine stems. its nom. lively' (in the later language.). krmad from ykri. brhdnt (often written vrhdnt in the later language). having (452) iyan and kiyan as nom. to be only jdganti. participles). Exceptions are occasionally met with in the later language. From pres.). is allowed by the grammarians e. But the neut.) ending in a are given by the the present partigrammarians the same option as regards the feminine of The older language affords no example thus. 452. [449 No future from this class are the prevailing ones. wnvad from ysu. other tense-stems than those already specified that is to say. And AV. prsafi and rucatl (contrary to the rule for jdgafi. 'go'. mah&ntam. from >/j/a. V. From stem be otherwise accented than on the final. in rhdnt.

is : The later language. 'possessing cattle'. sing. E. O pacuman O pacumdt bhdgavan bhdgavat A. and in the plural anti mati. bhdgavata etc. 'fortunate. in an. The nom.A. is never (as in the participle) thrown forward upon the case-ending or the feminine ending. pacumdnti bJidgavantas bhdgavanti pacumdtas pacumdnti bhdgavatas bhdgavanti pacumddbhis etc.V. etc. however. blessed'. . 453.V. like that of the participle (in the for that of the oldest. and very nearly like the participles in fffl^ant. V. The accent. see below. pacumdntam pacumdt bhagavantam bhdgavat pacumdta etc. pacuman Dual: pdcumat bhdgavan bhdgavat N. namely neut. bhdqavadbhis etc. always made from the weak stem : thus. is The feminine (or mdti. 151 inflected precisely alike. Thus: Singular : m. bhdgavati Plural : N. 454 b). To illustrate the inflection of such stems it will be sufficient to give a part of the forms of H^MHTI paqumdnt. masc. vdti}. pacumdntas A.453] DECLENSION V. and ^PToftT Ihdgavant. o pacumdfi bhdgavantau etc. n. are in the dual only aft (or dfi]. voc. o pacumdntau etc. N. n. sing. DERIVATIVE STEMS IN ant. 51 From the latter they differ only by lengthening the a in the nom. vatl (or dnti).

Perfect Participles in vans. makes the voc. bhanumas. In the strong cases. having in the nom. adrivas. in the only two instances that ends in dnti instead of anti: thus. including the nom. ten) more or less doubtful is cases. papumdnti. sing. 'running. Such vocatives in RV. sing. which is formed with the suffix bhavant. there is another stem frequently used in respectful address as substitute for the pronoun of the second person (but construed. drva. vant.. from drvan. [454 nom. more than a hundred times. with a verb in the third person). harivas. The stem dryant. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. which becomes. 458. . The same is true of a case or two where a masculine form appears to be used with a feminine noun (see Lanman). neut. etc. Besides the participle bhdvant. yugmanti. drvanam. etdvant. sing. ending d.. was pointed out above (425 g) that the RV. In RV. Vedic Irregularities. arvan 456. pi... in as from a few an-stems. the SV. tavanti. the nom. In voc. 457.. 454. of course. even in the later language). by reguvan in the nom. b. adjectives tdvant. and accus. while not a single unquestionable instance of one in an is to be found. a (for the greatly prevailing ending. steed'. and in the older language also the voc. pravanti. etc. sing. masc. vocatives in as are extremely rare (but bhagavas and its contraction bhagos are met with. the ending (as in in the oldest language : (RV. The pronominal ivant. -ace. pi.. are inflected like ordinary derivatives from nouns. and in their reproduction of RV. mdvant. sir !' Its origin is variously : explained . The active participles of the perfect tense-system are quite peculiar as regards the modifications of their stem. occur also apparently c.. a confusion of strong and weak forms of stem made : they are too purely sporadic to require reporting. it is most probably a contraction of bhdgavant. and which is is SfftT v ans. neut. reads anti and a few examples of the same thus. has the nom. are quotable from the Brahmanas : ydvanti.152 V. 462 a) havismas.) is : almost always in as instead of an thus. ydvant. In a few (eight or Compare 448. au) is In dual masc. etc. occur. and the Vedic tvdvant. passages the as is usually changed to an. etdvanti. It the perfect participle below. the and so declined. a. the form of their suffix lar process (150). 455. No such forms have been noted elsewhere in the older language: in its version of the corresponding passages. bhdvan. rtumanti. -voc. ghrtdvanti. In the other Vedic texts. and contracted form bhos of its old-style vocative bhavas is a common exclamation of address 'you. 451. F.

To show the in- flection of these participles. PARTICIPLES IN vans. disappears in the weakest. N. neut. G. ending thus in 3^ft the suffix.461 DECLENSION V. Examples 'knowing' of inflection. (which has irregular loss of the usual reduplication and of the perfect and crfTSJoTfa meaning) from }/T^" vid. r^ n. 460. In the middle casx * es. the corresponding feminine | I made by adding usl. tasthivans. sing. isn^ vidvan vidvat tdsthivan tdsthivat Dual: vidvahsau vidusl tasthivansau tasthusi . from j/FSTT stha. before MS. if present in the strong and middle cases. vidvdt tasthivan tasthivdt RteiHH^ vidv&hsam fen^ vidvdt tasthivUiisam tasthivdt vidusa D. Singular: m m. 'having stood'. L. we may take the stems fi^TH vidvahs. v tasthusa rlTOT tasthuse Ab. The forms as thus described are masculine and is neuter only. to the weakest form of stem. m.-acc. A 459. it is changed to ofrT vat. sing. E. 153 shortened to 3FT van in the voc. vidvan A.. r 461. tasthusi V. In the weakest cases. including the nom. union-vowel i. its The accent is always upon whatever be form. the suffix is contracted into 3^T us. n.-voc.

). tenusi. Ab.. cakrvdt. nudhvas. the vocative sing. from |/ tan tenivahs. only Forms from the middle stem. tenivdt. Similar in- stances. from |/n niriivfins. or two of the use of extremely rare earlier: and jagrvddbhis. are found in RV. [461 D. are three (tatanvdt neut. masc. vidvddbhyam G. babhuvdt. f^fJTO^ vidusas Mdift vidvfrhsi fl^H^ tasthusas crfr^lftr tasthivnhsi I. sing. : Other examples of the different stems are from yAr cakrvtihs. tasthivddbhyas fa^MI^ vidusam rT^IH^ tasthusam L. vidvddbhyas G. ninyus. from |/MM babhuvUhs. especially from vidvdhs.). didivas. vidvadbhis tasthivddbhis D. they are cakrtisam. the strong are found in . babhuvusl .154 I. niriivdt. m vidvdtsu tasthivdtsu The feminine stems of these two vidusl participles are and ri w$ o tasthusl. 462.. b. ace. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. vidtistara. a. and not one in AV.' oldest language : (RV. is made the basis mldhtistama. pi. babhuvus. cakrusz . (like mant-stems above. RV. and vavrtvo'J. And in and not the middle one. under vidvcihs). has prostisam. nom. c. Ab. as later. is from a derivative stem emusd : and QB.. pi. ^ vidvtinsas vidvfthsi tasthivansas tasthivaiisi A.). rather and dbibhyums. by its accent (unless an error). cakrus. instr. emuam. .. 454 b) has the ending vas instead of thus. tenus. titirvas. in vat. ninyusi . In the that of vant and van.v. cikitvas (changed to -van in a parallel passage of AV. tasthivddbhyam vidusos Plnral : tasthusos N. An example made from the weak stem-form : for cases regularly sing. are now and then met with later (see BR. the Veda the weakest stem of comparison: thus. L.

The comparative adjectives of primary formation (below. creyas gdriyan gariyas TlfklTT creyansam creyas gariyas creyasa etc. and a weaker. and of 'heavier'. greyansau etc. 467) have a double form of stem for masculine and neuter a stronger. E. 155 noun .. G. weakest). As models it will be sufficient to give a part of the forms of 3TOT $reyas. ending in TXfaj/ahs (usually in the strong cases.. gdrlyasi etc. DECLENSION V. has once bhaktivdhsas . gdriyas. 463. ends in for VF(^yan (but the older language see below. creyahsas creyansi gdriyansas gdriyahsi . gdriyahsau etc. V. sing. cakhvdhsam (RV. and TB. creyan A. as if a participial form from a but K. once) is of doubtful character. give in the corresponding passage bhaktivdnas . in EJTT yets (or : in the weak cases (there being no distinction of middle and voc. okivdhsa (RV. COMPARATIVES IN yas. Singular : 'better'. Comparatives in yas.A. The AV.- 464. is made by adding of inflection. stem. gariyasa etc. The masc. ^ i to the weak masc. Plural : N.464] d. elsewhere unknown.Y. once) shows a reversion to guttural form of the final of YUC. The feminine neut. creyan Dual: creyas gdriyan gariyas N.V. Thus : N. 465 a). Sj^nl creyasi etc.

Comparison. of these adjectives are 44 tin) greya sl The Vedic is voc. The accented. masc. used in the oldest language than later. 467. and superlatives are accepted in use and these attach themselves in meaning for the most part to other adjectives from the same root. kaniyasam. which seem to be their corresponding . kariiyasau du. a. masc. by nasaligunating.. ftrfm [464 creyasas creyansi gariyasas gdriyansi s creyobhis etc. jyayas (RV. 465. b.V. cases made from They are In the later language are found a few apparent examples of strong the weaker stem-form: thus. ojiyas. gdriyobhis etc. or AV. in some cases. They are much more frequently and root before is them freely ical Sanskrit. The suffixes of primary derivation are ^JH lyas for the comparative and ^? isfha for the superlative. (as in the two preceding divisions : : 454 b. The feminine stems and J|(ldHl gdriyasl. conveniently and properly enough treated briefly here. in the classonly a limited number of such comparatives . perhaps rather to be viewed as transition-forms to an a- declension. if capable of it zation or prolongation. are made either directly from roots (by primary or or from other derivative compound stems The subject of it (by secondary derivation). and usually strengthened by or. 462 a) in yas instead of yan: thus. but the comparison belongs properly to the chapter of derivation. c. stands in such near relation to inflection that it is. ace. Derivative adjective stems having a comparative and superlative meaning ally) or often also (and more origin- a merely intensive value derivation). in accordance with usual custom in grammars. No example of a middle case occurs in RV. no ex- amples elsewhere have been noted). 466. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.

the (as But even in the oldest language appears not infrequently same attachment in meaning to a derivative adjective which pointed out above) (vdra. 'greatest' (brhdnt. 'hurl'. 'great'). which then takes the accent thus. .) from dhdrman. 'hasty. 'small' and vdrslyas and vdrsistha to yuvan. acistha from acu (RV. From Veda and Brahmana together. from y'tap. 'offer'. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. the simple root is also found used as corresponding positive In a little thus. ksiprd.468] positives . which from yvr. belong in meaning to come ksepiyas . ydjistha. drddhistha (TB. but sometimes also independently thus. brdhmiyas from brahman. from 1/yaj. Probably by are in a few cases made with analogy from the apparently radical syllables of words which have no otherwise traceable root in the language thus. is examples that occur also 'choicest' osistha. kdniyas and kdnistha are attached by the grammarians or dlpa.. 468. yksip. . 'quickly'). and so on. 'burn'. dstheyas). 'young'. an element of another The words of this formation often take an accusative kind. bdrhistha. 157 but in part also they are artificially connected with other words. Thus. 'broad' while. as used especially at the end of compounds. 'best slayer of Vritra'. usual in the later speech. in meaning as in form. : : hither' . unrelated with them in derivation. 'especially coming : . which belong to uru.) from tiksnd. . and so on. kradhiyas and kradhistha (K. these. come vdriyas and vdristha. later. comes yodhtyas. object: thus. 'fighting better' 'fight'. to the bare root in its adjective value. class of instances (eight). Besides the others are met with like vdristha. . the suffixes iyas and istha are applied to stems which are themselves palpably derivative only thus.) from krdhu. anil. agamistha. rather more than a hundred instances of this primary formation in Iyas and istha one of the pair actually occurring) are to (in many cases only About half of these (in RV. 'traversing rapidly the cloud'.). dmyas (AV. in a couple of cases (dcramistha. belong. the root has a preposition prefixed. 'better and best (or very well) sacrificing' in a few instances. like formations : : : : .) and dnistha (TS. 'choice'). in a few exceptional cases. . 'best clearing away' .). 'quickest' (6sam. from.. sthdviyas and sthdvistha from sthurd. for example. to vrddtid 'old'.in a fixed single word (cdmbhavistha). the decided majority) be quoted. ju. from cdciyas (RV. 'encompass'. 'quick' and ksepistha.) from cdcvant. the negative particle is pre. and brdhmistha (TS. dparavapistha. dhdrmistha (TA. come ydjiyas and 'excessively burning' from yyudh. ndbhas tdriyan (RV.) case). vicayistha. tiksniyas (AV. with jdviyas and jdvistha. comes tdpist/ia.) And yet again. rapid'. vrtrdm hdnisthah (RV.

and that form of stem initial generally taken which appears before an or middle form). From bhu come bhuyas and bhuyistha. bhUyas). from consonant-stems. followed up later. drdhd. sdnyas occurs alone. rdghiyas (TS.). . being added to adjectives of every form. rdjiyas and rdjistha. of the extension of the formation to unlimited use. The suffixes of secondary derivation are rlj tara and rFT tama. The suffix lyas has in a few instances the briefer form yas. beside which RV. tapasvitara. cucivratatama. simple and com- pound. described above peculiar declension. the following may be noticed. the final blends with the initial of the suffix to e: thus. but in the older language more without strengthening. The stems in istha are inflected like ordinary adjectmaking their feminines in a. and from sana. also bhdviyas. roots in a. 'old (all EV. resolved. strlkamatama. . from ndva. ndviyas and n&vyas. ydutha. carutara. also. pdnlyas and pdnyas. tdvlyas and tdvyas. we have also formations unconnected with verbal roots. .158 instead of are V. vdsiyas and vdsyas. generally as alternative with the other: thus. 471. cdmtama.). and so from rabh and sah. sukfttara. 'new'. bhdgafrom compounds. or navyas and navistha. The two and frestha. : tavdstara vattara. abhibhutam. In ndviyas 1 in sdnyas 469. ending in vowels or in consonants accent of the primitive remains and this from the earliest period of the language until the latest. rathitara and rathitama (RV. has Of stheyas. rjlyas and r/i^fca regularly. dhestha. those in lyas have a (463 ff. purbhittami. form preyas and prestha and pret/as From the root of rjti come. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. and tavdstama. but such forms are in the Veda generally to be The root jya forms jytetha. cdcvattama. yestha. which has been 470. ives in a. (with rare exceptions) is The un- changed . ratnadh&tama hiranyavafimattama . but jydyas (like prl and pn. bhuridavattara. as dhd'istha. roots in z. from not [468 ddrhistha] These beginnings. vdhnitama. Of peculiarities and irregularities of formation. consonant of a case-ending (weak from Examples (of older as well as later occurrence) are vowel-stems. potrtama. tuvisfama. They are of almost unrestricted application.).) from raghu. vdpustara. priydtara.

caramd. ya. The suffixes tara and tama also make forms of comparison from some of the pronominal roots. forming their feminine in a. neuter. catatamk. The primary. and n. vrsdntama . paramd. maruttama. and makes its feminine in i: thus. only as six to five: but later the former win a great preponderance. catatamd. A feminine final I is shortened : : thus. madfntara and madfntama. from a preposition is adverbial The Hindu grammarians even allow the suffixes of comparison in the accusative feminine.). and others. 159 But in the Veda the final n of a stem is regularly retained: thus. That (especially in the Veda) some stems which are nouns rather than adjectives form derivatives of comparison is line natural enough. gariyastara. ddhara and adhamd. and of a perfect participle the weakest stem is taken thus. midhustama.. 11 lie). upara and upamd. in AV.. degrees of comparison are made by the briefer suffixes ra and ma: thus. jugational forms: pacatitaram.474] COMPARISON. devitama (RV. taram and tamam.). dntama. considering the uncertain nature of the divisionbetween substantive and adjective value. the stems in tara and tama are to those in lyas and istha as three to two. These comparatives and superlatives are inflected like ordinary adjectives in a. 473. 'he cooks'. m. dpara and apamd. and the ad520) . later. in RV. i (see below. mostly prepositions. f. tejasvinitama (K. to be appended to conthus. having no warrant in the earlier uses of the language. dvara and avamd. it is accented on the final. 487). In the older language. 474. 'he cooks better': but such are barbarous combinations. nrtama. madhyamd. with this value. Thus. 'hundredth'. 472. suffixes of secondary comparison are occasionally added to those of thus. forming double comparatives and superlatives : fresthatama. From a few words. and from certain of the prepositions. dntara. . verbial accusative ative in tara feminine) of a comparused to make a corresponding comparative to the preposition itself (below. as ut. And ma is also used to make ordinals (below. (older. The use of tama as ordinal suffix is noted below (487). vidtistara. we have matftama. the words of this formation are not much more frequent than those of the other: thus. as ka.. pacati.

160 [475 CHAPTER VI.000.000 catur 50 catvarincdt 1. the tens. The simple (which are cardinal numerals for the first ten numbers the foundation of the whole class). NUMERALS.000 pdnca 60 pancacdt 10. . are as follows: 100 ' ddca 1000 catd H^f sahdsra dvd 30 vincati 10. is The accent and a*fd that to these The series of decimal numbers may be carried still further but there are great differences among the different authorities . they are sdpta and dsta in the later language. 475.000 ^TrT o ayuta tri 40 trinc&t 100.000. according to the grammarians.000 pr&yuta sas^' 70 Httfri 10 saptati so arbudd r 10 astd maharbuda 90 10 ^ ndva 10 *f Jcharvd ^1 ddca 100 10' nikha words in all sajrta belonging accentuated texts. See below. and with some of the higher members of the decimal eka 20 series. 483. with their derivatives.

Forms in -fat and -fati for the tens are occasionally interchanged. K. and in '83' tri alone is used.476] ODD NUMBERS. masc. As stem-forms pancan see see saks instead of sas. (199b). in the TS. etc.890. drbuda. but is elsewhere '42' is dva becomes everywhere dva. The other numbers are expressed by the various composition and syntactical combination of those given above. As to the form The stem dva appears in comis position and derivation also as dva and dvi. and an Indian sum is wont to be laksa ('lac' or lakh 1 ) pointed thus: 123. prayuta. The odd numbers between the even tens are made to the ten to which its value Thus: irregularities. 161 with regard to their names and there is more or less of discordance even from ayuta on. 146 is end. also allowed in '43' and in '93'. pi. the only numbers in practical nse above 'thousand' are and koti ('crore'). nyhrbuda. to signify '123 crores. dnta. .. but in changeable with dvi. Thus. Thus : by prefixing the (accented) unit is to be added: but with various eka in '11' 476.67. In modern time. sas becomes so in '16'. below. Thus n ekada^a . undergoes the regular conversion (226 b) to * or d or n. niyuta. tri itself is is substituted '73' its nom. mddhya. elsewhere its final initial d of dafa lingual (199 b). 67 thousands. and in '82' dvi alone for tri unchanged. we find ayuta. 484. '72' and in but '92' it is inter- used. 483. reverses the order of niyuta and and inserts badva after nyarbuda (reading nyarbudha): these are probably the oldest recorded series. prayuta. becomes eka. samudrd. trdyas. accented The older form of asta asta : see below. and makes the and in '96' the n of navati is assimilated to it asta becomes [asta (483) in : '18' '38'. above.. and has either form in the succeeding combinations. eight hundred and to the ninety'. parardhd.45. catiir in composition cdtur. 45 lakhs.

and adhika. '57'). in composition with lesser numbers which are either independently qualifying or be subtracted or added.). 'thrice ten'. e. (at least. '101'. c. ekdt. 'deficient'. '98'). Thus : a. and later the eka. '99'. <148 b. irregular abl. is connected by na. e. a. panconam catam. navatfr ndva. e. with a larger number from which one '49' to (i. '108'. '105'. astaJ cdtuhsahasram (RV. or '19'. (TS. '95'). 'thrice seven'. '130'. panconam catam.: 366. trincdchatam. '88'. astadhikanavati. and (more usually) in composition with larger to numbers which sasti. 'a hundred increased by one' (i. d. be deducted: e.). unless the accent is wrong). ddca catdm catam ekam ca. tridacd. thus. ekasmdn nd pancacdt '49' (abl. The added number is prefixed and takes the accent: example. and unavihcati is have the same value. the numbers to be added together may be expressed by independent words. [476 more usual than those with The forms made with dvd and trayas dvi and Br.162 VI. and asta (instead of asta) are alone found in the older literature (483). 478. '101'). A case-form of eka. (in ordinal). b. 'thrice nine'. '100 less 5' (i. 401'. is '20 less 1'. for Thus: to the other. : and the compound is either made to qualify the other number or is further compounded with it: Of course. vihcaticatam. adhika}. ekacatam. tri. left off. ekan *99'. 'not thirty by one' (TS. NUMERALS. . the others are This form is admitted also in the later language found in the Brahmanas. for ekasmdt) last nd vincatf. una. fern. 'ninety increased by eight' (i. the number to be added is compounded with adhika. and are usual in the later. e. The above are the normal expressions for the odd numbers. But : the connective is also thus. thus. 'not'. of forming the Another usual method (beginning in the Brahmanas) odd numbers above 100 is to qualify the larger . 477. '29'). T. tryuna- by three' (i. : ekdn nd catdm. ekddhikam patam. ekayd nd trincdt (QB. 479. For the nines. especially. made at convenience : for example. Instances of multiplication by a prefixed number are occasionally met with: thus. '33'. The same methods are also variously used for forming the odd numbers above 100. trisaptd. 'redundant'. 'ninety and nine'. e. 'two and twenty'. '19'. or may be used '110'. pancddhikarh 'deficient' (as also catam or pancddhikacatam. in the older language) not seldom omitted: trincdtam trin. By use of the adjectives una. ndva ca navatfy ca. astdcatam. Or. Of course. But equivalent substitutes for them are also variously made. with connecting 'and' thus. acltir astdti. 'redundant'.). ekasyai (i. Syntactical combinations are ca. are which are hardly to The forms made with be quoted from the older literature (V. PB. or n&va navatfm ca. are not uncommon. most often. KB. etc.).3) nd pancacdt. are to be increased or diminished by the others : thus. dvau ca vihcatfc ca. in the same way: thus. '1004'. trinavd. 'sixty deficient such substitutes as ekonavihcati. 'one'. C. other words equivalent to una '95'.

daca '10. Gender is distinguish- ed only by the first four. 11* . feminine '1000'. qualifying (in i] the numbered noun. five fifties ('250'). frequently + 60). pdnca sastini gatani. '108'. eighties' ('240'). sahasre dve panconam catam eva ca. so also due catustrinfe '234' (not '268'). as an indefinite article. the simplest and least ambiguous method is to make of the multiplied number a dual or plural. trlni sahdsrani. '6333'. 'a hundred of a 12-sort. Thus. ekasmin dine. 163 number by an with the '112' adjective derived from the smaller. '200'. 'nine or the lower . also. 482. (3x100 + 60). or characterised (lit'ly. there arises sometimes a question how a compound number shall be understood: whether asta?atam. To multiply one number by another. are and in later usage more generally. sing. catuccatvarihcdm catdm. combined with addition. 'five acitibhis tisrbhis. '2095'.). among the higher denominations. is or else : its neuter or dacacatas. satsastdm catdm. 'with thus. 600 foot-soldiers'. 481. and this is then treated as an adjective. '800'. astdfatam. 'with three By a peculiar and wholly illogical construction. '60. ekat. for is example.). '166'. dvicatdm or dmcatk.). T. Occasional forms of the ordinary declension are met with : thus. hundreds'. '333'. 487) thus. eke (loc. and this qualified by the other as any ordinary noun would be method is a common one in all ages of the language. In the late literature. trdyastrihqat tricatah satsahasrtih (AV. sahdsrani. or even sometimes almost of 'a'. 'on a certain day'. 'three thousands'. and the like. haste dandam ekamadaya (H. a. in The inflection of the cardinal nu- merals is many respects irregular. ca sahasrany astau ca catani.000'. '124'.482] COMPOUND NUMBERS.800': and. Inflection. eko vyaghrah (H.).). For example pdnca pancacdtas. or astacatdm. trim cathni trdyastrincatam ca. below. which ought to signify '480' used in the Brahmanas to mean '360' (3x100 fate. Its dual does not occur. . satcataih padatibhih '1800'. dvadacdm catdm. singular used substantively (MBh. its plural is used in the sense of 'some. But the two factors. by 12 : . combined into a compound (accented on the final). : nineties' ('810'). is declined after the manner of a pronominal adjective (like sdrva. and other like cases. eka is used in the sense of 'a certain'. certain ones'. and identical briefer ordinal (below. multiplier and multiplied. 'a certain tiger'. as to In the usual absence of accentuation. 480. ndva navatdyas. astadacacatl. 'taking a stick in his hand'. such a combination as is trini sastifatani. Eka. 524).

dva). but show the bare stem instead. and m. D. I.V. I. dvau (V. it substitutes the stem catasr.).Ab. apparently strong cases akin with tisf. and neut. The stem tisr occurs in composition in tisrdhanvd (Br. and inflected like it (but with anomalous change see below. which is inflected but the nom. Tri. Catur. L. N. and accus. neut. dual only. L. as plurals. Dva.A.. Asta (as . regular^: thus. : Thus: m.. and neut. below. 483). fern. . nor any generic character. dvubhyam. and tisrsti said to be also allowed in the later language. ending. '4'. with mutual assimilation (198b) of stem-final and initial of the termination. dvdyos. (excepting in the Veda). N. 1. is n. The accent- tisrnam. trini f. 'a bow along with three arrows'. G.. final syllable instead of The later language. catvdri cdtasras A. but the regular trmhm occurs once in RV. The numbers from '5' to '19' have no distinction of gender. save in the nom. +. is tri. in the later language For the feminine it has the peculiar stem tisr.. : m. 483) a striking irregularity. dve. cattirbhyas catasfbhyas caturndm cattirsu catasrndm catasr su. f. like that in the higher numbers . has catv&r (the more original form) in the in the fern. f. VL NUMERALS. tisrbhyds. the accentuation of the ed in inst. the penult is allow- 483. c. Of sds (as of catur\ nam is the gen. somewhat irregularly. In the catasfnam also sometimes occurs. masc. '3'. tisrds A. of accent. is [482 entirely . in general like an r-stem and show no strengthening of the r and the r is not prolonged Thus in the gen. after a final con- sonant of the stem (as in sas: more regular gen. d. are alike. -ace. nearly regular. is in masc. catvdri cdtasras catasrbhis cattirbhis D.). and loc. N.16 4 b. : . like an their genitive is as if from tray a (only ordinary stem in *. G. trini tribhfs tisrds tisrbhis D. The use of n before is am of the gen. L. tribhyds tisfbhyas trayandm tristi tisrndm tisfsu.-abl. '2'. dat. trdyas trin n. catvdras cattiras n. nom. The Veda has the abbreviated uation tisrbhfs. where they have no proper plural form. Ab. Ab.. G. They are inflected. and accus.

neut. bhyas. in an. rather.. both in inflection and in compounds with asta are found as early found in RV. 485. are declined like panca. and '10' (compare septem. as feminine stems of the same endings.. pancdndm pancdsu sanndm satsu astdndm Sapid (in the later language sdpta. astan. pancdbhyas sadbhyds astdbhyds astdsu astabhyas astdsu. and su. having the form of a '9'. The are declined regularly. Examples of the N. either the penult or the final is accented in these forms In the gen. sing. the nom. dvddafdsu from dvadaya. and the instr. as dsta for astd) and ndva and ddfa.). the older literature older language) has an which is almost exclusively used (V. or masc. INFLECTION.Ab. alone in an: compare ndma. saptan. seven. the from the on the penult before the endings this. from any of these words.. . nouem. the accented texts.. the accent is on the ending (as in in the later language. whatever be the accent of the stem thus. in the later language. pancan. inflection of these sat words are as follows astati : pdnca pancdbhis astd astdbhis sadbhis astabhfs D. with their compounds. Catd and sahdsra are declined regularly. 484. L. pancdbhis voice lies : navdbhyas from ndva. that of a neut. the gen. A. ndmasu : being like that. and ekddafan etc. AV. however. or astau (most usual in RV. vihqati and trihc&t etc. and r-stems).-acc.485] accented in the asta. their inflection is made to assume a more regular aspect. stems in a. that of i. of a a-stem compare dafdndm with {ndranam and ndmnam or atmdnam. I. pi. ndmabhyas. ten)'. u.. decem. its nom. 165 alternative fuller form. in inflection or derivation or composition. is astd (usual later : in composition (but some as the once. it is only from such a stem-form. owing to the starting pi. navadafdbhis from ndvadafa. as masculine) stems of the same final. rarely..). The cases of sas. or in asta (RV. and with with the compounds of ddfa ('11' '19'). No trace whatever of a final n is found anywhere in the language. and loc. the same shift of accent (or with alternative shift to the endings..). have the accent throughout upon the ending. acc. The Hindu grammarians final give to the stems for '5' and '7' '19' a n: thus. as neuter (or. from pdnca. dat. ekddafdbhyas from ekddafa. has nothing to do with the demonstrably original final nasal of '7'. and those made from the stem- form asta. according to the grammarians. In all also AV. This.and in AV. dacan. fact that. Br. and Br. G. in numbers. as pointed out above). ndmabhis. and in all numbers. and stress The accent of is in many respects peculiar. dafdsu from ddfa. nine.). navan. later). all tens.-abl.

sastM. arily. Catena. for 'fifth'. catam purbhih. Some of the first ordinals are irregularly made thus. for '!' As : regards their construction with are used adjectively. '!'. 'the mighty [Indra] slew a hundred. four songs'. 'of seven bards'. through dvita only: pancatha. 'a hundred slaves' or 'a hundred of slaves'. the ordin- most important. 487. catasfbhir girbhth. '9'. 'foremost'). : . 'with a thousand bards'. in gender also. 'among the five races' saptd rsmam. and the mode of their by formation may best be explained here. no proper numeral character. b. 'with a hundred fetters'. forms no ordinal. 'with. a thousand. forming pamama. a myriad. catur. but for 'fourth' are used also turiya and turya. 486. 'what eleven gods of you are in heaven'. the numerals for '5' and '7' usually. Occasionally they are put in the plural. of demons'. 'with twenty bays'. is excessively rare. Ordinals. sastyam cardtsu. but are ordinary nouns. either : miwatyn Mrib/iis. instead adi is pra-tama. 'with a hundred strongholds'. and saptd. rare in the Brahmanas. catam sahdsram ayutam nydrbudam jaghhna cakrb ddsyunam (AV. Of original far the the classes of derivative words coming from the als are or cardinal numerals. pancacadbhir vanaih. with the nouns thus.-acc. dacdbhir viraih. a hundred million. take the ending tha : thus. astamd. agreeing the nouns enumerated by them to The words and. from dvd. e. if they . . and for '8'. : '19' distinguish gender. 'in 60 autumns'. come dvitiya and trtiya (secondand abbreviated trita}'. Construction. or thus. and adya is and tri. saptamd. a. c. taking the numbered noun as a dependent genitive. NUMERALS. pacaih. [485 which have. daqamd. pdnca krstisu. used prathamd (i. and saptdtha belongs to the older language '2'. add ma. catam dasih standing in the singular in apposition with it or catam dasmam. sds. : eka. inThe like is true of the higher numbers deed. form (or as if indeclinably) with other cases also thus.). '?'. even in the Sutras.). '10'. The numerals above '19' are construed usually as nouns. saptdtha. '3'. navamd. In the older language.VI. 'among the five tribes'. '6'. pancdsu jdnesu. the numerals for '5' and upward are sometimes used in the nom. sahdsram rsibhih. '4'. in case. 'with fifty arrows'. 'with ten heroes' ye deva divy ekadaca sthd (AV. as if used more adjectively: thus. caturthd.

vihqd. except change of accent) for the tens and intervening odd numbers from '20' onward. pancamd. all the rest make 488. '34th'. thus. 'third part' trtlya. '80th'. belong rather to the dictionary. the briefer form is allowed by the grammarians only to the but it is sometimes odd numbers. tris. trincd. 'a pair'. ca- '40th'. 'third'. Other numeral derivatives adverbs. ekavihcd. vihcatitamd. Of the higher numbers. in a. catus. ending tamd to the cardinal (superlative) the other. as dvis. acititamd. ddcataya or dacdt. the grammarians . are found so treated. shorter. unavincd and ekonavtncd. '101st'. met with. '61st'. Of the ordinals. and so on. : . 'one by one'. ttiriya. catadhu. and so on.. cdturtha. even in the later language. thus. dvadacd. 'half occurs only ardhd. astacatvarihcd. collectives. 489. made up of tens and units . are accented as in their ordinal use. ekadhh. or (as was seen above. '20th'. saptatd. or 'containing so many'. the other being not quotable from the Veda. 167 41th' to '19th'. ordinals. In sense. 'twice'. with abbretrincattamd. '60th'. sastd. pancacd. but their compounds have also the simpler form : thus. and ekannavihfd and '52d'. oneway'. or to the chapter catacds. is by far the more common. direct that their . and extremely rarely from the Brahmanas. 'a decade' of derivation. ekacas. as signifying 'composed of so many parts' or 'so-many-fold'. thus. acitd. dvtiiya. navatd. '90th'. From '50th' on. as dvitaya. 479) 'having a fractional so many : added'. prathamd (and adya\ dvitlya. from the simple ten. the forms are ekadacd. But in accented texts only for and 'quarter'. trtiya. one made by adding the full the ordinal has a double form thus. 'half trtlya. dvapancacd. have other than ordinal offices to the cardinals. viation of the cardinal: tvarincd. thrice'. as in other languages. The to fill . and caturthd. and so likewise '48th'.489] for NUMERAL DERIVATIVES. and in Sanskrit especially they are general adjectives with a considerable variety of meanings. accent be shifted to the first syllable 'quarter'. ekasastd. or dvayd. etc. ekagata. adverbs with the suffixes dha and cas 'in : for example. 'in a hundred ways'. so on (the . . '70th'. gatd and sahdsra form catatamd and sahasratamd . '30th'. turiya (with turya] it in i. '21st'. '50th'. as fractionals. Of these two forms. catustrihcd. the latter and briefer '19th'. and form their feminine in a. multiplicative 'four times'. and so on. and same with the cardinals. 'by hundreds'.

The pronouns of the first and second persons are the most irregular and peculiar of all. ^^ ahdm TF[^ TITT Jqj OT^ tvdm A.168 [490 CHAPTER VII PRONOUNS. 2d pers. ma I- ^T^ ^7 tvam. tubJiyam. 490. tva (TOT tvdya If mdya D. being made up of fragments coming from various roots and combinations of roots. *-|c^|4-|. te 3^ mat ^7^ tvdt . in a few adjectives. But they have also many and marked peculiarities of inflection however. Their inflection in the later language Singular : is as follows : 1st pers. Personal Pronouns. the so-called 'pro- nominal' or 'demonstrative' roots. THE pronouns and adjectives chiefly another and a very limited from the great mass of nouns in that they come by derivation from differ set of roots. ^jV^JTf. They have no distinction of gender. find analogies also adjectives will accordingly some of which. me Ab. N. (^ mdhyam. 491. and such be described at the end of this chapter. mam.

^{ asmdbhyam. avabhyam G. mdyi Dual: N..G. yuvam ETSTFTT D.. me L. are accentless and hence they are .492] G.A. ytismabhis 1 ^JCrjT^JTI . vas ^T^TTPTTT o -\ .. briefer second forms for accus. in all stand at the is beginning laid. vas tfa^j^ asmdt G.26. passages 4. nan Plural : N. nas L. Forms of the older language. All the forms . avam I. I.D. dat. nas Ab. vaydm A. or not allowed to elsewhere where any (xi.0 o asmasu yusmasu The numbers. yuydm o asman. ^ mama. 169 T rR. and gen. yusmdt asmakam.V. yusmakam. nas ^ yusman. avdyos yuvabhyam yuvdyos andA. yiismdbhyam. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. of a sentence. 46). vas .L. emphasis The xii. Ab. 492. asmabhis D. ablative mat is accentless in one or two AV. 3.

(and in part in the earlier du. only in sing. (and Vedic du. with loss of the final nasal. sing. will be found often. [492 . the Veda (RV. etc. is met with only here. only the stem to which they are added being different. pi.. The genitives singular. yusme : The datives in bhyam are in RV. and pi. in derivation and sition compo- under the other Words are thus formed from them even in the olderpronouns).. though The bhyam (or hyam) of dat. though here is doubtless the same with that of the a-declension nouns and adjectives. because these are forms used to a certain extent. and avdt twice in TS. Thus we have here a distinction (elsewhere unknown) of five occur.) asme.. frequent in the inflection of the singular in other pronominal words in fact. (only) yuv6s instead of yuvdyos. other cases of which 494. is unparalleled elsewhere in the preceded by a short vowel.) has a few times the instr.. . tva (like manisd for and the manlsdya). asmdkam and yusmdkam suffer the same loss to only in a rare instance or two. value of 'we' to be a specialisation of the meaning 'these persons'. mama and tdva. of The element sma appearing in the plural forms will be found language. asmdka and yusmaka 1 namely. (less often loc.. the second person (tuam for tvdm. -loc..: see below. kad. language (like tad. further. also). sing. among the other pronouns. the deri- 516) suggests the possibility of their being themselves stereotyped stems. Stem-forms. bhyas. That the nom. case-forms of the adjective stems are found in the Veda. asmakam and yusmdkam. the stems of the personal pronouns are mad and asmad. its relationship of the ordinary declension is palpable. the Ioc4 sing. pi. and pi. and are especially frequent in the forms of etc. chance not But the duals. the gen. howgiven above are found also in the older language ever. the dat. are certainly of this character : The gen. Peculiar endings. and tvad and yusmad. The usual resolutions of semivowel vowel are made. the instr. an abl. and pi. endings should be the same in sing. pi. which. and only the accusatives avdm and yuvdm (but in RV. the final e of these forms is uncombinable (or loc. above to yuvdbhyam vam[?J.170 VI1 - PRONOUNS. the compound stem asma which underlies the plural of aham seems to be the same that furnishes part of the singular forms of at/am and its : (501). have no analogies vation from them of the adjectives mamaka and tavaka elsewhere. neuter sing. The ending am. for a-uam). tve.. (below. is in RV. dat. In Veda and Brahmana. bhis of the abl. 493. the dual forms of 1st pers. Thus. appearing in the nom. and allowed to be indefinitely used. all. once. wear a very different aspect earlier. the nominatives are avdm and yuvdm.) of these pronouns. To the Hindu grammarians. not seldom to be read pragrhya: 138 b). yuvdt appears once in RV. unless in (not different dual cases by endings. has also others that afterward disappear from use. is either elsewhere found) or yuvabhyam. and abl. as if in bhya. in RV. in part accordant with those of the other two numbers. sing.). The t (or d) with the bhyam.

Singular : m. with complete ahampurvd. And the later language also has a few yuvndatta. see below. tdm tdt tarn tena tdya rT^" tdsmai Ab. and Goth. mamasatyd. so. rT ta. Thus: o. to^a: thus. aham- uttard. tvadkya. N. having a see below. yuvdddevatya (QB. and fern. tvamkama.. etc. asmehiti.). adjectives that it is may so many pronouns and pronominal to be taken as model of a mode of declension usual in fairly be called the general pronominal declension.. possessive value From the stems adjectives : For sva and svaydm. etc. yusmesita. sds n. etc. sing. aharhyu. The Vedas have forms : certain more irregular combinations. 7]. thus. it has sds (for whose peculiar euphonic treatment see 176 a) and sa. asmadruh. instead of ids and ta (compare Gr. sa. mattds (AV. words made in the same way. tvanid. yusmadlya. (TS. But this root has also the special irregularity that in the nom. asmatra. yuvddhita. 171 namely. as madrc. The simplest demonstrative. ahamsana. yusmftdatta.). tdsyai rTHTI tdsmat tdsyas . mampapyd. thata}. ative of the grammarians come also the derivmadiya. masc. 513. mdtkrta. asmadiya. asmdtsakhi. yuvUriita. tvadatta.). etc. mdtsakhi. tat sa A. 516. or with the a lengthened mavant . 495.4951 PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which answers also the purpose of a personal pronoun of the third person.. Demonstrative Pronouns. tvddyoni. TO.^ tvdtpitr tvnvasu. but much more numerous are those that show the proper stem in a. tvtihata.

RV... . usually tebhis for tats. and loc. in fern. dat. [495 *\ tdsya L.. thbhyam HU^ tdyos ft te Plural: N. of inflection . instr. loc.-gen. the combination with the root of another element sma in masc. ftj tesu thsu irregularities : The Vedas show no other belong to du. Ab. tdsyas tdsmin Dual: tdsyam N. . tend sometimes . The dual is precisely that of noun-stems in a and d. and loc. and of ending sy in. D. PRONOUNS.. once). namely sdsmin (occurring nearly half it will 496. . ftt ft te ft te tau I. pi. abl. and the root sa.172 VII. which is restricted to this declension (except in the anomalous yddffmin.-acc. thbhyam G. L. has one more case-form from the as often as tdsmin). The peculiarities of the general pronominal declension. be noticed. tebhyas thbhyai tasam L.A. often id for tdni. ftT^ thn ftTH thni D. Ab. and the masc. are these : In the singular. ftlH thni A. than those which usually td for . The RV. dat. neut. pi. and neut..V.. the use of t (properly d) as ending of nom. abl. tali. ordinary resolutions.. and neut. all stems in a and a namely. neut.

te vayam. giving emphasis to them thus. : also many: especially adverbs. tyam. -loc. but almost unknown later: its nom. all periods of the language. tadanantara. etdt to the simple root.. 'we here'.500] DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. tanmaya. J73 and the insertion of being treated before In the plural. But derivatives from the true root ta are tadvid. and both. tajjna. s instead of n before am of the gen. tada. tanmatra. 'this The other is the usual demonstrative here'. sing. tatkara. It does not occur elsewhere than in the accusaof all numbers. is Though person. tolerably common tya. the instr. etc. third of its possible forms occur) in RV. the Two other as an element. fern. But tya has neither compounds nor derivatives. 499. ena. which is and hence used only in situations where no emphasis upon it. the stem-final it U in the same manner as before su of the loc. so 'Mm. tadvacd. sd tvdm. masc. 497. m. and so on... f. formed both. It tydm. and goes on through the remaining as ta. etc. and it makes the accusatives is nom. in the syds. both in the : language and in the later. enam enat enam enaya enena . etadsimple ta. These compounds are not rare even in the Veda so tddanna. 'this I'. I. or 'I here'. The stem of this pronoun is by the grammarians given and from that form come.. in fact. tatha. the compound ta tadfc etc. in the same manner as from the thus. sing. and demonstrative stems appear to contain ta like the simple ta. masc.). 'thou there'. and etadfc and etavant from eta. with tattvd. dual: 500.. only much less numerous artha. and the gen. a. Sing.. from the so-called stem etat. sing. the irregularities are limited to for ids in nom. and numerous compounds. The one. sya. the it demonstrative root also freely prevailingly of earlier the third is used. falls tive There is a defective pronominal stem. substitute sa in fern. etc. etadda (QB. cases in the same manner (for tydya]. such as tacchila. as adjectives tavant and tdti. tdtra. as tad. has in RV. n. and is in frequent use through It prefixes e of nearer position. tatas. and three genders. the derivative adjective tadiya. forming the nominand so on through the whole inflection. the instr. thus. (although rare in only a is AV.. atives esds. esa. tadvat. tya b. as qualifying the pronouns of the first and second person. The stem eta from are : \ accentless. tydt. tydt. and the 498. A.

SJUJIH asrrnn asyam amusmin amusyam Dual: N. A. They m. endm. abhyUm G. This stem forms neither derivatives nor compounds. amubhyam anyos amuyos .Ab. N. has enos instead and in one or two instances accents a form: thus. ^TT <JR imau ime ime s I. PRONOUNS.. enayos enas The RV. amusyai ^HJIH asmat asyas O amusmat JS 'O *^ amusyas G. m. enayos enani enan of enayos. iydm imam iddm imam amum adds amum *HUI amuya o anena D. EiHrra asyd asyas o amusya _-s amusyas L. endsC?). andya amuna asyai Ab. used as a more indefinite demonetc.174 Du. is made up 'this' have to be given in full.L. 'yon' or 'yonder'. L. G. f. ularly Two aydm other demonstrative declensions are so irregthat they etc. ene ene [500 enau A. 501.A.D.. or 'that'. aydm iddm A. PI. The one. ERTT asau signifies especially the remoter relation. VII. the other. are as follows : : Singular n. %|t|H strative.

amuya. 175 EPTR ime imani imas amuni A. ida. like tad etc. dtas. derivatives. for itara. but a and . . dtha idfc. In analogy with the other pronouns. tm (Vedic particle). id (Vedic particle). : DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. The remaining forms are always accented. amuya when used is adverbially accented on the is final.. entire regularity. i And aydm. from ima comes only the adverb imdtha (RV. * furnish a number of example. dsau) used also as vocative. imdsya occurs once in RV. sma (f. iydm. iddm are evidently to be referred to a simple root (iddm being apparently a double form: id. except ima occurs for imau and imdni. as in the ordinary pronominal deto All these forms from a clension. dtra. has in a small number of instances the irregular accentuation dsmai. 502. anena. dsya. on the first. Ab. The Veda has from the root a also the instrumental end and ayd (used in general adverbially). or accentless (like ena and the second forms from dhdm and tvdm}. loc.S regards the actual stems. and the gen. du. of course. andya.. The RV. asau (with accent. perhaps evd and evdm. The majority of forms come from the root a.. mostly adverbial itds. plainly shows itself be pieced together from a number of defective stems. and amu for amuni. with ending am). and others. with cases in dual and plural. have the peculiarity that in their substantive use they are either accented. The former of these two pronouns. The strong regularly and in part in singular. ihd. as in the paradigm. once). sy) is combined in the singular. asam amisam amusam esu asu amusu that The same forms are used in the older language. ay6s. . .5021 Plural N. ana furnishes nothing further age). f t ebhyds G. From and come. andyos. abhyds amibhyas amubhyas esam L. without variation. from zma. iddm is by the grammarians regarded as representative stem of this pronominal deand it is actually found so treated in a very small clension number of compounds (idammdya and icldmrupa are of Brahmana A. with which. aydm etc. dbhis. come not less from a stem imd. : thus. m imani mas ^^5FTFT amun amuni ebkis abhis amlbhis amubhis ^ D.

-ace. the particle u points to a root u. has [503 its leading stem. . amutas. and has the anomalous form faq kim (not elsewhere known nominal root R i in the language from a neuter /-stem). and neut. to added form. 3\ ku. come from amu: thus. O excepting the nom. amuvdt. like an adjective w-stem. and it is found in this character in an extremely small number of words. But most of the derivatives.176 503. ami is unique in (like that of a dual) pragrhya. at/). f. occurs the root tva (accentless). regards their endings. and kdm . adomdya is of The QB. plural. which o-stems. In (f. amutra. but the whole declensional inflection is from 3\ ka. dual is found in RV. follows the ordinary pronominal declension. occurs in a formula in AV. av6s as 'he'. It the pronominally regular neuter kdd. too. along with kfm. : . as usual. fa ki.-loc. The Veda has also its has. Interrogative Pronoun. the element sma and which shifts to ami in part of the masc. sya sing. neut. amurhi. amutha. The nom. In the older language . n. Tea and kebhis for kdni and kais. The nom. amuka. sing. The other pronoun. and accus. it has the three forms ^ ka. pi. The characteristic is part of the interrogative pro- k. meaning It 'one. its I is with a following vowel (138 b). singular VII. or exempt from combination Asati and adds are also without analogies as The grammarians. N - ^H Ms faft SfiT kim ka Mm and the ta kim precisely like that of rT rest of the declension is (above. usual variations... Brahmana age. sing. treat adds as representative stem of the declension. and in Brahmanas etc. which is from fa ki. then. many a one' it is oftenest found repeated. are as follows: m.. Fragments of another demonstrative root or two are met with thus. part. amft for in the takes in combination. has also asaunaman. 504. as 'one' and 'another'. PRONOUNS. 495). gen. as adomula. it lengthens its final in the feminine. asati etc. like the The gen. amtisya is the only example in the language of the ending any other than an a-stem. as of the cases. dmas.

'not any one'. Singular. f. corresponding to kim. The grammarians treat kirn as representative stem of and it is in fact so used in a not interrogative pronoun large number of words. either alone or with the relative ya (below. Various forms of this pronoun. cand. is inflected with entire regularity according to Dual. : kiyant. 505. va. 511) prefixed: thus. kimkamya. . Plural. the usual pronominal declension: thus. from the real roots ka. many compounds thus. pronoun. or. and ku at the beginning of compounds. Occasionally. Relative Pronoun. it is by various added particles converted to an indefinite meaning thus. passed from an interrogative meaning. nd ko 'pi. kimdevata. kada. kdti. as in other languages. katha. 'any one'. yam yam yan yam 12 yas. the form kad. katamd. and not infrequently later. but becomes much more common in later time.509] INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. kim. 'whatsoever'. (and. f. kulfc. kddartha). a couple of times in the Veda (katpayd. compounds. . 506. kukarman. m. n. as kad. ku- mantrin. m. 177 The masc. dpi. yani ktini cit. 508. and is 509. independent use also to an exclamatory meaning. oftener. ki. something contemptible. rarely. katard. especially the latter. The root of the relative pronoun is ET 2/#. and the peculiar kimyti go back even to the Veda and Brahmana. It meaning originally (doubtless) belonging used as relative only. kdc cand. the interrogative by itself acquires a simiinterrogative its 507. have ko). begins in the Veda. by ca. kimkard. occurs as a stereotyped case in the combinations ndkis and mdkis. (or kam) is a frequent particle. kathdm. kdrhi. kuha. ku are made many derivatives and from ki and ku. which from the earliest period of the language has lost all trace of the demonstrative to it. kutra. etc. n. 5 yds ETTR yani yas yat ya yau ye ye ye ydt Whitney. f. to the value of prefixes signifying an unusual quality either someThis use thing admirable. n. Grammar. kutas. m. form kis. cit. kucard. through an exclamatory. of which a few kimmdya. the . Moreover. The turns readily in : lar value. kvd. is found as first member of Then. In closer analogy with the other pronouns.

'may there not reach him a human deadly weapon' (lit'ly.). 'what thrice seven go about. 'what house the depth. [509 yena D. there is yonder in 'along let sahd ydn me tena (TB. twice as common as yena. ydbhias. 'may the cleansing plant cleanse away the disease and the curse'.their strength the witches be'. 512. 'what is such a weapon'). ydda. yabhyas etc. and yebhis for j/afs Resolutions occur '. ydti. The Veda shows its usual variations of these forms: yd for ydti and for yena. yebhyas etc. and the comydtra. we have ydtkama of yat as representative stem begins very in the Veda. is asdu y6 adhardd grhas tdtra santv ardyyah (AV. sarvasya locanam castram yasya nd 'sty andha eva sah (H. b.). the distributive. that in truth goes to the gods'. and yesaam and ydsaam.- . puskarena relative into a substantive clause hrtarh rdjyam yac cd 'nyad vasu kimcana (MBh. . may he dsti assign to me'. One or two marked peculiarities in the Sanskrit use here briefly noticed : of the relative may be a. 'who does not possess learning. A frequent conversion of the subject or object of a verb by an added : thus. 'by Pushkara was taken away the kingdom and whatever other property [there was]'. blind indeed is he'.). that burns me' . early in the : The use . me 'mdm prd "pat pdtiruseyo vadhti yah (AV. won through 511. ydya ETFl UHT ydsyai etc. . the eye of everything. to that Indra sing ye' . Its own repetition pronoun as ydd-yat gives it sometimes a like meaning. The other arrangement is com- paratively unusual. ynbhyam ^ ydsmai etc. root pound yadrc.in longed final.).). with that which mine' hansdndm vacanam yat tu tan mam dahati (MBh. and yatkarin. yatamd . The combination of ya with ka to make an indefinite has been noticed above (507). 'what offering thou protectest. yddi. ye trisaptdh pariydnti bald tesdm dadhdtu me (A.). with proyos for I/CM/OS also occurs once ydni. yam yajnam paribhur dsi sd {d devesu gachati (RV. . is in RV. 'but what the words of the swans were.V.). . apamdrgd 'pa mdrstu ksetriydm capdthaf ca ydh (AV. From the proper come also a considerable series of derivatives ydtas. A 'who is the friend of the soma-presser.). part no pdhi ydd dhdnam (AV. yavant. yatard. very decided preference for putting the relative clause before that to which it relates: thus. 510.). 'protect of us what wealth [there is]'. yah sunvatdh sdkhd tdsma fndraya gayata (RV. ydtha.PRONOUNS. - etc.178 VH. yaddevatyd : Brahmana later it grows more general.).).

which have thus the character of pronominal adjectives. singular.). and not seldom it represents other cases also. 179 Emphatic Pronoun. svayamja. 516) has the same value in composition and even its inflected forms are (in the older language very rarely) used as reflexive : : pronoun. all is widely employed. 'relatwhich are used in a possessive sense tadtiya. as reflexive 'soul'. and so on. The adjective bhavant. Some of the more 'important ticed here.) and tavakd. 7 word self. bhavafi. The isolated and uninflected pronominal 'self. tvadiya. mine'. Possessives. in the pronoun of three persons. The noun atmdn. t<^H svayam (from the root sva] signifies to own By est be a nom. etc. and it is oftenappears used as nominative. Nouns used pronominally. of these may be briefly no- 516. is amusyayanti (AV. as a word of the third person. sing. analogous derivative from the genitive amusya 'descendant of such a one'. : Pronominal Derivatives. From pronominal roots and stems. from the genitives mama and tava.516 PRONOMINAL DERIVATIVES. ing Other possessives are mamaM (also mdmaka. From the representative stems mad formed the adjectives madiya. and yadkya. : thus. as well as from the larger class of roots and from noun-stems. ance with its true character. but along with words of all persons its form it and numbers. svayambhu. yusmadlya. RV. to me. 513. asmadiya. 514. is used (as already pointed out 456) in respectful address as substitute for the pronoun of Its construction with the verb is in accordthe second person. are : An etc. f. Svayam is also used as a stem in composition But sva itself (usually adjective below. are formed by the ordinary suffixes of adjective derivation certain words and classes of words. 515. It was pointed out above (493) that the "genitives" asmdkam and yuare really stereotyped cases of possessive adjectives. smdkam 12* .

523. 'thy' . meanThe RV. according to the grammarians. 'so many'.A. and the like. sometimes conveying a diminutive or a contemptuous meaning. tatibhis. and Br. and accus. etadfksa (VS. 'as many'. etc. 483) only in the plural.. For the use of sva as reflexive pronoun. tavant.). last three are in use in the later language. etc. 521.) and ka come the comparaand superlatives yatard and yatamd. yuvtivant. end. 'how They have a quasi-numeral character. Words and kiyant. For their inflection. ytivant. ya come tdti. in the sense of and 'quantus. . 519. etadfc. making their feminines in vatl (452 if. tvd. PRONOUNS. All these words form their feminines in a.: thus. 517. They are inflected like other adjective 'tantus stems in vant. N. feminines in t. . asmadrca: tvadrg etc. iyant 518. from fa. however. They mean 'of my sort. see above. and with the bare stem as nom. the comparative itara. inflected (like the numerals pdnca etc. see below. are made from certain of the pronominal roots and stems (and may. only the ing 'of my sort. idfc and Iddfc etc. the possessives are so rarely used as to make but a small figure in the language. tadfc etc. etadfca. madrc.180 VII. ka. meanOf these. The pronominal roots show a like prolongation of vowel in combination with the root drc. ' tives 520. 'see. like me'. and katard and katamd . of similar inflected in the meaning from the roots t and Id are same manner: see above. From to. which prefers generally to indicate the possessive by the genitive case of the pronoun itself. ettivant. ing 'own'. takam. tv&vant. and the last five are not uncommon. look'.. 513. I. be made from them all): thus. madrca . From ya (in V. By the suffix vant are formed from the pronominal with prolongation of their final vowels. But (excepting sva) relation Other derivatives of a like value have no claim to be mentioned here. 451. tdtmam. like or resembling me'.). and from i. yusmnvant. all persons and numbers. with the sense of talij and 'qualis The forms in drc are unvaried for gender those in drga (and drksa ?] have l 1 . tdtisu. and its derivatives drca and (quite rarely) dfksa: thus. [516 Corresponding to svaydm '513) is the possessive sva. tdti. the adjectives mavant.. many?' and are ydti.: above. roots. Mti. yadfc etc. Derivatives with the suffix ka. as relating to has once the corresponding simple possessive of the second person.. t&tibhyas. yusmadfc etc.

saka asau.- form am. some known rule. A number of adjectives others some of them coming or less from pronominal pronouns ing roots roots. east' and 'right. amuka.). 'one'. in part or wholly. see Adverbs (below. in Yet other words follow the same model usually. 522. madhyamd. Such are the comparatives and superlatives from prepositional stems: ddhara and adhamd. clension are sporadically But even from these words forms made according met with (e. yatard and yatamd. sing. g. . dpara and apamd. are not without exception. half and the possessive of the pronominal declension are met with from numeral adjectives: e. ddksina. every'.. . Further. all'. and from other words having an indefinite numeral character: thus. caramd. namely. 'distant. 'few': ardhd. 'all. from sa. uttara and uttamd. asakau: from amu. 495 523. g. 'all'. to the adjective de- 524. vfyvaya. AV. kevala.-voc. and others. 525. ubhdya (f. Of these. Occasional forms . cidedly upara and upamd. 'of the two kinds' 526. pronominal forms are demore numerous from the comparatives than from the superlatives. yake : from takdt. and itara and its comparative anyatard are declined Their feminine stems are in a. 181 from ya. dvara and avamd. itarayam. where they have the ordinary adjective instead of the pronominal at (ad).526 ADJECTIVES DECLINED PEG-NOMINALLY. (e. least in the earlier language g. chapter XVI. 'each. vtcva. more analogous with in use are inflected. dlpa. other' purva. RV. (accentless). simd. 'any or every one svd. For the numerous and frequently used adverbs formed from pronominal : roots. nema. yakds. dntara and dntama. The comparatives and superlatives from pronominal y : also anyd. like ta throughout. trtiyasydm. or . eka. south'. 'prior. the words para. prathamdsyas. dvtiaya. Others words are sing. Such are sdrva. and also anyatama (whose positive and comparative belong to the class first mentioned: 523). acc. or without or optionally but in other senses. the superlatives (without corresponding comparatives) paramd.). 1 . 'other'. 'of both kinds or parties'. katard and katamd. 'the one. accord. of their significations. vfyvat. . to the Thus pronominal declension (like cT ta. K. at These. 'half. eke loc. yaka. neut. Further. also. so inflected except in the nom. lapse into the adjective inflection.. Adjectives declined pronominally. the rare sama . . 'all'. takas.). ubhdyl or ubhayi).

sometimes a part of the tenses are inflected others only in the other or in both. 528. besides the simpler or ordinary conjugation of a verbal root. the dis- tinctions of voice. 'a word for another'. 768). mode. 529. of a verb usually inflected in one voice sporadic forms of the other occur. And the distinction thus expressed is doubtless the original foundation of the difference of active and middle forms the in : in the recorded condition of the flexive language. and person. or even altoantithesis gether effaced. . compounded and sometimes the voice 531. others in one only. distinguished by a difference in the personal This distinction is a pervading one: there is no endings. Voice. active and middle. Some verbs are conjugated in both voices.182 [527- CHAPTER VIII. 'a word for one's self: the terms might be best paraphrased by 'transitive' and 'reflexive'. meaning is of transitive and reno small measure blurred. 530. Then. and vice versa. and it is corresponding extended also in part to its the participles (but not to the infinitive). and a middle form is called atmane padam. The middle forms is which there outside the present-system (for a special passive inflection: see below. involves. tense. f 527. only in one voice. CONJUGATION. An active form is called by the Hindu grammarians parasmai padavn. the verb is differs according as with certain prepositions. however. active personal form which does not have middle. number. there are certain more or less fully developed secondary or derivative conjugations. THE subject of conjugation or verbal inflection as in the other languages of the family. There are (as in Greek) two voices.

c. : an aorist. the present adds to its indicof which last. In the classical Sanskrit. a present. and aorist (of rare use) are so many undiscrim. Tense. and an imperative (in 2d and 3d persons). is in form. perfect. a so-called pluperfect. and aorist receive those from their correspondence in mode of formation with tenses so called in other languages of the family. and a second. made from 6. morean optative and an imperative the first persons are a remnant of the old subjunc- . an imperfect. past tenses or preterits : see below. besides its indicative a subjunctive. imperfect. 532. having a prefixed augment. (to made with 4. and they are made also from the aorists. Mode. reduplication which in the Veda it added. with 2. The same three modes are found. an optative. The tenses here distinguished usage) names (in accordance with prevailing as imperfect. pluperfect. especially in Greek. of considerable variety of formation. respect to mode. an augment-tense. though of much less frequent occurrence. In the Veda. the difference be- tween the classical Sanskrit Veda in a less and the older language of the is degree. except in imperfect or pluperfect time the older language. future (not found in the Veda). inated tenses. and not at all from differences of time designated by them. under the different 533. stand- ing to 8. 183 are liahle to be used and sometimes likewise in a passive sense. In no period of the Sanskrit language is there any expression of nor of perfect time. perfect. The future has no modes (an occasional case or two inflection. as belonging to the perfect. 5. also within that system.533] TENSES AND MODES. closely related with a perfect. with it 7. where the "aorist" has this value later. sibilant. a periphrastic. a future. simple. are purely exceptional). the present tense has. ative over. being of especial frequency from the simple aorist. b. of the Brahmanas especially great. in the relation of an imperfect to a present. of three different formations a. In and. reduplicated. tenses are as follows: it 1. with prefixed augment). a conditional. The 3.

simple. tional. composed of the aorist tense its along with. then. its participle. or systems. its modes and its preterit. tive "pnecative" opta- (but. sharing in the various pe. singular. the new periphrastic future. culiarities active and middle. IV. somewhat (or peculiar inflection. Number and . 536. marked groups or systems: I.184 tive. and accompanying preterit. dual. in the later language. reduplicated. Tense-systems. . Person. its participle. and its preterit which we have called the imperfect. the same three numbers with the noun. composed of the pertense (with. VIII. dictive). and in each number has the three per- second. perfect. fect The perfect-system. The future-systems: with its its a. of the tense-formations and in the Veda aorist. alike in the earlier and a pair of participles. and b. of them. and sibilant. All of these are that made in every tense and the imperative mode numbers except the first persons of are supplied from the subjunctive. in the Veda. with their certain well- accompanying modes and participles. the old or sibi- lant future. fall into The present-system. namely and plural first. with its various modes and its participle). The tenses. The aorist-system. are found such participles belonging also to the 535. and future tenses have each later language. in the Veda. CONJUGATION. the condiparticiple. composed of the present tense with its modes. and third. of course. sons. II. the so-called pluperfect) and III. usually called the precative bene- 534. [533 of And the aorist has also an optative. The verb it has. The present.

Secondary conjugations. In the older language. a very con- only in a few sporadic instances having anything are used in an infinitive systems sense . root. and the other for compound. 537. There is besides. a participle. one for is simple verbs. expanded . is In these. underlies a conjugation-stem. of several different formations. is second gerund. d. b. rivative like the infinitive. there remains a single to infinitive. coming directly from the root of the verb. The participles belonging to the tense-systems have been already spoken of above (534). in the genitive and ablative. of accusative case-form. 539. a stereotyped case-form of a dea part of the general verb-system in both the earlier and later language. Future passive participles. but only rarely. In the classical Sanskrit. the desiderative. Yet there clearly to be seen in them the character of a present-system. instead of the simple the whole system of inflection. it quent in the latter. c. to do with the tensequasi -infinitive or most often in the dative case. A noun is so-called gerund (or absolutive) - being. the passive. found. Gerund. and (very rarely) in the locative. but sometimes also in the accusative. or gerundives. prevailingly of past and passive (or sometimes neuter) meaning. are also made. In the Veda it being especially frehas a somewhat various form . Its value of an indeclinable active participle. The secondary or derivative conjugations are as follows: a. the causative. in the later language. A 540. the intensive. Infinitives. that of indeterminate but prevailingly past tense-character. having nothing do with the tense-systems. an adverbially used accusative in form. has only two forms. 185 Verbal adjectives and nouns: Partici- ples. siderable variety of derivative abstract nouns 538.540 1 VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS. both earlier and later.

adjective-stems into Under the same general head belongs the subject of or the conversion of noun and conjugation-stems. mined in part its character as regards as regards By this alone is number and person tense. They are also. The characteristic of a proper (finite or personal) deter- verb-form is its personal ending. And finally. or the looser combination of auxiliaries with verbal adjectives. depending upon other conditions. Then. in the following chapters. both tense-stems and mode-stems. to which.186 into a is VIII. instead of to the pure the personal endings are appended. that of compound conjugation. usually of two somewhat varying forms for the same person in the same voice one fuller. and of those elements in the formation of tensestems the augment and the reduplication which are found in more than one tense-system. root. all the varieties of ending for each person . nouns and 541. more or less complete conjugation it and the passive be described in so purely a present-system that that part will the chapter devoted to verb. 542. pervading differences. Personal Endings. called secondary. each tense-system will be taken up by itself. Further. and also mode and But the distinc- tions of mode and tense are mainly made by the formation of tense and mode-stems. and their combination with the endings. whether by the prefixion of prepositions to roots or by the addition of auxiliary verbs to noun and adjective-stems. will be described in detail. of the inflection of the denominative conjugation. called primary the other briefer. The endings of verbal inflection are. L In this chapter will be given a general account of the personal endings. that of periphrastic con- jugation. A condensed statement of and number here follows. different throughout in the active and middle voices. and the methods of formation of its stems. as in Greek. There are also less : . as was pointed out above. and also of the formation of mode-stems from tense-stems. CONJUGATION. [540 .

But the perfect tense has wanting. . 555. mi nor m . and to this m an a has dropped). 187 in Singular: First person. its ending is simply a (sometimes a to : 248 c) : from other -roots. which. and in the oldest Veda this ni is sometimes and the person ends in a (as if the ni of am were The secondary ending is m. 555. is an isolated anomaly). which blends with the final of an The optative has. which The imperative is far less regular. the primary ending. but the In a very small class of bare stem stands as personal form. se is sometimes strengthened to sai in the subjunctive. however. 570 1). perfect and the imperative desert here entirely the analogy of The perfect ending is invariably tha (or tha. neither or. In the active. 543. however (later imperative). is more often reduced to hi. this. the : The primary middle ending. see below. 545. The Veda has also an ending verbs (722) ana is the ending. . t: The active primary ending is ti. the secondary. at every period of the language) no ending is present. which in the Veda is not seldom to be read as ma. according persons. however. appearing always where the tense-stem does not itself end in a (vam for varm or varam in RV.545] PERSONAL ENDINGS. once. that it is necessary to reckon am as ending. the analogy of in the subjunctive (later imperative) appears ai for *e. is e. and this is even used sporadically in other persons of the 248 c). The primary ending is the active mi. and the third person has the same ending as the first. au.. and to it corresponds * as secondary ending. tat. The fullest form ending is dhi. the other forms. is se. alternate with m. and in the imperative is found only sva (or sva: 248 c). being thas. and in the perfect no characteristic consonant is present. is shortened to si. the primary ending as secondary as to the loss of But the this s after a final radical consonant. stead the peculiar ending tu . would be regularly me. see as to the loss of the latter after a final radical But in the imperative appears inbelow. and a-stem to e. its of imperative (see below. at any period of the language. Second person. is s : 544. come to be so persistently prefixed. from a-stems and others alike. has ni instead The subjunctive. Third person. and in the great majority of verbs (including all a-stems. But no tense or mode. In the middle voice. shows any relic whatever the primary ending. a instead of i. consonant. In the older language. present as well as of a m in this person perfect. both present and The secondary stands in no apparent relation to perfect.

the middle third person subjunctive. only with substitution of v for the m of the latter thus. vas (no vasi has been found to occur). The perfect endings are primary. In the middle. the third person present also simply. but have u instead of a as and an a has become so persistently prefixed that their vowel forms have to be reckoned as athus and aim. 737. especially in the perfect. a long a which. and. of course. but the secondary abbreviated ma In the Veda. the t of the aorist 3d pers. . Both first : vahi. and comes to To this e perhaps corresponds. as five to one. active Plural: First person. which in the oldest language is more frequent than the briefer mas (in RV. ethe etc. with the final a of a-stems becomes e has become prefixed to all dual endings of the second and third persons. belongs also to the perfect and the subjunctive (imperative). 701. rarely am] for its ending. present and perseparable part of them. ma often becomes ma (248 c). and this relation of th to t appears also in the perfect. passive (842 ff. the first. is the exclusive primary ending. and that of the third is tas. person is in all its varieties precisely like the corresponding plural. The Rig -Veda has a very few forms in and ete aithe and are aite.188 VIII. all apparently from detailed below : with subjunctive strengthening (they see 615. the 546. The earliest form of the ending is mast. In the classical Sanskrit. te often The as secondary.. often loses the distinctive part of its termination. 548. 1008. in the Veda. use. This is on the other hand. and and atam ethe cite. 1043). 836. coincide in form with the first. the 547. tai in the is te. namely e has.. va. In the older language. and from the Veda no form in of comparatively rare even. vahai. so as to form an inThe primary endings. primary ending of the second person is tkas. endings exhibit no definable relation to the primary in these two persons they are tarn and tarn . in active and in middle. is make. dual Dual: First person. Second and Third persons. is quotable. CONJUGATION. lightened in it is regu- . however. pas.). vahe. and they are used in the imperative as well. fect. the secondary (and imperative) are atham with stem-final a. in AV. imperative has tarn (or. The secondary . The person is. only as three to four). like the active. the same ending with and in the older language. and runs through the whole series of middle endings. 752. In the active. [545 ta The primary middle ending secondary. with is as corresponding strengthened to In the perfect. mas however. The primary middle ending the secondary form to mahi.). are athe (or.

dhvat is once met with in the imperative (570). . disappearing after the final a of a tense. ante. anta are all liable to be weakened by the loss of their nasal. the Veda. which belongs to the is dhve. in the middle.. and which accordingly appears as a weaker correlative of an. antam. 550. a variety of other endings containing a r person. ta only But in the perfect any characteristic consonant is to persons of the first general conjugation. end). In the active. ] 89 strengthened to mahai in the subjunctive 549. . imperative. . but of the t only altogether questionable traces are left. antu. is not infrequently added to both forms of the ending. The same us is also used universally in the perfect. In the ante. and the perfect as well as the present. wanting. not invariably) (imperative). In the Veda.). to primary ending is anti in The middle secwhich should correspond an active full . ondary ending anta. which is used in the same reduplicating verbs that change anti to ati etc. The active primary ending is tha . and the ending is simply a. and roots ending in a. becoming ati etc. The secondary. Moreover. is the active.j. in those forms of the aorist whose stem does not end in a. for the secondary active ending an there is a subtts (or ur : 169. anti. this weakening takes place only after reduplicated stems (and after a few roots which are treated as if reduplicated 639 ff. with ante as corresponding middle. once in impv.550] larly (in PERSONAL ENDINGS. In the Veda. under the different formations the addition is very rarely made excepting : also imperative. ending is ta (in the Veda. and a few others (621). as distinctive consonant are met with namely. middle has in all periods of the language the peculiar ending re. the v of all these endings is sometimes resolved into u. the syllable na. and the optative has the allied ran.stem. in this In the Veda. once dhva] and (and imperative) ending is dhvam (in RV. The middle primary ending ending becomes dissyllabic.. In the subjunctive of the older The secondary language it is sometimes strengthened to dhvai. Third person. re (and ire] and rate in the present rata in the optative (both of present and of in the imperfect of The perfect : . The forms in which this occurs will be detailed below. of problematic origin. antu and antam take the place of all anti and in The initial a of these endings is like that of am the 1st sing. Further. making ihana (rarely thana] and tana. it occurs after all tense-stems save those : ending in stitute a. in the euphonic treatment of a final n (207) the ending is an. Second person. The ant. in the optative (not in the subjunctive).

c. used in the language present indicative and the future (and the subjunctive in part) and b. active and 552. . the perfect endings and d. are as follows : Primary Endings. the so-called imperative endings of the first person is prefixed the a which is practically a part of them . . then. the regular primary endings. Further. Below are given. accent. . ratam. The latter are those which never. 550 rire in the perfect ranta. in tabular form. though by no means in all. imperative has an accented ending and. a. receive the accent the former are accented in considerable classes of verbs. the : . CONJUGATION. It will be noticed that. . To junctive from which they are derived. used in the imperfect. for convenience. the unaccented endings are those of the singular active but the 2d sing. of 553. 551. in general. the aorist. have the subjunctive formation unaccented endings (this being a characteristic of which they represent). The in an imperfect or two) three rate. and ram in aorists (and ram and ratam in the imperative. ran. part) the conditional. especially in the middle) . The schemes a. a part of the endings are marked with an and a part are left unaccented. the imperative (chiefly primary. and rata are found even in the later language . middle. in one or two verbs (629). on the other hand. . schemes of endings as accepted in the classical or later namely. of special schemes.190 aorist) VIII. . the whole series of 1st persons imperative. the regular secondary endings. normal endings. the optative (and the subjunctive in and further. . though really containing the mode-sign of the sub- endings (chiefly secondary). under any circumstances.

only fragments are left in the later or classical language in the so-called first persons imperative. For instances.. or before an and of weaker form when the accent is on ending. is treated stem. the accent ate in are regarded. be lost an added consonant without vowel. 1 ani dhi. 631. which is strengthened. dtdm if 3 tu tdm dntu. under the various formations. and in the use (58O) . dtu is tdm dtdm 554. The secondary endings as consisting of of the second and third persons singular. the tone resting on the Much less often. And : this rule is in general followed. A similar loss of any other final consonant before the ending is exceedingly rare. 621. Subjunctive Mode. this respect.557] PERSONAL ENDINGS. 557. a distinction of stronger and weaker form of stem in large classes the stem being of verbs. a union-vowel is sometimes introduced before the ending. 555. In general. of . on the other hand. dva tarn dma ta ai avahdi dmahdi 2 svd dthdm dhvdm dntam. 718. see below. 685. Of the endings marked as accented in the scheme. b. 699. 556. 735 : occasional instance . ceptions. Of the subjunctive mode (as was pointed out above) : namely. indie. 692. 880. Here may be simply mentioned in advance. 191 Imperative Endings. is not infrequently in the Veda treated as unaccented. see below. is changed to ai : 904 b. middle number of verbs (see 613. d. as integral 3d a is ending ate of the pres. A root instead of the added or ending in a dental mute sometimes drops this final mute s in the second person and. either a or I: see below. same way : in the other endings. The changes of form which roots and stems undergo in their combinations with these endings will be pointed out in detail below. and an met with in other endings thus. or t and t. the tarn of 2d du. But the has in RV. should regularly (150) whenever the root or stem to which they are to be added itself ends in a consonant. make (see 719. dis- accented on in its first syllable and the constant union-vowels parts of the endings. 7if. this I In a few isolated cases in the older language. the ta of 2d pi.the when the accent falls upon it. standing in relation with the accent stronger form accentless ending. only sporadically. yet not without ex- Thus a. pi. this s instead of the added t in the s third person either establishing the ordinary relation of and t in these persons. a root . 1068. 819. Again. stem ending in in s sometimes drops case. as by far the most important among them. instead of s and s. the rule syllabic. is followed that an accented ending.

the endings are either primary or secondary: dtihasi or dohas. ddhani. di alone is found as ending. ddhatas.. far In 3d it pi. dmahdi prevails in RV. only dvahdi is met with. and 2d pi. (dmahe is found a few times). tudti.. which accordingly to a. 558. In 2d and 3d sing. and a few nidi for nte is times in the Brahmanas. has the strong form. Thus. No such . the 1st sing. sdi for se does not occur in RV. bhdvdni. The stem thus formed is inflected in general as an a-stem would be inflected in the indicative.. yvac). the only form in AV.Veda sometimes a simply thus. its most normal and regular formation. But in the Rig. however. d6hati or ddhat. This is less general in the very language than later. from yunaj C^yuj).... yundja . bhdvdti or bhdvat.. [557 and aorist persons without In the quent formation. d6han. a special for the subjunctive by adding to the tensewhich combines with a final a of the tense-stem stem an a The accent rests upon the tense-stem. 560. and a for a before the endings of the first person (733) but with the following peculiarities as to ending etc. and nearly the same in the Atharvan the Brahmanas it becomes comparatively rare. the endings are always the secondary: thus.. thus. from bh&va (ybhu). ucyti. forms with double mode-sign a (by assimilation to the more numerous subjunctives from tense-stems in a) are met with from nona-stems thus. In the middle. at/a. Occasionally. VIII. and sometimes perplexing. from tudd (ytud). even in RV.. dsdtha from as .. has ni as ending: thus.192 of the imperfect prohibitive. In 1st sing. occurs neither in the Brahmana form (of RV... the endings are always primary: thus. (where they are more frequent than the primary). and the only one is In 2d pi. dohdva. Rig. bravd. bhdvasi or bhdvds. In 3d sing. earliest strengthening of e'to di in and but is is alone known later. bhdvdma. : yundjdni.Veda. also (of rare occurrence). tdi for te the predominant form in AV. of form are considerable.. bhdvdtha. bhdvdva. In the active.. and is In 2d sing. dydn from e : 561. later. from ucyd (pass.. dhvdi for dhve found in one word in RV. In 2d and 3d du. with constant accent. dohatha bhdvdthas. forms with secondary instead of primary endings 3d pi.. being three or four times it augment after mn was a very fre- as common as the . bhdvdtas. from frequent occurrence). at/at. being found only in the the endings. In mode-stem is made 559. from the strong present-stem dok (yduh) is made the subjunctive-stem doha. occurs once in RV. at/as. and 3d pi. nor AV. optative in the but already in Its varieties oldest period. In 1st pi. juhdva. The striking peculiarity of subjunctive middle inflection is the frequent are very rare. dtihdma. ddhathas. and in a case or two of the 3d sing. bhdvdn. bhdva. CONJUGATION. : In 1st du. .. and in 1st du. from juho (yhu).. 1st pi. and so on. and AV. and the Brahmanas.

decidedly less common in later Vedic. p. krnvdite}. As to the uses of the subjunctive. or in respects coinciding with the forms of an augment- tense (imperfect or aorist) save for the absence of the augment. (580) and very little used in the Brahmanas except after after which they stand also in the later language. 8. : asi or as. but antdi instead of antdi is two or three times met with. atha. with strengthened primary. . 527. end) aithe and aite. Since (below. in in further combination with all final a of a tense-stem. without mode-sign and with all secondary endings. the distinction of the two classes of use is often difficult to make. Subjunctives of this character are frequent in RV. and with secondary endthere is in the older language another. is which still later it comes almost entirely to replace. Grammar. middle. the optative is of comparatively rare occurrence in the language of the Vedas but it gains rapidly in frequency. Its mode of formation the same in all periods of the 13 language Whitney. p. in its triple with primary. anta <_ [antdi [atai And. 587) the forms of augmented tenses are also freely used in an indicative sense without augment in the oldest Veda. for example. are anywhere found. but RV. 562. The subjunctive endings. are as follows : active. 563. see below. Optative Mode. then. adhve.) atdi for dtdi. : thus. 564. . in combination with the subjunctive mode-sign. has in a few words (nine: above. regularly long a. forms is md prohibitive These appellation are sometimes called "imperfect subjunctive". 2d pers. 1 am (asi i ova athas ama atha { (dvahdi ai (dmahdi [avahe (ase 2 [amahe (adhve aithe [as (ati 3 [asai atas [at an (ate aite [adhvai (ante. ase. the initial a of these endings becomes a athas. s. d. 193 dual endings as thai and tai.564] SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. As has been already pointed out. 572 ff.. greatly outnumbers the subjunctive. and already in the Brahmanas . and once (TS. which appear to indicative be a like subjunctive strengthening of ethe and ete (although found in one Before the ai-endings the penultimate vowel is form. is but the an evident misnomer: "improper subjunctive" preferable. d. for the arid te. form ings Besides this proper subjunctive. with mode-sign.

and loss of the a before it. After an a-stem. with. of course. by means of an interposed euphonic y. After any other final. the accent of the latter. where it falls upon the tense-stem see 645) and the I (as when combined to e) takes an inserted y before a vowel-ending. 566. the mode-sign is i throughout. and takes the regular series of secondary endings.. CONJUGATION. for a-stems and for others : \ a. this i blends with the final a to e (which unaccented it is and then is accented or not according to the accent of the a) the e is maintained unchanged before a vowel-ending (am. MS instead of an. mode-sign it is added in the active voice a dif- . then.194 VIII. according as or in some other final. . After an a-stem. the weaker form of stem is taken. for non-a-stems. and ran in 3d pi.. and takes the secondary endings. 565. it is ya. It is. with a in 1st sing. impossible to of tell from the form whether i or 1 is combined with the exist for final i. to . in their double form. is [565 a tense-stem ending in a. The combined mode-sign and endings of the optative. The optative ferent one. . : . assuming an a-stem to e. in 3d plur. us). the rules as to its combination to e. and its retention before a vowel-ending with interposition of a y. are the same as in the active. In the middle voice. . are as follows. In the latter case. accented this ya is appended to the weaker form of the tense-stem. but no good reason appears to rather than the I which shows itself in the other class of stems in middle voice. and the accent is on the ending (except in one class of verbs.

'let me watch till day-break').. . s. the precative form. see below. Imperative Mode. The imperative has no mode-sign. yasam [yas] [ydt] yasva yasma yasta [iy&] isihas istd [wdhi] lyasthdm [Imdhi] 2 yastam ydstdm idhvdm [Iran] 3 ydsus iydstdm As to the uses of the optative. once.. have the proper ending yds The accent is as in the simple optative. in AV. and the other Vedic texts (for yast). s it is runs in the active through the whole series of persons allowed only in the 2d and 3d persons sing. 13* g. 572 ff. in 2d and 3d du. and 2d pi. and has than seventy Its that of a second person singular. in tat. which instead of the precative-sign s. 'let wealth come again to me'. 568. the same the case (above. p. and the 2d 3d sing. in to some extent. 555) saves the personal ending t usually. however. $B. and especially later. its forms are indistinguishable from those of the augment-pretexit from the same stem with its augment omitted. but it occurs as 1st sing.. from the simple optative. and du.. p. . but the RV. essary loss of the added s. are as follows : active. period This of the is though found from the language. in connection with ending tat. times (e. the later language. d.. by reason of the necis not distinguishable is the 3d sing. in brackets. d.. TS. then. as 3d sing. from the simple The inserted in the middle. and is In the 2d sing. and allowed to be it is made fifty in the latest in the five leading less Vedic texts occurrences. The rules as to the use of the different endings is especially in 2d sing.. formed from nearly usual value is verbs. 1 middle. the other endings are added to form the indicative tenses. Hence.. nowhere a frequent form. 570. (dvyu- sdm jdgrtdd ahdm. pi. where the variety peculiar in its considerable the -various tense-systems. has so much that is will use that it calls for a little explanation here. The be given below. s. those which are identical with the simple optative). it is made by just as adding its own endings directly to the tense-stem. toward a dozen punar md "vi?atdd rayih.570] precative aorist OPTATIVE MODE.. 195 aorist. 'the king here shall make aydrh tydsya rdjd murdhdnarh m pdtayatdt. the middle from the sibilant are practically of rare occurrence at every period of the language. act. The precative endings. The Imperative earliest . accepted in the later language (including. 569. in quotable from the older literature only for the 2d and act.

6. . in the oldest language. . the form in tat may be used when bene- diction is intended. and J vd ma J [afterward] announce her to us as having come'. 1. but it does not acquire any regular use in dependent-clause-making . nah sukrto brutdt. of the Modes. and most unchanged in It signi- use throughout the whole history of the language. apah us to the gods as well-doers'). an expression of . announce varayadhvdt for vdrayatdt: no other occurrence of dhvat has been noted. 573.) have once AB. tfsthantam abhyehi ti bruhi tdm Iti na dgatdm 'say to her "come to me as I stand just here". several times in TS. . run back again'. the one most distinct and limited in office. an exhortation. devesu (e. 'hd dhattdt (RV. tree will ascend thee. 'when thou shalt stand upright. and in which. 'the vdnaspdtir ddhi tvd sthdsyati tdsya vittdt (TS. As to (Delbriick) : Examples are : ihai pratiprdbrutat (QB. an entreaty. xvi.6 bhavo 'dtihya prdti dhdvatdt after having carried up. this form has been shown have prevailingly in the Brahmanas. namely. earnest desire. 6. waters. fies an attempt at the exercise of the speaker's will upon some one or something outside or injunction a command of himself.). and many times in a Brahmana passage (repeated in K. is prevailing use in independent clauses that to which the name "optative" properly belongs. This.196 his head fly off').). VIII.). g. TB. 571. 'be a carrier up the ascent. an injunction added to its mode-value to be carried out at a later time than the present it is (like the Latin forms in to and tote] a posterior or future imperative. utkulam udvah. regards its meaning. . 21. is by no means always of the same force the command shades off into a demand. ii. iii. and AB. and as 2d 'ye [570 . The optative appears to have as its primary office the expression its of wish or desire. moreover. 7) pi. however (in Sanskrit as in other languages). According to the grammarians.). a specific tense-value as signifying. and traceably but much less distinctly in the Vedic texts. the imperative is Of the three modes. it becomes the expression of something conditional or contingent. by pregnant construction. take [then] note of it'. The imperative also sometimes signifies an assumption or concession and occasionally. ydd urdhvds tfsthd drdvine [then] bestow riches here' (and similarly (AV. Uses 572. in many cases). two authorities (K. CONJUGATION.

in a prohibitive or negative imperative sense. optative. be- an early period in the history of the language. so that the optative a softened imperative and. with relative becomes a regular means of expression of the conditional and contingent. And instead of their being (as in Greek) both maintained in use. more so than the optative. requisition. and the use of its other persons. of what dependent clauses. and so becomes at last a softened statement is is. it is likely weakened into signifying what may or can be. and no sharp line of division exists between them and they are more or less exchangeable with one another. the subjunctive gradually disappears. then. and are hardly distinguishable in dependent. But this meaning is liable to the same modifications and transitions with that of and subjunctive and optative run closely parallel the optative with one another in the oldest language in their use in independent clauses. 574. is in their between imperative and subfundamental and most char: uses. passes natbecomes urally over into that of request or entreaty. there are left of it in classical usage only two relics the use of its first persons in an "imperative" sense. in coordinate clauses. And the general value of the subjunctive from the beginits fundaning was what these relics would seem to indicate mental meaning is perhaps that of requisition. again. 197 The so-called precative forms (567. yet . in a wide and inFurther. the offices formerly shared by both. what should or ought to be.575 USES OF THE MODES. The subjunctive. with the negative particle m : md. at as has been pointed out. on the other hand. 575. combinable wish : . creasing variety of uses. but are not otherwise distinguished from the simple optatives. or a peremptory intention on his part . are restricted to this use. one of degree command. comes nearly extinct . and the optative assumes alone . it comes . and endowed with nicer and more distinctive values. or to signify a necessity or obligation resting on the speaker. . junctive acteristic The and difference. optative the in pronouns and conjunctions. less peremptory than the imperative. and so becomes the mode of prescription or. what or usual. to signify what is generally desirable or proper. 'But the expression of desire. on the one hand.

. 'how can I know king Nala?' utsarge samcayah syat tu . a chieftainesg having attained a spouse let her rule in happiness' nah punar dadah (TS. bhavati gatva pdtim subhdga rajatu (AV. however. 'let her go to her relations'. 'if thou thinkest "I shall not die'". we have in impv. ydd mara iti mdnyase (RV. interchangeable with a hardly perceptible change of meaning.).). in fact. . again. ..). kdsmai devhya havisa vidhema (RV.).) will be enough to illustrate them uchistam nai 'va A : bhunjlyam na kuryam padadhavanam. . for instance. reds of autumns'. .in subj. The uses of the optative in the later language are of the utmost variety. 'may this O Agni find a spouse giving birth to sons she shall ! . 'may autumns'.). show There these is. . [575 Thus. nai 'vam sa karhicit kuryat.). . 'I will not eat of the remnant of the sacrifice. 'watch over gopayd nah svastdye prabudhe us for our welfare. 'may there be to us sunuh It is not very seldom let that favor of thine be ours' a son . 'one should give every day'. 'those later ages will doubtless come'. 'she should not act thus at any time'. sdrvam hyur jivyasam (prec. 'to what god shall we offer oblation?' agniria rayim acnavat dive-dive (RV.in we live hundopt. in independent a gha ta gachan uttara clauses. . ubhau tau jivatam jarddasti. 'by Agni one may gain wealth every day'. be specialized uses having. .-. jlvema cardddm catani. few examples from a single text (MBh.. propitious and favorable'. 577.VIII.).). Examples.). 'one should in that case she will be give her. -. 'they do not become lost no thief can harm them'. may be quoted the following nd yughni (RV. katham vidyam nalam nrpam. adyd jivani. grant unto us to wake again'. . the case that versions of the same passage in different texts different modes as various readings. 'do thou live a hundred autumns'. covering the whole field occupied jointly by the two modes in earlier time. become . nothing in the earliest all employment of modes to prove that they might not of forms originally equivalent future meaning. . . I will not perform the foot-lavation' jnatln vrajet. to a Brahman : in older . of different modes in coordinate construcsuvana putran mdhisl tion are iydm agne nari pdtim videsta : . m woman. 'he shall live a hundred . syhn nah sa te sumatir bhutv asme (RV.). CONJUGATION.: catdm jlva carddah. junctive As examples and optative of the the less use of sub- language. nd ta nacanti nd dabhati tdskarah (RV. in AV. .j. . . 'let them both live to attain old age'. 'let me live this day' catdm jivati carddah.. dhar-ahar dadyat (QB. . 'I would fain Here the modes would be live out my whole term of life'. a general characteristic 576. utai 'nam brahmdne dadyat tdtha syona civa syat (AV.

This very definite and peculiar construction. do not grieve'. ma na ayuh prd mosih (RV.) it is the augmentless aorist that is chosen. and is occasionally met with in the later language: thus. abandonment there . But the use of the optative with nd. 'how can I cut off the garment and my beloved not wake?' a . 'both let my dbhayam jyotir indra would win broad fearless light.). thou wilt not die'. divyava. no harm at any time'. and both are extremely common so that in a text of prescriptive character the optative forms may come to outnumber the indicative diva cayita . In all (as is the case. dependent constructions. This in the later jandh (MBh. nine tenths in AV. The subjunctive with mi is in the oldest language almost the sole form of prohibitive expression.). ma bhaih. is still harder even .). k let us two play'. language is the correlative of the prescriptive optative.. is Only one optative (bhujema) once is (in a corrupted used prohibitively with md in RV. let him not sacrifice'.).) na marisyasi (RV.. Thus prd pata me 'hd raiisthah (AV. 'not'. only me not be ma no dirgha subject to my foe'. 'may we suffer let him not sleep by day'. 'but he must not do that so'.. it in Manu).). nd ca 'tisrjen nd juhuyat (AV. ma smai 'tint sdkhm kuruthah (AV. 'fly away. 'I dvisate let radham (AV. tad u tdtha nd kuryat (QB. for example. : called imperative involves no change of construction from former time.).). (QGS. and imperative together 581. 'and if he do not grant permission. dvisdnc ca md. The later use of the first persons subjunctive as so-. 'do not steal away our life'. The kind of subjunctive employed is that which corand in the responds to the augmentless forms of a past tense great majority of cases (five sixths inRV. 'what shall I do for thee?' 579.). nd risyema kada cand (RV. chance she may also find 578. kirn karavcini te. O long darknesses come upon us'. but only restriction to a single kind of use thus. in a prohibitive sense appears even (very rarely) in the Veda. struction found in AV. has preserved itself in use.). samaqvasihi ma cucah. and becomes later the thus. : hyam rddhyatu ma ca 'Mm foe be subject to me. 'let .). and the cases in the later language are 580. may be happiness somewhere' hitham vaso wkarteyam na ca budhyeta me priya. and is very common. neither conrare.581] USES OF THE MODES. 'but in case of her 199 vindeta 'pi sukharii kvacit. let not the 'do not make probably friends of them'. abhi nacan tamisrah Indra. of an augmentless past tense with ma. and urv dcyam (RV. na tvam vidyur not people know thee'. 'do not fear.). do not stay here'. and passage) an imperative. na prevalent construction . ma libher (impf. 'do not fear' (both MBh.). 'be comforted.

'sya pacttn eating. or if thou wert I. This is in the Veda one of the most frequent uses of the subjunctive and in its .). such uses are equivalent A few examples will be represented by the optative alone. with the optative.).j. : atisdrpat pardsfan nd sd mucyatai vdriinasya rajnah (AV.). 'we will offer to the gods if we shall be able'. 'so that he may take pity on me'. 'to whosesoever house he may come as guest'. 'if he should continue without he would starve if he should eat. These and the like constructions. with ned. yo [hitherto]. 'when the sacrificing priest shall name the name of the offerer. ydd dnacvan upavdset ksodhukah syad ydd acniyad rudrb abhi many eta (TS. are very common : in the Brahmanas and later. 'if I were thou. 'that a slayer of my enemies'.). 'if any man soever should desire me.).). 1 or 'lest . he shall not escape king Varuna'.and then. . and which shall asmakam sd eko 'sat (TS. krpam bury ad yatha mayi (MBh.).). he may pass : ' l putranam. grnanti ydtha pibatho dndhah 'that being praised with song ye may drink the draught'. let him be one of us'. he should suffer punishment'. . own form'.). 'in order that we rejoice in thy wide protection'. yatamdtha kamdyeta tdtha kuryat (QB.j. 'though one steal far away beyond the sky. ydsya dtithir grhhn agdchet (AV. clauses ydtha 'ham catruho 'sani (AV.). in the later language. I may be (RV. thou mayest bear'. iipa jamta ydthe 'yam pimar agdcJiet (QB. . sons born and whom . : sufficient to illustrate this : a. 'when thou shalt desire to see thine for a 'of knowing priest'. 'in whatever way he may choose. In more distinctly conditional constructions ydjama dev&n yddi cakndvama (RV. 'contrive that she come back again'. yo vai thn vidyat pratydksam sd brahma vedita syat (AV.). then he may speak'.). 'in order that not' it continues not rare in the Brahmanas. 'whoever shall be born of her. so may he do it'. 'whoever shall know them face to face. . which have shone forth to jayata hereafter shine forth'. Agni. ydrhi hota ydjamanasya nhma grhmyht tdrhi bruyat (TS. correlative negative form. c. ydd agne syhm ahdm tvdm tvdm va gha sya ahdm syus te satya iha "cisah (RV. svarupam yada drastum ichethah (MBh.200 in the oldest VLLL CONJUGATION. Rudra would attack : prarthayed yadi mam kaccid dandyah sa me puman bhavet (MBh. his cattle'.).). jatUnam jandyac ca yhn (AV. yo dyam b. In final urau ydthu tdva cdrman mddema (RV. [581 junctive language to establish a distinction between suband optative a method of use of either is scarcely to be found to which the other does not furnish a practical -. thy wishes should be realized on the spot'. After relative pronouns and conjunctions in general ya vyuchur yac ca nundm vyuchhn (RV.).). .

the augment is makes : a part. and for special ex- ceptions. prefixed to a tense-stem and. 585.). : (and thus usually in H. 584. in But: After a tense-stem suffix is virtually nt. active and middle. Participles. 449) the active. in the later language. 'it final clauses yatha: thus.). After a tense-stem ending in a. the middle participial suffix is mana instead of ana. For details.586] The indicative is PARTICIPLES. usi: see. emap. yatha perish' 'yarn nafyati tathd vidheyam must be so managed that he use of subjunctive and optative is further to be compared that of the so-called "conditional" tense see below. c. and 5TFT ana a. The general at. also 201 after used in (H. fern. ment-preterit The augment is a sign of past time.). arinak. avrnak. avrni. chap. a. above. And an augis made from each of the tense-stems from which . araik.. are made from and. With the conditional 582. auar. The perfect has in the active the peculiar suffix vans (weakest form us. see the following chapters. avidhyat. ending one of the two a's being the participial lost in the com- active bination of stem-final and suffix. the aorist (and aorist participles are rare from the beginning). ayukta. 586. all the tense-stems except the periphrastic future. AUGMENT. ayunak. (fern. as to form of 458 ff. Participles. for the in- flection of this participle. It is always (without any exception) the accented it element in the verbal form of which In the Veda. Trft participial endings are ST^T ant (weak for form 5fcT antl or STrft atl: see above. 583. stem etc. the latter begin with a vowel. - The augment if is a short a. fern. combining with that vowel irregularly into the heavier or vrddhi diphthong (136 a). t\\*\\ ana) for the middle. XII. No distinction of meaning has been established between the modes of the present-system and those (in the older language) of the perfect and aorist-sy stems. middle form vat. in a few forms long a thus. b. Augment.

and the in- their stems the and desiderative secondary conjugations contain in same element. rather more often. the others. with consonants. in aorist is longer. either alone or with a following consonant. and forms have the same value as if they were augmentless or. fixion The general principle of reduplication is the preit to a root of a part of itself repeated if begin . however. they are used as subjunctives complete a rare one in . from the present-stem . which is and perfect and desiderative regularly shorter and lighter in the reduplication than in the root-syllable. the perfect (of nearly tensive and the aorist (of a large number). are very considerable. The accentuation Reduplication. in present Thus. alone along with other formative elements. (in imperfect. the of the augmentless forms is throughout accordant with that is to say. from the future-stem the perfect-stem in the aorist such a preterit stands without any corresponding present indicative. is In the older language (mainly in the Veda. (above. the initial consonant and the vowel if it begin with a vowel. and in intensive is strengthened.202 the VIII. the present all). (259). that vowel. 587. only). further details being . [586 the system of conjugation . has been already spoken of and the formations in which reduplication appears have been specified: they are. where such corresponding unaugmented tense a tense exists (which is not the case with the varieties of sibilant aorist). is derived: namely. (of a certain class of verbs). in primary verb-inflection. the pluperfect the Veda from while the conditional. The derivation of conjugational and either declensional or stems from roots by reduplication. certain general rules may be here stated. especially as regards the vowel. the usage the the Brahmana) the augment is often lost. that of 563). The varieties of detail. 588. and chiefly confined to the intensive. 589. The differences as regards an initial consonant are for all less. CONJUGATION. .

the verb in its proper forms. wS\W\J*$li8 from ysiTJ. 590.9). as to the accent of verbal forms. But: ' m VfiPT^w. c. and will be made below. SQW jagrc&h from ]/ER grabh . according to the grammarians. whatever be the logical connection of the pada with what precedes it. ^TJT b. The consonant first of the reduplicating syllable : is in general the consonant of the root fr thus. The verb in an independent clause at the beginning of the clause covering most of the cases. cTFSCT sibilant. unless or also. Examples of the unaccented verb are : agnim ide purohitam. The general rule. ^^bubudh f^R foMr from y>T o ~x a. apply to those cases in which the verb is actually accented. as well as for that of the vocative case the beginning of a pada counts as that of a sentence. personal or finite forms. nrfl^ cikhid from on the other hand. ^"^ jahr from The occasional reversion. the beginning of a pada. thus. rj^r^ caskand pasprdh from yFT^-T sprdh: -. is if it be a non-nasal mute preceded by a of the thus. which The statements which have been made above. The verbal nouns and adjectives. of a palatal in the radical syllable to guttural form has been noticed above (216. is unaccented. are subject and adjectives. c. or the infinitives and participles.but c Accent 591. the second. aspirate: thus. dadha from palatal is substituted for a guttural or for ^ h: rJSfi ca^r from y^\ kr . the verb is in the great majority of That so-called is its occurrences unaccented or toneless. 314). to precisely the same laws of accent as other nouns 592. (above. repeated instead tastha form i/FfrJ skand . W^" paprach from ysC prach. 'I praise . For the accent of the verb. is it this : stand at in metrical text. But. and according to the invariable practice in accentuated texts. from y F2JT stha. of course. Of two first: initial consonants. its to say. 6/*r. A A non-aspirate is substituted in reduplication for an |/ETT. 3Fp TFF sasmr from y F7.592] left to REDUPLICATION. 203 be given in connection with the account of the sep- arate formations. those of the Verb.

204

VIII. CONJUGATION.

[592

Agni, the house-priest'; sd id devesu gachati, 'that, truly, goes to the god?'; ague supdyano bhava, '0 Agni, be easy of access'; iddm indra prnuhi somapa,
'hear this,
Indra, sorna-drinker';
offer';

ndmas

te

rudra krrtmas,

'homage

to

thee,

Rudra, we

ydjamdnasya pa?un pahi, 'protect the

cattle of the sacrificer'.

Hence, there are two principal situations in which the verb
retains its accent
:

593.

First,

the

verb

is

accented
in verse,

when

it

stands

at

the

beginning of a clause

or,

of a pada.

Examples of the verb accented at the head of the sentence are, in prose, cundhadhvam ddfvydya kdrmane, 'be pure for the divine ceremony'; apnotl J mdm lokdm, 'he wins this world'; in verse, where the head of the sentence
is

also that of the

protection';

pada, syame 'd indrasya cdrmani, 'may we be in Indra's darcdya ma ydtudhandn, 'show me the sorcerers'; gdmad vdjebhir
to us';

a sd nahj 'may he come with good things
of the clause
is

in verse,

where the head

hear our

call';

tesam pahi crudhi hdvam, 'drink of them, sdstu mdtd sdstu pitd sdstu $vd sdstu vifpdtih, 'let the mother
within the pada,
let

sleep, let the father sleep, let the dog sleep,

the master sleep'; vfyvakarto

man ndmas
yuvam.
"I
..

te

pdhy asmdn,

'Vicvakarman,

homage

thee;

protect

us!'

rdjna uce duhitd prche

vdm

nara,

'the king's daughter said to
1

you

pray you, ye men'"; vaydm te vdya indra viddhi su nah prd 'we offer thee, Indra, strengthening; take note of us
.

bharamahe,
not
'so

Examples

of the verb accented at the

head of the pada when this

is

the head of the sentence are:

dthd

te

dntamdndm vidydma sumatindm,

dhdtd 'syd agrtivdi pdtim dddhdtu pratikamyam, 'Dhatar bestow upon this girl a husband according to her wish'; ydtudhdnasya somapa jaht prajdm, 'slay, Soma-drinker, the progeny of the
favors';

may we enjoy thy most intimate

sorcerer'.

594. Certain special cases under this head a. As a vocative forms no syntactical part
is

are as follows:
of the sentence to
it,

which

it

attached,

but

is

only an external appendage to

a

verb

following

an

initial vocative, or more than one, is accented, as if it were itself initial in the clause or pada: thus, d?rutkarna fractal hdvam, *0 thou of listening ears, hear our call!' site vdndamahe tva, Q Sita, we reverence thee'; vfyve deva
1

mdm, 'all ye gods, ye Vasus, protect this man'; utd "gay cakrtisam deva deva jivdyathd punah, 'likewise him, gods, who has committed crime, ye gods, ye make to live again'.
b.
If

vdsavo rdksate

J

more than one verb follow a word or words syntactically connected

the others being treated as if all, only the first loses its accent, they were initial verbs in separate clauses, with the same adjuncts understood: thus, tardnir fj jayati kseti ptisyati, 'successful he conquers, rules,
far

with them

amitrdn pdrdca indra prd mrnd jahi ca, 'our foes, Indra, drive away and slay'; asmdbhyam jesi yotsi ca, 'for us conquer and fight'; dgnisomd havisah prdsthitasya vitlrh hdryatarh vrsana jusetham, '0 Agni and
thrives';
.

.

.

Soma, of the oblation set forth partake,
sure'.

enjoy,

ye

mighty ones, take plea-

595]
c.

ACCENT OF THE VERB.

205

In like manner (but much less often^, an adjunct, as subject or standing between two verbs and logically belonging to both, is reckoned to the first alone, and the second has the initial accent: thus, jaht prajdrh
object,

ndyasva ca, 'slay the progeny, and bring [it] hither'; crnotu nah subhdgd bodhatu tmdnd, 'may the blessed one hear us, [and may she] kindly regard [u>]
1 .

d.

As

to

cases in

which a single verb standing between two adjuncts

has the initial accent perhaps as being in the division of the sentence reckoned to the second rather than the first, see below, 597.

595.
in a
a.

Second, the verb dependent clause.
The dependency
yarn

is

accented, whatever

its

position,
cases

of a clause is in the very
t/a,

great

majority

of

conditioned by the relative pronoun

or

one of

its

derivatives or compounds.

Thus:

yajndm paribhur
'they

dsi,

ye aparT.su pacyan,

ydn me
pareytih,

dsti

is mine'; ydtra nah purve pitdrah Una, 'whither our fathers of old departed'; adya muriya yddi ydtudhano

coming who 'along with that which
are
if I

'what offering thou protectest'; 6 te yanti shall behold her hereafter'; solid

dsmi,

'let

me
'as

die

on the

spot,

am
is';

J

bhdvanti,
dsti,

days follow one another in order';

'how great this whole creation

hdny anupurvdm ydvad iddm bhtivanarh vfcvam ydtkdmds te juhumds tan no astu,
ydthd

a sorcerer';

'what desiring we sacrifice to thee,

let that

become

ours';

yatamds

tftrpsdt,

'whichever one desires to enjoy'.

The presence
dpa
tye

of a

relative
is

word in the sentence does

not,

of course,
:

accent the verb, unless this

really the predicate of a

dependent clause

thus,

tdydvo yathd yanti, 'they make off like thieves (as thieves do}'; ydt sthd jdgac ca rejate, 'whatever [is] movable and immovable trembles'; yathd-

kdmarh ni padyate,
b.

;

he

lies

down

at his pleasure'.

when it means 'if, and ced (ca id), give an 'it', accent to the verb thus, brahmd ced dhdstam dgrahlt, 'if a Brahman has grasped her hand'; tvdrh ca soma no vdco jwdturh nd mardmahe, 'if thou, Soma, wiliest us to live, we shall not die'; d ca gdchdn mitrdm end dadhdma, 'if he will come here, we will make friends with him'.
The
particle ca
:

+

c.

clause

containing
:

There are a very few passages in which the no subordinating word appears

logical
to

dependence
the

of a
its

give

verb

accent

thus,

sdm dcvaparndf

cdranti no ndro

'smdkam indra rathino jayantu,

our side,

'when our men, horse-winged, come into conflict, let the chariot-fighters of Indra, win the victory'. Rarely, too, an imperative so following
its

another imperative that
accented;
thus,

action

tuyam d

galii

may seem a consequence of the latter's is kdnvesu su sdcd ptba, 'come hither quickly;
e.

drink along with the Kanvas'
d.

(i.

in order to drink).
of a slight

A

few other particles give the verb an accent, in virtue
its

subordinating force belonging to
nahf),

which in

fullest
;

them value means
:

thus, especially hi
'for',

(with its negation
off

but shades

from that into
it

a mere asseverative sense

the verb or verbs

connected with
'let

are always

accented: thus,

m

te

muncantdm
. .

vimtico hi sdnti,

them
'if

release him, for

they are releasers';

ydc cid dhf.

andcastd iva smdsi,

we, forsooth, are

206
as
it

VIII.

CONJUGATION.

[595

were unrenowned';
tdpati sUro

also

thus, net tva

artfsa,
J

'that

ned (na-\-id), meaning 'lest, that not': the sun may not burn thee with his

virdjam ned vichindddni ti, 'saying to himself, "lest I cut off the and the interrogative kuvfd, 'whether?' thus, ukthebhih kuvid virafagdmat, 'will he come hither for our praises?'
beam';

596. But further, the verb of a prior clause quently accented in antithetical construction.
regarded as that of protasis and apodosis
;

is

not infre-

Sometimes, the relation of the two clauses is readily capable of being but often, also, such a relation is

very indistinct;

and the cases

of antithesis

shade
to

off

into those of ordinary

coordination, the line between

them appearing

be rather arbitrarily drawn.

In the majority of cases, the antithesis is made distincter by the presence in the two clauses of correlative words, especially anya am/a, eka J ea: thus, prd-pra nye ydnti pdry anyd asate, 'some go efca, va va, ca

on and

on,

others

sit

about'

(as

if it

were

'while

some

go'

etc.);

tid

va

sincadhvam upa va prnadhvam, 'either pour out, or fill up'; sdrh ce 'dhydsva 'gne prd ca vardhaye 'mam, 'both do thou thyself become kindled, Agni,

and do thou increase

this person'.

But

it is

also

made without such help
'the
J

:

thus, pro, 'jatah prajd jandyati part prdjata grhnati,

unborn progeny he

yusmdd dkramm nd smdn updvartate, '[though] she has gone away from you, she does not come to us'; nd 'ndhb 'dhvarytir bhdvati nd yajndrh rdksansi ghnanti, 'the priest does not become blind, the demons do not destroy the sacrifice'.
generates, the born he embraces'; dpa

597. "Where the verb would be the same in the two
it is

antithetical clauses,

not infrequently omitted in the second: thus, beside complete expressions like urvi ca 'si vdsvl ca 'si, 'both thou art broad and thou art good',

occur,
'smfn,

much

oftener, incomplete ones like agnfr 'Agni was in yonder world, Yama [was] in

amusmih lokd dsid yamb
this';

asthnd 'nydh prajdh

bone some creatures stand firm, by flesh others'; dvipac ca sdrvarh no rdksa cdtuspad ydc ca nah svdm, 'both protect everything of ours that is biped, and also whatever that is quadruped
pratitfsthanti

mansena nydh,

J

'by

belongs to

us'.

Examples from the Brahmanas like the first of those here given (with the second verb expressed), and like the third (in composition with a preposition), show that this explanation of the verbal accent is preferable to the
one formerly given namely, that the verb is to be regarded as understood in the first clause and initial in the second.

In a very small number of more or less doubtful the verb appears to be accented for emphasis. Thus, before cand, 'in any wise'; in connection with the asseverative The detail particles fd, dha, ktla, angd, evd, but sporadically; and so on. and examination of the cases is not worth while here*.
cases, The specialities and irregularities of the EV. as regards verbal accent are discussed by A. Mayr in Sitzungsb. d. Wiener Akad. for 1871; of the AV., by W. D. Whitney in J. A. 0. 8., vol. v. (and Kuhn's Beitrage, vol. i.) of the TS., by A. Weber in Ind. Stud.,
;

598.

*

-vol. xiii.

601]

207

CHAPTER

IX.

THE PRESENT-SYSTEM.
599.

THE

present-system,
is

or

system of forms coming

present-stem, composed (as was pointed out of a present indicative tense, along with a above) subjunctive (mostly lost in the classical an an language),
optative,
tense,

from the

imperative,

and a
to

participle,

and

also

a

past

an

augment-preterit,

which we give

(by analogy with the

Greek) the
tenses",

name

of imperfect.

These forms generally go in Sanskrit grammar by the name of "special
the former were
latter

while the other tense-systems are styled "general tenses" as if made from a special tense-stem or modified root, while the

distinction

all alike, from the root itself. There is no reason why such a and nomenclature should be retained; since, on the one hand, the "special tenses" come in one set of verbs directly from the root, and,

came,

on the other hand, the other tense-systems are mostly made from stems and, in the case of the aorist, from stems having a variety of form comparable
with that of present-stems.

600.

Practically, the present-system is

the most pro-

minent and important part of the whole conjugation, since, from the earliest period of the language, its forms are very

much more
together.
to those of
five to

frequent than those

of

all

the

other systems

Thus, in the Veda, the occurrences of personal forms of this system are all others about as three to one in the Aitareya Brahmana, as
;

one

;

in the Hitopadega, as six to one
as thirty to one.

;

in the Qakuntala, as eight to

one

;

in

Manu,

601.
in

And,

as there is also great variety in the

manner
this,

which

different

roots

form their present-stem,

as

being their most conspicuous difference, is made the basis of their principal classification and a verb is said to be of
;

this or of that conjugation,

or class,

according to the

way

in which

its

present-stem

is

made.

208
602.

IX

-

PRESENT-SYSTEM.

[602
is

In a small minority of verbs, the present-stem

identical with the root.

Then

there are besides (excluding

the passive and causative) eight

more

or less different

ways

of forming a present-stem from the root,

each way being
of verbs.
as laid

followed by a larger or
are the "classes"

smaller

number

These

or "conjugation-classes",

down by
by the

the native

Hindu grammarians.

They

are arranged

latter in a certain

wholly artificial and unsystematic order and they (the ground of which has never been pointed out) are wont to be designated in European works according to
;

this order,

or else, after

ing at the

head of each

Hindu example, by class in the Hindu

the root standlists.

A

differ-

ent arrangement and nomenclature will be followed here,

namely
in

as

below

the classes being divided
into

(as is

usual

two more general classes or European grammars) conjugations, distinguished from one another by wider differences than those which separate the special classes.
603.

The

classes

of

the

FIRST CONJUGATION are

as

follows

:

the

The root-class (second class, or ad-class, of Hindu grammarians); its present-stem is coincident
I.

with the root
ya,
'go';

itself:

thus,

^
3^

ad,

'eat';

^

,

'go';

EfT

fef

dvis,

'hate';

duh,

'milk'.
(third

II.

The reduplicating
is

class

or

hu:

form the present-stem thus, sp^" juliu from y^ hu, 'sacrifice'; ^7 dada from bibhr from j/H, 'bear'. I/^T, 'give'; \3p\
class); the root

reduplicated to

III.

The nasal class
the final

(seventh or rudk-class) ;

a
is

nasal, extended to the syllable

^ na

in strong forms,

inserted before

consonant of the root: thus,

~^{jundh
(or

(or "^TTTCJ

runadh)
>/?JsT

from i/"^U rudh; TFj(^yunj
or sw-class);

W^yunaj]
IV.
a.

from

yuj.
(fifth

The ^w-class

the syl-

606]
lable
*7

CONJUGATION-CLASSES.

209
thus,

nu

is

added

to

the root:

R

sunu from

yH; 3T3 apnu from yJETR ap.
b.

A

very

small

number
^

'only
also

half-a-dozen)

of

one very common n, and quite irregularly inflected root not so ending (off kr, 'make'), add 3 u alone to form the present-stem. This
roots ending already in

and

Hindu grammarians it be best ranked by us as a sub-class, the u- class: may thus, cH tanu from i/rR tan.
is

the eighth or tow-class of the

;

O

-V

JTT

V. The na- class (ninth or ^n-class); the syllable na (or, in weak forms, m\ is added to the root

^

:

thus,

stjlmi

farina

(or jtiluD krinl]

from

i/sfft"

&n,

'buy';

FrPTT stabhna
lish'.

(or FrPft

stabhnl) from i/FcR

sta&A,

'estab-

604. These classes have in common, as their most fund-

amental characteristic,

a shift

of accent:

the tone being

now upon

the ending, and

now upon

the root or the class-

sign. Along with this goes a variation in the stem itself, which has a stronger or fuller form when the accent rests

upon

it,

and a weaker or

briefer

form when the accent

is

on the ending: these forms are to be distinguished as the strong stem and the weak stem respectively (in part, both
have been given above). The classes also form their optaand their 3d pi. tive active, their 2d sing, imperative,
middle, in a different manner from the others.

605.

In the classes of the SECOND CONJUGATION,
,

the

present-stem ends in

remaining always upon

the same syllable

and the accent has a fixed place, of the stem, and

never shifted to the endings. Also, the optative, the 2d the 3d pi. middle are (as just stated) unsing, impv., and
like those of the other conjugation.

V 606. The

classes of this conjugation are as follows:

VI. Thea-class, or
Whitney, Grammar.

unaccented a-class
14

(first

210
or J/m-class)
root,
;

IX.

PRESENT-SYSTEM.
is

[606

the added class-sign
is

a simply

;

and the

which has the accent,

strengthened by guna
y*\ bhu, 'be';

throughout: thus.

*R bhdva from

^J nay a
'wake';

from y^\m,

'lead'; SJTEI

bodha from
'speak'.

y^3j)udh,

^vdda
VII.

from

y^ vad^

The a-class,
;

or

accented a-class
is a,

(sixth or

tud-cl&ss)

the added class-sign
it

as in the preceding

class; but

has the accent, and the unaccented root
:

remains unstrengthened thus, c^tuddfrom^ff^. 'thrust'; suvd from /H su, HsT srjd from /TO srj. 'let loose'
c
t "v
*"
;

oR

c\

'give birth'.

VIII.

The /#-class (fourth
which has the accent

or
:

cfoiJ-class)

;

ya

is

added

to the root,

thus,

^oT

d^vya from

Y^(
from

div (more properly ^fa div:

see 765);

^3f ndhya

y

7

^ nah,

'bind';

^F^TT

krudhya from

y&m krudh,

'be angry'.

IX.

The passive conjugation

is

also properly a
is

present-system only, having a class-sign which
;

not

extended into the other systems though it differs markedly from the remaining classes in having a specific
meaning, and in being formable in the middle voice Its inflection may from all transitive verbs. (only)
therefore best be treated next to that of the ?/a-class,

with which
it

as

most nearly connected, differing from the a-class from the a-class. It forms its stem,
it

is

by adding an accented yd to the root thus, ^7J adyd from y*$Z[ ad; "^EET rudhyd from i/^T rudh ; budhyd from y'SFl budh; H" ^ tudyd from y"^ tud.
namely,
:

2

class,

The Hindu grammarians reckon a tenth class or curhaving a class-sign aya added to a strengthened root (thus, cor&ya from ycur), and an inflection like that of the other astems. Since, however, this stem is not limited to the presentsystem, but extends also into the rest of the conjugation while it also has to a great extent a causative value, and may
607.

611]

CONJUGATION-CLASSES.

be formed in that value from a large number of roots it will be best treated along with the derivative conjugations (chap. XIV.).

608.
a ch,

A

small

number
a ch for

of

or substitute

stem ending in cha or chd, This is historically, doubtless, a true class-sign, analogous with the rest but the verbs showing it are so few, and in formation partly so irregular, that they are not well to be put together into a class, but may best be treated as special cases falling under the other classes. Roots adding ch are r and yu, which make the stems rchd and yucha.
stem.
;

add in the present-system consonant, and form a which is then inflected like an aroots
their
final

Roots substituting ch for their final are is, us (or vas 'shine'), gam, yam, which make the stems ichd, uchd, gdcha, ydcha. Of so-called roots ending in ch, several are more or less clearly stems, whose use has been extended from the present to other systems of tenses.

609. Roots are not wholly limited, even in the later language, mode of formation of their present-stem, but are sometimes reckoned
longing to two
or

to

one

as be-

more

different

conjugation-classes.

And

such

variety of

formation

is

especially frequent in the Veda, being exhibited by a consider-

able proportion of the roots there occurring; already in the Brahmanas,

how-

ever, a condition is reached nearly agreeing in this respect with the classical

language.
;

The

different

present-formations

sometimes have differences of

meaning yet not more important ones than are often found belonging to the same formation, nor of a kind to show a difference of value as originally
If anything of this kind is to belonging to the separate classes of presents. be established, it must be from the derivative conjugations, which are separated by no fixed line from the present-systems.

610.
in which

We

take up

now

the

different

classes,

in the order

they have been arranged above, to describe more in the formation of their presentdetail, and with illustration, systems, and to notice the irregularities belonging under each
class.

I.

Root-class (second, ad-c\ass).
is

\ 611.
is

In this class there

also present-stem,
- -

and

to it

no class-sign; the root itself are added directly the per-

sonal endings

but combined in subjunctive and optative

with the respective mode-signs, and in the imperfect taking
the augment prefixed to the root.

The accented endings
in the imperfect,

where

it

the accent except (552) regularly take and before falls on the augment

14*

212

IX.

PRESENT-SYSTEM.

[611

them the root remains unchanged
It is

;

before the unaccented endings,
that the endings come immediately

the root takes the guna- strengthening.
only in the
first

three classes

in contact with a final consonant of the root,

and that the rules

for

consonant

combination have to be noted and applied.
1.

Present Indicative.
are

"612.
pi. mid.),

The endings
added
if

the primary (with

f?T

ate

in 3d

to the hare root.

The

root takes the accent,

and has guna,

capable of

it,

in the three persons sing. act.
:

Examples

of inflection

a.

root
^
i.

^

e,

'go':

strong

form of root-stem,
active.
s.

^ e; weak form,
f*

middle.*
p.
s.

P

d.

emi

ivds

imds

iye

ivdhe

intake

ithds

ithd

ise

iyathe

idhve

eti

Ltds
fir^T

ydnti
dvis,
'hate';

ite

iyhte

iydte

b.

root

strong stem-form,

"^

dves ;

weak, fer

dvis.
for the final s,

For rules of combination
i

see

226.
|&fe|t(.

&RH
dvesmi

I^^IH
dvisvds

I^Q-HH

T^"
dvise

f^a-H 1^

dvismds

dvisvdhe

dvismdhe

dveksi

dvisthds

dvisthd

dvikse

dvisathe

dviddhve

l

i

dvistds

dvisdnti
t

dviste

dvisate

dvisdte

c.

root

~^^duh

'milk': strong

stem-form
and

^^doh;

weak,

For rules of combination
initial to dft,

for

the

final

ft,

for the conversion of the

see

222, 155, 160.

dohmi
*
i.

duhvds

duhmds

duhe

duhvdhe

duhmdhe
one's
self,

Used in the middle with the preposition
'repeat, learn, read'.

adhi, to signify

'go over for

e.

616]
2

I.

ROOT-CLASS (SECOND, #G?-CLASS).

213
qrij

MUSI

IT^H^
dugdhds

I^M"
dugdhd
.S^lTi duhdnti
3d
sing.

uif
dhukse

^c^isj

duhhthe
^c^(rt duhhte

dhugdhve

^JMH^
dogdhi
are

3"^
dugdhe

Js^H
duhdte

dugdhds
of the

613. Examples
not rare in
the

mid. coincident in form with the 1st sing, older language (both V. and Br.): the most frequent

examples are

The

irregular

duhe, vide, cdye: more sporadic are cite, bruve, huve. accent of the 3d pi. mid. is found in RV. in rihate, duhate,
ice,

mentioned below,
tion:

Examples of the same person in re and rate also occur: thus (besides those 629 30, 635), vidre, and, with auxiliary vowel, arhire
(unless these are to

be

ranked, rather,

as perfect

forms without reduplica-

790 b).
2.

Present Subjunctive.

614.
the
older

A

anywhere

Subjunctive forms of this class are not uncommon in language, and nearly all those which the formation admits are quotable, from Veda or from Brahmana.

complete paradigm, accordingly, is given below, with the few forms not actually quotable for this class enclosed in brackets. We may take as models, for the active the root i, 'go', and for the middle the root as, 'sit', of both of which numerous forms are met with (although neither for these nor for any others can the whole series be found in actual use).

The mode-stems

are dya

(e

active. p. its The imperative and third persons. act. Present Imperative. ^ dvisyam dvisy&va 2 dvisy&ma dvisiyd dvisivdhi dvisimdhi dvisy&s 3 dvisy&tam dvisy&ta dvisiihks dvisiyatham dvisldhvdm dvisyat dvisyatam dvisyus dvisitd dvisiyatam dvisirdri So likewise. d. so called. s- d. The stem-form the unaccented is and unstrengthened active. d.) to The stem elsewhere. s. root. directly own endings the root-stem. p. a. duhydm and duhiyd. (with SfrTFT atum in 3d pi. act. and have its strengthened stem and accent. The first persons. The whole formation middle. from yduh. mid.214 given in full above IX. in and so on. (in syatana). and f% hi end with a vowel. they are repeated here from where they were given above (614). has once tana 2d pi. g. adds. sing. 4. PRESENT-SYSTEM. [616 is (566). in second "^617. d. so regular that a single example of inflection will be enough. the classes) if it ftj In the 2d ending if is regularly (as in the two following dhi the root end with a consonant. the accent on the ending and the root remains unchanged. p. The RV. from j/i... As examples we take some r middle. dyani dyava ^rFT itdm dyama ^rT ltd asai asavahai asamahai t4i^H ^p ihi 3 MlfH assvd MIHIMM ashtham addhvdm yr\ etu itam ydntu astam asatam asatam . of the roots already used for the purpose. is accented and strengthened is in 3d sing. of the later language are from the old subjunctive. act. iydm and iylyd. p.

act. is quite frequent in the Veda: thus. stuvand and stdvdna The root as. it i. brutat. duhdm (only RV. f^Mrfl dvisati: ati (449). vittdt. dogdhu dugdhum duhdntu 618. yatdna. thus. and in 3d pi. ZTrft . act. etana. 'sit'. Imperfect. mid. But a number of these participles in the older language have a double accent. 6. (weak Me- may be formed from Thus. has duhrdm and duhratdm. itana. pi. AV. also a stronger form of the root when accented. The 2d sing. we have examples same person of a strong (and accented) stem. 3^11 duhand^ dmsand. in the Veda. mid. This tense adds the secondary endings to the root as increased by prefixion of the augment. dsand}. the 3d pi. The root has the 620. either on the ending or on the radical thus. active participle has the ending *3fi[jint at] added to the unstrengthened root. And in stota. 5^ yati-. 619. stivand and siivana. forms the unique Usma (along with. ^ETR iyand. added unstrengthened root: thus.. ati : f^Nri dmsdnt. duhdnd and duhana (also dughana]. ad-CLASx. vidand and syllable : the last having vidana. hantana. ROOT-CLASS [SECOND. sofana. from roots in in 5Ttf?ft or 5flrft The middle to the participle has the ending ETR and. but. participles are EPFT ydnt. case). 5. In 3d sing. by dropping the active the final ^ for the verbs inflected above. The T^^ft anti feminine stem ends usually in duhati. uidara. vitat. ^w^a-strengthening (if capable of it) in the three persons of . Present Participle. two or three verbs have in the older language the ending am : thus. fayam. 215 dohani doJiava dohama jrcr dohai dbhavahai dohdmahdi jfiri dugdlii p~^ g^r dhuksvd ^IMIH^ gnj\ duhhtham dhugdhvdm ^ dugdhdm dugdhd tat is found in the older language in a few verbs of this class: namely. ending dugdlihm duhktam duhdtdm The use in the of tana for ta in 2d etc.620] I. The stem-form 5IH chanically. p^H duhdnt.

without augment. this class vet. 829 ff. in the same sense as with augment. Examples of s. act. mid. ddn (?). The use of the older language. s. inflection are: active. pi. duh. is found in the Veda in dyatana. dvis. made by adding the ending si to the (accented and strengthened) root. h&n.. Augmentless imperfects of thus. the root ad a: thus. staut. dsis. met with in the case of a few roots ending in consonants 621. In the Veda (but almost limited to RV. mrj. 3d sing. or as subjunctives. dsastana. The this imperfect: first or root-form of aorist identical in its formation with see below. middle. d... act. . suta. are uncommon 3d sing. There is some difference of but the most acceptable opinion regards persons of this class. although the accent is always upon the augment. in the Veda : 2d sing. it) The same ending is also allowed and dpus from Ypa 'protect'. the root as inserts 1: thus. ftan. The ending tana. and view as to their formal character. eafesus. (the a being lost before ally and in the older they always do so thus. PRESENT-SYSTEM. 624. ves. at/am aiva aima Usi asvahi asmahi ais aitam aita asthas Usatham addhvam ait aitam ayan asta asatam mata and. caks. To save the inserts characteristic endings in 2d and 3d sing. dyus from Vya. bruvan.. act. . 3d is vasta. 623.) are found certain second persons singular.216 IX. ddat. p. them as isolated indicative used imperatively. from the root ddoham dduhva 2 dduhma dduhi dduhvahi dduhmahi ddugdham ddugdha ddugdhas dduhatham ddhugdhvam ddhok ddugdham dduhan ddugdha dduhatam dduhata Roots ending in a may in the later language optiontake us instead of an in 3d pi. 636). : : namely aftana. 2d pi. vid. p. ddas. 622. has been noticed above rather (587). 'know'. either in the persons of this tense. They . dsit (see below. d. duhus. [620 the singular. having an imperative value.

ci has ^wwa-strengthening and so on. safest. are ordinarily conjugated in middle voice only. the cdyana. ksesi (1 fcai 'rule'). amarjan occur in the older language. all those beginning with a long vowel. snu (these Roots found to exhibit this peculiarity in actual use are ksnu. fdhat. from \stu. and the same strengthening is allowed in weak forms before endings beginning with but this is not found to a vowel thus. tra. (ivi 'strive after'). from yjus). nw. vdksi. dstaut. taks and tra (and tra in the only Vedic forms). jdsi (for jossi. dmarjam. sfcit. 625. accuracy are It is how many inflected impossible (at least at present) to determine with of the actually used roots of the language in the present-system according to this class. its qayiya. vesi frfoj. mrj shows often the vrddhi instead of the puna-strengthening. iq . or according to any of the other classes. rdsi. etc. mdsi ma 'measure'). taks. hosi. nesi. 628. etc. and hnu. A number of roots accent the radical syllable throughboth in strong and in weak forms thus. ROOT-CLASS (SECOND. a</-CLASs). and the later in less degree. to include from seventy to ninety roots. and in derivation. prdsi. persons cerate (AV. The root-class said. 626. and su 'generate'. sdtsi. also. and the like. because the older language especially. su 'impel'. throughout: Other irregularities in are thus. ydrhsi.629] are : I. dhaksi. cinj. rdtsi. cl. cdye. 217 ddrsi. has sporadic forms which are either of doubtful classification or too isolated to determine A may be the character of the root to which they belong. mdtsi. : stu. Forms with the same irregular accent occur now and then in the Veda from other verbs thus. and also caks. bhaksi. a brief account of which (not claiming exhaustive completeness) is given in the following paragraphs. except nihs. stdvani. marjmi. dmart. ir. inflection (in cese. out. part Of the roots mentioned in the last paragraph. jesi. The roots of the class ending in u have in their strong forms the vrddhi instead of the ywwa-strengthening before an ending beginning with a consonant thus. already noticed) the 3d pi. marjantu. id. : : 629. above (619). but dstavam. naksi (2naf (2 'attain'). Irregularities of the Root-class. pdrsi (2pr 'set across'). Middle participles so accented have been noticed mdtsva. The root mrj also has the vrddhi-vowel in its strong forms: thus. yasi. as. : : In the other tense-systems. staumi. . y6tsi. ru. 627. five in the earlier language). considerable number of them present irregularities of inflection. yu. vas 'clothe'. ydksi. however. All these.

the last three are either root or ending thus. 3d sing. 630. etc. . . vamiti. indie. forms duhiydt and duhiydn (RV. On the other hand. dduhat (which yduh 3d pi. sv. stanihi (all RV. and an occasional instance met with form so made (in V. and mat or unit. And in the remaining forms. before the initial vowel of an ending thus. dbravit. The a union-vowel insert i roots rud (not in Veda). roots. brdvisi. has also dceran]. The Of the same 3d pi. [629 ceratdm.: TS.) dcerata {RV. ifise. has ikse beside If we. bruydt. amlti and amit and amisva (TS).). pres/ cdye (R. IX. The irregularities of in part noted: the impv.). act. etc. arriisi (RV. in the older language have been already mid. and stu. ifire (on account of its accent) is also apparently present rather than perfect.).. from an a-stem: thus. yvam makes the same insertions thus. opt. sing. except the s and t of 2d and 3d sing. cvdstsi. From |/pam camwvo (VS.. dual brdvaite has been noticed above (615). anet (AB. pple dnant (QB. svdpimi. the mid. few. janisva. 631. vasisva (yvas 'aim'). brdviti. The subj. where they instead either a or i: thus. Id and if insert a union-vowel i before endings beginning with s. impf. aduhran (beside dduhan and duhtis). 632. impf. but : brumds.< 633. an sometimes makes forms fnathihi.). : allowed to accent cvdsantu (AV. duhate. dbravts. of the roots in u are allowed to be inflected like is bru: of a tu.). is found also in the later language). In the older language. 3d sing. Some namely. abruvam.). dbravam. and cvas insert before all the endings beginning with a con- sonant. ifidhve. duhrSm and duhratam. and duhrdte. an. Some 636. bruyam. and other cases occasionally occur: thus. and sporadic forms from an a-stem. bravihi. The vowel occur : root am as union- thus. cdydm. f amisva) and famidhvam (TB. The root bru (of very frequent use) takes the unionvowel i after the root when strengthened. PRESENT. of the roots of this class are abbreviated or otherwise their weakened in ( weak forms 5TFT as. Special occasional irregularities are brumi. dbruvan.218 have also dcayat is cere]. pi. but RV. ru. 3d pi. duhre. : thus loses its vowel in The root 'be'. weak forms (except where protected by combination with the augment). abruvan. idisva (these three being the only forms noted in the older language). and (quite unexampled elsewhere) the opt. 635. only). brdvimi. duhdm. the 3d and impv. pple dtighana.SYSTEM. only tavlti noted). (hardly found in the later language) takes I 634. th : thus. : avamit. anati (AV. The isolated active form common in the older language. svdpantu and or svapdntu etc.). dniti. svap.

manner of noun-stems in an slay'. sv as smds syam HTTT^ syas syava syama W dsi KllrtH^ nnrT sthds sthd syatam H% dsti stds Imperative. The only other tense regular in inflection. of tr (tar] to form the periphrastic future in 1st sing. is gr dsi (instead of assi).) is common in Vedic verse. sva. ^ftf sing. In 2d and 3d sing. in the usual relation middle to active forms 2d pers. is he. has been noticed already above. daa.). 'strike. The resolution sidm etc. (in the rest e. is 219 2d sing. with its total loss of the root itself). 2d sing. which is dhve. Optative. the middle voice (see is 942 ff. entirely the 637. dhvam. sdnti syat syatam Imperfect.637] Its I. and appear (asat especially) even in late Brahmanas where the subjunctive is almost lost. indie. is treated somewhat (421): in after in declension weak . impf. ds-t}. of this verb in use is the perfect. ROOT-CLASS (SECOND. The indie. is a few times (opt. The root han. The forms follows : of this extremely common verb are. made upon the stem They are in frequent use. The insertion of its in 2d and 3d impf. impv. T d. d. | i edhi (irregularly from asdhi).. A middle present indicative is compounded (in 1st and 2d persons) + with the nomen agentis in below. m syus syata dsani dsava dsama asam asva asma edhi stdm aSIS astam asta dstu stam sdntu asit astam Hrft sail asan Participle H?T (fern. p. Middle forms from yas are also given by the grammarians as allowed do not appear to have been met with certain prepositions (vi ati). The Vedic subjunctive forms are the usual ones. but they with in use. then. met with the more normal as (for as-s. as r Indicative.

'wish'. : and those hanmahe. this root are frequent Its 2d sing. to cmasi). 1 Imperfect.): thus. fastdna (with anomalous accent). But no pis-forms of the present- system occur in the Veda. If it used.220 forms. 854. RV. fasmi fassi fasti tfsvds cisthds fistds fismds fisthd dfasam d?as dfat dfisva dfisma dfista 2 3 dfistam dfistam is fasati dfdsus actually so t In 2d sing. fis (as do the aorist. also ahata)] ghnlta (but also hanita).PRESENT-SYSTEM. cas. s. The 2d $adhf (with total loss of the s). hdnmi hdnsi hdnti hanvds hathds hatds hanmds hathd dhanam dhan dhan g/matij. ucand. aghnalam. s. pple ucdnt. occur nor do the weak forms of the imperfect. has in like manner (RV.). jaM (by anomalous dissimilation. Imperfect. and some 639. s. and its a before an initial vowel latter case its A. The root and usually contracted vac. A part of its active forms namely.: once apparently abbreviated in RV. 638. impv. d. p. dhanva dhanma dhata 2 dhatam dhatam 3 ghndnti is dghnan Its is participle ghndnt (fern. and RV. afdt is said to be also allowed. for example pare 402). : m Present Indicative. p. impf. pi. The root dap. d. [637 and v) it loses its n before an initial consonant (except and in the of an ending. has austam.. occur are formed according to the (in same rules thus. shows some of the peculiarities of a reduplicated verb. RV. s. lacking (646) the n before t in all 3d perss. 1 Thus. is changed to gh (comThus. The optative is fisydm etc. is to 555). ahata. d. and then would be open or of the ending (according it to question whether the t of 3d sing. for example p.) the pple ddfat . p. is radical sing. on the model of redupli- cating forms). 'worship'. has the strong 2d pi. and in the active participle.. Middle forms from that in the Brahmanas. etc. : Present Indicative. aghnata AB. 'command'. impv. Middle forms (except the pple) do not ucdnti. the weak forms having endings begincome from a ning with consonants (including the optative) stem with weakened vowel. The root of the derivatives). and the accent (apparently) (not always upon the radical syllable (pple casana. The middle inflection is regular. the t must be the sporadic conversion of final radical s to (167). hate. ucmdsi (V. d. in like manner the participle usand from the root vas 'clothe'. IX. which are given . as aufva. is in the weak to uc (as in the perfect: forms regularly see chap. etc. X. in contact with the n. ghnate.

the rule for their use the same as in the other classes of this conjugation: the strong stem is found before the unaccented endings stem before the accented. (552). vowel is r (or which is held apart from the t. of this c. and pple. which belong also takes the union-vowel i in the manner of before it rud (above. As regards the consonant of. f^T bibhr from yy{ bhr . the general rules which have already been given above (590) are followed. The only root takes ar]\ it as reduplication root by an interposed y: been found in actual use). and the weak . It 221 evident repi. 'eat. The vowel fj r never appears in the reduplication. to and the accent on the it reduplicated verbs. fspft bibhl from y$ bhl. AW-CLASS). REDUPLICATING CLASS (THIRD. b. (676). (chap. but is replaced by ^ i: thus. This class forms present-stem by prefixing a reduplication to the root. a. thus. the reduplication.644] II. XIV. fqtfrf piprc from yvft pro. And from j/~>ft bhi. 640. The present-stem classes of this class (as of the other belonging to the first conjugation) has a . didhi etc. 660. vowel-endings. they are i^H bibhe is and fipft bibhl. st^juhu from yj^ hu. and etc. iyar and iyr (the latter has not class with initial \ 644. II. without guna: thus. laugh'. For verbs in which a and a also are irregularly represented in the reduplication by i. The double duplication of ghas root jaks. \ 643. A 2d pers. is an and has the absence of n in root act. and referred to this conjugation such are the intensively reduplicated jagr. Reduplicating Class (third. the two forms form : a stronger form. its 642. 631). are ^^Ij'uho and 3^ juhu.). and cakas (677). ^J dada from da. from j/^" hu. impv. Other obviously reduplicated verbs are treated by the native grammarians as if simple. double and a with gunated root-vowel weaker form. and vevl : 641. /m-class). see below. A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicating syli/^T lable: thus. daridra. so-called has. jagdhi from occurs. 3d perss.

mad and dhan (both very forms of this class found to occur).222 645. are reckoned throughout as endings with initial vowel. and in the imperthis a final fect have 3^ws instead of 3R an and before radical vowel has guna. . syllable however. jan (no older language only). p. bhi (no test-forms in the older language). weak. ^R bibhr (or bibhr}. p. apparently. (or juhu). s of inflection: a.). the later accentuation. Root bhr. only in a small minority of the roots composing the class namely. IX. s. endings in active as well as middle. yu 'separate' (in but RV. and throw back the accent upon the reduplication. in hu. 1. : : . while in the to Apparently (the cases with written accent are too few determine the point satisfactorily) the middle optative endings. juhomi 2 juhuvds juhumds juhve juhuvdhe juhumdhe juhosi juhuthds juhutha juhuse juhvathe juhudhve juhoti juhutas *j[ juhvati 'bear' juhute juhvate juhvate b. ci 'notice' rare). n in the 3d pl. The combination endings is as in the preceding class. of stem and 647. and in bhr in (in V. sl^T/ttAo/ weak form. \ 646. lya etc. by a recent of upon the And in both classes alike. (566). The verbs of this class lose the ? K. sC^ juhu middle. alously thrown forms of which the ending begins with a vowel other weak forms it is upon the ending. " Present Indicative. (given with Vedic accentuation): strong stem-form. fsPTf bibhar . hri (not found in the older language). in the Brahmanas). is found also has bibharti once conjugation. w_ d. the accent is anomback upon the reduplication in those weak all In the rest upon the reduplicating instead . That is actually the case. it goes with the majority and this. Examples active. 'sacrifice': strong stem-form. y"^ hu. d. the later language (in V.PRESENT-SYSTEM. [645 According to all the analogies of the first general we should expect to find the accent upon the rootwhen this is strengthened. it rests transfer radical syllable.

class. babhasat . (at 648. 649. : : inflection. dddhate. dadani. as dad and dadh}. Of other persons. juhvdhe. accented forms met with indicates that the accent is laid in accordance with that of the strong indicative forms thus. dddhathas. *\ C. dddhat. dadhan^ yuyavan. AW-CLASS). . in accordance with analogies elsewhere. of 1st persons. It is not possible least. dddhas. bibharsi bibhrthds bibhrthd bibhrse bibhrathe bibhrdhve -x bibharti bibhrtds of hu (like bibhrati the bibhrte bibhrate see bibhrate below. mimdij dadhdvahdi. dddhdtdi. jdhama. Instead of giving a theoretically complete scheme of will be better to note all the examples quotable from the older language (accented when found so occurring). bibharmi bibhrvds bibhrmds bibhre bibhrvdhe bibhrmdhc C. dddhase. later language). it Thus. 650. juhavan. dddhama. thus ddda be. rdrate.) and juhavatha . The subjunctive mode-stem is formed in the usual with the mode-sign a and guna of the root-vowel. dddha from ydha (all the forms actually occurring would be derivable from secondary roots. it would be bibhara yhu. m of the endings of 1st du. dadhai. dadhdni. daddmahe. we have in the active juhdvani. at present) older to draw a distinct line which should be between those subjunctive forms of the language reckoned as belonging to the present-system and those which should be assigned to the perfect even. juhvds. The u is that of class-signs nu and u: 697) pi. end). bibhardni. dadhdnat. juhavdma. Present Subjunctive. manner. juhavatha (do. vfvesas. Before the mode-sign. 223 N. juhavdmahdi. we have with primary endings in the active bibhardsi 560. yuydvat. in the middle. daddmahai. dropped from yda. jahani. daddtdi: with second- ary endings. final radical a would (but bibhdra later). 2. REDUPLICATING CLASS (THIRD. C. from the stem would be juhdva : from ybhr.650] II. and thus. in some cases. bibharat. c. to the reduplicated aorist and intensive. if The evidence of the few this is capable of such strengthening.: said to be omissible before v and etc. (with double mode-sign: in the middle. juhavat. dadhdmahdi. Except in persons (which continue in use as "imperatives" down to the subjunctives from roots having unmistakably a reduplicated present-system are of far from frequent occurrence. Here will the more doubtful cases first be noticed only those which most clearly belong to this will be treated under the perfect-system.

: thus libharai etc. Present Imperative. fifadhi (beside tifihf). act. . in all the first persons (borrowed subjunctives). juhuyhm etc. yuyodhi.. etc. thus. d. p. juhuy&va etc. juJidvani juhavava 2 juhdvama juhdvai juhdvavahai juhdvamahai g^iu g^riH^ g^H juhuta spra juhusvd ^lyiH^ juhvatham 5^^ juhudhvdm sj^riiH^ juhudhi juhut&m 3 3^ '5 juhdtu ^niH^ g^g juhutnm jtihvatu ^diH^ juhuthm g^iniH^ juhvatam juhvatam division of this class differ here. as in the inin the accentuation of their strong forms only namely. f% hi after a vowel. s. [651 Present Optative. The accent is it as is already stated (645). have been already given. Ubhartu. juhvlya juhvwahi etc. \ 652. forms sT^Rl juhudhi (apparently. and in the 3d dicative. : to give here more than the first persons of a thus. active. juhuy&ma etc. of inflection: middle. juhvimahi etc. s. \ 651.. the ending is In 2d sing. the optative endings given as made up of mode-sign and personal endings. yuyotam 673). d. s. dddata. The endings. The inflection is so regular that unnecessary single verb s. but dhi after a con- sonant : ^ huj however. 654. Vedic strong forms in (beside yuyutdm}-. and the mode of their combination with the root. Example active. a vowel are { 653. (in the older language) of Ubharani etc. the occasional use of 2d persons: {yarta.224 IX. this are added to the unstrengthened stem. irregularities inflection are: a. 3. f?I act. mode. d. : The other sing. PRESENT-SYSTEM. p. middle. in order to avoid the recurrence of ^ h in two successive after syllables): and other examples of fa dhi found in the Veda. To form above (566). d. 4. . dddhata and dddhatana (see below.

. the use of dhi instead of hi c. and adadata. piprtat. In inflection. djahatana. II. The RV. jtgat. 225 after a vowel in 2d pi. juh6ta and juhdtana. forms are pi'?as. jigatana. guna before it. d. As elsewhere. act. act. act. djuhavam djuhuva ajuhuma djuhvi ajuhuvahi ajuhumahi djuhos djuhutam djuhuta djuhuthas djuhvatham djiihudhvam djuhot djuhutam }/H bhr. indie.). and a final radical vowel has indie. sl^M Jukvana. as in pres. in dattdt. the active participle-stem 655. is ^^^dbibharus. jthlta. the ending tana (only in the two instances just quoted) act. ddat- djagantana. 658. 5. ddadhata . act. the 3d pi. vives. augmentless 3d Examples 15 of Whitney . may be i: made mechanically from thus.. the three sing. . act. b.6581 pipartana. f* 657. participles are regularly made: thus. by dropping ^ ^^juAvat.. 1 fsffi^bibhrat. yuyotana. djuhvata From dbibhar the 2d and 3d abibhar-t] are in all (for abibhar-s and and so other The 3d cases where the strong stem ends in a consonant. (444). dhattat. dhattana. Example active. the ending tat in 2d sing. of inflection: middle. sing. mid. As already pointed the 3d pi. also strong forms. ffylta. The usual Vedic the ending tana tana. it is tjf^tHH^ pi. has once apiprata for apiprta act. as mamaltana. I^WU blbhrana. abibhaym. persons. 6. Imperfect.. d. REDUPLICATING CLASS (THIRD. djuhavus djufiuta djuhvatam sing. Grammar. Present Participle. and from y^\ bhi. it has no dis- tinction of strong and Efi-fj weak forms The middle The feminine stem ends in ati. The strong forms are. jihata. of this class takes the ending 3?T us. in irregularities in : 2d pi. act. occur in this tense also thus. out. (in the instances just quoted and in others. and abibhran for abibharus in 3d pi. d. 656. etc.

gkra. The 2d impv. amimlta.). fifimasi. ma 'bellow'. Spa 'rise'. and mid. because of the impossibility to above. about forty roots may be parts of conjugations. (originally identical with the former). may further to i: thus. many of them have irregularities (besides those in tense-inflection already pointed out). r..). 661. 'quit'. 666. jahitam (TA.). afifat. fifatu.226 IX PRESENT-SYSTEM. confidently assigned to it. It is still more difficult to determine the precise limits of this class than of the root-class. ajahitam (TS.: thus. jahyam. da and dha (the commonest of the vowel altogether in the weak forms.. pro a or a as radical vowel take t instead of a in the reduplicating syllable: ga 'go'. 654). jihisva. is thus. 660. act. fiflhi (also fifadhi : above. Compare with this the forms in dhi from ydha (below. In the optative. jtfiite. lost altogether. Jian. Several roots of this class in final a change the a in weak forms to * (occasionally even to i). These roots are : 662. jahimas (AV. sac. jahita. mimati. mtmatu. the radical vowel sing. the final dh of dadh does not follow the special rule of combination of a final sonant aspirate (becoming ddh with the t or th : 160).: thus. ha 'remove' (mid. they being shortened to dad and dadh. pa 'drink'. in the AV. Ihr. see below (670 4). jahitas (TB.). ririhi. and then drop it altogether before endings beginning with a vowel.). ghr (usually the following roots having written ghar\ tr. tf$lte. vac. vac has both i and a. pr. 'bellow'. ra has * once in RV. (rarely also act. The two lose their radical . mid. mimafc.): thus.. with i in reduplication. act. mimihi. jahyus (AV. jtfiate. without augment): and. fa. sr.. fifati.). 'remove'. - [659 Irregularities of the Reduplicating Class. act. and ma 'measure'. is jahlhi or jahihi. mid. ha djihlta. 663. but as also before s and dhv the roots class) 667. mimanti.). ma 'measure'. This is in close analogy with the treatment of the vowel of the class - sign of the no-class: below. ajihata. jihatam. 659.: thus. the accent is constant on the reduplicating syllable. 669). In 2d sing. ma 664. less than thirty. In all these verbs. Besides the roots in r or ar namely. ranaTivam. ranthas (impf. ra 'give'. ca. mimiyat mmuie. 717. jahltat (AV. jahati. . 665.: for stha. mid. ha shorten the I act. under subjunctive 648) of always separating (referred its forms from those of other reduplicating conjugations and : In the RV. jihidhve. In combination with a following t or th. impv. form respectively dehi and dhehi.

dddhdmi dddhdsi dddhati dadhvds dhatthds dhattds dadhmds dhatthd dadhe 2 3 dddhati . active. is and of surd and sonant comthrown back upon the initial is. The inflection of ydha then. of the root. 227 more general rules of aspirate bination and its lost aspiration . REDUPLICATING CLASS (THIRD. p. s.671] II. 1 d. as follows: Present Indicative. 668. s.

'shine'. In the Veda. Similar forms from y~mi 'bellow' are amimet and mimayat. pipyatam.). In the Veda. dpipayat. pples didyana. and adidhayus and (irregular) apipyan. bdpsat (pple). is made from yhan (with omission of the radical vowel. In impf. are sometimes also classed as intensives. In AB. jighy. jighy atu. The 679. is allowed by the grammarians to shorten vowel in weak forms thus. dldhaya and plpaya (impv. class VI. and flected not like of the second p : which then are inmimami.. j/^/u : 674. and may perhaps be best noticed here. jighra. - [671 tisthami. safca. stems are diddya. indie. plpdya. dldhyatham. the reduplicated turned into the a-stems da and dha are inflected as if also sometimes ddda and dddha. we have didiln (and didihi) and pipihi. It is not known in the older language.. is given to thus. roots 672. 675. (from and caks (from from ysac. a like secondary root. pples dZdyat and didhyat. etc. hardly occur in genuine use. usual in this root. daridra. 677. mimanti (jAna 'bellow'). occurs older language only didyati. 28). root bhl. 3d pi. jighy ati. pipyana. bdbhasti. a similar secondary form. or roots dad and dadh of and single forms of the same character are made from other roots: thus. and class. No opt. didhi. rdrate (j/>a 'give': 3d sing. adldes and pipes. and conversion.). pibami (with irregular later often written pivami).). as reduplicated present-stems in the with irregularly long with Of the pres. bibhlyam or bibhiyam. jighn. will be described below under Intensives (chap. y~fas) more or less obvious: thus. 678. but bdpsati (3 pi. also. didhye. as if from the present- sonantizing jiyhrami stems tistha. but they have not the proper reduplication of such. dldhaya. XIV. reduplicating vowel. 'chew'. 673. 641) several roots of the most evidently reduplicate character as simple. A few so-called roots of the first or root-class are the products of reduplication. piba. from y~sac. but like bMvami. In the Veda is found also sa$c. The stem cafcas (sometimes cafeap) is also regarded by the grammarians as a root. and pipyatam. and belonging to the rootSome of these (jagr. taking its the form baps: thus. mid. show the same conversion to an a-stem. along with Vedic dldl 'shine' and plpl 'swell'. and mid. vevl) are regular intensive stems.). with the The subj. aplpema (with strong form of root). j/fcap or a lost root fcas. jaks (640). (viii. and from them are made forms with both primary (from dlddya] and secondary endings (and the irregularly accented didayat and dldayat and dldhayan}. bibhlmas or bibhimas.228 IX PRESENT-SYSTEM.. loses its radical vowel in weak forms. didhyana. . : 'fear'. and some of the forms of safe. and probably fas 'see'). ddldet and ddldhet and aplpet (with augmentless forms). and supplied as such with tenses outside the presentsystem which. didye. occurs. pipyata. 676. The root bhas. of h to gh when in contact with n). A few forms from all the three show transfer to an a-inflection : thus. In impv. The grammarians reckon (as already noticed. however.

219. i 682. 'obstruct'. Forms jajnise. dviviktam. REDUPLICATING CLASS (THIRD. Jsf 684. cikyat (pple). the root ET^" yunj. roots of this class all is 683. The end in consonants. the root "^T rudh. The root-syllable roots ci and cit have in the Veda reversion of thus. 1. : the nasal extends also into other see below. hins 694. And : their class-sign a nasal preceding the final consonant in the weak forms. see 153^ 160. consonant ^ but in the strong forms expanded ndj which has the accent. 'join': Examples of inflection: final j. middle. Present Indicative. d. 7H5T yundj . cikitam. 681. a. yuj. For rules of combination of final dh. to jajnidhve are given by the grammarians. So the root hvar forms are : be reckoned here) has u in reduplication.684] II. cikeai. aciket. tense-systems: they are an}. juhurthas. for cikydthe]. d. III. and contracts to hur thus. of this class from 229 with added i 680. and is con- tracted to vie in weak forms to : thus. adapted in character to the . In a few of the to the syllable verbs of the class. weak. yjan. e to k in the after the reduplication: cikethe (anomalous. runddhmi rundhvds rundhmds rundhe rundhvdhe rundhmahe . bhanj. bases and rundh. cikiddhi. 'give birth'. thus. viviktds. The (if its root vyac has in the reduplication (from the y). Nasal Class (seventh. ra///-class). but do not appear have been found in use. strong stem-form. a nasal simply. see For the rules of combination of active. yundjmi 2 yunjvas yunjmds yunje yunjvdhe yunjmahe yrf^i yundhsi UC^H^ yunkthds g^r yunkthd nf" yunhse i^w\ yunjathe jnr yungdhve 3 uni^ Urh^ yunktds rsin yunjdnti g%" yunkte ^iTi yunjhte g^ 1 **yundkti yunjdte b.

(as 689. is : The stem thus. The RV.). and. as elsewhere. yunjy&va etc. present-stem made from ~\'yuj all the forms for which examples have been noted as actually occurring in the older language. to by adding the of present- compounded mode-endings stem. The optative is made.). act. are being made met with: and the only quotable example of 3d du. mid. it is allowed and more usual (231) to write yunthas. yundhve. : in anjate. 4. yungdhve. d. by adding a to the strong Below are given as if yundja.230 2 IX. and the like (here and in impv. 688. mid. the ordinary use of a 685. 1 middle. which is anomalous Forms with double mode-sign yunajan (QB. the accent on te of 3d pi. always dhi. QB. 3.. In this class the roots is all end in consonants) ftf the ending of the 2d sing. the a. d. bhunjate. an elsewhere unexampled form. . made. rundhas. yunjimdhi etc. Vedic irregularities of inflection are 3d sing. (besides anjatas) is hinasdtas (^B. thus. active. Thus : the weak form middle. trnahan (AV. and so in other like cases. runddha.. . yunajani yundjas yundjava yundjatas yundjama yundjan yunajai yundjamahai yunajadhvai 2 3 yundjat yundjate as from the weak tense-stem. etc. yunjiyd etc. s. p. runddhe. active. Present Imperative.). act. yunjyhm etc. yunjyhma etc. as usual. p. 686. act. as vrnje. b. rundhe. s.: 687. Present Subjunctive. like the 1st sing. [684 rundtsi 3 runddhds runddhd runtse rundhathe runddhve rundddhi runddhds rundhdnti runddhe rundhnte rundhdte Instead of yunkthas.PRESENT-SYSTEM. s. d. has once anjatas.). indhate. has also hinasavas as 1st du. in like manner. for runddhas. s. Present Optative. 2. and impf. d. yunjivdhi etc. .

vrnak.: Present Participle. of this class. showing augmentless forms are found.. pindk. especially in an accent like that of the present: for example. . yunjdtam tat.693] III. rudh-CLAss}. anaktana. d. act. RV. Imperfect. this last is a case of : : the utmost rarity. d. sometimes strong forms. has indhana). act. 6. The Veda has. bhindt. pi. 2d sing. 231 active. rinak. as times the ending tana. p. s. for abhanak (ybhanj)'. The example active. unless saved (555) at the expense of the final radical consonant which is a case of very in the older language have been noted only rare occurrence and once in AV. 690. 692. ET^FT yunjand (but ^c^yunjdnt (fern. 5. The participles act. act. of the ending usual.. The Veda shows no irregularities in this tense. s. of the regular inflection of this tense needs no introduction: middle. s. p. for ahinas (\/hins\ alhanas. in the 2d pinastana. **tt\*\ dy uajam dyunjva dyunjma dyunji dyunjvahi dywymahi dyunak 3 dyunktam dyunkta dyunkthas dyunjatham dyungdhvam dyunak dyunktam dyunjan dyunkta dyunjatam ayunjata The endings s and / are necessarily lost in the nasal class throughout in 2d and 3d sing. made in this class as in the preceding ones: thus.. ahinat (TB. y^rfl yunjati) .. Occurrences of 2d and 3d sing. NASAL CLASS (SEVENTH. 693. and somethus. undtta. p. i yteiiPs JHsTra yun&jani yundjava u^sllH Zpfff UHslN< UHsllH^ yundjama yundjai yundjavahai yimdjamahai 2 gfrr yungdhi 1^ yunktam yunktam J3T yunktd 3?^ yunksvd y^iyiH^ yunjatham H7 ^ in verbs yungdhvam yundktu yunjdntu yunktam yunjatam so far as noted. 3d sing. d. yundkta. prndk.). middle. There is no occurrence. s. are f 691. p. d. mid.

trd. is strong forms receives the accent. . hihs addition also in the other tense-systems. raw-class. The root trh combines trnah with U. trhhd. prncd. anj. The two classes. krt 'spin'. bhanj. Several have a-stems with penultimate nasal: thus. 'press out': strong RT suno . Two. bhanj. Present Indicative. 758). vrj. rdh. endings. tu. and ^-classes (fifth and eighth. chindeta. are met with from others thus. once.). etc. su and to-classes). . : thus. A. v 1. V. below. The present-stem of the ww-class adding to the root the syllable ^ nu. idh. r 698. and strengthened to ^fino. into trnedhi. and occasional a-forms. apparently a desiderative from yhari) weak forms thus. trnedhu and. cis. roots which thus expand a penultimate nasal in forms of the present-system into a syllable nd are about twenty-five: namely. hihs. Those here ubh. weak form. except when the root (raw-class) ends in a consonant. The (but hindsat hihs (by origin accents irregularly the root syllable in the etc. trh. has also such forms as trnehmi: see above. Nu 697. ubhnati (cl. Irregularities of the [694 Nasal Class. according as it is preceded by one or by two consonants (129).232 IX. also of other classes with nasal class-signs make bhuj. ric. rudh. 695. roof H su. bhid. The few n. and 1st pi. root 696. . cihsd. hfhste : IV. bhunjet. ac (anacamahai. Examples of inflection: form of stem.). are closely correspondent in form and they are wholly accordant in inflection. . RV. 694. hfhsanti. pis. especially in the later language. kr see below. arundhat (com: pare the nasalized roots of the d-class. umbhd . 714. apinsat. pro. The u of either class-sign is allowed to be dropped before and m of the 1st du. R sunu.). and the u before a vowelending becomes v or uv. present-systems rdhnoti (cl. according to the grammarians. ud. chid. B. roots of the w-class (about half-a-dozen) Sfi end in ^ (or kar] with the exception of the later irregular for which. is made by which then in the \ A. PRESENT-SYSTEM. chrd.). rdh and ubh. vie. 224 b. The the strong yuj.have that written with the nasal namely anj. tac. then.. IV.

sunoti sunutds sunvdnti sunute sunvhte The forms sunvds. The subjunctive mode-stem is made in by adding a to the gunated and accented usual : In the following scheme sundva. occur also several 3d class : mid. sunvdhe. tanve etc.) is of anomalous The 2d sing. mid. p. manvate. s- n. d. NU. pinvire. rT'T tanu. tanomi etc. 2. instead of the fuller. however (for example). thus. . B. The abbreviated forms in 1st du. and in practice are more common (no examples of the fuller forms have been noted From }/ap. forms of which examples have been met with in actual use in some of the older language from either division of the class : class-sign are given all the them are quite numerously represented there. active. (with passive value) pinvire and hinvire might be perfects without reduplication ary roots pinv and hinv (below. apnuvds.70O] IV. Of these.AND tan-) CLASSES. sunvire. and pi. manner. tanvate. apnumdhe . w-class. du. prnvise (RV. and questionable character. apnuve. tanmds etc. root rPTT tano . Present Subjunctive. tandva. ire thus. In RV.: see below). 699. SU. the 700.' In the older language. tanvds etc. from present-stems of this hinvire. has several cases of the irregular accent in 3d pi. or pi. cH tan. invire. and : also only apnuvdnti. rnvire. tanmdhe etc. chance to occur (but they are numerous in the impv. from the older language). s.AND d.. from the secondmid. sunmds. sunmdhe are alternative with those given here for 1st du. sprnvate. so precisely like that given above that it is not worth writing out in full. which rarely inflection is The occur (as no double consonant ever precedes). weak. apnuvdte. are presented here. The RV. tanvdhe etc. and pi. oo sunomi sunuvds _ sunumds sunve sunuvdhe U-^lS) sunv&the H^lfo sunosi 0^^ sunuthas oo^ sunuthd oo^ sunuse 00^. 233 middle. 'stretch': strong form of stem. and impf. in crnvire. no strong 2d perss.(FIFTH AND EIGHTH. only the forms with u can occur thus. pll. and no t/iana-endings. 716).: thus. U..

702. ^~r -*** -"X "S sunutam sunvdntu sunutam sunvatam sunvdtam . Present Imperative. sunvimdhi etc. to the The combined endings thus.. The inflection of the imperative is in general like that in the preceding classes. PRESENT-SYSTEM. RV. other- wise. as usual. sunuyava etc. d. p. sunuyama etc. sunviyd etc. has krnava and hinava. As regards is the 2d sing. sunvivdhi etc. 703.(or mode-) stem stands by itself as 2d perof in- son (for the earlier usage. active. 4. krnavatha (VS. d. d. From yap. 3. middle.. but -vatha in Kanva-text). Forms with double mode-sign occur (not in RV. d. 1 IX. s. the tense. act. weak tense-stem: middle. passage krnvdtte (instead of krndvdile): the only form in dithe is apndvaithe. has in a single the other hand. sundvani sundvava sundvdma sundvatha sundvai sundvase (sundvate sundvavahai sundvdithe sundvdmaJtdt 2 sundvas sundvat 3 sundvan \ sundvanta sundvdtdi 701.).).): thus. act. karavatha (QB. *sunavani sundvava sundvama sundvai sundvavahai sundvamahai sunu 3 sunutam sunutd sunusvd >*/>^ sunvaiham N/ --V sunudhvdm ^-^ THTrf '^ sunotu ^5 HHHIH ^OO j *S S. flection is active. sunuyl etc. 704). the middle optative would be apnuviyd and so in other like cases. Of the briefer 1st sing.234 active.). s.). krndvdt and karavdt (AV. (566) are added. apnavatai is found once (in TS. [700 d. Present Optative. On RV.. afnavdtha (K. : Example middle. d. see below. the rule of the later language that the ending f^T hi is taken whenever the root itself ends in a consonant.

dsunmahi are allowed. crnuhf. in hinotam. and their like. in Augmentless forms with accent are minvan. Strong akrnota. act. tUirH apnuvand. sanuhi. Nil. in AV. is The combination active. are thrice as frequent in use as inu.. dsunvahi. dhrsnuhi . stem-forms and Jana-ending are found only in RV. sunn. in krnota and krnotana. akrnotana. 707. ' From yap. sprnuhi. tanu. even frnudhi (with dhi) occurs several times found in krnutat and hinutat. dsunma. except from roots with final consonant. sun6ta and suntitana. acnuhi. Present Participle. hinuhi. s. hintita and tat is RV.AND U. the rule as to the omission of hi after in vowel does not hold good: RV. In the a root with final earliest language. mid. and so on. for example. /" 706. The endings 5FFT ant and TR and are added weak form of tense stem thus. From yap. as dhrs. such forms as inuhi. From they are 5fio|ti ojowwt?a< and 6. and more usual. The ending hinotana. s. . too.(FIFTH AND EIGHTH.. and in 2d pi. ddhrsnuvata. p. p dsunavam dsunuva dsunuma dsunvi dsumivahi dsunumahi dsunos 3 dsunutam dsunuta dsumithas dsunvatham dsunudhvam -^ dsunot MHHHIH^ as yyH^ the MH^ri dsunuta briefer ^H^lrilH^ ^H-^ri dsunvatam dsunvata dsunutam dsunvan elsewhere. from ]/g su come act. tanvdnt (fern. dhunuhi. rnutd.AND tan-} CLASSES. cipnuvatham. 704. ddhrsnuvatam. karota. rT^Trr />. act. middle. The strong stem-form is found in 2d du. 235 the 2d sing. ddhrsnuvi. d. act. and also ddhrsnuvan. would be made apnuvdntu. from > ag. prnu. which makes. and tanota. Here. and in the Brahmanas krnuhf. SU. and tanuhi. d. ri^ril tanvatfy rT^FT tanvand. of augmented stem and endings according to the rules already stated: thus. The ending tana occurs only in the forms just quoted. would be apnuhi. ddhrmualways ddhrsnuma etc. vatham.. : sunvdnt (fern. they appear only sporadically in . they are not more than one third as frequent. 5. apnuvatam. hinvdn. however.707] IV. from ydJirs. crnota and crnotana. and kurutat. to the ^ 705. Imperfect. H-^fM sunmmd\ from tan.. forms dsunva. apnuvatam. cinuhf. M^lrfl sunvati).

aorist. also ksan (not in V. ap. dhunu).. is contracted to cr before the Its forms crnvise class-sign. ^ v v and q-\ m of the 1st du. vr (ur). impv. The root cru. urnuvita (K. spr. 'enjoy'. talcs. forming crno and crnu as stem. dhrs. and dhunu (earlier dhuno. is The extremely common root fi kr (or kar\ 'make'. u.). (or in: see below.. du. however. and crnvire have been noted above (699). The class-sign 3 u is always dropped bepi. str. 710. The of conjugation root trp. sagh. dhu: and of these. so that the two forms of stem are karo and fore IT gT^ kuru. The root dhu in making dissyllabic this the stem-forms dhuno the later language shortens its vowel. trp. I. is urnu or urnuhi. trpnu.) or urnvltd (TS. dabh. forms while in the Veda the regular change is made: thus.. hi. treated by the native grammarians as and belonging to the root-class (I. (626). skii) have only isolated forms of this class. kr 'make'. it so-called root urnu. act. future. 714. ci. sku. as if from an w-root of cl. in the later language inflected in the present-system ex- clusively according to the w-class (being the only root of that class not ending in ^ n}. u. 1 709. 708. cak. Irregularities of the nu and than thirty roots form their present-system in the manner set forth above. 712. prus. su.236 1X PRESENT-SYSTEM. assume in of the w-class instead of i of the raw-class. and very rarely later). is properly a present-stem of with anomalous contraction. . In the has no forms which are not regularly made according to the nubut in the Brahmana language are found sometimes such forms as urnauti. its Its 2d sing.). dac. class. 716). . 713. Less : dac. and that the weak form ^T(T is changed to kur. and kr 'make' (in late : Vedic and later) . dhi. 711. aurnos. aurnot. or of the ej-class. is said by the grammarians to retain the n of its class-sign unlingualized in the later language of this class hardly occur. its impf. and and also before y of the opt. etc. ksi 'destroy'. opt. mid. sagh. The roots of the other division. van. 'hear'. rdh. man. several (as taks. i 'send mi 'prop'. - [708 w-classes. It (as has the irregularity that in well as the class-sign) in the strong form of stem it has it the ^ww-strengthening. act.: in (TB. Thus : . The class. ac 'attain'. cru. are extremely few they are tan. san . it a perfect. and the grammarians make for Veda. r. by the addition of the class-sign nu to the root they are aks. where. from the root vr (or var}. and BR.

.

.

in asi and the 3d in at. s. The Brahmanas (especially QB. s. Present Optative. HCHM bhdvamana. d. dhavatat. 1 bhdveyam bhdveva bhdvema bhdveya bhdvevahi bhdvemahi bhdves 3 bhdvetam bhdveta bhdvethas bhdveyatham bhdvedhvam bhdvet bhdvetam bhdveyus bhdveta pi. d. properly augmentless imperfects. affords only bhajatana in the a-class (and nahyatana in the 7/a-class 760). with loss. the other hand. 741. yacatat. which AV. of optative endings as combined with 738. is not rare. adds jinvatat. RV. the RV. bhdva 3 bhdvatam bhdvata bhdvasva ^ bhdvetham bhdvadhvam WT H^ri IH^ bhdvatu bhdvatam bhdvantu 740. KB. ^ bJidvantam as rare in this whole conjuga- bhdvatam bhdvetam is The ending tana in 2d pi. bhdvani bhdvava "S bhdvama bhdvai - bhdvavahai bhdvamahai *N "V ^^ "N. act. 3. mid. thus. d. act. p. The scheme active. and the Brahmanas bring other examples.. stem-vowel: mid.741T VI. s.) has been act. d. has once the 3d see 752). An example of the imperative active. $Aw-CLA88). p. 243 such as bhdvanta (which are very common) are. p. 5. noted once. The endings ^rT ant and the present-stem. bhdveyatam (for bhdveran The RV. p. : tion as is iftana in the present the V. ^4-CLASS (FIRST. of course. area. : 739. yachatat.) prefer the 2d sing. 4. osatat. bharerata one other example. on has avatat. : The ending to tat of 2d sing. 16* . s. HcfH bhdvant ^T^tft Ihdvanti}-. the final of an ez-stem was given in full above (566. of the final (fern. in antai (vartantai. has an example. act. vahatdt. rdksatat. middle. bhavatdt. Present Imperative^ inflection is middle. act. of the briefer 1st sing. qH mana are added to before the former. A 3d pi. Present Participle. dahatdt.

badhathas. A 'lament'. the greater part are fictitious see 108 a). c. b. ddhas. remains unchanged : thus. (or fcrop). An example of the imperfect d. kram. but not in the middle: thus. 'hide'. marjasva. to the root in its f. or later language is not possible (of the number "about a thousand". inflection is: middle. 'stride'. Ex- augmentless forms (which are not uncommon) are: cydvam.. has prolongation instead of guna: thus. ohate. vdrdhata. bddhat. Only three are found in (quite . uh 'notice' has ^wna-strengthening (against 240): thus. far larger number of roots form their presentsystem according to the a-class than according to any of the other classes: in the RV. s. guhati. few verbs have irregular vowel-changes in forming the present-stem: thus.. 'wipe'. is said to form klamati etc. are more frequent than those of either of the mote proper subjunctive persons. klam. s. p. 6.244 IX. cdran. 'rinse but hardly occurs. on the contrary. about (nearly two fifths of the whole body of roots) . ndpan. 742. lengthens its vowel in the active. d. A . 744. fdcanta. kramati. dbhavam dbhavava dbhavama dbhave dbhavavahi dbhavamahi TOT^ 3WFT^ dbhavas ^W^rT EPWHH^ EW'^IH^ SW^EFT dbhavatam dbhavata dbhavathas dbhavetham dbhavadhvam dbJiavat dbhavatam dbhavan are dbhavata in this dbhavetam dbhavanta 743. d. cam with the preposition a. which they declare to lengthen the u in present-stem. p. krp krpate. 'tire'. a. 749 a. 745. Among them are no roots ending in long d except a few which make an a-stem . e. krdmate. very nearly. guh. two hundred (nearly the same proportion). bhdrat. act.in some anomalous way: below. [742 Imperfect. as usually stated. active. and they show the same vrddhi (instead of guna} which belongs more proper inflection (627): thus. dvas. the mouth'. a cam at i. a The grammarians give the number of roots in urv. Irregularities of the -class. forms In the later language are found occasional forms of this class from mrj. The subjunctively used forms of 2d and 3d sing. how many they : are in the to tell precisely. PRESENT-SYSTEM. No forms in fana amples of made tense from any o-class. they are about two hundred and forty in the AV.

svanj. lose it in the present-system thus. a root that has such a nasal anywhere has it here also. and. make the present-stems gacha and ydcha: thus. be of secondary formation from roots in r or ar. cases are the following a. .). g. and dha. sanj forms both sajati and sajjati (probably for sajyati. or have crowded these out of use: see 716. see 671 4. both throughout the : The most noticeable present-system and in occasional forms. or for sasjati from sasajati] math or manth has mathati later. it follows so closely the model of the preceding class. and jighra (jighrami etc. The onomatopoetic root athiv. : to be as 749. from simpler pinv. has been already pointed out above. is 'color'. 748. piba or (later) piva (pibami etc. Transfers to this class from other classes are not rare. forms sometimes jighna. as rthiv. stha.: see 608. 'blow'. 'impel'. 'hang'. 'coagulate'.. and the root remains unstrengthened. ''embrace'. The root murch or murch. 'go'. 'place'. 'bite'. : VII.). is written by the grammarians and declared to lengthen its vowel in the present-system. 'slay'. that to will be give the paradigm in full all unnecessary (only for the subjunctive. and they show no forms anywhere with short u. The roots danc. form the present-stems tistha (tisthami etc. forms its present-stem from the more original form of the root thus. On the other hand. pa. 'sit'. ?W-class). In its whole inflection. ddcati etc. in the Veda. In general. sidami etc. 'give'.). as the present of this class is a strengthening formation.751] limited) to VI. 746. and yam.. forms jighya all these by transfer from the reduplicating class b. 750. gdchami etc. The root sad. and hi. ranj. jinv. Secondary root-forms like inv. 'furnish'. 245 All appear use. dhdmati etc. han. 751. 'smell'. form sometimes ddda and dddha. b/lU-CLASS). 'stand'. 'drink'. : roots of the raw-class. da. The roots gam. the root dham or dhma. the forms found to occur will be instanced). sanj. 747. and ghra. forms sida (conjectured contracted from stsd for sisad) thus. 'spew'. The roots in a. has likewise only u in quotable forms. A-CLASS (FIRST. ' Accented -class (sixth. of which the nasal in other parts of the : conjugation not constant. . are either found alongside their originals. The present-stem of this class has the accent on the class-sign ^ a.

N^IH vicAsva etc. is mrksd. in mrdatat.. stem. The first persons having been given above as subjunc- tives. Brahmana language : thus. d. [752 'enter'. vifas {vifdsi (vicdti 3 : . vicema etc. The feminine of the active participle is usually made from the strong stem-form: thus. Present Participle. viceya etc. p. 5. tuddntl and tudati (AV. 449 b. vi$dvahai vicaithe vifdmahai i. khidatat. vicavahe etc. act. The only forms in aithe and aite are prnafthe and yuvafte. feiy^ vicddhvam etc. and AV. victlvas etc. PRESENT-SYSTEM. 2. vifdnti. but sometimes from the weak: thus. IX. has the ending tana once juserata 3d pi. s. other examples are not infrequent in the srjatdt. and AV. vgd: 1. The RV. Example of inflection : root fifST vi$. d. vifdni .). p. vifdva vi$ai (vi?dse _ { \vi?a8ai . N^I&IIH^ vicetham etc. . sincantl and sincati (RV. active. vicamas etc. vice etc. and rata in 4. The ending tat is found in RV. vrhatdt. vi^atas vi$an _ vifatte vicantai [vifat [vifatai A single example of the briefer 1st sing. vifdma . vicdta etc. is The active participle fek\i\^vi$dntf the middle is i^^WM vigdmana. mid. Present Imperative. _i fvifate < . Present Indicative.246 752. 3. mca etc. . viffyam etc.): see above. i Present Subjunctive. middle. Present Optative. vicamahe etc. the second are added here: 2 f%5F felrFT^ felrT vicdtam etc. vicevahi etc. s. viceva etc. vi(atha j_ . in tiretana 2d pi. vicGmi etc. act. suvatat. . viqemahi etc.

Some even of these have either only isolated or very rare occurrences of a-forms. hu. mrn. Certain (V. iy : 756. mrd. ^fciN dvicava etc. ruj. SIXTH. sphur. tr. in the It is impossible to determine closely the limits of partly because of the occurrence of forms unaccented. and the Brahmanas have forms in ksya from ksi}. suvdti (sva instead of suva occurs in AV. vrcc (or vracc]. pic. cubh. uks. vas 'shine'. ytomJ^ dvicamahi etc. kr 'strew'. prn. vij. ubh. tud. and their separation is not always practicable. i ^foSR^ dvicam etc. weak forms generally. tuj. krt 'cut'. rud. ^rf^tl dvice etc. gird. is. dhu. tjfoiiH dvicama etc... su (or su) 'stir up'. mrks. lip. tud-CLA. prus. and they are sometimes written as kir etc. rikh or likh. are really only varieties of gr.). srj. tvis. With considerable confidence may be reckoned as belonging to it about seventy roots: namely. vidh. muc. riph. (or cus. mis. very few with final vowels . jus. 753. and r 'go to' (608). tur. rnj. vrh or brh. ich. and bhur and sphur are evidently related with other ar or r root-forms. ksi. uch. khid. and rch are reckoned as substitutes in the present-system for is 'wish'. unaccentuated texts. Irregularities of the a-class. jur.756] VII. which might belong either to it or partly because its modes and imperfect form with those of the a-aorist (below. drh. crt. uch. bhrjj rs hhrajf). The a-aorist (846 ff.). except which is then reduced in the presentto r system. tirdnta. as this forms a combination with the r. 247 Imperfect. 4iief!MNf^ dvicavahi etc. XI. as regards its form. srjdt. rus. nud. or some of the usual sub- stitutes of 755. gur. The roots in i and u and u change those vowels into and uv before the class-sign thus. die. The roots ich. vnrc. gr 'swallow'. ric. lup. ubj. krs 'plough'. Examples of augmentless forms accented are srjds. vid 'find'. .ss). or to this class. and none with a as radical vowel. khud. ksiydti. jr. and partly for other reasons. tird. rch. ACCENTED G-CLASS 6. chap. yu 'join'. preceding class. vie. ksip. Prn and mrn have been noticed above (731) as secondary roots from present-stems of the na-class 754. peculiarities of this "body of roots are very noticeable: it contains only one or two roots with long vowels. 'push'. jur. as in r. vrs. and gur. and none with long interior vowels . tr. trp. are accordant in ru 'roar'.) is in general the equivalent. bhur. sic. prch (or prach]. rd. tur The three roots in r form the present-stems kird. of an imperfect of this class. sprc.

and are reckoned as r or ar roots: dr. pined from ypig.). 'smear'. PRESENT-SYSTEM. stem ^T^T Example ndhya. 'release'. from the roots mr. etc. 'make firm'. cumbhd (beside qumbha] from yculh. Present Indicative. and pr. It is a question whether 'regard'. sincd from l/sic. 'shine'.. drnhd (beside drnhd] from ydrh. the stem muncd is made from ymuc. 'sprinkle'. 758. _. . umbha from yttbh. brn/id from ybr/i 'strengthen'. ndhye ndhyavahe etc. d. 'hold'. 'adorn'. middle. Two other IX. of inflection: root ^ d. ndhyan ndhydtdi ndhydntdi A 3d mid. ndhyamas etc. ndhyama ndhyai ndhyasai ndhydni fndhyasi { ndhyavahai ndhydmahai .248 757. . limpd from yiip. 'be busy' (neither is found in V. there are nevertheless a number of roots belonging to it which are strengthened by a penultimate nasal. active. \ncthy at ndhyatas pi. 'thrust'. in antai (jdyantdi) occurs once in TS. 'break'. Thus. VIII. trmpd from }/trp. Fa-class (fourth. and occasional forms of the same character are met with from a few others. ndhyami etc. ^760. TS. and dhr. <%'-class). 'hold': see below. 'enjoy': lumpd from yiup. . 2 nahyadhvai [ndhyas 3-1 . has crnthati from y$rath (instead of crathriati). as tundd from ytud. cisely like that of the #-class 7 Its inflection is also pre- and may be presented in the same abbreviated form as that of the a-class. 1. ndhyavas etc. 2.. _. this class ( 759. 1 Present Subjunctive. s. 'die'. na ^^ 'bind'. roots [757 which are used only in middle forms. and in combination with the preposition a (sometimes further combined). The present stem of adds TJ ya to the accented but unstrengthened root. ndhyamahe etc. vindd from yvid 'find'. make the present-stems a-driya and a-priyd. and the same they are more properly reckoned to this class or as passives question arises as to the stems mriyd and dhriyd. 773. Although the present-stem of this class shows in general a weak form of the root. krntd from ykrt 'cut'.

'be krudh. 'be colored'. 1 . trs. ksubh. a. pdfyan. yudh. ksudh. Examples of augmentless forms showing the accent belonging to the present-system are gdyat. 'be deficient'. ndhyeyam ndhyeva etc - ndhyema etc. Present Participle. drp. jas. jdyathds. rddh. Some these are of only earlyof this class. raj. 'be patient'. excited and we may perhaps add of das. druh. etc. 'be 'be in pain'. dry'. ris. etc. grdh. nahyatana. 1 lean'. has one example. 'be greedy'. 'be in ill condition'. klam. ndhyevahi ndhyemahi etc. 'be forgetful'. 249 Present Optative. etc. 'be awake'. budh. quiet'. muh. 'be unsteady'. 'be satisfied'. ndhyeya etc. 'be hurt'. bhram. in The roots of number. the ya-class are more as follows : than a hundred mind weary'. fus. 'be hungry'. 2 Present Imperative. med. : These are nearly half the whole we. rfw/'-CLASS . lustful'. 6. mrs. etc. exhausted tus. 'be 'be agitated 'be worn out tarn. dnahye dnahydvahi dnahyamahi etc. hrs. 1 . 'be 'be happy'. 'be weary'. ^ ndhya etc. use. pram. trp. lubh. the ending is tat found in asyatdt. 3. pam. 'be crazed'. Of the ending tana. is The active participle is *1$lvX ndhyant (fern. . yas. 'be spoiled 1 . 4. 1 . Imperfect dnahyam dmhyava dnahyama etc. fcsam. 'be successful'. and nap. RV. They may be grouped class. Roots signifying a state of feeling. fat'. the middle ^RH ndhyamana. etc. 5. ran. 'be in pain'. rup. . ndhyadhvam etc. 1 . 'be sub- ject'. 'be or a condition of or body. 'be thirsty'. ^rft nd- hyantl)'. angry'. Ytf-CLASS (FOURTH. 'be submissive dus. radh. 'be pleased'. etc - etc. 1 . 'be in good condition'. They 'be are (alphabetically) as follows kup. 'be alarmed'. fcrp. 'be missing . mad. chyatdt. some only of later and some have only sporadic forms made perhaps under the influence of the analogy of the others. 'be hostile'. 'be hostile'. 'be angry'. 'be 1 . 'be ardent'. 761. 'be excited man. 'be pwc. 'be minded'. tras. 'be gratified'.76 !] VHI. Irregularities of the ya-el&sa. 'be pleased'. pdfyat. ndhyatam ndhyata etc. dam. pus. 'be 'be confused'. etc. mrit. ftar. ndhyasva ndhyetkdm etc.

has aprusyat. and other like cases. and which evident and in part presumable transfers from the passive or and sometimes also with assumption of active i/a-class. 'bark'. 'leave'. where in the older language the accent wavers and changes. two sporadic forms. As these show abundantly (and in most cases exclusively) gdyati from ygai. serving as to complement c. fj/a. 'fill'. r/. 'lessen'. and dlryati. 'shine' (and perhaps das and nap are better classed here than under body of roots. have a-forms. once). 'be Tra. tfsyate etc. 'go'. 'be coagulated'. and sometimes t-forms. with change of accent. pya. 'impregnate'. or .. 'sew'. chid. 'thunder' (RV. 'hover'. dl. born'. as slv. 'leave'.gla. tur. may found later. They are: ga 'sing'. from the earliest period jdyate etc. or 'droop'. vyadh. which are by the native grammarians reckoned as ending with diphthongs thus. and AV. sta. 'extend' (compare pass. t>ap. 2.). A is small body of roots are either transitive. Many of these are evident extensions of simpler roots with added a. 'wither'. outside 'be the present-system. either with a weakened I or i a before the class-sign of this or with a weakened to and . 'be wearied or disgusted': va. And 'grows old' (later also jiryate)'. fca. drhya (RV. ylifj that clearly 'send'. : thus. from Yfis. from j/pr. - [761 b. spha. klipyati. 'play'. and in the Brahmanas the former is the regular accent and similar changes : are found in other verbs 'burst'. has jlryati.ss. : A 1. 'burn'. nah. 6/irap. there seems no reason why they should not be regarded as a-roots of the ya-c.la. and Itipyate. 'save'.250 IX PRESENT-SYSTEM. fdhyate. in RV. d. is 'was sprinkled'.. and. 'hang on'. These. dhdyati from ydhe. pad. 'think'. tayate from ytan: 772). determine in where passive form and meaning pass into intransitive but there are a number of clear cases. from j/w.). 'swell'. With them may be mentioned tay. 'bind'. dr Cases closely analogous with these are miyate etc. and the others are to be judged by their analogy. and to must be regarded class. from yric. Active forms are early made sporadically from some of these thus. 'make klfyyate. 'coagulate'. and of somewhat questionable character and relations. dhya. in one fat'. are drhyasva from ydrhh. yjan. It is not possible to draw precisely the limits of the division. fra. or not intransitive in a either of way diu. sidh. them with the above classes : thus. pap. are in part endings. 'see'. srlv.. 'is either altered passive or original ya-lormation from y'ja. be ranked along with them. 'cook'. from ymi or ml. ji or jya. once). 'dance'. mia. of various meaning. beside usual mucydte. 'be hidden'. ra. nri. 'give connects birth'. dip. bhid. 'bleat'. tdpyate. ricyate etc. viyate etc. tlryate. ksi 'destroy'. 'coagulate'. Roots which have a more or less distinctly passive sense. and c%. fiyante from y^ya. and QB. tan. on'. a-forms outside the present-system. 'throw'. . n. firm'. Roots reckoned as ending in e and belonging to the a-class: thus. 'press 'fail'. Thus. 'save'. was given in the preceding division. shy or anxious' (which connects itself with uses of yd}. puryate etc. as a-roots. a). da 'cleanse'. The AV. all cases muc forms mucyate once or twice. ksiyati and puryati (TA.. stya. 'succeed'. Roots reckoned as ending in ai and belonging to the a-class : thus. 'split'. pra. ha 'leave'. 'fall'. 'overcome' (RV. too. 'flow'. pac.

The root vyadh is abbreviated to vidh: thus. 'share. sriv by the grammarians with and a similar lengthening final in other in the present-system is prescribed for them. bhram also occurs). and ksam (but ksamyate also) : : 764. 'sharpen'. div is this to have nothing to do with the also the 'shine'. madyati. 'be 'wasted' ci).). dha. since their vocalized forms assumed root by proved which changes to dyu (361 d): desiderative stem jujyusa from yjlv (1028h). They are : 251 va. as showing an accented yd. compare 766. : is always u div. crhmyati.. 'hide'. sa. 'exchange'. no real right to be dydti from do. and in most of the AV. ma. cam. They are: da 'cut'. it appears related with the class 762. Outside these present-systems. Ya-CLAss (FOURTH. of vyaya?}-. With example or two are them may be mentioned day. In this tendency. use). found from sympathize. cram. (755). div-CLAss). class. They appear to be properly dm etc. noticed under the preceding class (755). and j&rya and tUrya (the last two only in RV. vfdhyati. 765. late hva. : And any root which in other forms has a penultimate nasal loses it here thus. 'suck'. but without the usual conversion of i. pity'. rajya from ran? or raj. iv. is resolved into ia in the true class-sign ya is the case only in very rare and purely sporadic instances. From the roots jr and tr (also written as jur and tir or tur] come the stems jirya and tirya. siv. The the passive.767] VIII. dam. bhrdfya (also bhfcya) from bhrahf or bhraf. They have. ened to i to iy They might. thus. form of Roots artificially marked with (108c) and reckoned : to this being declared dropped before the class-sign thus. cha. 'visit with retribution' (probably a 3. The roots of this class ending in am lengthen their vowel in forming the present-stem they are tarn. it is in no very small number of cases an intransitive conjugation by the side of a transitive of some other class. occurrences. 763. perhaps be best viewed as a-roots with a weakand inflected by the a-class. . da 'bind'. camyati. 'cut off'. drhya from drnh or drh. ca. as well as in the form of its sign. they show a and i-forms. vya. then. 'bind'. klam (hardly found in (but bhramyat for example. ocwhich currence. 'call' (one of the forms of y7w). meaning which is next to be taken up Though very far from being as widely used as the latter beside other present-systems. inflected according to the a-class. j/a-class is the only one thus far described which shows any tendency toward a restriction to a certain variety of meaning. 'weave'. 767. are written The root mad has The roots in the same lengthening: div. and the ya in the only RV. (or criv) w namely. a final o and a vyay. but seem more accordant in formation with the present- the radical vowel stems sva and ksya. of distinctly defined with t/a-sign. cay. (denom. from pr comes pUrya. classed here at all.

: badhyd from ybandh. kriyavahe etc. d. the active and middle forms are made. [768 Accented certain is //</-class: Passive conjugation. IX. lengthened: thus. . On the other hand. in the root r). form of present-stem. ajya from j/aw/. added is in The form : made the weak forms of the perfect (794). : and in those roots which show a change of r verbs : to ir and ur is (so-called f- see 242). same abbreviated form: 'make'. puryd from ypr.. in the aorist optative (922 b). or before to. that change is made here also. r final is in general changed to ri: thus. and the vowel lengthened thus. suyd from ysu. of the root to which the passive-sign is the accent is on the sign) the weak one thus. ETTQJ apyd from j/ETPT ap JT^T grhyd from J/JT^n grh (or grah}\ and "X so on. a final vowel of a root is in general liable to the same changes as in other parts of the verbal system where it is followed by y: thus. 768. ucya from j/wzc. is formed from used only with a passive meaning. \ 771. i and u final are b. and any abbreviation which is \ 769. smart/a from j/smr. (. a final is usually preceded by two consonants (and also. ijyd from yyaj. kriye etc. changed to i : thus.252 IX. dlyd from yda . staryd from ytr. 770. therefore. p. to Its sign is an accented yd added hanyd from j/^T han. firyd from y$r. without any reference to the class according to which the root: thus. Present Indicative. hiyd from yha: but jnayd from yjna. PRESENT-SYSTEM.but if a. C. miya from ymi. of the passive participle (954). khyayd from ykhyd. passive- Example stem T5FTET of inflection: root kriyd: 1. that of the class last given. A middle endings. (since a penultimate nasal is dropped. kriyd from ykr. it has instead the pwna-strengthening: thus. it is claimed. t^*y } C. The inflection of the passive-stem is precisely like .stems it differs only in accent from here presented. is made also in the passive present-system thus. kriy&mahe etc. in the It may be ^i kr. that of the other a. inflected with and all roots for which there is occasion to 7J make a passive conjugation.

773] IX. although neither is used in a proper 'die'. the older language are p. 773. 731). khaydte (but also tanydte. 'he maintains himself. 'hold'. but kriydmana. ending antai 3. Present Participle. 'he dies'. is found once (ucyantai. 757). however. 253 Present Subjunctive. kriydmana. kriyddhvam etc. (PASSIVE). they are found.. No forms of the passive optative chance to occur in RV. Imperfect. 5. Present Imperative. and dAr. as The forms noticed alone here instanced 1 : occurring in a. 6. or 'being done'. Present Optative. 4. 'in process of doing'. K. in the Brahmanas. and dhriydte. dkriyavahi etc. is steadfast'. dkriyamahi etc.). kriydsva etc. passive sense. khanydte). By their form. kriyai kriydmahai kriyddhvai 2 tkriydte 3 \kriydtai The 3d pi. 761 b). ACCENTED ya-CLASS 2. are passives from the roots mr. taydte. krtd. the suffix JTR This is made with mana: thus. mriydie. this participle ticiple hy its distinctively is well distinguished from the other passive parpresent meaning: thus. The corresponding form to |//aw. kriyeya etc. In use. or AV. is apparently a transfer to the preceding class. The passive-sign is never resolved into ia in the Veda. which may possibly be stems a-driyd . hriyetham etc. namely jhyate (above. kriyevahi etc. 772. 'done'. and a-priyd (above. and mr is not transitive except in the derivative With them are to be compared the form mrn (above. dkriye etc. The roots tan and khan usually form their passives from parallel roots in a: thus. kriyemahi etc.

774. PRESENT-SYSTEM. tadd (MBh. from the roots pr. being possessed by Kali. [773 peculiar adaptations of meaning of passives 'fill'. inflection of stems 775. 'they said with gladness. and dr.). the expression of habitual action. 'the seven sages. present and imperfect. 778. the stem is not a present-stem merely. saptarsin u ha sma vdi purd rkshd dcaksate (QB.).). The uses of the mode-forms of the present-system have been already briefly treated in the preceding chapter (572 ff. namely. 'Agni gave his own presence wherever the $aye sahdvatsd b.).254 IX. pitied her'. dvistah kalind dyute jlyate sma nalas was beaten in play'. Thus: ity 'formerly': thus. With the frdmena ha sma vdt tad devd jayanti ydd esdm jdyyam dsd rsayaf ca (QB. the present has rather a. Examples of past meaning are tittard sur ddharah putra dsld ddnuh nd dhenuh (RV. pwrcf. agnir atmabhavam prdddd yatra vdnchati ndisadhah (MBh.). . Instances are occasionally found in the later language of an apparent assumption of active instead of middle endings by passive persons of the present-system. in all alike. besides its strictly present use. pointed in dya (the tenth or cwr-class of the Hindu grammarians) will be treated under the head of secondary conjugation (chap. 'some ridicule her. more With definitely the value of a past tense. 'for. tanmdtram api cen mahyam na daddti purd bhavdn (MBh. of future action. XIV. 'if you have never before given me even an atom". 776. because. and of past : in lively narration. there Danu lies. the same side-uses which belong in general to the tense namely. 'the mother was over. b.). 777. both gods and sages were wont to win by penance what was to be won'. prahasanti ca tdm kecid abhyasuyanti : cd 'pare akurvata daydm all kecit (MBh. call here for only a word or two of explanation. 'scatter . are of old called the bears'. these are rather to be regarded as examples of transfer to the t/a-class. "we will go too'". As was out above (607). some (H. Examples of future meaning are: abruvan hrstd gachdmo vayam apt (MBh. asseverative particle sma. the formation and Uses of the Present and Imperfect.).). but has been extended also into other tense-systems. in truth. The present has. 'then Nala. Nishadhan should desire'.). a. the son under. some revile her. The tense-uses of the two indicative tenses. along with the intensive and desiderative formations. however. In connection with certain particles. like a cow with her calf.). tato yasya vacandt tatrd 'valambitds tarn sarve tiraskurvanti 'thereupon they fall to reproaching him by whose advice they had alighted there'.' thus. Probably. such as were considered above (761 b).).

CHAPTER 780. The imperfect has remained unchanged in value through the whole history of the language it is the tense of narration it expresses simple past time. been seen above consists only of an indicative tense and a participle both of them in the two voices.. 779. L THE perfect-system in the later language. X. as has (535).781] No example USES OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT. Compare what is said later (end of chap. AV. . the frequent use. is very common. ^ 781. d. use of sma with a verb as pure asseverative particle. : . the latter in all other persons c. the former being used (as in presents of the First conjugation) in the singular active. . or elsewhere in the metrical parts of the Veda. The formation of the perfect is essentially alike in all verbs. X. differences inate consequence. and chap. active and middle. * of a union-vowel between stem and endings. or is not less full in its is its augment-preterit. THE PERFECT-SYSTEM. b. among tbem being of only subord- or having the character of irregularities. the perfect and aorist. : The characteristics of the formation are these a. without any other implication. a stem made by reduplication of the root. or apparatus of forms than the present-system. a distinction between stronger and weaker forms of stem.) as to the value of the other past tenses. In the Brahmanas. only habitual action is expressed by it In all periods of the language. the perfect has also its modes and pluperfect. especially in the later language. endings in some respects peculiar. unlike those of the present. of this 255 or construction is found in either RV. the (Delbruck). In the oldest language. with no effect on the tense-meaning. and the examples later are hardly to be distinguished from the present of lively narration of which the whole construction is doubtless a form. XI.

which then fuses with the vowel to 51T a (throughout the whole inflection): thus. act. The from b.256 x - PERFECT-SYSTEM. *N come ^T uc and 3^Trf uvoc. A root with ^ i or 3 u before a single final conso- nant follows the same analogy. in like manner. in which the perfect tense . from y '^T 35 comes ^T is in weak forms. the reduplicating vowel maintains independent form. and never from ^ i. falls under this rule. that radical 5[ a and ff r (or 3^|" ar) : see 643) 5TT ft and have only : 5f a.). y^ pr. Reduplication. Roots which begin with vowels long by nature or by do not in general make a perfect-system. but use position instead a periphrastic formation. Irregularities of roots with initial consonants will be given below. In roots beginning with a conis sonant. comes the present-stem fqq pip?. a single vowel. the reduplication which forms the perfect-stem of the same character with that which forms the present- stem of the reduplicating conjugation-class (II. from its 1/3*1 uc. root TR r forms likewise throughout Eff^" ar (as if ET^" ar]. becoming ^ e or EfT o. the rules of : reduplication are these a. and is separated from the radical syllable by its own semivowel: thus. where the vowel guna. 784. before this. For roots beginning with a vowel. and so on. but the perfect-stem qq papr . and forms ^1 ly and ^ET iye. [732 \ 782. ^ 783. as vowel of the reduplicating syllable thus. 'fill'. hut with this exception. ETFJ ah. ad from as. but tm iyes in strong. y^ ad. -V -\ The root 5 i. and in like manner ENs^a/. comes the present-stem MHI mima. from 'measure'. except in the strong forms of the radical syllable has (sing. j/JTT. A root with initial f f a before a single final conradical sonant repeats the a. 5TR an. but the perfect-stem r^fT mama. c.

XV. pipyus. is said to f come us and uvas . didhyus (also didhiyus. from Ypya comes pipya. 784. forming the stems and If. is 257 of an auxiliary verb added to the accusative of a verbal noun (see below. dhr. from yvac come uc and uvac . 761 d. a). Of roots reduplicating with u: ju and fit (or pt>5). yap (probably originally ap: 1087 fj making the constant perfect-stem ap to certain roots with initial from ap : For the peculiar reduplication an. gr 'wake'. vya. \/vas full form of root in the strong persons of Thus. also forms below. . Thus. Most are Vedic only but also in the Brahmana language.78' REDUPLICATION. from yvyac comes vivyac . These roots are for the most part abbreviated in the weak forms which forms see below. A number of roots having ya after a first initial consonant take t (from the y] instead of a in the reduplicating syllable also thus. dldhima. trs. pya. namely yaj. trp. vyath. 2). which in various of their verbal forms and derivatives abbreviate the va to u. and va. vad. occurs once jlhida. To (as if this rule. vrt. rabh. A number of roots beginning with va and ending with a single consonant. single root with va is treated in the same way : namely : susvap. pad. vale. and. jya. 787. 'attack'. grdh. Whitney.. 'weave' follow the same rule. see common 1020 with short vowel. vrdli. has pipye. cas. from are vac. tyaj. few roots beginning with the (derivative: 42) palatal mutes the radical and aspiration show a reversion to the more original guttural in 17 Grammar. and are treated like roots with initial u (above. nam. constitutes an exception. 786. But plpl etc. 788. with short i.: 1070 ff. vap. do it also in the perfect. van. which have the root-vowel u. above. 794. see below. mrj. however. The roots showing this abbreviation (so-called ve : vah . of roots reduplicating with a: kan. and is even found later. chap. A . in the Veda. dldetha. radh. vac. A considerable number of roots have in the Veda a long vowel in their reduplication. kip. ran. except that they retain the the singular active. A the single root beginning with ya. : which make the perfect from the same stem with the present thus. iyaj offer'. vas dhrs. vyadh. skambh. mdh. with cyu and dyu. vrj. diddya . 783 b). and so on. These roots are vyac. Of roots reduplicating with I: the so-called roots (676) dldhl and dldl. 785. In AV. tan. vat.. sah. mrp. in isolated cases some have dadhdra is For jagr. dldiyus). has same contraction.). belonging vowels. Some of these occur only . : A svap.

. with irregular redublication (as in the present. yrdh (from which comes once rnddhat) has anrdhe. has anrctis and anrcey<rc or arc yarh has (in TS. from the earliest period to the a perfect without reduplication. A root da. by the grammarians to form digi: but neither root nor perfect quotable. manner 'bear'. Thus. anaha (RV. following : One or two individual cases of irregularity are the a. forming the stem babhu. forms either tisthiv (B. dhise and dhire (? ydha). c. HI.. latest. and anc or ac . 'spew'. b.: they are taksathus. sasu. which are accordingly reckoned as "pluperfects".. pple vidv&ns. 788. ]/ap.. It meaning of a present. The ja (as also in intensive: has in the Veda the anomalous reduplication 1002b): but RV. but the only other quotable forms appear to be anarchat (MBh.). forms cikit. The extremely common root bhu. 'attain' anapma etc. sahvahs are And AV. 789. vettha. thus. and such perfects are taught from roots like afcs. 790. ar. but otherwise regularly inflected: made and has the thus. yji is forms jigi. veda. ysu forms b.) or tisthlv. The root vid 'find' forms the regular viveda.. has the weak forms and the strong forms ananpa and anapa along with the regular apa etc. is appear in other reduplicated forms of these roots). 660). A few other apparently perfect forms lacking a reduplication are found in RV. has the perfect (with anaja and anajyat). - PERFECT-SYSTEM. which forms the pres.258 x yhi forms jighi. [737 }/cit syllable after the reduplication: yd forms ciki. . in like root bhr. which comes once anacamahai]. The later grammar. etc. et al. aj. has cetatus. in the Veda: yanj anaje etc. once) is doubtless participle of yvac. then. (with opt. but with altogether doubtful propriety. The root sthiv. A or small number of roots with initial a or r (ar) show the anomalous reduplication an in the perfect. nindima (for ninidima?). common in the oldest The participial words dafvdns. has once also the regular babhre. midhvdns. 'be'. Vivakvan (RV. d.) anrhus. skambhdthus and skambhus. sets up the rule that roots beginning with a and ending with more than one consonant have an as their regular reduplication . andkti (from (cl.). in the Veda. yamdtus. language. and. to a root ah. anapt/am).) and anarsat (TA. has the anomalous reduplication ba. elsewhere unknown. and vidre and arhireC? see 613). Absence of reduplication : is met with in the follow- The root vid 'know' has. ing cases a. once) has been referred and explained as of this formation . said yhan forms jaghan (and the same reversions 'protect'.

vivijithd 17* These rules are said by the grammarians always when 2d : . 792. it in the others. act. the weaker of the two forms allowed by these is almost exclusively in use: thus. however. 794 e and in certain other verbs thus. rules in the tatdpa. tatap. Medial % a before a single is final consonant follows the analogy of a final vowel. it . But the u of ybhu remains unchanged. in contracted stems with e for medial a : below. and vrddhi in 3d: thus. see 1087f. 797).793"| c. 1st fsft bibhe or f^R bibhai . all A medial short vowel has in three persons alike : the guna. the root-syllable accented. from ytf bhl. babhuva etc. 2d i^R bibhe.atap. For an anomalous below. 2d cakdr. case or two of reduplicated preposition. . The only exceptions noticed are cakdra and jagrdha (doubtful reading) in c. by weakening / 793. from j/fipT^V comes krt comes r^\^cakdrt. sing. a. In the three is persons of the singular active. and the root-syllable if unaccented has sometimes the weak form (namely. from 2d t&V{tatdp. to apply to has simple tha as ending if it has sing.strengthening (where this is possible 240) : thus. 3d bibhai. . partly by doing both. from y%\ kr. and exhibits usually a stronger form than tense-inflection. 1st ^Fu|" cakdr or *Jtil^ cakar. first person 3d bibhdya. tap. 1st only bibhdya. Strong and weak stem-forms. In the Veda. fahsus and pansire (MBh. tat&pa. from j/gqj druh comes y^fift \d^\ viveg. : As regards final the strengthening vowel takes either the guna or vrddhi change in 1st sing. and in the 3d. from d. 791. 3d cfflWatdp or t\mj. itha (below. 3d ^37T|" cakdr. guna in 2d.). : A to. in the rest of the The difference is effected partly by strengthpartly ening the root in the three persons referred to. the accent is allowed to fall on any one of the syllables of the word. lengthened or vriddhied 1st and optionally in the first: thus. later 259 language : have been quoted from the namely. STRONG AND One or two sporadic cases WEAK STEM-FORMS. and adds v before a vowel-ending thus.. the l^FJ dudroh. AV..

c). vividh from yvyadh. act. accented on any other than the radical syllable. jakhn. pirate. as if ypat (beside pet-forms. and jr 'decay' to be allowed to do the same. b. sacce and safdre e. mamdrja . contract the ya and va to i and u: The exthus. jaks (compare 640) : A once jajanus. A tended roots jya.. tatnire from ytan (beside tatane. has jajn. : of c) : : 794. together into one syllable. and yguh (also as in present 745 has u instead of o. cation : Certain roots grammarians to not having the form here defined are declared by the most of them optionally. tatne. gam. language. Roots in general having medial a before a single final consonant. susup from ysvap. whatever its And the roots pr. tatnise.260 The earlier X. below. Sporadic instances of a strengthening in other than the singular sing. a. hva show a similar apparent contraction. undergo the same contraction . from In the old language are found in like manner mamndthe and mamnate }/man. yyam forms yem. The root mrj has (as in the present-system 627) vrddhi instead guna in strong forms thus. from ysac. jagrah (3d). m. It As regards the weakening in weak forms has been seen above (783 b) that roots : beginning or u fuse reduplicating and radical syllable together to i or u in the weak forms. pi. but prach (if it be so written) remains unchanged throughout. These are. in the later language. having e as its vowel ysad forms the weak stem sed. and (784) that roots contracting va and ya to u or i in the reduplication do it also in the root in with i the two elements here also coalescing to u or i. few roots having ya and va after a first initial consonant. paptima and paptus and paptivdns from e). pyd. or failing to conform to the rules of strengthening as given above (in a. e. weak forms. ypac forms pec.). han. or h thus. from yta). Jan. PERFECT-SYSTEM. not an asrepeated unchanged in the reduplication contract their root and reduplia guttural mute. appears to afford no example of a 2d ending. and beginning also with a single consonant that is that is.vavne from yvan. ghas: they form the weak stems jctgm. yuyopimd. and jagrh. and reduplicating from the semivowel (785). jaghn (compare 637). and tate.: thus. while hva must and fvd may get their strong forms also from the same (and it is questionable whether from the others strong forms occur). root grabh or grah (if it be written thus) contracts to grh. persons are found in RV. 7m. j and dr 'tear are said by the grammarians to have the strong stem in the weak forms. f. but RV. C. vivefus. b. [793 however. and so on. vivic from yvyac. making their weak forms from the simpler roots ji. making forms of stem jagrdh (1st and 2d sing. Jthan. sonants drop that vowel. The the three number of roots having medial a between single cond. $ya. CM. vyd. saccima and safcus.. pr.

is allowed also in thus. trap. From ytr (or tar) occurs terus (R. etc. H se. and their union with the stem.). a certain degree of correspondence is seen among the different same verb. phan. ENDINGS.). ^ranth. when the ending is no examples are quotable from the older language). bhaj. quotable from the older language). though it ends with more than one. general scheme of endings of the perfect indicative has been already given (553). and it will be best to treat each formation by non-use of the connective. ^ va. tras (occurs in MBh. act. bhraj.). in spite of more reasons than one This contraction ithd: to the contrary. by the grammarians f. as regards their use or but this correspondence is not so close that general rules respecting be given with advantage . tenitha beside tatantha (but 2d sing. granth. In the later language. bhaj (occurs in RV. joined to the base with the help of an interposed union-vowel ^ i. though their initial is changed in reduplication. in the sibilant (as found widely used also in other parts of the general aorist. it can itself. language usually. - Those of the endings which begin with a con- sonant vahe. The perfect is the lished itself most widely and firmly in the later language. though they begin with more than one consonant. \ re in middle are very often. 261 and examples of them all are of rare occurrence (of one only. and bhram (occurs in KSS. and it has also been pointed out (543) The that roots ending in TT a have ^ au in 1st and 3d sing.797] STEM-FORMS. ( 796. active. phal. They are as follows: raj (occurs in MBh. 3sc R% 9 dhve. Roots ending in a lose their a before all endings beginning with a vowel. The traction : roots pap and dad (from da: 672) are said to reject the con- but no perfect forms of either appear to have been met with in use.). syam. svan. later tha. svanj. and the verbal also nouns and adjectives parts of the in other classes of derivative stems). namely % make. including those that assume the unionvowel i (796) unless in the latter case it be preferable to regard the i as a weakened form of the a. the futures. The most important rules as to the use of ^ * in the later language are as follows: . 795. dambh (forming debh from the weaker dabh).) and radh (radh?). Endings. and in the The union-vowel verbal i is system: namely. tense in t which the use of has estab- 797. and jerus from yjr is authorized both against the general analogy of roots in r. notwithstanding their long vowel. JJ ma in active.

but into y or iy.. With changed this i.. yuyopimdj but jaganma and yuyujma. is ^2f itha]. but tatdntha and vivydktha. formations.262 a. uvocitha. it is not possible at present to criticise the statements made.. present nothing inconsistent with this rule. sr 'go'. has it always. In roots ending with a vowel. and most of those in especially as detail. viveditha. bubhujmdhe and $a$admdhe etc. 798. dadhise. i the in part quite Thus : In the RV. otherwise a. dru 'run'. the union-vowel is sonants provided the last syllable of the stem taken by roots ending in conis a heavy one. infinite regards the use of iha or run out into and "2-tre not wholly consistent with one and. ending The itha. ending in vowc. sru 'flow'. and it many is verbs which reject it in optional in 5TT many is lost verbs. but vivitse and dadrkse . dadhire (the only perroots in r appear also to follow . 3 rules of the grammarians. .). and to tell how far they are founded on the facts of usage. X. it is rejected not only by the eight verbs just given. tatasre : other Vedic texts Brahmanas 3d sasrjire. as dadhimd. vividre. stu 'praise'. in- cluding those in %R a (of which the when and the u. sons with quotable from RV. in general accordance with their usage in other But 'make'. The u of ~\/bhu becomes uv throughout usage is before a vowel. ^ '. which in other formations have no but it is also taken by ^ i. is vettha (and so on twenty-two forms). [797 The"^ re of 3d pi. but caklpre. cru 'hear'. b. another. els or in consonants. In 2d sing. nor any of either idhve or dhve}\ sedima. PERFECT-SYSTEM. dadhidhve. : bubudhire. but not other- wise: thus. The other consonant-endings. 5J b. without i (in Br.. dsitha. vr 'choose'. pi. act. jajnise. the later. except take it iha of 2d sing. paptima. but in the forms in ire are made after light syllables also thus. sasahise. ucimd. The from yvid. as the forms are by no means frequent. The only exception in RV. pasprdhre. and it is allowably (not usually) rejected by some others. 3 . duduhre. also attha from yah: below. in nearly all verbs. ijire. it is rejected throughout by eight verbs namely Ar Ihr 'bear'. In the older language. and AV. tataksire. other formations . mid. 801 a). act. the early usage is more nearly like Thus: for roots in a the rule is the same (except that no 2d sing. ucise. jajnire. but also by many others. yetire. (no examples of ivahe or imahe chance to occur. a final radical i or i is not combined. in itha is met i with).

susuma. nindya. mid. and juhure. vavrse. m. to which 800. b. By way given in : of illustra- tion of the rules given above. paprse. The cikriyus.) or babhuvitha. both cakrire and dadhrire. bubodha 2 bubudhiva bubudhimd bubudhe bubudhivdhe btibudhim&he ^^ ^ ^^ ^_ bubudhise bubudhathe ^^ bubudhidhve bubodhitha bubudhdthus bubtidhd bubodha The bubudhdtus y . we may take the root ^ft forms of stem are HTO ninyivd nindy or pRTTT ninay. SRTJ bu- middle. juhure. . bubhujrire.. PnRj^ in-dy^ SRI PiP^5 ninyise PFOT ninyhthe ftfefij ninyidhve nine fha. asserted variety of possible accent in 793d) needs to be noted both in this and in the remaining paradigms. root kri etc. As example of the normal inflection of a root with final i or w-vowel. adds duduhrire. 'lead': its and ft^ ninl.. sasrjrire SV. ninhya 2 ninyimd ninye ninyivdhe ninyimdhe i^r. cicyuse. vavrmdhe. is 'know': its strong form of perfect-stem active. : namely. As example of the normal inflection of a root with final consonant. 799. ^t^T bubodh. bubudhire (above.). s. in six forms . is found in RV." ninye . dadrire. nindyitha ninydthus ninyd 3 PRUT t PKIHUv o " ninaya ninydtus PRR s f^F& . jagrbhrire. d. as cakrse. ybhu has both babhutha But there are found (usually) and babhuvitha.800] the later rule : EXAMPLES OF INFLECTION. we take the root ^TJ budh. and in 3d pi. bubudhiis bubudhe 2d bubudhate sing. . without i: the instances are too few to found a rule upon. The ending rire of 3d pi. mid. against the later rules. . vividrire. but dadhrise 263 and jabhrise. babhutha (V. d. but only babhuvimd (AV. Examples of inflection. may be full the per- fect indicative inflection of the following verbs a. weak form. cikitrire. ninyire cikriydtus. ninyus Pi^icJ L Mp^l( ' ninyate cikriyivd. act. would make in weak forms ybhu makes babhnva.

rTrTR tenivd tatdna.264 babhuvivd. we may take 3frl vac. jajnivd. tatnna tenimd tene tenivdhe tenimdhe tatdntha. and so on. As example dad of the inflection of a root ending in : 5TT we may ([J take ^T da. rR ^ew. has once paprd d. jajne. dadithd daddthus ^f dadise dade (and ^ ^ dadhthe dadate jahati?). makes jajdntha or jajnithd. and contracted with the reduplication to 3T u in weak forms (784). X. babhuvire. dadidhve dadau dadire The RV. uvaca 2 ucivd ucimd ucivdhe ucimdhe uvdktha. jajnire . uvdcitha ucdthus ucd ucise ucathe ucidhve . PERFECT-SYSTEM. (794 e). other roots in this to uv before the initial vowel of an ending. resulting in medial ^ e. 'give' (or its forms of stem are ^T dada and dadi): see above. 'speak': its 3 forms of stem are 3^ uvdc uce or 331^ uvac.ffi ^m^ daddtus ^ dadd dadus dadatha. jajnus . The e. in its the weak forms we may take rR . etc. [800 u or u change c. 794 f. dadau dadivd dadima. and . stretch': forms of stem are nTrH tatdn or H'HH tatan. bab/mve. . dade dadivdhe dadimdhe 3$m. for paprcrf* Bafts' for As example of a root with medial ^ a showing fu- sion of root and reduplication. babkuvtts. As example of a root with initial 3f va contracted to u in the reduplication. with the others which expel medial a in weak forms (794 d). jajnimdhe. and V^NC| uvdca. tenithd 3 tendthus tend tenise tenathe tenidhve rTrTH tatana HHHH^ tendtus ^5^ tenus ^ ^^ tene ^T tenire tenate root Jan. tan..

Of made the roots in : ft r in general. the 3d pi.. in the weak forms. notice a. uvus occurs in RV. The root vya. From yva 'weave'. and no other form appears to have been met with in use. 'speak'. and all the rest like vac. ending): thus. f. and du. iydtha beside the regular iyetha. attha. and they have corresponding participles. cakrmdhe is The 2d sing.dadharadadhrivd dadhrimd dadhre dadhrivdhe dadhrimdhe 801. . forms in RV. h. has once vavrdhete (for -dhdte). the 2d sing. the perfect-forms vivyathus and vivye. 2).801] IRBEGULARITIES.. the first persons are as follows dadhdra. and also as vay (the presentand stem is vdya : 761 d. e. cakara cakrvd act. 265 uvaca ucdtus ucus uce ucate ucire In like manner. yise. the first persons are made as follows: cakdra. and so on j/wc has nvoca and uvocitha in the strong . cakre the cakrvdhe pi. f. act. The roots majj said to insert a nasal in the 2d sing. and the weak from vi. 'go'. and AV. further. forms. 3d mid.).. The AV. It is allowed by the grammarians to be inflected regularly as va. occurs only in the perfect indicand only in the 3d persons of all numbers and in the 2d sing. ye. The root ah. : A few miscellaneous irregularities call still for ative. only nha and ahus are met with). (242) are g. Persons of the perfect from the er-forms of roots in changeable f titirus and tistire (bothRV. is cakrmd cakdrtha. ^yaj forms iydja or iyaja. the grammarians require the strong forms to be made from vyay. iydstha or iydjitha . have been met with in use. in active (and in 2d sing. c. 'hide'. and no others appear to d. with contraction of va to u in weak forms perfect . act. as simple w. the ahathus. cakrire. The bastard root urnu (712) and nap are is said by the grammarians to make the perfect-stem urnunu. the h is irregularly to t changed b. before ahatus. ahus (in V. and once jaharus (for jdhrus}: both are perhaps false readings. The root i. ft r Of the four roots in mentioned at 797 b. has in RV. nha.

forms of ytr or tar from different but tatarusas. The ending of the active participle : is SfftT vans (that us in the : to say. PHl^l^ nimvans. Perfect Participle. rloNfH cakrvans. nanahstha (also mamajjitha and ne?itha). \ 803. dafvahs. Other Vedic notice are few.). sHMlU bubudhvans. sahvans . irregularities calling for 804. makes the of participial modifications the root: thus. and replaced by cffiT vat in the middle forms see above. [801 active. sasahvdhs. perfect-stem (but perhaps for ajigrabhisan. in V. in the strong forms it is contracted to 3^ weakest. 805. is from roots in 5TT to be reckoned in the one class or its the other according as we view (794f). when the ending is simple tha: thus. dadivans and . see 212) and jaghanvdhs. jujuvdhs. the these or the more regular jagmivdhs and jaghnivdhs language allows (the weakest stem-forms being everywhere jagmus and jaghntis). vavrdhvdhs. a. Thus. 802 is . mechanically. The anomalous ajagrabhaisarh (AB. ad: 783 a). ^f^TCT dadivans and its like. ?). in the dual and plural of the active inflection of the given verb. has also dadvans (AV. however. active. weakest participle-stem is identical with the 3d pi. 458 if. has vif ivdns and varjivahs negative fern.. for example. titirvdhs. The long : vowel of the reduplication (786) appears in the participle as in the indicative thus. and RV. It is added to the weak form of the perfect stem as shown. occasional exchanges of strong and weak stem in the see above. have sasavdns from ysan or sa. disappears the weakest cases): thus. (Tf^lH tenivans. desid. PERFECT-SYSTEM. once dadavdhs) (in from ydd (or dad : 672) and AV. Respecting the inflection.266 X. jaganvdhs either From (as to roots gam and han Veda makes the strong stems later the n. RV. mamanktha. RV. If the weak form of the perfect stem i is monosyl- labic. ^ i as weakened root- vowel or as union-vowel But participles of which the perfect-stem is monosyllabic by absence of the reduplication do not take the union-vowel: thus. . 35) seems a formation on the i. the ending takes the union-vowel S in (which. ^ii^cjtH adivans (from and so on. 462 c. sii^JH jajnivans. the and. and AV. dvarjusi). vidvdns and. vi. ucivans. midhvans.

has tistirand ?afayand from y$l (with irregular guna.810] 806. and dry. PARTICIPLE.and once. 809. To draw the line surely and distinctly between these and the mode-forms reduplicated aorist. uip. subjunctives like jabhdrat. sasrmdnd from j/sr. From three roots. as usual. Examples of the regular subjunctive formation secondary endings. The normal method of making such forms would from a reduplicated perfect-stem. ucdnd. as well as in the regular manner without it: thus. thus. show such : distinctive characteristics of the perfect formation that by their analogy other similar words are confidently classed as belonging to the perfect. with mana. the middle inflection : in thus. In the Veda. deprive us of a criterion of meaning. is ninyana.Veda. sing. ciketat. and would take : . 808. ^F? tenand. and since the general equivalence of modal forms from all stems (582). has once strong participle-stems to cichidivahs. paspdr$at. an imperative would be made by simply (for example) the derived subappending. 5RTJH bubudhand. 3d jabhdrat. the not possible. since no criterion form exists which does not in some cases fail.. and are even rarely found outside of the Rig. PB. of from other reduplicated tense-stems and the intensive the is present-stem of class II. either primary or secondary endings and the optative modestems would be vnumucyh in the active. paprdthas. is The ending of the middle It participle is and. shown by many middle etc. RV. a. vivifivdna or vivifvdns. as this appears 807. that a considerable body of forms are to be reckoned here optatives like anacydm and babhuyds and babhuydt. piprdyat. as appear to be as follows mumuc. piprdyas. and the common use of the perfect as a present in the Veda (823). however. And the great majority of the forms in question (about . MODES. the imperative endings mode-stem would be mumoca (accented after the analogy junctive of the strong forms of the perfect indicative). vdvasdnd. 267 vid 'find'. added to the weak form of perfect-stem. three quarters) are made in these ways. from ]/sr. fucuvand. sT^H jajnand. bubodhas. as in the present-system: 629). the long reduplicating vowel participles vavrdhand.. Modes of the Perfect. mamdhas. ^R : dadand.. dddrhdnd. Thus : 810. Modes of the perfect belong only to the Vedic language. and mumuci (accent on personal endings) in the middle. the later language allows be made with the union-vowel. sasdhat.. imperatives like babhutu. . There can be no reasonable doubt. are : with active: 2d sing.

vavrtat. or transfers to an a-conjugation. 1st sing. tatdndma. mid. dna$ydm. vavrtyus. 81 1 b. which are apparently also accented on the reduplication (accented examples are found only in 3d pi. the forms are few: namely.. With secondary endings. paprathanta. numerous. tutujydt. vavrtita. as above.. 3d sing. only a very small number are to be quoted namely. jagamydt. 811. mumoktu and babhutu. vavrtlya. RV. fu^uydma. a. the only 813. rurucanta (with dadabhanta. And there is no middle form but that (RV. with treatment (770). tatdpate. tatanyus.. of middle forms occur only the 3d sing. 81 la.: see above.. above. There is irregularities are no irregular mode of formation of perfect optatives. in active: vavrtydSj vivifyds. dddhrsanta. active. juhuranta. jtijosate for example. paplydt. the only middle forms are dadhrsate. sing. active: here seem to belong only dadhdrshati and vavdrtati: compare the formation with different accent below. a. which might also belong elsewhere: 81 Oc). (u^dvdma.. paprdthan (other persons do the largest class of cases. paprcydm. babhuyds. jagrasita. jtijosasi. jtijosat. cakriyds. 815. jagamydtam. Of : regular imperative forms. riricydm. cikiddhi. yuyojate. pufuclta. 2d sing. and belong most distinctly here (since ddda$as and are perhaps rather aorists). see below. fu$ruyas : and wruydtam. end). As to forms with double mode-sign.): thus. jtijosatha jtijosas. but with * accent on the reduplication (as in the majority of present-forms of the reduplicating class Here the forms with primary endings. with unstrengthened root-syllable occur a small body of forms. sasahyama. b. 3d sing. 2d 3d sing. jagamydm. active.. 645). tatanan.. 3d pi. mumuktam and vavrktam. The forms quite in middle. for example. jujosathas. are vavrtyama.. (other persons do not occur). jtijosati.. has jujosate)-. But not with : and are not very rare: jujosan are the forms stisudas etc. jujustana and vavrttana (unless we . jujosate (SV. b. Individual shown by certain forms thus.. vawrtimahi. 1st pi. 812. and the 3d pi. mumucas . of the final is as before the passive-sign yd ririses is anajydt with short initial. PERFECT-SYSTEM.268 1st pi. a few subjunctives of other formation occur. accented on the ending are vdvrdhdnta and cakrpdnta (which are rather to be called augmentless pluperfects). and cdkramanta. with primary endings. 81 Oc).. Examples of the regular optative formation are: 1st sing. mumugdM.. c. active. anomalous. mdmahanta. c. preponderate. jak&ydt form that shows a union-vowel a. This is pi. vividat. 1st pi.. pucruydtam. pucugdhf. vdvrdhate.. b. ptipuuai. papamafe. babhuydt. caksamlthds . 2d du. tatdnanta (and perhaps two or three others: below. and piprihi. 3d [810 not occur). thus: strengthened root-syllable. vawrdhithas. mdmrjlta. X. fUfruyas. And sdsahlsthds and ririsista appear to furnish examples of precative optative forms. vavrtydt.

mamdttana). and jujosate (81 la) as indicative. such a double stem is to and from it be recognized from vdvrdha come readily vdvrdhate.: probably to be accented -dsva and -dntam). As union. have been transferred 815. taken in connection with some of the subjunctives given above (and a few of the "pluperfect" forms: below.. and mdmahasva. in the active. is Only one other subjunctive with double mode-sign found to set beside vdvrdhdti. mumoc and mumuc (us singular with ata in augment prefixed and secondary endings added 3d pi. act. Forms root: for . the Veda presents a few examples and one or two forms of the later language (mentioned above. vdvrdhasva. of different model are not very seldom namely. jujosa from YJUS. . . RV. mid. 801 e). irregular or imperatives may be reckoned to several which show a an a-conjugation. to which of pluperfect is given on the ground of its formation (though not of its meaning). the aorist. in the middle. and jujosatam as imperative. however. paprcdsi 816. and would pass fairly well as indicatives. the cases would be as highly implausible it is better to recognize the formation one begun. the participle vavrdhdnt (once. and mumticata (2d pi. 817. as subjunctively used augmentless imperfect.).): for example.). the Of an augment-preterit from the perfect-stem. . the imperatives . yet more. appears tolerably certain that from one root at least. case): yet even here and. mumocati.}. mamattu. and from ydhrs. we have also vdvrdhltha's. 814. . Such are. vavrtsva and vavrddhvam. jujosas etc. vdvrdhdnta alone can come regularly vdvrdhasva. a difference of meaning helps to make a separation. and mdmahantdm (3d pi. from which would come : jujosasi etc. piprlM and piprdyasva. add 269 middle. made from the same mumucas example. in 3d pi. vdvrdhete (above. from j/mwc. vrdh.vowel a. XIV. not vdvrdhin all To assume double present-stems. with reduplication arid added a (with which the desiderative stems would be comparable below. Most of the forms given above as subjunctives with primary ending lack a marked and constant subjunctive And it character. dadhdrsati and dadhrsate from j/pn. end) have also been referred There is to it.: an isolated ethds.).818 1 MODES. name 788. chap. The normal pluperfect should show a strong stem in the arid a weak one elsewhere thus. suggest as plausible the assumption of a double present-stem. . however. vdvrsasva (2d sing. something of the same difficulty in distinguishing the pluperfect Between it and reduplicated formations. 820). Such imperatives as these. 818. the subjunctives mumticas. but not carried out.) RV. and vdvrdhdti (once. are to mamaddhf. as the perfect-modes from kindred active. PLUPERFECT. Pluperfect. piprdyasva (only one found with accent). mum6catam and jujosatam (2d du.

few forms show a stem ending in a: they acakrat. above). or past tense. . and cakradat. mdnusanam dkar a jyotir bddhamdnd tdmdhsi for (RV. or signifies a completed past.). it is much more rarely employed than the 821. 822. sometimes also it has a true "perfect it but oftenest has a value not distin- guishable in point of perfect with present. se vdyo 'd u rdjd ksayati carsanindm ardn nd nemth pdri td babhuva (RV. A asasvajat. ajaganta. ending in consonants save the endings in 2d and 3d sing. 3d pi. vdvrdhdnta. Except as coming from a few often used verbs (especially aha and uvaca).). 3d sing. and interchangeable with it. pi. and it occurs coordinated with them all. in the middle: 3d sing. In the Veda. [818 1st sing. dhann to the waters'. in the active: ajagrabham and acacaksam (which. tipo ruruce yuvatfr nd y6sd. much more widely used. 823. ajagan and aciket. imperfect in is the usual tense of narration. by inserting an I (555 b): thus. they fly like birds'. by its form. In most Brahmanas. 'he in he embraces them all. amumuktam. dhim dnv apds tatarda (RV.. djagrabhlt (avavarit and avava^ltdm are rather intensives). nd frdmyanti nd vf muncanty nd paptuh (RV. as the wheel the spokes'. Several forms from 820. act. dbubhojis. 2d sing. amamadus . and the augmentless to 2d sing. very nearly the same thing the is true. driving away the darkness'. PERFECT-SYSTEM.. dpasprdhetham might be aorist). are the most regular forms roots be found. 819. It is thus the equivalent of and present. 'they weary not nor stop. truth rules king of men dbhud agnih samtdhe of perfect with aorist. and the augmentless jfhinszs (accent?) and dadharslt belong with them. 2d du. we have. of ata). would perhaps be best classified here as augmentless forms (compare 811. 2d pi. avive&s. djayan. might be aorist: 860).. Of forms made according to this model. ..270 X. 3d atitvisanta (which by its form Uses of the Perfect. This last combination is of constant occurrence in the later language. : imperfect. as so often in this person: 556). in the active: dpiprata. and the the perfect is occasional. juhuranta. . the 3d pi. the Qatapatha Brahmana. To these may acakriran and ajagmiran (with Iran instead In the middle. 3d sing. 'he slew the dragon.). Agni has appeared made light. cakrpdnta. (perhaps). arireclt... like young maiden . In perfect only the Brahmana language. the perfect is simply a preterit equivalent to the imperfect. . and ajagantana and ajabhartana (a strong form. Examples are ete time from the present. amamandus and be added the augmentless ciketam and cakaram. of . 2d du. In the later language. The perfect is used as 1 ' past tense in narration. the case is very different. but only rarely sense. . aorist.. jugurthas and susupthds. ddadrhanta. and penetrated she hath the kindling of mortals of perfect with imperfect. are. 'she is come beaming .). imperfect.

2. perhaps in origin identwith an imperfect of the reduplicating class (II. H s alone added to the root. of form. It has two varieties: 1. with ceding with H s added at the end of the root. 6. or It usually is has a union-vowel 51 a before the end. analogous in all respects as to form and inflection with the imperfect. aorist"). ings. without union-vowel with ^ a before endings: 5.). the a-aorist. namely. and accord: ing to these differences it falls into four varieties 4. its sub-varieties namely.824] 271 CHAPTER UNDER out XI. as s-aorist. a very few roots also are increased by H s for its formation . the same as the preB.). with a tense-stem identical with the root (corres- ponding to an imperfect of the root-class. the name 532) of aorist are included three quite : (as was pointed above.aorist. but ical having come to be separated from it by marked peculiarities II. <^ 824. I. A REDUPLICATED AORIST. with a tense-stem ending in f #. an imperfect of one of the ^-classes but a few forms occur in the Veda without such vowel. the rootaorist. -aorist. the Greek "second A SIMPLE-AORIST (equivalent to aorist"). VII. 7. or with unionvowel 5f a before the endings (corresponding to an imperfect of the a-class. s^s-aorist. but in a small number of roots with a union-vowel 5[ a . union-vowel 5!" a. THE AORIST SYSTEMS. the same with interposed ^ i. A SIBILANT-AORIST (corresponding to the Greek "first having for its tense-sign a H s added to the root. inflected like III. A.). 3. each of which has I. s a. either directly or with a preceding auxiliary ^ */ its endings are usually added immediately to the tense-sign. distinct formations. .

arta and arat ygrabh. must be given mainly as that of a part of the older language. amatsus and amadisus from of 1 ymad. there is no trace discoverable. between active of one class and middle of another as correlative.. : of 2 and 4. rather less occurring show aorist forms. Its description. seven in Manu. into a single complex system by form and meaning. The aorist-system the classical Sanskrit (its is a formation of very infrequent occurrence in forms are found. is quite common. anijam and from yr . of 1 and 4 astaris abudhran and abhutsi and bodhisat from ybudh. of 1 and 5. In the RV. only twenty-one times in the Nala. of any relation such as taught by the grammarians. and it possesses no participle. aruham and aruksat from yruh. astar and strslya and from ystr. into account together. avidam and avitsi from yvid 'find'. in RV. and . adham and dhasus from ydha. ayuji and ayuksata from yyuj . nearly of one or another class. translatable by 'have done' and the like. mrsthas and marsisthas from ymrs . sanema and asanisam from ysan. they are all in the indicative.272 825. or second and third. fects. 4. eight in the Hitopadeca. of 4 and 5. make aorist forms of class (not taking the reduplicated or "causative" is but no law appears to underlie this variety. hasmahi and hdsisus from yha. accordingly. of 2 and 5. augment-preterits to which there in regard to does not exist any corresponding present. j 825 All these varieties are bound together and made certain correspondences of to form. with due notice of its hand. Examples are of classes 1 and 4. in the half the roots AV.). More than more than one aorist). 827. of 4 and 6. nor any modes (excepting in the prohibitive use of its augmentless forms: see 580. and in the other texts of the older language comparatively few aorists occur which are not found in these two. 826. of anaikslt from j/ny. in the older language. and sometimes participles.. 2 and 7. for example. agrabham and agrdbhxsma from of 1 and 2. Often the second. class is represented by only an isolated form or two. or classical language they they all exchangeable with imperfects and peralike have in the older language the general value of a completed past or "perfect". six each in the Bhagavad-Gita and Qakuntala). atnata and atanat and atan from ytan. and AV. in regard alike. AORIST-SYSTEMS. and 2 and 5. XI. Thus. later meaning. fifty roots. than one third. although in the are simply preterits. and has the whole variety restriction in later use. of on the other modes belonging to the present. and the so-called it precative : see 921 ff.

Grammar. pa 'drink'. the middle (5). removed from the analogy principal divisions of aorist. Thus (in the active). stha. dha. (as ending. same class are and a few in i and u also made from a (short or long) with. ywwa-strengthening in the three persons of the singular. of the the one least . Thus: ddam ddava ddama dbhuvam dbhuva -X dbhuma ddas ddatam ddata dbhus dbhutam (Tx dbhuta ddat ddatam ddus dbhut dbhutam dbhuvan story. and. This is. inserting ^ before the endings FT am and R an of 1st sing.831] SIMPLE AORIST: 1. from ykr 'make'. afravam akaram and akar (for akars and afcar-<). Root-aorist. bhu. 273 I. from 18 Whitney . acres j/?rw. .. from }/?n. But aorists of the number of roots in r . see below. has twice dbhuvam. from and of ret. 828. For the 830. without a corresponding present indicative. but with (more or less fragmentarily) all the other parts which go to make up a complete present-system. ROOT-AORIST. of the root-class or of the dplained class. *F bhu 793 a) retains v after it vowel unchanged throughout. RV. as in the perfect : lose their its a before it . and 3d pi. while sporadic forms are made from Jnd. 834 a. 1. da. Simple three Aorist. Instead of abhuvam. using instead the or the is -aorist The usual. ha. these same roots are decidedly the most esfrequent and conspicuous representatives of the formation pecially the roots ffd. As to their middle : forms. roots in ETF TT a take 3^T us as 3d pi. and afrot. 831. as required by the analogy of the tense with an imperfect of the root-class. classical Sanskrit. of forms already ex- it is like an imperfect. and is allowed to be made in the active only. s-aorist (4). pra. This formation TT in the later language limited to a few roots in a and the root H bhu. this is the whole In the Veda. sa. is 829.

asprta. dyujran. vartam. regular are only avran. apadi and apadmahi and apadran. with omission of the s: they doubtless belong.). here. drihds. of r-roots. from a few roots with medial (or initial) vowel capable of ywraz-strengthening. adita and adimahi (and adlmahi from ydd 'cut'). dAafc und daghma from ydagh ana (585) and anastam from }/nap (?) afcsan (for agh-san. dabhus. most frequent occurrence. dhrthds. avrta. akratam. and having in general that strengthening only in the singular.) We as find. avrjan. vark from yvrj AV. afcri. the only examples are dhvi (?AV. aspar. akrata. since As regards loss of s after a final ending in consonants. afcrara. . abhet (2d and 3d sing. show that their reference to the -s-aorist is without sufficient reason. The ending ran is especially frequent in . agan from yskand . afvitan.) and ajnata (3d pi. we have adhithas and adhita. Further. and so adar. So far only active forms have been considered. dsta and dfata. however. agman. but for the most part they also show an irregular strengthening of the root-vowel: thus (including augmentless formsjj akarma and akarta. The other cases are akran from ykram. dvar (585). roots Thus : ending in vowels. roots. and the 3d pll. avrthas. and anltdm.. aganta (strong form).). amok (3d sing. from a larger number of roots with a as ravowel Of these. ayugdhvam. such unmistakable middle inflection of the root-aorist ayukthds. atan from ytan. ( . of course. gurta. a considerable part of the forms are such as are held by the grammarians (881) to belong to the s-aorist. ahema and ahetana. 212) : : is of decidedly forms thus. . spartam. aganmahi and agmata. atnata. amanmahi. ayuji. From akrthds. forms of a-roots (arddhvam is doubtless for arasdhvam).274 XI. afravan. less frequent much ftoma. dfcramws. [831 Dual and plural forms vr 'enclose'. AORIST-SYSTEMS. drta (with augmentless arta). avri. : 834. In the middle. from ygam are made agathds and agata. from ychid. and u drata. and shows the greatest variety of (2d and 3d sing. in w.) from j/mwc avart from yvrt . with guna. ayukta. a. (1st sing. Thus. astrta. and from >/wan. akrta. askan agamam. amafa. bhema. ahyan. dical 833. . yghas. the case is more questionable. like apman) from ) . amrta. aganma. Again. kramus. . once) and acidhvam. afriyan. consonant before thds and ta (and. than singular. and adrfan. roots b. and the occurrence of avri and akri and akrata. dsrat from y trans (? VS. ajani (1st sing. mrthds. gam (with n for m when final or followed by m: 143. are aaiar. ayamus. has once avrk) adarfam from }/drp . aathithas and asthita and dsthiran. But chedma. abddhus. dhvam) would be in many oases required by euphonic rule (233).) from ybhid. ayujmahi. yamus. with treatment of the final like that of inflection han in present (637). mostly or altogether. however. nrtus (impf ?) mandus and taksus are perhaps rather to be reckoned as perfect forms without reduplication (790 b). of i The absence of any analogies whatever for the omission of a s in such forms. 832.

only simahi and dhimahi (which might be augmentless preterit. and the isolated friivat.). would seem to bhuvani (compare doubtful belongings be of the next class. The abhuvam karat. which are almost indicative in use vatas. 836. SIMPLE AORIST: 1. or precatives. gani is the only example of 1st sing. sthdthas. muriya. fravathas and prd- In the middle. pdrcas. From roots in r. . ROOT-AORIST. asprdhran. afyam and acydma and a?yus act. dvifran. and ram abudhran. s we have to distinguish between pure inserted before the endings. and aflya and afimdhi mid. occur sthati. and ddti and dhdti. And rdhyam idhimahi. rikthas. few. this aorist: agrbhran. the forms with primary endings are quite In the active. bhuvat. vikthas dspasta. here. In subjunctive ative tives. avrkta. d. From bhu. (as to bhuvani. and nutthas. which no the others frequent than the more proper subjunccorresponding form with augment occurs have been given above unnecessary to report in detail. spdrat. and vikta : There remain. gmiya. yaman. as cases of doubtful belonging: amatta. Modes 835. 275 being taken by a number of verbs which have no other person of thus. as adhimahi also occurs once. 18* . common in the older texts) . daghat. are. akrpran. stheyama. gamyas and and sahyama. it seems more probable that aorist-forms showing 7c (instead of a) before the ending belong to the root-aorist: such are amukthas (and amugdhvam]. are classifiable with confidence here. sahyas. bhuvas. and 1st dhamahe. in the middle. and middle. dsrgran. Forms with secondary endings in the active. patthas. gar an. adr^ran. frdvat. instead of to a present-system (cl. bhuyat (possible precatives). and ^Una-strengthening would be more regular (but note the absence of guna in the aorist indicative and the perfect of ybhu). mrdhyas. vurlta. dvrtran. bhuvan. dhethe and dhaithe. chitthas. c. atapthas. a of . are they with a different accent. dsrgram. and bhuyama. . be precative). ddrfam. etc. are made from a number with change of a to e before and jneyas (which might also the y. From roots of which the abhakta. of the Root-aorist. arabdha. asrpta.837] 3d pi. and adhltam once but ydha : shows nowhere else conversion of its a to long 1]. pi. From roots in a occur in the active. ajuaran. asakthas and asakta. and rdhimdhi belong perhaps here. active Pure optative forms. sdghat ddrpan. mudlmahi. 837. nasimahi. mrsthas would be the same in either case. deyam. 3d sing. asrsta.. tdrdas. (possible precatives). idhate anomalous accent). augmentless indic- of this aorist are much more it is Those to . As regards the optatives and optatives with optative. 830. bhuvam. aprkta. of dual persons. see below). both of roots. nafimahi. Of true subjunctives. indhlya. vaslya. 2d du. is found beside ran in final would combine with s to fes. ruciya. dheyam and dheyus. ydmas .. (? darfathas. yamimahi. garat. dbudhram. yamat^ yodhat. series : No middle forms end). (this optative is especially bhuyas and the middle gamyat vrjydm . of 3d sing. aprkthds and ddr$ram. forms arlta. avasran. I. forms identical with the use. prclmahi. From roots ending in consonants.

but it is doubtless a false reading (TB. in yas (given in the preceding paragraph). s6tu . Precative XI. 840. as fcrsua. riktdm. of the root-aorist are not rare in the early lang: In the middle. Much more irregular are aanfana. In the oldest language. in 3d sing. furnishes the three forms grabhlsta. ddtam. vdnsva. sprtdm. badhydsam etc. they made from ybhu. cifyas. from the quasi-root dldl (676). kdrtana. dhisvd.276 838. vodhSm. has no 3d sing.. yamyds. ?ruyds. sthdnt. sotana. gata. (ending in -yds we find which might be of either formation. 3d sing. pi. stita. or on the root. are varktam. however). From the AV. on the ending. nothing additional is found in any other text. 839.. strong forms in 2d du. act. In the active. gahi. are found a as belonging to and bhiddnt. rdsva. (2d and 3d) are found in use. rdhydsam radhydsam etc. namely fastat. vantu. . only gantam.'gatd. vodhvam. to 2d persons singular perative sense. (instead of buddhi and bhudht).. mogdhi. Imperative forms uage. jivydsam. dhatana.. bhrdjydsam. vrjyds. bhutd. bhuyds. yr6ta. dato. as mdtsva. jitam. In the middle. kdrta. has -sta in the corresponding passage).. as on. all the persons represented by krdhvam. In RV. vartam. yuksvd. they have been noticed as made from about like a complete series of persons quotable (only bhuyasva twenty roots. has once bhuydstha. only dhdntu. Thus. gadhi. each once. almost only the 2d sing. t/antana. saghydsam. occurs it is accented either regularly.. bhriydsam. As in si from the simple root used in an im- Participles of the Root-aorist. a*u. These are the most regular forms . 3d pi. and besides these and the 2d sing. with tana. and from no other root nowhere anything and bhuydstdm being Inwanting. mafti. avyds. indeed. examples are: 2d sing. gatam.. in -yat}. excepting unknown. sahyds (RV. and probably rdhdnt. gdnta. (j/vad).AORIST-SYSTEMS. of the of participles this formation. kriyasam etc.. see above.. the active precative forms are more frequent than are is the pure optative (which are not wholly common. for indeed. and bodM from both ybudh and ybhu A single form (3d sing. they are extremely few namely ferdnt. priydsam. cluding the cases already given. 2d du. RV. thus. sdksva . padistd. yodhi (instead of yuddhf) from yyudh.. yuyds. occur in the active only bhuydsam (beside bhuyama) and kriyasma.. trpydsma. of very limited use: -ydst). bhutdm. fcrta. and these persons having no representative from any root). prudhf. however.) in tat is found. 2d -p\. is yandhf. pusydsam etc. they do not occur from a single root which does not show also other aorist forms of the same class. mdsva is not found with accent the . udydsam etc. as follows: fruyasam etc. vartta. ydksva. yanta. daghyds. heta. etc. 3d du. and. prwta. and pi. optative forms of this aorist [838 active are in the later language allowed to be made from every verb (922). number which must be reckoned : E-V. 2d In the active. muclsta. AV. 624. has dldydsam. krdhi.. frubut irregularities both as to accent and strengthening are not infrequent. They are. frwtam. TS. with primary ending..

: 277 In the middle. other medial vowels have the guna-strengtli- ening if capable of (all Examples ending in a/carz. of it (240). from roots with medial a strengthened. agami. and has become a recognized part of the passive conjugation. vowels. fansi. dradhi. drparad. a fuller ending has aorist formation been lost off is extremely improbable. root. krand. . dpayi . ajambhi. M. djnayi. with prepositions) or alabhi: QB. dchedi. also a medial Before the ending ^ i. prcand. the roots exhibiting in the older language forms which are with fair probability to be reckoned to the rootabout aorist-system are very nearly a hundred (more than ninety) eighty of them make such forms in the RV. jusana. am. to be substituted always for the regular third person of any aorist middle that is used in a passive sense. present. astern from roots with medial ddarfi. in heavy sylfrom roots lables. certain roots in the a unchanged: thus. from or abhaji. with medial a. 843. dbodhi. r. has once jdni). . and ybadh. sometimes showing a nasal. of peculiar formation and prevailingly passive meaning. they are much more numerous examples are arana. dyoji. dstavi. according to the grammarians. the According roots to grammarians. This person is The ending i belongs elsewhere only to the first person and this third person apparently stands in the same relation to a first in i as do. Augmentless forms. vapi. a'prai/i. 842. dsddi (these are all the earlier cases): with a unchanged. are met with. in the middle voice. in connection with the ordinary root-aorist. and. retain and there are noted besides. adami. have the vrddhi- strengthening. arambhi. and the frequent Vedic 3d sing. 841 All together. with either indicative or subjunctive value: examples (besides the two or three already . and is usually strengthened. dhavi. is made from many verbs in the older language. dmyaksi. perfect. ddhayi. dmofi. vandi.844] SIMPLE AORIST: PASSIVE AORIST. dpadi. 844. only djani (and RV. sprdhand. asarji. has asanji. as in all other like cases. That . dbhraji. which takes also the augment. a final vowel. abhanji alambhi (always. Such formations are extremely rare in the later Veda and in the Brahmana. being. the regular 3d sing. . with initial vowel. at/ami. as an from the simple this is most properly treated here. apesi. which are identical in form with their respective first persons. acefz. idhand. in other i. vrand. after final TT # is added T y> them quotable from the older language) are from roots : a. abadhi. avaci. and usually % a before a single consonant. and hence. formed by adding ^ i to the root. A middle third person singular. bhiyand. Passive Aorist third person singular. hiydnd. varhi. arandhi. ardhi (only case).

red. : XI. is and roots it takes in general a in ft r (three weak form only). sddi. 73. This aorist a large is in the later language allowed to be made from number is of roots (near a hundred). active. rod. chid. small figure beside the rootlatter's being represented by less than half the number of roots. its inflection is with the imperfect of the a-class the same with that in all particulars. It is made in both voices. bhari. of root save the or four which have the gunathe root strengthening.). 2. The a-aorist. jdni. is always on the root. like gam. of inflection may be taken middle. . in a case or two (RV. bhid. bhraj. d. vedi. Its closest analogy (VII.). 'pour': thus. 3[?]. are when texts 845. sad.278 given) are accent. and in Veda and Brahmana together number about seventy roots exhibit the formation more or less fully. in the later language they are (like all the kinds of aorist) very rare. 846. however. When they come from roots of neuter meaning. vii. d. VS. pis.). pddi. 844 The dhdyi. ardhi. pad. It becomes. AORIST-SYSTEMS. system according ening before a final consonant (753): having a vowel capable of pwia-strengththus. dsicam dsicava dsicama dsice dsicavahi dsicamahi dsicas dsicatam dsicata dsicathas dsicetham dsicadhvam dsicat dsicatam a-aorist dsican dsicata a dsicetam dsicanta 847. xxviii.syllable. 15) they appear even to be used transitively. etc.. rare in the middle. frdvi. more made from more verbs in common later (it is the only form of aorist which is AV. but their most of the (4) roots forming middle according to the s-class or the /5-class (5). with i. As example sic. they have (like the so-called passive participle in ta: 952) a value equivalent to that of other middle forms . present. sanj. Of these a large (fully half) are of the type of the roots which make their presentto the d-class (VII. These forms earlier made in RV. nij. makes in the RV. from fifteen forty roots. to the and all the other combined add only about number. than in RV. The aorist.

Examples. s. fam. randh. IT. trp. those which occur method which was followed for the indicative : [vidava] < . fafc. impv. which in this aorist is lost: thus. sic. tan. gr. vocata. sridh. ksudh..). druh. fisdmahi.fer.).. trh. van. radh. d. vrt._. mrsanta (for exceptions as regards accent. p. as in the later: we dkhye etc. from yvid 'find'. tarn. vrdh. viddnta.. viddt. in the 1 a-aorist. first 848.: but doubtless misreading for (fsydtdi) and fisdmahe (AV. budhdnta. showing accent on the tense-sign. SIMPLE AORIST: if is (fds]. ncpa. A small number end in vowels: throughout). 2pi. and (in RV. We may take as model avidam. and several in 3d sing. see below. Augmentless forms. sap. vrj. vac voca. .. rudh. are rare in the earlier language. feraw. fcr. das. bhujdt. of as 'throw'. muc. with indicative or subjunctive value. hvd. bhrah?. Mi/a. dabh. vyd. aratdm. The subjunctive forms of this aorist are few. bhuj. ruh. yuj. r. trs. stu a. fvit. of which the . srp. The inflection of this aorist is in general so regular that it will be sufficient to give only examples of its Vedic forms. fakan. are ruhdm. fisdmahi). manth. ap. ardmahi. mrs. pwc. Of less classifiable character are gam. 853). only) da and dha. of which the various persons and modes are more frequent and in fuller variety than those of any other verb.849] ris. pus. hi (? thus. 2. Of middle forms occur only tfsdtdi (AV. budh.). according to the general analogies of the formation. and asicdmahe KB. fram. is nap. Modes of the are instanced below. viddma viddtha [viddtdi ?] is [vidamahe] 2 viddthas [vidas 3 viddt The ending ihana for found once. (? stuvatdm. sr (which have the gruna-strengthening ahyat once in AV. Only the forms actually quotable are instanced. mid. avocathds and avocdvahi (and aviddmahe GB. 849. dvide (?) and avidanta. dm. drp. are doubtless to be amended to mahi). dyut. d. and makes other reduplicated aorists (3) from the same roots (see below. krand. -AORIST. s. muh. in risdthana. The anomalous astham is the aorist form the tense-stems papta. A few have a penultimate nasal in the present and elsewhere. 279 vid. srahs. krudh. RV. fvd. avidam dvidas dvidat dvidava dvidama [avidata] dvide [dvidavahi] dviddmahi dvidanta 2 [dvidathds] 3 dvidan [avidata] [avidetdm] The middle forms have dhve etc. vidata (3d sing. once in AV. mus. srpas. dYp. san. Thus : active. 854). rdh. palpably and the other two are probably the result of reduplication but the language has lost the sense of their being such. those of which the examples found are from other verbs than vid are bracketed. with M. The roots pat. sad. 1 middle. p. with r. grdh. apparent transfers from the root-class by the weakening of their a to a: thus. are not in- frequent.

AORIST-SYSTEMS. in middle. . ruhdva. class It is found sdnas and sdnat and sanema. rfsat On the other hand. (all and (in participial compounds. voceya. sdra. impv. elsewhere the : thus. we find voca (1st sing. especially far outnumbering in occurrences all other forms from yvac. vdce. v6cat. The optatives are few frequent. savant. that of the 853. dranta (augmentless 3d root sad follows the same rule: thus. and from ysan are sanema. in the are oldest language. A (including sadatana.) and vocdti. 852. : and makes afisam. vides. . ruhat (beside ruhdm. Of the stem neya from j/nap only ne^at occurs. vrdhdnt. Other imperatives . and in the Brahman as videyam. fucdnt. is middle precative form occurs. the optative is is on the root-syllable (only accented form) are anomalies. Participles of the fl-aorist. and how far recent productions. radical syllable. huvdnt. It must be left for maturer research to determine how far they may be relics of original presents. garnet. viddtam. 855.). vdcati. vocata. From accented voceyam. sridhdnd. vocavahai. and. ruhdtam} and accent yvac. and perhaps also vipand and cubhand.). Examples are in active. vocatdt (2d sing. like that class: and sdra. Isolated forms which have more or less completely the aspect of indicative presents are made from some roots beside the aorist-systems of the first two classes. khydta stuvatam (?). are very rare: namely. Irregularities of the -aorist. single A 851.. ruha. RV. videya. vocatu. vanemahi. gametam . beside saneyam and questionable whether these are not true analogues of the sixth- (unaccented a-class) present-system. and the middle sadantam. but [850 become more : 850. although no personal forms corresponding to them occur. in middle. not rare. The thus.) are to be assigned with plausibility to this aorist. once). ruhdtam. Besides those already its given. gamemahi.280 XI. A few irregularities and peculiarities may be noticed The roots in r.). in RV. from j/r. huvand. sddatam. rudhant. use well-nigh assumed the value of forms are very various and of frequent use. made in the way of conversion of the aorist-stem to a root in value. voceyus . The root pas (as in some of its present forms 639) is weakened to pz. fisdnt. here. guhant-. vocemahi. namely videsta (AV. have also the accent on the pi. voces. in Vedic 854. it so isolated that how much may be inferred from it is very questionable. vocet . vocatam. The stem voc has a root . saneyam vareta. vidant- The active participles trpdnt. which (847) show a strengthening like present of the sdrat sixth or unaccented a-class. 1309) kftant-. vocema. Likewise the middle participles vrdhand. vdcanta. complete series of active imperative forms are made from ysad 2d pi. sanema . pafeema. (only) games .

and not from the causative stem). other hand.) cases dya. to and. aorist is different 281 II. on the (II. but rather meaning. But the aorist re- duplication has taken on a quite peculiar character. which may have preceded 858. Since. which have such a conjubeside the aorist or aorists which belong to their all roots be made from primary conjugation. however. reduplication of the radical by which it is assimilated. Reduplicated Aorist. in as they are. syllable.858! 3. 860) repeated by an ^-vowel considerable extent. And the preference very markedly for a heavy redupliis cation and a light root. this But in regard to quantity. the imperfect of the reduplicating class on the one hand. indeed.). the consonant of the redupli- follows the general rules already given (590). the connection of the two is no formal one (the aorist being made directly from the a matter root. making the one heavy and the is other light. Thus . to the so-called pluperfect. it As regards. owing to kinship of the formation and inflection of this kind of aor- of best treated here. with few tracas left even in the Veda of a different condition this. cation. and is therefore liable to gation. to the derivative conjugation in as the aorist of that conjugation.syllable which relation : brought about wherever the conditions allow. along with the others. (3) 856. Its characteristic is a 857. ist is established association. see to below. REDUPLICATED AORIST. is And the quality of the reduplicated vowel in general as in the formations already treated: it needs only to be noted that (for an a-vowel and r (or ar) are usually exceptions. a the reduplicated present also (660). aorist aims always at establishing a diversity between the reduplicating and radical syllables. The reduplicated it from the other forms of aorist in that all TCJ has come to be attached in almost (causative etc.

reduplication fT r (if it is short : and. both syllables are necessarily heavy. and arpipam in which latter the root (augmentless) from the causative stem arp of ]/r excessively abbreviated. arlnsam. If the root is a heavy syllable (having a long the vowel of the vowel. however. adadaksam. the rare cases in which a root both begins and ends with two consonants. acukrudham. and occurs). atatahsam. language has only amamat (or amamat) from ]/am. with i : usually by lengthening the reduplicating vowel. ajijapata]. in this case 5f a or (T a. the reduplicating syllable will be heavy whatever the quantity of its atitrasam. apapraccham.. The great majority of aorists are of this form. adadhavam. ardidham from yrdh. atisthipam etc. adidipam (K. jihipas. ajljanam. or by dropping a penultimate nasal. Examples the older of this aorist from roots with initial vowel are very rare. to bring about the favored relation of heavy reduplication and light radical syllable. Compare the similar reduplication in desiderative stems: 1029 b. and later: RV. aciklpam. found in use).). asudip. : These aorists are not distinguishable in form from the so-called pluper- fects (817ff. If XI. Of special irregularities may be mentioned : . as in acikradam from ]/ krand. in adidlksam. : thus. The grammarians give other similar formations. are reduplicated by f a. And this. aiciksam ]/arc. abibhisam from sucam from ]/ sue . ajijipata (but VS. aciksipam. withstanding the short vowel in the former acaskandam (neither. the reduplication made heavy. avivrdham. AORIST-SYSTEMS. notthus. aslsadham from ~\/sad/i. asisyadam from ~|/ syand. [859 the root is a light syllable (having a short is vowel followed by a single consonant). In those cases in which (1047) an aorist is formed directly from a causal stem in ap. abubhusam. however. ajijnipat. 860. a heavy root is sometimes made light either by shortening its vowel. In order. apparently. or a short before two consonants). the vowel remains short apisprcam. Thus And. so that If. (in for radical a or r or / the single root containing that vowel) thus. the root begins with two consonants. 861. has didlpas] from bhis. the a is abbreviated to i thus. aubjijam from ]/a&/. from yiks. arjiham from |/arfe.282 859. but from y y : crap comes acicrapama 862. as in : avivacam from y'vac. is as arcicam from 863. adudusam. vowel.

with has the ^wwa-strengthening before the endOf similar thus.).. The inflection of the reduplicated aorist is : like that of an imperfect of the second general conjugation is that to say. occurs. active. mid. didhar (2d sing. yplu makes apiplavam (QB. s. or even with a only.). see above. all it has the union-vowel peculiarities ^ a before the endings. Atitape appears to be once used (RV.). etc. avivaran. 868. no active example passive sense.) as 3d sing.). apwpravws. 864.. but also ablbhajus (QB. except 1st and 2d du. from y^ftjan. abibhayanta (RV. is decidedly the most common of them. Of 3d pi. MsJlsMIH' MsflsH M djijanavahl djijanam djijanava ^ ^ djljanama djyane djijanamahi djljanas djyanatam djyanata djtjanathas *tellstlrl djijanetham dfyanadhvam fclsilswr^ ^siWlrilH^ ajijanatam WlsH*^ djijanan WlsHcilH^ dfljanetam fctsflswri ajijanat djyanata djljananta are quite rare in the older language (the 3d pi. Details are unnecessary. avavrtran and avavrtranta and asasrgram seem to belong here rather than to the pluperfect. adidharat. And the acucyavus.). with guna before the ending: thus. Few roots ending in other vowels' than r make this aorist see below.). 283 From ydyut is made adidyutam (taking its reduplicating vowel from the y instead of the u). with the w hich r the presence of that vowel 'give birth': middle. asusavus (? AB.). Some verbs with radical a or r are by the grammarians allowed to reOthers are allowed duplicate with either i (1} or a. from roots in r or ar.). either to retain or shorten a long root-vowel. apiparam. in us are found almost only a form or two from i and w-roots. augmentless) and apipnat from y$nath. REDUPLICATED AORIST. d. acucyavat (K. A final r : : 867. rare. and ajigar (2d and 3d sing. atitaras. sfsvap (2d sing. of unstrengthened. and of the 1st du. Forms of the inflection without union-vowel are occasionally met with: namely. The middle forms .). and the forms instanced having never been As to apaptam. 866. from ysvap. acucruvat (GB.). avocam. Thus. the whole formation being so met with in use. d. p. 847. . conditions. apiplavam (QB. . 3d pi. and anepam. from seven) but all are quotable from eleven roots 865. being made the 3d s. p. from roots ending in consonants. apipraj/ws.867] 3. ings strengthened forms from i and w-roots are found apiprayan (TS.

dudhot from ydhu. titapasi. and dha 'suck' and dha in the In the older language are found from y$ri a$i$ret and afifrayus (noticed preceding paragraph). and it is very doubtful whether they should not all be assigned to the perfect-system. No participle is found belonging to the reduplicated aorist. ciklpati and like apisprk. 870. 676. acucyavit ponding form). apipres (with apiprayan. we have and $i$ndthat. II. adudrot and adudruvat (TB. [868 roots are In the to later language. None of these forms possess a necessarily causative or a above) from decidedly aoristic value. Of imperatives. and they are very much more frequent than true subjunctives. siset from ysi (or so) 'bind'. dru and sru.tutos and tutot from ytu. on the other hand. piparat. jijanan. Sanskrit .). from ydru. Modes of the Reduplicated Aorist. Optative forms middle "precative" as a perfect: ririsista are even rarer. with which we are probably to regard this aorist as ultimately related.. noticed yprl (and the "imperfects" from dldhl etc. the augmentless indicative persons of this aorist are used subjunctively. 873. the accent rests either on the radical syllable or on the one that follows it. Cucyuvimahi and cucyavwata belong either here the perfect-system. asusrot and (augmentless) susros and susrot. 869. and dudrdvat. also sisvap . used as from j/sra. are of corresAnd from ycyu are made. The number of roots from which this aorist is met with in the earlier language is about ninety. 871. and one or two from roots in i or i: thus. tustdvat (which perhaps belong rather to the perfect: compare 810). and acucyavltana. $a$vacaf. only). Of the latter are found only riradha (1st sing. sigadhati. series of later texts . 872. As in other preterit formations.284 868. a few cvi. mid. and pisprfati (as if corresponding to an indicative and perhaps the thus. 1st sing. but. and didhrtam and didhrtd (all RV. as corresponding to the indicatives (without union-vowel) ajigar and adldhar : their short reduplicating vowel and their accent assimilate them closely to the reduplicated imperfects (cl. nma^as. jugation (cvi : XI. Cifrathantu.). AORIST-SYSTEMS. yuyot from yyu 'repel'. According to the native grammarians. The augmentless plication : indicative forms are accented in general on the redujijanat. fifrdthas didharas.: not aorist). (ririsista The least questionable case is the has been ranked above with sasahlsta. apifnat). we have the indubitable forms pupurantu and And jigrtdm and jigrtd.. are doubtless to be referred hither. Of forms analogous with these occur a number from roots in u or u : thus. anunot and nunot from ynu. In the classical it is in the whole very unusual mentioned above (826) it occurs only once. with union-vowel z. or to 81 2 b). apupot from ]/pu. said by the grammarians make this aorist as a part of their they are cri and optionally). pufrdvat. primary conkam.

system (chap. . We have. And making the tense-sign is ^ w. This sibilant has no analogues among the class-signs of the present- be compared with that which appears (and likewise with or without the same union-vowel i) in the stems of the future tense. In the case of a few roots. and the inflection is nearly like that of an imperfect of the second general conjugation. With endings added directly to the sibilant: 4. fifth As regards the between the fourth and forms. before this "^ts the root in a very small number of cases increased by a H s. : B. making 877. a added to the sibilant before the endings 5f with sibilant and distinction a: Sfl-aorist. 876. it may be said in a general way that those roots incline to take the auxiliary i in the aorist which take it also in other formations but it is impossible to lay . aorist is a The common tense-sign of all the varieties of this is H s (convertible to ^ s) which added to the root in forming the tense-stem. XIV. the sibilant is the and the inflection is like that of an first imperfect of the general conjugation. final of the tense-stem. In the vast majority of cases. 5. with H s simply after the root: s-aorist.) and of the desiderative conjugation (chap. Sibilant-Aorist. the sibilant tensef stem (always ending in ^ ks] is further increased by an a. then. 285 III. fall into two nearly equal and strongly marked classes. Finally. again. the same. or with an auxiliary vowel these. 6. the whole addition ffpST^**. 874. 875. according as the sibilant is added immediately to the final of the root.877] SIBILANT AOEIST. XII. ^ i. With 7. with ^ i before the "R s : *s-aorist . but it is to To the root thus increased the augment is prefixed and the secondary endings are added.). system . with Ef 3f s at end of root: m-aorist. the following classification for the : varieties of sibilant-aorist A.

903. for and the ending becomes dhvam. -s medial vowel has the vrddhi-ch&uge in the active. C "S 880. sing. practically quite useless to attempt the task. is in the later language always inserted an ^ making (of the the end- ings ^T This below. is ^rT is It. mid. or n or (converted to anusvara}. But before H and s and cT ^ of 2d and 3d 2. b. The s-aorist.. would have been avrsata). provided the sibilant. and ^{ ata (not 3^tT in 3d pi. middle stem achants from : A araiks and tii^rl ariks. considering the rarity of aorist-forms in the later language. See below. insertion unknown in the earliest language RV. The endings are the usual secondary ones. 4. . is 878. of which also the vowel usu- ally strengthened. from y'flsT srj] JblHW asraks and 5TH^T asr^s. tj^rH from ]/"^I rudh. from y'^>*^ chand. and also. 881.): see 888. The same omission is of course made before dhvam. with wte) 3TT us (not R ow) in 3d pi. . the tensesign s is (233 b) omitted after the final consonant of a root unless this be r. the form of the ending which have been noted in the older language. akars and *33n^ akrs. . The tense-stem of this aorist made by adding is ^ s to the augmented root. A final vowel (including ft r) has the vrddhi-ch&nge : in the active. [877 down any strict rules as to this accordance.286 XI. and remains unaltered in the middle thus. middle stem ^fa anes. Before endings beginning with t or th. from faiFSf yy^fru. s: thus. active stem iirH achants. act. guna in the middle thus. The general : rules as to the strengthening of the root-vowel are these a. astodhvam and avrdhvam (beside astosata and These three are the only test-cases but aradhvam (beside arasata}. 879. wmm c agratis- and 5P2Tfa agros from |/5R kr. after either vowel m or consonant. if retained. act. and (excepting ft r) from y^i ^ active stem ERST anais. and 5T^fH aruts. AORIST-SYSTEMS.

882. and dha 'suck'). distinguishable from the corresponding ones of the root-aorist. a given form is to be assigned to the one aorist or to all the other is a question difficult to settle. written by 231). The middle inflection of the aorist of yda would be.). which the to avri and avrthas. once). achanta. of s in the active forms is a case of very rare ocIn the older language have been noted only achantta (RV. dnaisva dnaisma dnesi dnesvahi dnesmahi dnaisis dnaistam dnaista dnesthas dnesatham dnedhvam ^RM IH IH dnaisit dnaistam dnaisus dnesta dnesatam dnesata 883. p. The omission currence..) as except drdhvam (ydr avrdhvam and avrsata ^B. is 287 drthas (2d sing. abhakta (AB. 884. has only ddisi and adisata (from da 'give') and asthisata. and dha (dha 'put'. 'lead'. we may take the roots "^J rudh. (as also in the root-aorist: 834 a): these are said to da (da 'give'.884] SIBILANT AORIST: 'regard': to 4. then. Above (834 b d) were given the older forms of belongings thus questionable. to i Certain roots in a weaken the a in middle inflection above. and da 'cut' and 'share'). be stha. does any example occur of an aorist-form with s retained after a short vowel before these endings. aglsata from ]/y 'sing'. active. s. sibilant As examples of the aorist inflection of this variety of 'obstruct'. S-AORIST. omission of s before t and th takes place also after a short vowel (the case can occur only in the 2d and 3d sing. middle. in the older language. d. . rii. in the older language have been noted TA. 'Thus: p. and whether. mid. Neither in the earlier nor in the later language. and ^ s. According to the grammarians. d. but we have seen above (834 a) that this is to be viewed rather as a substitution in those persons of the forms of the root-aorist. drautsam drautsva drautsma drutsi drutsvahi drutsmahi drautsis drauttam drautta drutthas drutsatham druddhvam drautsit drauttam drautsus drutta drutsatam drutsata dnaisam.). however.. and the augmentless taptam and fapta The middle forms with omission are in(repeatedly in the Brahmanas).

ddita .). b. aprdk from ]/prc. and nu have u instead of o in the middle . ahdit. ajais (for ajdis-t] from yji. other like cases are ahar. and adrak.. 885. ddithas. : thus. ) . asvar. ddismahi.. AB. and. aprds (for only the consonant of the ending is both aprds-s and apras-t] from yprd: and like (for manner manner ahas from yhd. and (from roots with medial Further. astrsi occurs once. occurs in in the Brahmanas they grow GB.. : aydus-t) from yyu. 887. ddisatam. Further. afrdit. and K. anusi and anusatam and anusata ydhur (or dhurv) makes adhursata. ddisatham. however.. occurs amatsus (RV. The principal peculiarity of the older language in regard to inflection is the frequent absence of in the endings of 2d and 3d sing. in AV. and in and ydus acdis from yd. and in like manner acdit. rarer 889. AV.288 XI. It has there certain peculiarities of stem-formation and inof which the optative flection.. abhdrstdm] from ybhr. Irregularities of stem-formation are: a. has none). and the other texts add about twenty more not counting in any case those of which the forms may be from the rootaorist). ddisata. TS. If the root (in either its simple is lost consonant. abhdr (for abhdrs-t : beside abharsam. the ending t is sometimes expense of the tense-sign. necessarily lost: thus. The s-aorist is made in the older language from somewhat over a hundred roots (in RV.. from roots ending in the palatals and ft. like cases are afvdit from ycvit. Thus. asrdk from |/sr. and also the full series of modes middle is retained also in the later language as "precative". to convert this vowel to ir in middle forms : thus. in like If the root ends in a vowel. c. 888. are the only ones found in RV. AORIST-SYSTEMS. drdik (585. ahusata. and ndis (augmentless) from ym. ddidhvam.. PB. Roots ending in changeable r (so-called roots in f 242) are said . Bat (as in other like cases preserved at the 555) in 3d sing. and they outnumber ~i the others in (only one. hvar. atsar. and sometimes of root-finals (150). with unstrengthened vowel. end: for ardiks-t) from yric. 895). according to the grammarians ddisvahi. [884 ddisi. and QB. etc. from about seventy. have been found in the older language (only akirsata. astlrsi. from about fifty.. and we have ajdit (beside ajais and ajdmt) from yji . dhu. on the contrary. : by the grammarians astlrsthds. (from ystr): hardly any such forms. and (from roots in ar) aksar. and the consequent loss of the consonantThe forms without ending. 890. The roots hu. 886. occurs agasmahi. ndit : no examples have been noted except from roots in i and I. . PB. and mduk from ymuc. ardut from yrudh. of which fifteen are additional to those in RV. once). act. the tense-sign or strengthened form) ends in a with the ending. apparently for agansmahi (compare many a. adydut from ydyut. From ymad From ygam below. adhusata..

etc. dtisathas. mid. yaksat and vaksat are found not rarely in the Brahmanas frdsan. Of these. vaksatas . The indicative forms without augment are used in a subjunctive sense. it may be laid on either root or ending. 146) sras appears to stand twice in AV. darsate. vahsate. ydksat. S-AORIST. darsasi . 289 abhdk from ybhaj. Jesam. Proper subjunctive forms are not rare in RV. vaksan. hardly more than sporadically. stosam. khan from ykhan. but common in the later Vedic texts. from roots ending in a nasal. achan achdnts-t. however. Of irregularities are to be noted the following: a. also twice ay as from yyaj. there especially after mti prohibitive. A relic of this peculiarity of the older inflection has been preserved to the later language in the 2d sing. rdsate. pdsati. matsati. yaihsatas. cesan. (14 others). . apra/ from j/prc/z. yosat. trdsdthe (not as we should rather expect). yaksatdm. mdsdtdi. The forms with secondary endings nesat. has (143). mdhsante: and. 893. 891. ndmsahte. and avat from |/uafe and (above. varsathas are : in active. chantsat. any others. 894.894] SIBILANT AORIST : 4. with u for o as in anusata Whitney. adhdk from ydah. dhdsathas. sdksate. but. dhdsatha. stosdma. are (active only): jesas. parsan. According to the Hindu grammarians. mdhsase . 19 . RV. uncommon. has been noted only vdnsi. in middle. If. are extremely rare . krarhsate. the latter of the two (for is lost along with tense-sign and ending: . vesat. Modes of 892. yusam. atan from j/taw. yosati. pdrsatha. yamsan. vdksas. with the fuller ending in 3d sing. saksati. aydn and anan from yyyam and nam again. vdksat. pdksat. yaksate. stosdni . pasatas. The forms dfksase and prksase (2d sing. are markedly less The forms with primary endings vaksathas. and are not Examples with accent. mdtsatha. the tone would be found on the radical syllable. hdsate. Further. and very seldom met with in the Brahmanas. and asydn..) lack the #wna-strengthening. Grammar. middle judging from this. ddrsat. the s-aorist. for sras-t from ysrj : . vdhsat. the root ends in a double consonant. sdtsat. trdsate. is Irregularities of inflection do not occur further: avesam from ym too great an anomaly to be accepted. thus. from ybhi. adrdk from }/drf. narhsdi. in both active and middle. nesatha. achantta and achdntsus] from ychand and other like cases are akrdn. nesati. yaksatas. trdsdithe. . yosan. with a different change of the final. mahsdi. beside asfcan. parsati. ayat from yyaj.. and with accent on the root. bhdis. b. . rasan. mdhsate. pdrsathas. and yosam (AV. They are regularly made with ^wm-strengthening of the radical vowel. vaksati.

muksiya. rdsantdm (of which the same may be said). part of the accepted "precative" of the later language: see below. hise (and gdyise. dhukstmdhi. in sahasdnd. khyesam. H s of a prefixed auxiliary vowel ^ is usually strengthened. and they have in 2d and 3d sing. mandasdnd. Their value is optative. masiya (for mahsiya]. 899. mahslrata. dhisiya. act. mansisthds. in RV. 897. manslsta. to the root.Aorist. Compare below.290 etc. perhaps best noted here. vahsimdhi. vrdhasdnd. a treatment of the aorist-s'tem a. PB. arcase. Imperative persons from this the 2d sing. c. which are They are: 1. 895.). ^5-aorist. and sdksat (both RV. Optative forms of this aorist are made in the middle only. 5. rdsatdm and pi. strislya. from present-stems. and punlse. bhiydsdna. only (both 896. (above. always the precative s before the endings. bhaksista. mahslmdhi. bhaksimahi. sthesam and sthesus. form trdsltham (for trdslydthdm or trdsdthdm) is an isolated anomaly. 894 d) . rabhasdnd. grnue They have the value of indicative present. yamasdnd. krse. The 898. mid.). desma. yesam (only case in RV. rdsiya.strengthening: in which case jesma is to be compared with them the second and third few forms of problematic character namely. The tense-stem of this aorist adds the general . That they are to be reckoned to the is-aorist appears highly improbable. gesam and gesma. jrayasdnd. sdksiya. The RV. 897. and showing rather. . saksimdhi. and the 3d sing. bhakslyd. mrkslsta. the sibilant might be of a precative character yd-i-s-am). are arfasdndj is to tihasdna. ohise?). 2. d. with AV. 921 from a-stems. The rules as to the strengthening of the root are as follows: . appear to be first [894 persons formed under government of the analogy of unless they are relics of a state of things anterior to the vrddhi. yajase. has bhuksisiydj which should belong to a sz's-aorist. This optative makes a ff. From roots in d are made a jesma suggests the or possibility of their derivation from i-forms of the a-roots (thus.) XI. Those found to occur in the older language are : disiya. rnjasdnd and of a kindred character. jnesam. apparently. has a few difficult first persons middle in se. dhiyasdnd. AORIST-SYSTEMS. The RV.s a root). nesa and parsa aorist are extremely rare : we find Participles of the s. therefore. from the simple root. an s-aorist participle all be reckoned as an s-aorist form. namasdnd. The analogy of jesam and : (we should expect jdisma or jesdma}. Active If rnjase is participles are ddksat or dhdksat. darslsta. by help tense-sign making ^T is. which and which has the augment.. rnjase. stuse . cavasdnd.

car. but the grammarians give rules by which the lingual dh is optional only. should end always in idhvam (or iddhvam. jval. p. 5TT act.. and yvr are said by but no forms with long I from 901. below. v. from yf^5T lig. hvar. As examples of the inflection of the ^ s-aorist 'purify'. and that after i preceded by g. in both voices: thus.902] a. such roots are found in the older language.). d. vad. ^Mlf^N apavis and SOT^R" and guna in apams from yq pu. ^6 -AORIST. middle. From svan tsar. mid. which show the lengthening are kan. and is-t are "$3 earliest period of the language contracted into and ^rT^. namely ajanidhvam and artidhvam and aindhidhvam . from y b. agrabhlsata. : active. The root grabh or grah has (as in future etc.. in the preceding formation (3H us and ^rT ata in 3d the combination But in 2d and 3d from the is sing. dpavisam dpavisva dpavisma dpavisi dpavisvahi dpavismahi 19* . mad. p. but it from y sffo jw. Of exceptions may be noted: yrnr? has (as elsewhere 627) vrddhi guna: thus. 'awake Thus s. ajlvis Medial a The roots in the older language san. agrahlsta. An but CfeiV|G|fc| c. be taken the roots ^pu. Njq&j r*~ . s.). stem. the middle: thus. with guna in active. : .. "^ ~x r^r arocts from avarsts from i(llT(q y"^tf -rwc. I. and sah occur forms of both kinds. ran. amarjisam. ystr has astaris. das. h.. f. interior vowel has guna. tans. 1 291 A final vowel has vrddhi in the active. The roots in changeable r (so-called roots in f do the same optionally. from y c[ #V ^lilUlN p<W. pi. act. and mid. 900. the grammarians to : 242). is sometimes lengthened in the active. vraj. may 1 . mid. f more usually remains unchanged in both voices. WH^^itaris. and ^Uf^budh. from is-dhvam 232) and this is in fact the form in the only examples quotable from the older language. 935 d. SIBILANT AORIST: 0. f The 2d 902.. The endings is-s are as pi. d. ti^fem ale$is. agrabhisma. if capable of it. and j/fr has aparit (also a far ait in AV. 956 long : instead of ) i instead of i before the sibilant : thus. r.

framima. but very sparingly Active and middle persons are freely made from the same root (only about fifteen roots have both active and middle forms. marsisthas. augmentless indicative forms common than proper subjunctives. mdthit. vyathisthds . jdnisthds. . krdmista. without guna. Irregularities of the older language are to be noticed The contracted forms aferarram. hihsistam.) and avddiran (AV. of all 905. janista. dbodhisma dbodhisi etc. . see 801 is i). occurs in TS. once. The accent is on the root-syllable pavista. vadhista arid vadhistana. d. about eighty. Among these are no roots in a but othernearly thirty more). Modes of the /s-aorist. has nudisthas. mardhistam. of which a dozen are additional to those in RV. of occur (and including all the this aorist are more the persons found to accented words). and avadhtm (in as follows : (with aug- mentless vddhim] are found in 1st sing. The number of roots from which forms of this aorhave been noted in the older language is about a hundred and twenty (in RV. (also the monstrous MSS. more than thirty. in the active: sdvls. e. the same root shows forms of both classes. vddhim.) form ajagrabhaisarh c. vddhls. also farais for a part of the pans : : agrahaisam is found in AB. For afarlt occurs in AV.).lt. bddhistdm. mathis. Ajayit. act. AV. dbodhismahi etc. [902 dpavis dpavistam dpavista dpavisthas dpavi&atham dpavidhvam apamt dpavistam dpavisiis dpavista dpavisatam dpavisata dbodhisam dbodhisva etc. AOBIST-SYSTEMS. a. prdthista.). . . and of these a part only exceptionally in the one voice or the other). etc. are. jdnistam. though they lack the sibilant. dvlt. with short i in the ending. jurvit. in the other texts. b. etc. 904. pdrmsam. agrabhlm. . with short root-vowel. vddhlt. grahisus . No rule appears to govern the choice of usage between the and in no small number of cases (more than is and the s-aorist a fifth of all). As usual. a$arait. vef. vadisma. Examples.292 XI. wise they are of every variety of form (rarest in final i and i). : (tarisus. The forms atarima (RV. hihsista. in AV. in the middle rddhisi . ist 903. . is probably an error). mdndista. vyathismahi. dosistam. AB. From yvad found vadisma (once. are perhaps to be referred to this aorist. mathistana. avistdm. ydvls. AV. dbodhisvahi etc. hvdrisus.

accords with that of the indicative but we have san. pnathistana. gamistam. vddhisas. and 2d pi. tarisat. 909.in the subjunctive Bhavisat (AB. and are accordingly such as and avistdna for might also be subjunctives used imperatively (which is further made probable two of them by their accentuation on the root-syllable): they are kramistam. (1019. by adding The only other persons found before the endings. ft mi a). They are made. as seems probable. vandisimdh^ vardhisimdhi. 1048. mid. 908. made in RV. pdrisat. Of subjunctive forms with primary endings occur only act. (six of as follows . mdrdhisat. and sahislmahi. yodhistam. act. being AV. avistd) a series : namely. : janislya. and the All the forms so far as noticed. and the cases are too few to allow of setting up any rule. a (including ft 'cling'. cayistam (against acayisam]. Mdhisat. janisista. and ^ft ll which substitute forms in and . occur the 3d pi. from two of the same and from three additional ones remaining texts add. sahislmahi is on the ending. avistdm. which are also regular. tense-stem in are is a to to the with entire regularity. indhislya. 906. tarisas. once) a solitary : against asanisam (as to cay- and ran-. sanisamahe. jambhisat. and in very rare at periods. for avitd : (if this. example of a form with double The radical syllable always has the accent. sanisat. edhislyd. raksisas. found to occur are rocisiya. yodhisat. vadhistam. only four other roots. Other forms occur only in 2d du. Of imperative forms. 293 the 1st sing. (with unstrengthened e) yacisamahe and act. raksisat. will be noticed. vesisas. avisas. 6. yacisat. aorist is 907. rdnistana (against aranisus). rucislya and gmisiya. the eight have other w-forms). and the 1st pi. 911. we have from yav avistu. janisimahi. karisat.911] SIBILANT AORIST: 5. tarislmahi. pnathistam. According to the grammarians. vddisas. kanisas. see below. davisani. josisat. vanisat. chap. 908). fahsisat. and its vowel usually mode-sign. The middle optative of this also forms a part of the acall It cepted "precative" of the later language. and this would lead us to . sanisan is and mid. vyathisat. savisat. expect a weak form of root throughout but the usage in this respect appears to be various. aviddhf. occur. Forms with secondary endings are almost limited There are found fahsisas . : to 2d and 3d sing. 1068). 1035. The sss-aorist. ^S-AORIST. No words to having a participial ending after is are found anywhere 910. tSristam. is This the the secondary and denominative conjugations only aorist of which forms are made in see below. modisisthas vanislsta . sahisivahi- edhislmdhi. it nfndisat. 5(T this aorist is made 'di- from roots in minish'. sdnisanta. stands anomalously two of these are of unmistakably imperative form. mi 'establish'. The accent mandisimahi. : XIV.. from only five roots.

) might "be either from this or from the s-aorist. persons in -sisi. Of proper subjunctives belongs here.294 XI. 913. 908) shows it to be a true imis doubtless the same. it will be noticed. Optatives are not less rare namely. we are hardly justified concluding etc. are these: hdsisam. d. The participle hdsamdna and causative hdsayanti (RV. etc. that in the ancient language the middle -isi. being made by an added s. agdsisus. were not allowable. The accent I of ydsistdm (like perative form. ydslt. etc. and ydsista (RV. its first we may form from Thus: s. hdsls gdsisus. with anomalous 915. Its inflection is precisely like that of the ^s-aorist it is un- necessary. are found two. p. and doubtless vahfisiya (AV. and the others of the i-aorist. 912. and JT^ram. the roots allowed to form . the roots 'go'. dnamsisam dnamsisva dnamsisma etc. .. agdsls aydsit (and and ahvdslt ?). only from fta. like those in -isthds.. only from the roots ga and yd. to give more than ETT yci.) and dhd (QB. altered in the edition to pydyis-). . then. the corresponding middle being of the used only in the s-form (4).. aydsista. but. AORIST-SYSTEMS. and is active. ajndsisma. the forms adrdszt (K. hdsisus.). s. twice) is to be corrected to vohsisiya. from ^t^nam. 7. hdsista. The accent would doubtless be upon the root-syllable. and probably from pya and van (see below. dyasisma etc. indicative forms adrdslt is as follows: adhdsisam. avistdm. occur from the considering in the great rarity of the whole formation. RV. series of . dyasisam etc. hdslt. from yaks}. persons. (dksisus is aydsistdm. Middle forms optative only. The sa-aorist. dyasisva etc. -sisthds. once) for i.) show at that has had assumed. and ^ nam. manuscripts read pydfisimahi.) and ahvdslt (GB. and in AV. The szs-aorist is properly only a sub-form of the to a the tense-sign and endings of the latter added having form of root increased zs-aorist. ydsislsthds and pydsisimahi (for which the AV. p. the value of a secondary root beside hd for other forms than the aorist.). even a very early period. aydsisus Forms without augment hdsistdm. In the later language. which 'bend'. and : 914. 916. FTj/#m. d. of this aorist. ajndsista. 914): the remaining texts add jna (TB. in It is of extreme rarity in the older language. gdsisat and ydsisat (both RV. quotable agdslt. hdsistam. The whole aydsisam.

indicative. and are with much probability to be regarded as transfers of the s-aorist to an inflection after the manner of an a-stem. 918. take the root $pt dip. in the active: avrksam. and the 2d and 3d du. flis. In the aruksas. trh. d. as in imperBoth active and middle inroot is flection is admitted. or ^ h - - all them sounds ft which in combination with the tense-sign make they have They vis. guh. . take aorists of other forms. ks .920] this aorist SIBILANT AORIST: 7. aghuksat. p. duh. s. ruh. making sixteen in all. femp. sa-AomsT. As example 'point out'. from have s i eight roots . Some of them may. aviksat. E[^. dih. Zip . : s. or with certain to few are allowed of the middle : meanings must. in the As the tense-stem ends in like that of 7 the inflection is main conjugation. amiksat. or u or r as root-vowel. dkruksat. of inflection we may middle. mrp. or ft r as radical vowel. ddiksam ddiksava 2 adiksama Sff^TrT ddiksi ddiksavahi ddiksamahi ddiksas ddiksatam ddiksata ddiksathas ddiksatham ddiksadhvam ddiksat ddiksatam ddiksan ddiksata ddiksatam ddiksanta 919. the forms of the sa-aorist are hardly more than sporadic. adiksat. As later. active. They are made in RV. 3 u. And a drop both tense-sign and union-vowel a in certain persons that is. aduksat and . All the examples noted are given below. ends in i instead of ^ ^ e. In the earlier language. dvis. but there are in the list also two ending in j (unless the forms ascribed to mrj and vrj be forced under mrp and vrh). krs. Thus p. mid. strh #prp . are dip. in ETTSfFT fects of the other conjugation. asprksas. . A. and all the remaining texts with to add six more. from two of these and from two others . 917. in AV. adruksas. mih. we find. The throughout unstrength- ened. and a final consonant which combines ks. r if uip. d. lih. (Kielhorn). 295 of end in S^p. they may make instead forms of the root-aorist 5j (1). an imperfect of the second general But (according to the grammarians the forms : unfortunately have not been found in the older language) the 1st sing. mp.i'p. and ^ : i. 920. wft. tvis. atham and *JIHH atam. mid.

adhuksata. dviksat . yeas forms cisyasam (compare 639. ksdma. dha. (no true subjunctives occur) are. dviksata. dsprksat. druksat. grhyasam. a is changed final : Of root-vowels to e in the roots da. The root in general assumes its weakest form mate nasal is lost. duksan. as in ucyasam. duksas. 568) to the root increased by H s . and to ar in r and smr .296 ddhuksat. and in an independent way. mrksatam . supyasam. others. is seen in forms from the roots duh and guh. precative forms are made in the active only for the root-aorist. a. RV. but to ir and ur in those roots which elsewhere show ir and ur forms (so-called f-roots 242). avrksdma. after loss of the aspirated quality of the root-final (155). and amrksanta. 921. duksata and dhuksata. in analogy with the a-aorist a-class (VII. is manner accordant with that here 923. ddhuksan.). go. as in badhyasam from y bandh . and in a described. The precative middle made by adding the middle precative endings (above. duksan. As the so-called precative is allowed by the grammarians to be made in the later language from every root. the roots which are abbreviated in the weak persons of the perfect (794) have the same abbreviation here. 568) directly to the root. dhuksdsva. aghuksatdm. in the middle. in part optionally. But : : 770). ijyasam. dhuksdn in the middle. it is desirable to put it. duksata. AORIST-SYSTEMS. in the middle.): (2) and the imperfect of the a single exception is dhtiksata. r is usually changed to ri. without reference to the mode of formation of the aorist from the same root. XI. however. The precative active is madej by adding|the active precative endings (above. aruksan. : : In the optative older language also. 854) and so on. which probably needs emend- ation to dhuksata. duksas. mrksam. There are no optative forms. has also aduksat and Precative. ruksas. together here a brief statement of the rules given for 922. (as before the passive-sign yd i and u are lengthened. Forms without augment drksam. apiksan (j/pis). vidhyasam. but not from druh (only a single case. in the active : mrksas. akrksat. mrksata. The few accented forms without augment which occur have the tone on : the tense-sign sd. and a few a penultib. as has been seen above (838). dhuksdnta. [920 amronly dmrksat. stha. akrksathas (]/Ars). 'sing'. pa 'drink'.. and Imperative are in the active. AB. The aspiration of initial d and p. aruksama.

. vowel than a or d. Thus active. p. the middle ending dhvam depends it lingual character of the aorist tense-sign upon how the the si is preceded: in the s-form.925] or "$& ts PRECATIVE. the reduplicated b). as has been pointed out in detail above. Htllt-H c\_ . in the . precative optative forms of the middle voice are oftenest made from the s-aorist (895) and the w-aorist (907). bhuyasma bhavisiyd _ . and the w-aorist (914). or h. - 297 of that is. but also from the root-aorist (838).. only be- ^T is. <r\_ f _ . r. mid. Hitopadeca) . Qakuntala. of inflection. The precative is a form of rare occurrence in the In each of the texts already more than once classical language. 925. Nala. namely. and even from the perfect (812 924. Other minor rules In the older it is unnecessary to repeat here. bhaviswdhi bhavisimdhi _ f f bhuyas bhuyastam bhuyasta bhavisisthas bhavisiyastham bhavisidhvdm _ HUIHIH"^ cx t H^llHH SNs _r "^ . aorist (870). is. language. This seems wholly irrational the true question be regarded as really present in 2d pi. s. "s c\_ . may be optionally : dhvam if the is is preceded by y. d. is The root strengthened according to the rules that of the s apply in forming the middle-stem aorists and of the vowel isis respectively: in general. to the tense-stem of an s-aorist or an eis-aorist (but without augment). _ bhuyat bhuyastam bhuyasus bhavislstd dental L bhavisiyastam or bhavisirdn According initial of the is to the grammarians. but in the absence of quotable forms from the older language cannot the ending is be pronounced certain necessarily and always dhvam. . which is it . a final gunated in both formations fore but a medial vowel. : middle. As example 'be'. H bku. the aaorist (850). bhuyasam bhuyasva _ . p. I v. said (no we may take the root middle aorist or precative is its made from the in the older language) to form middle on s-stem s. d. is dhvam it if preceded by any other z's-form. referred to (Manu. _ . whether the precative s is to which is altogether probif so as in all other 2d persons of both voices : able. Bhagavad-GIta.

. tdto 'she Examples from the Brahmana language are sd ha 'smih jydg uvdsa ha gandharvah sdm udire: jydg vd iydm urvdfl manusyesv avatslt (QB. became free (impf. 'he whom we (formerly. sdu pancatvam . of the aorist for indicative has also been more than once and for illustra- and calls only somewhat more of detail tion here. yene 'ndro havtsd krtvy dbhavad dyumny uttamah. and hereof the tarn tu bandhujanah samaagamat punah pujayat (MBh. The uses : of the aorist mode-forms (as has been 582) appear to accord in general with those already pointed out The predilection of of the mode-forms of the present-system. '[I beg : occurs once and no more. tasya ha dantah pedire: tarn ho vaca: apatsata vd asya dantdh (AB. thus. making it. devesv akrata frdvah kd Examples from the Veda are pdrl 'me gdm anesata pdry agn'fm ahrsata.298 it XI.). : . impf. they have done honor to the gods venture anything against them V yam dichdma mdnasd sb 'yam a 'gat (RV. 928. continued sparingly in the later. of the Aorist. The aorist of the older language has the value of a proper "perfect": that is. "this Urvac.). it indicates what has just taken place and oftenest something which the speaker has experienced. it signifies something past which is viewed as completed with reference to the present and it requires accordingly to be rendered by our tense made with the auxiliary have. sarvarastresv idam vaco bruyasta (Nala).). idam tad akri a cow. Thus. 'that libation by which India.). The aorist of the later language is simply a pret- equivalent to the imperfect and perfect. was sufficiently stated and illustrated above (579).) sought with our mind has (now.). I have now made. ye gods. and frequently J coordinated with them. imdn d~ dadharsati (RV. [025 is Its value. 'thereupon he beat the donkey with a stick latter died'. tend agamat (H. aor. tatah sa gardabham lagudena tddaydmdsa. as already stated (573). J hath dwelt a long time among mortals'". AORIST-SYSTEMS.). forsooth.). purely optative that you] speak these words in all kingdoms'. . her reverence'. Uses 926. 'bhuvam (RV. 'he was filled with and said to hinr. I have become from enemies'.) come'. uvdca cat J nam (MBh. 927 erit. the earlier language.) of highest glory. The tense-value referred to. In general. and her kindred paid tatah sa vidarbhdn . . 'his teeth fell . .i. for the augmentless forms in prohibitive expression after mU. pritimdn abhut: affection. they have carried around the who shall devd asapatndh kilo. . Then the Gandharvas said to one another. lived with him a long time.). 'thereupon she went back to Vidarbha. 'these here have led about : fire.

by appending an auxiliary verb to a derivative noun of The . 931. In the Vedic hymns. 299 indrasya vrtrdm He said to him: "his teeth truly have fallen out'". forms are also occasionally employed in the aorist sense. svaydm enam abhyudetya bruydd vrdtya kvh "Vratya. and evident aorist-forms (especially of the clear : simple aorist: Delbruck) are sometimes used narratively.928] out.. and is closely observed : neglect of it is very rare. 929. and the aorist becomes nearly the equiv- alent of a present. The boundary between that which has just been and that which now is is occasionally overstepped. USES OF THE AORIST. This distinction of the aorist from the imperfect and perfect as tenses of narration is very common in the Brahmanas. while imperfect- 930. [the other] "I have heard". have gone away into the earth. the force : and might went away into the earth. saying and became the herbs and plants "my force and might. of very different age and character. and is to be regarded as either due to corruption of text or indicative of a late origin. and have become the herbs and plants'". The one has and is for tense-sign a sibilant follow- an inheritance from the time of Indo- other is a periphrastic formation.). it is convenient to render and in the Brahmana the same is true especially of the aorist a/car. CHAPTER XII. ed by IT yet. 'of Indra. the same distinction is prevalent. THE verb has two futures. THE FUTURE-SYSTEMS. : he ran to Prajapati. jaghnusa indriydrh viryam prthivim dnu vy hrchat tad dshadhayo vlrudho bhavan sd prajapatim upa 'dhdvad vrtrdm me jaghnusa indriydm viryam prthivim dnu vy arat tad dshadhayo vlrudho bhuvann iti (TS.). latter. we should believe 'vatslh (AV. after slaying Vritra. made European unity. the former as if it in the Veda. 'if now two should come disputing with one another. Not very were the rarely. let him say: dvau vivddamandv eydtam ahdm adar^am ahdm a^rdusam iti yd evd bruydd ahdm adar?am iti tdsmd evd yrdddadhydma (QB. but is both less and less strictly maintained many passages would admit an interpretation implying either sense. [the one] saying "I have seen". in prose passage). where hast thou abode"?' ydd iddnlm him in person. l l when he had slain Vritra. 'going up to the one who said "I have seen'".

The s-future. This tense-stem is f then inflected precisely like a (second general conjugation). from esyd . the use or non-use of the auxiliary vowel i before the sibilant. Thus: middle. But from yjw the stem and so on (240). the stem the stem Hf^W Wiavisyd. vowel (in the latter case becoming ^ET The root has the ^wwa-strengthening. karisye karisyavahe karisyamahe etc. 933. there is a degree of general accordance between this tense and the other future and the desidera- 934. etc. and so on. ^TRT dasyhmi dasyhvas dasytimas dasye dasytivahe dasyamahe dasyasi dasydthas ddsydtha dasydse dasyetfie dasyddhv ddsydti dasydtas ddsydnti ddsydte ddsyete dasydnte karisyfimi karisyhvas karisyamas etc. from ]/^ i. is jivisyd..300 agency. from the yH bhu. etc. beginnings only are met with in the earliest language. J7??J dhoksyd. y'fJEJ rdh. [931 its is a recent addition to the verb-system. The to tense-sign of this future the root either directly the syllable HT added ^ i or by an auxiliary isyd). With regard to . and that of ]/5R kr. the stem ^T from y~^> d*uh. or simply the future. from |/^T da is formed the future tense-stem ^THT dasyd. the latter may be distinguished as the periphrastic future. is 932. The former may be called the s. present-stem ending in a We may 'give'. 'make'. syd. etc. d. d.future (or the old future. of inflection the future of ]/^T da. stem ^[MCVU ardhisyd. I. and it XIl! FUTURE-SYSTEMS. from y uks it is uksisyd. take a# models active. Thus. etc.

ksip. how any given root makes these various parts of its conjugational system. i [and those i in either or I. vU 'press'. sad. all in I kri. manisya). ksudh. as a matter of usage. Thus. budh. t. ci. roots ending in roots auxiliary The va or vi ("ve") semivowels. in p. bhanj. and chrd and trd optionally] 'find'. vrdh\ only observed in n.udh. as stosyami and stavisyami [and except But all in r (numerous. Of i. or /s-aorist on the other). in vas 'dwell' (vatsya . syand. sprf] cis. krudh. but vraj namely). pua] . ric. ml. pad. all (they are very few) take the 'weave' and hva or hu ("hve") 'call' as before take the forms vay arid hvay. ad. ran/. yaj. bhi. and vid 'know'. Up. vrj. tan and man (but man forms sometimes exceptions. or so-called f-roots (242) are no I-forms. prach (only case). all in ksi. THE ^-FUTURE. [also danp. because two latter formations in actual use) : between this and the aorist (s-aorist on the one side. mrj (marksya). dhu. Of roots ending in spirants. Thus. svid. but it 301 definite rules is by no means absolute. roots fafc. rdh and grdh : . however. the minority (about a third) are without the auxiliary vowel. gup. drc (draksya). skand. . and specify) take take . Below is added a statement of the usage. ending in mutes. and unnecessary p ri to specify). sadh. tvis. bhuj]. vie. cm. kruc. d. ruj. snu]. vap.935] live . tus. svanj. bhaj. : but yac namely). vij. vayisya. hvayisya. srp. of the roots observed to form the s-future in the older language (more than a hundred and fifty the collection is believed to be tolerably complete) : for the most part. it is necessary to learn. except ci [and dl]. ram : kram follows no exceptions observed rabh] either method.. yudh. yabh and labh [also svap forms both svapsya and svapisya. clis. in u cyu. srj [also tyaj. lap]: : . in ch. drp. nu. vid optionally]. of vrace. a. roots in changeable r. yu< ru. pus. ksnu. the great majority (excepting those in r) i take no i. kip [also cap. rudh [also vyadh. ric. pis. mrc (mraksya) : dip. are : roots in c rue. tad. observed exceptions. majj (manksya). in j yuj. c. sidh. bhrajj. are found in the older and likewise those in u namely bhu. dru except su which follow either method. as regards the auxiliary vowel. bandh. sari. 935. vad. in s. stu. in bh. tap. khid. Of . cad. [krt. . the a of their present-stem : thus. dru. Of k. in m. nud [also had. vie]. and unnecessary to ksu. in c (all two thirds add sya : directly. plu. chid. in krt and wt nrt in d. nij. : only in dh. muc. yam. nor are any regard to it to be laid down with of the infrequency of the (and so much the less. crt. ksud. said to language] b. vis. 8. bhid. roots ending in vowels. dus. sic [and pac. ni. in the form of a specification of the roots which add the tense-sign directly to the root. (all vac. nam. any correspondence is still less traceable. krs (kraksya) [also dvis. radh. all in a (numerous. They Mp. ji except all [and cvi] . c. ap. in brackets are further mentioned the other roots which according to the grammarians also refuse the auxiliary vowel. Practically.

lih]: exceptions are yrah (grahlsya) and muh.. in is comparatively rare in the oldest language apparently. but only the former has been noted as occur- . dwft. As this future. has only seventeen occurrences of personal forms. from twenty-five roots (with participles from seven more). the feminine of the active participle is either in anil or in ati . mrj. Thus. 937. Mode-forms example is s-future. savisyadhvam. ^iHJtt dasydnt and ^IKIHM dasyd- mana. of a root Special irregularities in forming stems noted in connection with those roots above grah).so. vay and hvay. dah. act. from y nap or nanc is made nanksya . of the future occur only sporadically. all 1st pi. GB. This future p.XII. 2d sing. XIV. from the verbs instanced above.. cisely Participles are made from 5f the future. in [935 ruh [also naft. mid. mi/*. Participles of the s-future. the accent remains upon the stem. are quoted (Bopp) from MBh.). vah. vetsyadhvam. subj. 2d pi. in the classical Sanskrit. dih. 939. In the older language. has fifty occurrences. from ]/ sras or srans. (in RV. RV. the AV. a: namely. and the like. subj. has occurrences (personal forms and participles together) from over sixty roots and (as has been noticed above) forms frem more than a hundred and fifty roots . though not a large. the strong form is used: thus. by adding in the active the ending in the middle the ending qH mana.. has once the monstrous form a?nuvisyamahe. and bhavisyadhvam. doubtless the contrary is the case.) of j/ap. majority of simple roots add the sya without auxiliary *. The QB. from nine different roots (with participles from six additional roots) . has esyamahai.stem pre- as from a present-stem in rT nt. because the uses of a future are to a large extent answered the but becomes more and more common later. are quotable from the older texts. from certain (see roots have been majj. Sfjf^H karisydnt and ^i^MHim karisydmana. IV. 167) [also yhas]- h. once or twice). tansy amahai. sransisya. Modes of the 938. a decided. made upon the present-stem apnw (el. FUTURE-SYSTEMS. impv. made According to the grammarians. the root is 936.irt. the TS. mid.. as i is generally taken by any root of late origin and it is derivative character as also uniformly in secondary conjugation (chap. The sole Vedic karisyds. strengthened in forming the stem of that has a strong and a weak form. by subjunctive forms Thus. sthasy amahai.

etc. from the roots already instanced active. Preterit of the s-future: Conditional. Its consists in a derivative nomen agentis. 'was going to carry none of the Vedic texts furnishes another. From the future-stem is made an augment-preterit. as the French conditional aurais to the future aurai. In the Brahmanas it more common (fifteen occurrences. in precisely the same manner as an imperfect from a present-stem in Ef a. having the . and hardly of which several are in repetitions of the same passage) except in QB-> where it is met with more than fifty times. The conditional is the rarest of all the forms of the Sanskrit verb. p. to This preterit the future.942] CONDITIONAL. or as the English would have to will have nearly as the German wiirde haben to werde fiaben. in is called the conditional. or Hitopadeca in Qakuntala. Bhagavad-Gita. like the future. and two II. only one in Manu . if 303 met with at all. The Periphrastic Future. p. 942. etc. d. see above. by prefixing the augment and adding the secondary endings. has but a single example. dbharisyat. s. It stands related Thus. 941. ddasyam ddasyava 2 ddasyama ddasye ddasyavahi ddasyamahi ddasyas s ddasyatam ddasyata *(^ I ddasyathds ddasyetham ddasyadhvam ^(Kir ddasyat HI ri IH ddasyata ddasyatam ddasyan ddasyetam ddasyanta dkarisyam dkarisyava dkarisyama dkarisye dkarisyavahi dkansyamahi etc. 449. etc. from |/su. etc. off. Nor does it. form and meaning. is The RV. become more frequent later: not an example occurs in Nala. very rare: In RV. and the latter. occurs once susyanti. or preterit. 940. s. : middle. etc. with anomalous accentuation. tense. This formation contains only a single indicative active and middle. . d. is ring in the older language. or participle. without modes.

in no middle forms numbers. han and gam show the same ference while vrdh. . ^T lie being used in persons as has . kartr (against karisya). 944. d. In the third persons of both voices.) added to the root either directly or with a preced- ing auxiliary x^owel ^ i. H&cU(H bhaIn the other persons. d. i?rt. from y^J da. [942 either office value of a future active or without an participle. 935). the first and 'they will be'. but the accent resting on the suffix: thus. c^ As regards the presence or absence of the vowel z. HftHI|f bhavitarau.304 XII. 943. singular nom. masc. active. masc. with the verb. the root itself being strengthened by guna. and syand have here. 'he or she or vitdras. : thus. though not in the s-future. Thus. 'give': middle. XVII. The most important exception roots i is that the roots in r take dif- no i: thus. 1st sing. ^rf^rT bhavitr from yv( bhu. As an independent 33TT but for this auxiliary use middle have been made by analogy. SficT kartr from y^fi kr . datasmi datasvas datasmas datahe datasvahe datasmahe datasi datasthas datastha datase datasathe datadhve ^Trn^ data datarau daturas data datarau dataras . of the noun. The noun this is formed by the suffix cT tr (or cT|~ and is (as in its other than verbal uses: see chap. of the noun. in the three numbers respectively is it used without auxiliary will be'. ^TcT datr from y^TT da. 'be' all second persons present of y'ERf as auxiliary. tar}-. the usage is said by the grammarians to be generally the same as in the s-future from the same root (above. and used. FUTURE-SYSTEMS. The few forms which occur in the older language agree with these statements. in with of a accompanying auxiliary. (636) are used as and they are combined. the verbal tense with future meaning. Hf^FTT bhavita. 'both will be'. (373). the nom.

'we are going to build the two fires. has once yastdsmahe. the nomina derivative nouns (271). In the Veda. Uses of the Futures and Conditional. yddy evd karisyatha sakdih devafr yajnfyaso bhavisyatha (RV. they are not the The tensebeginnings. do?' tarn fndro 'bhyddudrava hanisydn (QB. would the auxiliary verb would take an accent (595). intending to slay'. agentis in tr or tar. what yds tan nd veda will he do with verse?' d va{ vaydm agni dhasyamaha dtha yuydrh kfrh Mm then what will you karisyatha (B. expresses in general what is gobut often.). : 945. 1st pi. be accentless). PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE. as in to take place at some time to come ing other languages.). and of the use in dual and plural of the proper number-form with the auxiliary thus. 948.). they are used predicatively. of a new tense-formation. unlike all the true verbal forms. 940.). 305 verb: thus. tdrhi vri atinastro 'then I shall be out of danger' (where lhavisyami. (the usual ending e added to the abbreviated root ').. of the auxiliary in the shalt be'. TS.). if used. but only the forerunners. 'I shall see' (MBh. like various other but with especial frequency.). Grammar. is clearly 2d sing.948] Very 'thou rarely. tvam bhavita (MBh. we are : thus. fayitdse in QB. red karisyati (RV. 'it is going to rain. phrastic future is and grows more common later. the combination retains its accent every- where even in an independent clause bhavitUsmi (QB. has once prayoktdse.). at the expense of the accent of the noun (as in the case of a preposition compounded with a verb-form 1083). so also it is the one more indefinitely used. and. with or without ac- companying copula. TB. Parjanya is going to be rich in rain this year'. Middle forms are extremely few in the older language. As the s-future is the It commoner. 11) has once the later form yastdhe. Megh. but rather sparingly. The accent in these combinations. in the Brahmanas (from which over thirty occurrences are quotable). use begins. kartarau svah (MBh. 'if Whitney. are used in participial construction. aham other persons than the third are used without the auxiliary drasta. 947. or on the other hand that of promise or threat- ening. 'he will speak'. which seems to be 1st sing. 'we two shall do'. though the peri- nowhere so frequent as the s-future. yet without any implication of time. 'him Indra ran at.). but TA. if so. Often. as in all the ordinary cases of collocation of a verb with a preceding predicate noun or adjective (592). also. Whether in a dependent clause : without the means of determining. 20 .). governing the accusative if they come from roots whose verbal forms do so. is on the noun itself. 'whoever does not know that.). A few examples are: varsisydty aisdmah parjdnyo vrstiman bhavisyati (B. (i. and examples are not unknown 3d person: thus. vakta 'sti (MBh. and whether. adding on the one hand an implication of will or intention.

then I will attend to my own affair'. the tense is also sometimes used for the expression of a conjecture: thus: ko 'yam devo gandharvo vd bhavisyati (MBh. have sacrificed. In yet other cases. mahac chokabhayam prdptdsmas (GB. from that I will save you. where are you going 'if to go?' yadi mam pratydkhydsyasi visam dsthdsye (MBh. . 'support said it. bhavitd tata this to the gods'. I the older language even. bruhi kva ydsyasi (MBh. The periphrastic future is defined by the grammarians as expressing something to be done at a definite time to come.). 949. though but faintly traceable in later use. and in the great majority of its occurrences it is found (like the subjunctive and the optative. said l it'. tan ma ekdm A rdtrim dnte fayitdse jdtd u te 'yam tdrhi putrd bhavita (QB. vaktdsmo vd idam 'we shall tell devebhydh (AB. And this value it has in its only Vedic ocurrence. prdtar yastdsmahe (TB.). From what will you save me? said he. ddntds te catsyanti (AV.). 'if later my own affair shall come up. 'on such and such a day I will cook for you'. when used with the same value) in both clauses of a conditional sentence.).). 'we shall know him in his children whether he is sacrifice. "conditional". and at that time this son of yours will be born'. 'we shall sacrifice tomorrow morning'. this definiteness of time special certainty. off all me and I will save you. yaje 'I a lamentation paridevaydm cakrire "we are : yaksi yastdhe ca (TA. 'but how will you get along alone? that. A flood is going to carry these creatures. na marisyasi md bibheh (AV.). bibhrhf md pdrayisyasi 'ty dughd imdh sdrvdh prajd nirvodhd.). seems perhaps to pdrayisydmi tve 'U: kdsmdn md J is wanting. is the cause of my grief about you'. 'thou shalt not die. but an emphasis. as of belong to the form. and occasionBut usually it has the sense ordinarily called ally elsewhere.). they will conquer'.).). 'who is this? he is doubtless a you shall reject god.). is a distinct characteristic of the formation in the It language where is it first makes its appearance : (Delbrtick). 'then you shall lie with me one night. : one that sacrifices with knowledge or without knowledge'. ityahe vah paktdsmi (QB. me.). 950. And this. 'they set up going to meet with great pain and dread"'. in and yet more in the later. prajdydm enam vijndtdsmo yadi vidvdn vd juhoty avidvdn vd (AB. or a Gandharva'.). ye shall be worthy of the sacrifice along with the gods'. and I shall sacrifice'. katham tu bhavitdsy eka Hi tvdm nrpa yocimi (MBh. tdtas tvd pdrayitdsmi ti (QB.306 XII. 'tomorrow'. this future appears to be equivalent to the other thus. The conditional would seem to be most originally and properly used to signify that something 'was going to' be done. [943 ye will do thus. As in other languages.). few examples are yatardn vd ime fvah kamitdras te jetdras (K.). king. In other cases. 'tell us. be not afraid'. thus. I will resort to poison'. FUTURE-SYSTEMS. yadi svdrtho mama 'pi evam svdrtham karisydmi (MBh. 'whichever of the two parties these shall choose tomorrow. especially often used along with $vds.). 'thy teeth will fall out'.

'he leaped on a garment'. *f nd in a comparformed a verbal 20* . or participles. villain. fatdyum gam akarisyam (AB.. is 952.).). in which the conditional has a value more removed from its original thus. there would have been only so many living creatures as were created at first they . verily. VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS: PARTICIPLES. yo vrtraya 307 jdnitri his 'I sinam dtra 'bharisyat prd tdm vidUsa uvdca 'him. forsooth. 'if he had been only so much. dhy dbhesyad dvitiydd vdf bhaydm bhavati (QB. had not (shonld have : stopped [prdgrahlsyah] my mouth'). which are and so constitute a part of the various It tense-systems. vyapatisyat you should not speak thus. sd tad evd nd 'Prajapati. your head would ad ydd dhdi ^tdvad evd 'bhavisyad ydvatyo hai 'vd 'gre prajdh srstds tdvatyo hdi 'v<T 'bhavisyan nd prd 'janisyanta (QB. kirn vd 'bhavisyad arunas tamasdm vibhettd tarn cet sahasrakirano dhuri nd 'karisyat (Qak. was going to make made) the cow live a hundred years' (in other versions of the same story is added the other clause. belong to the verbal system as a whole.). 'thereupon his fear departed for of whom was he to be afraid? occasion of fear arises from a second person'. adjectives. Passive Participle in rT td or nd.). he thought long that he should put 'hosyat (MS. tan mene ydd vdsah paryddhdsyata (QB. have been already treated. would have had no progeny'. tdta evd J sya bhaydm v\ 'ydya kdsmdd . 'vindat prajdpatir ydtrd did not then find te where he was (GB. if the thousand-rayed one did not set her on the front of his chariot?' CHAPTER XIII. 951.or. 'would the Dawn. INFINITIVES. By the accented suffix atively small number of verbs.). remains to describe certain others. THOSE verbal made from.. in GB. and not to any particular part of it. who was going here to carry off Vritra's wealth.). 'if to (should) evam cen nd 'vaksyo murdhd fly off'. 'if you. sacrifice'. td . titpapdta dram it up . and not from any of the derived tense-stems.). The infinitive (with a few sporadic exceptions in the older language) also comes in all cases from the root directly. be the scatterer of the darkness. The same is true of the so-called gerunds. (RV. mother pro- claimed to the knowing one'. GERUNDS. which.952] Thus. or indeclinable participles. being made directly from the root itself. tense-stems.)i USES OF THE CONDITIONAL.

cltd from y'fya. vita from and it is weakened yvya. require the prefixion of the auxiliary vowel i to the suffix. fita from yjya. has no passive but thus.308 XIII. [952 adjective which. fistd from y^as. from an intransitive or neuter verb. only an indefinite past sense: bhutd. 'play'. citd (or catd). if The root before rT td has usually its weakest form. ^ff dattd. 'spoken' or. this participle is made by adding rf bare verbal root.). sitd. yatd. pita from }/pa 'drink'. forms. 'fallen'.). suptd from y svap. ksatd. 'gone'. from y vah. More isolated cases are: utd from yav. g. gam etc. akta from anj. dhitd from y dha 'suck'. : chitt (or in gatd. syuta from ysiv. dyutd from ydw d. prstd from ]/ prach. and for the verbs that add nd instead of td.) (from e. When made same participle. matd. For these. As to the accent when the root is preceded by a preposition. quali- anything as having : endured the action expressed by ukta. Hence usually called the passive participle. JH gatd. natd. see 1085 a. sphitd. VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS. of there is anywhere in the verbal system a distinction weak and strong a. Roots which in the weak forms of the perfect are abbre- A y same abbreviation here thus. td to the In general. uktd from istd from yyaj. see below. 957. has also dhutd}. vyadh. dhautd from ydhav 'cleanse 1 (RV. ditd from y da 'cut' and y da 'bind'. 'sing'. to. hitd from y dha 'put' (with dh also changed to h but dhitd is found also in compounds in V. 956. A chatd}. 953. ratd vatd (from yhan etc. >7rT ^faci patitd. murtd referred to ymurch. Thus : penultimate nasal is dropped: e. to i in sthitd. with observation of the ordinary rules of euphonic combination. 'given'. badclM from ]/ bandh. however. final m . viated (794) suffer the : udhd viddhd from y vac. 'been'. mitd from y ma 'measure'. the as in other languages. tatd. mutd from ymlv. to distinguish from the participle belonging to the passive present-system (771). fies when coming from 3WT transitive verbs. . Some roots. or n is lost after a y hatd. y C. 954. . the past passive participle. srastd from ]/ srans or sras. Final a is weakened to i in gitd from y go. utd from yva 'weave'. the verb it is it thus.

manth. pyand or find frdnd from |/pra. and jurnd. The root jaks (derivative of ghas: 675) foimsjagdM. as elsewhere. but data also is found in composition in V. Three roots in an make the participle from parallel roots in a: thus. from j/fya. mattd and inaditd. 5. hand and hind from yha.. punartta (PB. as if homjagh (once apparently abbreviated in composition to gdha in TS. according to the grammarians. The suffix rT taken instead of a. y d/ivan 'be covered' forms in like manner dhvanta. Thus: : ^ nd i) is and in i and w-vowels namely. jlrnd. jatd. and not infrequently with rpgj r^ car. plrnd. uditd (}/vad) prthita is the only case Jahita from is va to u. said. yvll. . The root da 'give' forms datta (from the derivative form dad]. y svad : in Veda svattd (beside svaditd). vi. from y kram etc. murnd. pat. : makes and. sft pi). plnd from ypya or pi. b.957] PASSIVE PARTICIPLE IN ta OR na. A few roots form the participle either with or without the auxiliary i : thus. C. suffix and some others. 12). devdtta (RV. fund from ycva or fvi. klrnd. guptd and gupitd. grhltd. dhrstd and dhrsitd. The suffix with ^ i. glrnd. khatd. forms) krantd. tlrnd. dlrnd. a. drptd and drpitd. grbhitd. or in the form ^ itd. XIV. in ita from simple roots are more than number. thus. agdhad}. Of more irregular character are the following: A number of roots ending in am retain the nasal and lengthen the radical vowel (as in others of their verbal thus. lund from yiu b. especially with prepositions (1087 e). dyund from ydlv variable r (so-called : or dev 'lament'. with the radical vowel lost) is widely found in composition. The root grabh or grah has. long I: thus. frath comes (once). and AV. from yjan etc. but also with other elements thus. 956. purnd.). payita shows the same strengthening which appears in the present-system (629). dund from ydu. dind from yda 'bind' and 'cut'. which before the becomes ur thus. 957. also often with roots of a derivative character (as flf^f jinv.). canto. sutfa. jlnd (beside jitd) from yjya or jl. kslnd (beside ksitd) from yksi 'destroy'. roots Ir or in f-roots: 242). Una from The yil. tantd.. the participles a sixth of the whole of abbreviation of ^ f^T hins). The contracted tta (as if for data. stlrnd (beside strtd). vllnd from Certain roots in a. kantd. 309 955. (always without auxiliary ^ td by a number of roots. crania. Among From them. original roots (as In RV. vittd (also vinnd) and viditd. yha (by substitution of the present-stem as shown in jahami) an isolated irregularity. : ' . is reg- ularly used with the derivative verb-stems in secondary conjugation (chap.

pakvd. abs. 'she has gone'. Also. magnd from ymajj. 959. a secondary derivative meaning and construction of a perfect cTrT active participle: for example. bhagnd from ybhaj.). pannd. 'one's guest having eaten' (loc. 'burnt' : . VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS. with par- meaning: afitdvaty dtithau. 'ripe'. end): thus. Although transitive verbs (with an object. syannd. one or two others that show a guttural before the na: thus. channd. personal verb-form in the perfect tense (like the derivative in ta in the future: 942 ff.). also trnnd from ytrd and chrnnd from ychrd. or with the value of a atively.310 XIII. 'no one has seen me'.). chinnd. krqa. that'. sannd (beside sattd. to which the participle in ta stands in the relation of an objective or factitive it is finally found also from intransitives thus.. 'emaciated'. gurtd. svinnd. cutena sam$ritavatl : 'has become united with the mango-tree'. purtd. sa nakularh vyapadiiavan. vinnd skannd. phulla. 961. [957 A few participial forms in td from such roots are met with in the older language: thus. aknd from j/ac. Past Active Participle in tavant. 'having done Its inflection is like that of its other derivatives cfcft made its with this suffix (452 if. accent remains on the participle. tunnd. by adding the possessive suffix having the vant. . bhinnd. but without anything like a participial value. coming from roots which do not make a regular participle such are ksama.). In the Brahmanas also it is extremely rare. number of roots. A few roots ending in j (which becomes g before the suffix: 216. 'thou hast originally and properly made only from predicate). And there it is almost always used predic- and generally without copula expressed. Future Passive Participles: Gerundives. 'he destroyed the ichneumon'. of this formation are found in RV. vrknd from ]/urapc. and hlannd (according to the grammarians) from yhlad. has a single example. Derivative words feminine ends in vati. A becomes n before the (beside vittd suffix : 161. 4): thus. In the later language. fallen mahat krchram praptavaty asi. lagnd from yiag. rugnd from yruj.). 'dry'. in d (which d. or. which alone is found in V. Certain derivative adjectives (for the most part .). From the past passive SftT participle is made. however. ticipial The AV. gatavatl (ib. (Qak. For example: mam na kafdd drstavan. The grammarians reckon as participles of this formation a few miscellaneous derivative adjectives. it comes to be quite common. cuska. some of them very common ones. upon great misery'. c. which show an and others. irregular lingualization of the nasal viditd). with copula. flrtd. 960. and 958. RriIM tat krtdvan. bhugnd from ybhuj. 'expanded'.

(probably dk-ia etc. Final a becomes e before the suffix deya. riiya. its it and as such it has to be read in of e the very great majority of Vedic occurrences.. idya. stutya. vdndya. like more proper paror gerundives usually treated as a part of the general verbal syscalled tem. b. in the later language. and (like the future passive participles. it exhibits also the same variety in the treatment of the it The The and o to original value of the suffix is io. Medial a remains unchanged or is only Vedic examples). itya. has about forty examples of this gerundive. u. d. layya . larly The suffixes by which such gerundives : are regurTcET tct- vya. chap. krtya (the c. is always : . bhdvya. dhrsya . Other derivatives of a similar character. cnitya. Derivatives in ya having this value are made in all periods of the language. a short vowel adds t are wanting earlier). to which they correspond in meaning).9631 GERUNDIVES . Hence the conversion ay and av before : a. which ought to. lengthened: thus. dhuya (such cases In a few instances.: 1213). and they are allowed to be made from every verb. guhya. and e usually and or have the guna or the vrddhi strengthening o always are treated before the ya as they would be before a : Thus met/a : . bhdyya. mitya. tives distinguish And root. madya. and r-vowels are unchanged or have the guna- before : L thus. sddya. varya: and. being entirely wanting in the oldest Veda (RV. dvesya. the accent in RV. hdvya. 962. vowel thus. jdyya. Latin forms in ndus. 963. mdrjya.). are found in the Veda. but RV. bhavyd . and the AV. with euphonic y interposed) has once -jnaya. Except in bhavid (once). suffix ya in its gerundive use has nothing to from the same suffix as employed to make adjecand nouns of other character (see below. adds half as many more. the other two are of more modern origin. y6dhya. Hence they are. ndvya.. ticiples. The other vowels either remain unchanged. (see below). ddbhya. which afterward disappear from use. from the earliest down. Jet/a. strengthening The RV. namely TJ ?/. vacya. Medial i. : the suffix thus. 311 more or less clearly secondary derivatives) have acquired in the language or a value as qualifying something which is to. suffer the action expressed by the root from which they come. and hardly known in the later. khyeya. XVIII. and ordinarily made are three and EFffal aniya.

both as regards the form taken by the root and the use or omission of an auxiliary vowel i before the tavya. karaniya. fravdyia. before which the final u. hetua. then. the rules are the same as for the formation of the infinitive (below. from the The suffix tavya is a secondary adjective derivative noun in tu t Hence. bhdvltva. and. pandyia. with a few from causative secondary conis and stuseyia of close kindred with them. sdnitva. see below. -vyadhya. and three or four from secondary verb-stems (see below. C. hdntua. for the suffix ana (below. and is resolved into av. the accent of the word is either circumflex on the final or acute on the penult: thus. in the accentuated texts. v&ktua. s6tua. and is made both from the simple root and the derived conjugational stems (next chapter). chap. 1038). under Passive (999). and in AV. XVIII. They are kdrtua (in two occurrences : ndmtua. occur only and hihsitavya. sndtua. is on the penult: thus. and in the later language. made by adding the adjective suffix lya (1215) to a nomen actionis formed by the common suffix ana. In the Brahmanas (where less than a dozen examples of it have been noted). of kindred value are found in the Gerundives in tua or in tu with the added suffix kartva]. Gerundives in enia or enya (compare 1217): they are Idenia. chap. yudhenia. of No example two.) : compare 1218): they are daksayia. 965. the rules This derivative also is unknown (in in RV. as usual. (below. is found only in its upajivaniya and amantraniya both which.. According to the grammarians. : if the ya follow a vowel. yamsenya.: 1150). 966. infinitival 964. in the classical language it is still more frequent. distinct gerundive value admits of question). According to the grammarians.312 on the root . jdnitva.. VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS. hnavayia jugation-stems (below. 968). vdrenia. the accent is on the root or else the ending is circumflexed always the former. Veda as follows tva. The suffix aniya is in like manner the product of secondary derivation. It follows. and in of AV. In the Brahmana language it begins to be not rare. it is much less common than the gerundive in tavya. Gerundives in dyia (once dyya: . XIV. several cases of accent on [963 the suffix (hence AV. moreover. jetua. carenia. -dharsyh}. as in all the deriv- atives with the suffix lya. 972). apparently made from the infinitival noun a (1209). with one example from an apparent aorist-stem. with auxiliary i (or 5). janitavya this formation is found in RV. bhusenya. XIII. viddyia. kartavya or kartdvya. made by adding the suffix ya (properly ia whence the accent ya]. as regards its mode of formation. Other formations a. dryenia. has ^w^a-strengthening. . As to the impersonal use of this gerundive. it is always the former. a$ya. b. jdntua. Its accent. has the i of written adya.

970]
d.

INFINITIVES.

313
bhidelima (apparently

A

few adjectives in elima,

as

sacelima,

not

found in use) are reckoned as gerundives by the grammarians.

and ordinary than in the other Indo-European languages. Thus, adjectives in u, as will be seen later (chap. XVII. 1178), from secondary conjugational stems, have participial value and in the Brahmanas (with an
adjectives
is

967.

The

division-line

between participial
in Sanskrit

less strictly

drawn

:

;

or two in

example

AV.) is found widely and commonly used a adjective formed with the suffix uka (ibid., 1180.
Infinitives.

participial

is

language has a single infinitive, which the accusative case of a verbal noun formed by the suflater
rT tu,

968.

The

fix

added

to the root usually

directly,

but often also
i.

with aid of the preceding auxiliary vowel ^

The form

of the infinitive ending, therefore, is or tj^^tum ^s^itum. The root has the yema-strengthening, and is accented. Thus,
for example,
Tvr ;

"^^etum from

|/^ if

SficFT

kdrtum from

j/sfi

from y^TJ" car; r\[^y\^cdritum
The same
rules

Hi^lrlH

bhdvitum from

as to the use or omission of the auxiliary i are as those that apply to the formation of the periphrastic future-noun in tr or tar (943).

the

The same form,
related formations,

in a like use, is found also in the older language, back
5

to its earliest recorded period

but

it is
.

there only one of a whole body of
in brief as follows
:

an account of which

is

969. In the Veda and Brahmana, a number of verbal nouns, nomina actionis, in various of their cases, are used in constructions

which assimilate them to the infinitive of other languages were it not for these other later and more developed and pronounced infinitives, the constructions in question might pass as ordinary case-constructions of a somewhat pecualthough,
liar

kind.

970. The nouns thus used
a.
its

The root-noun, without
in

accusative

am,

its

infinitively are the following derivative suffix, is so used in dative in e or (from a-roots) at, its
:

genitive b.
turn,
its

and ablative in as, and The verbal noun in tu
dative in tave or tavai,

its

is

locative in so used in
its

t.

its

accusative in

and

ablative

and genitive

in

tos.

314

XIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES

AND NOUNS.
datives, are

[970
reckoned as

Of other nouns, only single cases, used with infinitive value; thus:
C.

generally

From

the verbal

noun

in as,

the dative in ase

;

and

also,
(or

in an extremely small number of instances, se\ from a noun formed with s simply. d.
e.

a dative in se

From nouns From nouns
in tyai.

in

man and
ti,

in in

van, datives in mane and vane. datives in taye, or (from one or two
dye.

verbs)
f.

g.

From nouns From nouns

i,

datives in

h.
i.

A

datives in dhyai and syai. few infinitives in sani are perhaps locatives from nouns
in dhi

and

si,

in an added to a root increased

by

s.

From
all

in tdri,

a single root, dhr, are made infinitively used forms of which the grammatical character is questionable.
these,

Among

the (forms which have

best right to special treatment

as infinitives,

on account of being of peculiar formation, or from suffixes not
se,

found in other uses, or both, are those in
these infinitives are almost wholly

sani, tari, dhyai,
tu,

and

tavdi.

Except the various cases of the derivative in

and

of the root-noun,

it

is

unknown outside the Rig- Veda. for Other suffixes and forms than those noticed above might be added impossible to draw any fixed line between the uses classed as infinitive
; ;

and the ordinary case-uses and the so-called infinitives are found coordinated in the same sentence with common nouns, and even with compound nouns.

More special rules as to the various formations are as follows: 971. The root-noun used as infinitive has the same form, and the same accent, both when simple and when combined with prepositions, as in its other uses. In the very great majority of instances, it is made from roots
yd],

ending in a consonant; but also from a few in d (khyd, da, dhd, pa?, ma, from two or three in i and u-vowels (hi, ml, bhu), and from one or two
r,

in changeable

which takes the zr-form

(tir,

stir).

(pratidhdm, AV.), the dat. in di, the abl. in as (understanding avasd before d as for avasds and not avasdt in RV. iii. 53. 20), and the locative in e (only two examples, of which one
is

The

roots in

d form the accus. in

dm

better understood as dative).

noun in tu is made freely from roots of every form. ywna-strengthening, if capable of it, and often adds the auxiliary vowel i before the suffix (according to the rule already stated, 968). The root is accented, unless the noun be combined with a preposition, in
infinitive

972. The

The

root takes the

which case the latter has the accent instead thus, kdrtum, etave, hdntos, but nfkartum, nfretave, nfrhantos. The dative in tavdi is in two respects anomalous in having the heavy feminine ending di along with a strengthened u; and in taking a double
: :

accent, one on the root or on the prefixed preposition,

and the other on the
and long

ending
is

di

:

thus,

etavdf,

hdntavdf, dtyetavdi, dpabhartavdf.
(as

The
shown

root grah
also

makes

in other kindred formations)

grdhltu

,

i

by ?dritu,

stdrltu,

hdvltu (and compare bhdvitva,

966 a).

980]

INFINITIVES.

315
;

in

973. The infinitive in ase is made in RV. from about twenty-five roots AV. and later there have been noted no other examples of it. In near
:

three quarters of the cases, the accent is on the suffix
bhiydse,

thus, rnjdse, jlvdse,

tujdse

;

the exceptions are cdksase;
bhdrase,
spdrase,

dhdyase (with y inserted before

the suffix); the
root).

and dyase,

hdrase (with ^Una-strengthening of

$obhdse.

Strengthening of the root is also shown by javdse, dohdse, bhojdse, In pusydse is seen, apparently, the present-stem instead of the root.
se is
still

The ending
state,

and one or two

extremely rare, being found only in more doubtful cases.

jise

and perhaps

974.

Infinitives in

mane

are

made from

only five roots: thus, trdmane,

damane, dhdrmane, bhdrmane, and (with different accent) vidmdne. From yda comes davdne; turvdne may come directly from ytr, or through the secondary root turv ; dhurvane is rather from ydhurv than from ydhvr.

975. The
sdtdye.

infinitives in taye are istdye (j/j's), pltdye (ypa 'drink'), vitdye, In tydi, the only examples noted are itydf (RV.) and sadhyai (AB.).

With aye

are formed tujdye, drfdye, mahdye, yudhdye, sandye.
is,

976. The ending dhyai
in its treatment.
it is

more than any
it
;

other,

irregular and various

It

has always an a before

accented upon this a,
a

and added

to

and in the majority of cases a weak form of root: thus, fwc-

ddhyai, prnddhyai, dhiyddhyai, huvddhyai.

But the form

of root is the strong

one in

few cases

mandddhydi,
accent
:

namely, $ayddhyai, stavddhyai, tarddhyai, jarddhyai, In half-a-dozen forms, again, the root has the vandddhyai.
:

namely,

ksdradhyai,

gdmadhyai, ydjadhyai (but once

or

twice

also

yajddhyai], vdhadhyai, sdhadhyai, bhdradhyai. In a single instance, ptbadhyai, and in one, vdvrdhddhydi, the suffix is added distinctly to a present-stem
;

to a perfect stem.
is

Finally,

in a

number
:

of instances

(ten),

this

infinitive

made from

a causative stem in ay
is

thus, madayddhyai, risayddhyai, etc.

This infinitive

different forms (with seventy-two occurrences).

by no means rare in RV., being made in thirty-five But it is hardly known outit

side of the

RV.; the AV. has

but once

(in a

passage found also in RV.);

and
it

in the branches of the

Yajur-Veda but two or three examples have been

noticed (one of

them TS.
or

falsely reads gdmadhye)-, in the

Brahmana language
thus,

appears to be entirely wanting.

977. An example
rohisyai
(TS.),

two are met with of an
(K.).

infinitive in syai:

avyathisyai

978. The
or ?va;

infinitives in sani are:

-bhusdni from ybhu; fusdni from y?u

ysah; parsdni from }/pr, tarlsdni the last confrom ytr; and grnudni and -strnlsdni from yygr and str taining evident present tense-signs (compare the 1st sing, grnise, 894 d).
nesdni from ynl;
saksdni from

979. The only
from ydhr.

infinitive in tari is dhartdri (with its

compound

vidhartdri),

Uses of the Infinitives. 980. The uses of the so-called infinitives are for the most cases from, part closely accordant with those of the corresponding Thus other abstract nouns.
:

316
981.

XIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS.

[981

The
the

noun and

noun

accusative, in tu,

is

which is made only from the rootused as object of a verb.

have the right

pafc, 'be able', and arh, 'be worthy, fakema tvd samidham (RV.), 'may we accomplish thy kindling'; md pafccm pratidhdm {sum (AV.), 'may they not be able to fit the arrow to the string'; mdno vd imdm sadydh pdrydptum arhati

Especially, of forms from the roots
or the

power'.

Thus,

mdnah pdribhavitum
her';

(TS.)>

'the mind,

forsooth,

can at once attain and surpass
'for

ko hy etdsyd 'rhati gtihyarh ndma grdhltum (QB.), take his secret name?' In the Veda, the construction
only one

who is worthy with these verbs

to
is

among

others

;

in

the Brahmana,
all

it

becomes the greatly prevalent

one (three quarters or more of

the cases).

Further, of verbs of motion (next most frequent case): thus, ddksindni h6tum eti (TS.), 'he goes to sacrifice things pertaining to sacrificial gifts';

fndram pratfram emy dyuh
the lengthening out of
life';

(RV.),

'I

go to Indra for

(i.

e.

beseech of him)
sd iddrh

of ydhr,

'persist in, undertake': as,

jdtdh $drvam evd ddgdhum dadhre (QB.), 'he, as soon as born, began to burn this universe'; of verbs meaning 'desire, hope, notice, know', and the like: as, pdfdn vicrtarh vettha sdrvdn (AV.), 'thou knowest how to loosen
all

bonds'; tdsmdd agnfth nd "driyeta pdrihantum (QB.), not be careful to smother the fire'; and of others,

'therefore one should

982.
sense
is

Of the
are
:
;

infinitive

that expressed

by

'for,

datives, the fundamental and usual in order to, for the purpose of.

Examples
living

vfyvam jlvdrh cardse bodhdyanti (RV.), 'awakening every
motion';

creature

to
te

them'; ndt 'tdm

tdn tipa ydta ptbadhydi (RV.), 'come to drink devd adadur dttave (AV.), 'the gods did not give her to

thee for eating'; prat "d yudhdye ddsyum tndrah (RV.), 'Indra went forward to fight the demon'; cdksur no dhehi vikhydt. (RV.), 'give us sight for looking
abroad'.

Some

peculiar constructions,

however, grow out of this use of the in-

finitive dative.

Thus:
is

a.

The noun which

logically the subject or the object of the action
is

expressed by the infinitive

frequently put beside

it

in the dative (by a
is

construction which is in part a perfectly simple one,

but which

stretched

beyond
for the

its

natural boundaries by a kind of attraction):
(RV.),

thus, cakdra surydya

pdnthdm dnvetavd u
sun a track

'he

made a

track

for the

sun

to

follow (made

rdksobhyo vinfkse (RV.), 'he whets his horns to pierce the demons'; rudrdya dhdnur d tanomi brahmadvtse fdrave hdntavd u (RV.), '1 stretch the bow for Rudra, that with his
for his following)';
pfplie

pfnge

arrow he may slay the 6raftma-hater'; asmdbhyam dr$dye surydya punar ddtdm dsum, 'may they grant life again, that we may see the sun'.

b.
causative

An

infinitive
:

with

verb

thus,

make the
;

blind

prd and lame
fire to

'make', is used nearly in the sense of a |/fcr, 'ndhdrh frondm cdksasa etave krthah (RV.), 'ye
to

see

and

go';

thou hast made the

be kindled'.

Of

similar, character is

agnfih samfdhe cakdrtha (RV.), an occasional

9841

USES OF THE INFINITIVES.
as,

317
tat

construction with another verb:

ydd im upmdsi kdrtave karat
that'.

(RV.),

'what

we wish

to

be done,

may he do

c. A dative infinitive is not seldom used as a predicate, sometimes with, but more usually without, a copula expressed thus, agnfo iva nd pratidhfse bhavati (TS.), 'like fire, he is not to be resisted'; mahimd te anyena nd
:

9amnd?e

(VS.),

'thy greatness is not to be attained

by another'; ndldm indro
not
to

nikartave nd

mighty one is d. Sometimes an
'these
.

fakrdh pdri?aktave (RV.), not to be overpowered
1
.

'Indra

is

be put down, the

infinitive so used
:

without a copula has pretty clearly
.

the value of an imperative
(RV.),

thus,

glorious

ones

tyd shall the

me yafdsa
son of

.

Uc.ij

aufijd huvddhyai [asti] invoke for me'; suktebhir
.

vah
ye

.

.

indra nv agni dvase huvddhyai [stah] (RV.),

'with your

hymns

shall

call

now on Indra and Agni
'let

(RV.),

vandddhya agnim ndmobhih [asmi] me greet Agni with homage'; asmdkasaf ca surdyo vfyva dfds
for aid';

tarlsdni (RV.),

'and let our

sacriflcers cross
all

all

regions'.

The

infinitives in

dhyai and sani (which latter is in those in which the imperative value
e.

its

uses accordant with datives) are
to

is

most distinctly

be recognized.

only a sporadic case or two elsewhere) the dative in tavai is frequently used with a verb signifying 'speak' (bru, vac, aft), to express the ordering of anything to be done thus, tdsmad 6sadhlnam evd mulany ucchettavaf bruydt, 'therefore let him direct the roots of the plants
B.
(with
:

In the

to be cut

up (speak

in order to cutting up)'.

983. The ablative infinitive which, like the accusative, is made only from the root-noun and that in tu is found especially with the prepositions ft, 'until', and purh,, 'before'. Thus, d tdmitos (TS. etc.), 'until exhaustion'; purd vacdh prdvaditos In the Brahmana language, this is (TS.), 'before utterance of the voice'.
the well-nigh exclusive construction of the ablative;
is
I/M,

in the Veda, the latter
verbs,
as tra

used
bhi.

also

after

rte,

'without',

and

after

several

and pa,

In two or three instances, by an attraction similar to that illustrated above for the dative (982 a), a noun dependent on this infinitive is put in the ablative beside it thus, pura vagbhyah sampravaditoh (PB.), 'before the utterance together of the voices'; trddhvam kartdd avapddah (RV.), 'save us
:

from

falling

down

into the

pit'.

984.

The

ablative) is in

common

genitive infinitive (having the same form as the use in the Brahmana language as depend-

ent on icvard,
of 'capable' or
to

lord, master', employed adjectively in the sense 'likely' or 'exposed to'.
:

Examples are td [devdtah] ifvard enam praddhah (TS.), 'they are likely burn him up'; dtha ha vd lyvarb '^nfrh citvd Mrhcid damritdm apattor vf va hvdlitoh (QB.), 'so in truth he is liable, after piling the fire, to meet with

some mishap
pramathitoh
chanter'.

(PB.),

or other, or to stagger'; Ifvararh vai rathantaram udgatuq, caksuh 'the rathantara is liable to knock out the eye of the

318
The

XIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS.
dative
is

[934

once used in
the

B.

instead

of the genitive (in ifvarati jd-

nayitavaf); and,

in

later language,

sometimes the
is

accusative

in

turn.

Occasionally the masc. sing. nom. Ifvarah

used, without regard to the gen:

der or number of the word which it qualifies thus, tdsye "fvardh And in pdplyasl bhdvitoh (QB.), 'his progeny is liable to deteriorate instances the word Ifvara is omitted, and the genitive has the same without it: thus, dve madhyandinam abhi pratyetos (AB.), 'two may be
1
.

prajd a few
value

added

to the

noon
is

libation';

tdto

diksitdh

pamano
is

bhdvitoh

(B.),

'then the conse-

crated

liable to get the itch'.

This construction with ifvara, which
infinitive in the

the

only one

for

the

genitive

where the genitive is found in a very small number of examples with madhyd, and with the root If: thus, madhyd kdrtoh (RV.), 'in the midst of action'; ife ray6 ddtoh (RV.),
Brahmana,
is

unknown

in

the Veda,

'he is master of the giving of wealth'.

985. Unless the

infinitives in sani

and

tari are locative in

form (their

uses are those of datives), the locative infinitive is so rare, and has so little that is peculiar in its use, that it is hardly worth making any account of.

An

example

is

usdso budhf (RV.),

'at

the awakening of the dawn'.

986.

more numerous than the accusative (in RV., are twelve times as many; in AV., more than
the
accusative
in
turn
is

In the Veda, the dative infinitive forms are very much their occurrences
rare

(only

eight in AV.).

In the Brahmanas,

much greater comparative frequency as many as those of the dative) but
;

rare in the Veda, has also come complete disappearance in the classical language of all excepting the accusative in turn is a matter for no small surprise.
is

three times) and forms in RV., only the accusative has risen to (its forms are nearly twice the ablative-genitive, which to full equality with it. The
;

four

987. The

later

infinitive

in turn

is

oftenest used in con:

structions corresponding to those of the earlier accusative thus, na vaspam acakat sod/ium, 'he could not restrain his tears'; tarn drastum arhasi, 'thou oughtest to see it'; praptum ichanti, 'they
desire to obtain';

samkhyatum arabdham, 'having begun
in

to count'.

But

also,

not infrequently,
:

those

of the

other

cases.

So,

thus, avasthatum sthanantaram cintaya, especially, of the dative 'devise another place to stay in'; tvam anvestum iha "gatah, 'he has come hither to seek for thee'; but likewise of the genitive

samartho gantum, 'capable of going'; samdhatum icmend'. Even a construction as nominative is not unknown thus, yuktam tasya maya samaqvasayitum bha'it is proper for me to comfort his wife'; na ryain (MBh.), naptaram svayam nyayyam captum evam (R.), 'it is not suitable thus to curse one's own grandson'.
:

thus,

varah,

'able to
:

988. In

the later language, as in the earlier,

the infinitive in certain

connections has what

we

look

upon as a passive value. Thus, kartum arabdhah,

991]

GERUNDS.

319

ing)'.

'begun to be made': frotum na yujyate, 'it is not fit to be heard (for hearThis is especially frequent along with the passive forms of y$ak: thus, tyaktum na $akyate, 'it cannot be abandoned'; fakyav iha "netum, 'they two can be brought hither'; na ca vibhutayah ?akyam avaptum urjitah, 'nor are
of being

mighty successes a thing capable

attained'.

Gerunds.

989.

The

so-called gerund

is

a stereotyped case (doubt-

less instrumental)

of a verbal noun, used generally, but in

the later language not exclusively, as logical adjunct to the

subject of a clause, denoting an accompanying or (usually)
a preceding action to that signified
It

has thus the virtual

by the verb of the clause. value of an indeclinable participle,
actor

present or past,
scribes
:

qualifying the

whose action

it

de-

Thus, for example grutvai 'va ca 'bruvan, 'and hearing (or having heard) they spoke'; tebhyah pratijnaya 'thai 'tan paripapracha, 'having given them his promise, he then questioned
:

them'

.

990.

The gerund

is

made

in the later language
T y<i.

by one

of the two suffixes ^T tva and

the former being used

with a simple root, the latter with one that is compounded with a prepositional prefix or, rarely, with an element of another kind, as adverb or noun.
Exceptions to this distribution of uses between the two suffixes are very examples of simple roots with ya are arcya, grhya, usya (yvas 'dwell') of compounded roots with tva are anudhyatva, apatyaktva, pratyarpayitvd
rare
:

;

tvd,

The gerund in (AV.: only case noticed in the Veda: TA. has -rocayitva). however, may have the negative particle prefixed to it: thus, akrtva,
Of compounds
of the

anlrayitva.

gerund in ya with other elements than the usual
karnagfhya,

verbal prefixes,

RV. has punarddya,
;

padagfhya,

hastagrhya,

ararhkrtya, akkhallkftya, mithaspfdhya

AV. has

further namaskrtya.

991.

The

suffix

^T

tva has the accent.

It

is

usually

added directly

to the root,

but sometimes with interposition

i with regard to which, as well of the auxiliary vowel ^ as to the form of the root before it, this formation closely

agrees with that of the participle in

rT

ta (above,

952 if.).

320

XIII.

VERBAL ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS.

[991

When
marked.
reject the

i is used, the disposition to take a weak form of root is less Roots which have na instead of ta as participial suffix usually

i.

992.

The

suffix

7J

ya

is

added directly

to

the root,

which

is

accented, but has

its

weak form.
TJ

A

root ending
ftfrET

in a short
-jitya,

vowel takes rT tya instead of
-krtya.
passive participle
-gatya, -hatya.
in

ya: thus,

TOT

Roots in
this
!

am and an whose
also

gerund

atya:

thus,

ends in ata (954 d) form But such am-roots are

-gamya
or ur
:

allowed in the later language to preserve their nasal in the gerund: thus, Final changeable r becomes Ir (no such form occurs in the Veda).
thus, -glrya, -purya.
'establish'

Final a remains unaltered

:

thus, -gay a, -sthaya
II

;

and mi
to

and mi 'diminish' take the form ma;

'cling' is

allowed

do the same.

993.
tions,

The older language has the same two gerund formahaving the same distinction, and used in the same way.

a. In RV., however, the final of ya is in the great majority of instances (fully two thirds) long (as if the instrumental ending of a derivative

noun

in i or ti). In AV., long a appears only once, in a RV. passage. b. Instead of tvd alone, the Veda has three forms of the suffix, namely

tvd,

tvdya, and

tvi.

Of these three,
against

tvi is decidedly the

commonest in RV.
it is

(thirty-five

occurrences,

twenty-one of

toa);

but

unknown

in

AV., and very rare elsewhere in the older language; tvaya is found nine times in RV. (only once outside the tenth Book), twice in AV., and but few times elsewhere. The historical relation of the three forms is obscure.
c.

Two

other

gerund

suffixes,

tvanam and tvinam, are mentioned by

the grammarians as of Vedic use, but they have nowhere been found actually to occur.

994.

The use of

this gerund,

character, becomes the later language.

much more

frequent,

through not changing in its and even excessive, in

many

Thus, in the Nala and Bhagavad-Gita, which have only one tenth as verb-forms as RV., there are more than three times as many examples

of the

gerund as in the
:

latter.

Early examples are vdjrena hatvd nfr apdh sasarja (RV.), 'striking ^vith his thunderbolt, be poured forth the waters'; strfyam drstvdya kitavdm tatapa
(RV.), 'the gambler is distressed when he sees a woman'; pitvi sdmasya vavrdhe (RV.), 'having drunk of the soma, he waxed strong'. In the older language almost without exception, and in the later usually, it expresses an

action or condition belonging to the subject of the sentence; but

it is

in

some

texts

more
(H.),

loosely

construed

:

thus,

tatah

cabdad abhijnaya sa vyaghrena
krtvct (MBh.),
I

hatah

'thereupon he was slain by the tiger, the latter having recognized
noise';
kirn

him by his

nu me sydd idam

'what,

wonder,

996]
would happen
(H.
,

GERUNDS.
to
J

321

-what

is

said after

me, having done this?' sucintya co ktarh suvicdrya yat krtam mature thought, and done after full deliberation'.

Adverbial Gerund in am.
995. The accusative of a derivative nomen actionis in a, used adverbially, assumes sometimes a value and construction so accordant with that of the usual gerund that it cannot well be called by a different name. No example of a peculiar gerundial construction with such a form occurs either in RV. or AV., although a few adverbial accusatives are probably to
be classed as representing this formation thus, abhydkrdmam, pratdnkam, pranodam, nilayam, dbhiskdndam. The gerund is found especially in the Brahmanas (much oftenest in QB.), and sparingly later. In the classical
:

language

it is

quite rare.

vowel has frdd/u'-strengthening before the suffix; final a adds y; a medial vowel has guna; but medial a is usually lengthened. The accent
final
is

A

on the radical syllable.

Examples are: kamam va imdny dngdni vyatyasam fete (QB.), 'he lies changing the position of these limbs at pleasure'; uttardm-uttardrh fdkhdrh samdldmbharh rohet (QB.), 'he would climb, taking hold of a higher and ever
a

higher limb';

apansu mahdnagdm iva 'bhisarhsaram
it

didrksitdrah
will

(QB.),

'hereafter,

running together as

were about a great snake, they

wish

to see him';

ndmdny dsdm

etdni

ndmagrdham

(QB.),

'with

separate

naming

these their names'; yd viparydsam avaguhati (QB.), 'whoever buries it As in these examples, the form is almost always a compound upside down'. one. In the later language, it it said to be used most often repeated thus,
of
:

pdyam-pdyam
vrajati,

vrajati,
first

'he goes after drinking repeatedly';

'having

eaten, he goes';

prathamam bhojarh bdhutkseparh krandUum pravrttd (Qak.),
(with arm-tossing)'.

'she proceeded to cry, throwing

up her arms

CHAPTER

XIV.

DERIVATIVE OR SECONDARY CONJUGATION.
996.

SECONDARY conjugations
like
is

are those in

which a whole

system of forms,
the simple root,

that already described as

made from

made, with greater or less completeness, from a derivative conjugation-stem and is also usually con;

nected with a certain definite modification of the original
radical sense.

Whitney, Grammar.

21

322

XIV. SECONDARY CONJUGATION.

[996

We

made from

have seen, indeed, that the tense-systems are also for the most part derivative-stems and even that, in some cases, such stems assume
;

the appearance and value of
coiijugational

roots,

system.

Nor

is

there

and are made the basis of a complete any distinct division-line to be drawn
the latter are present-

between tense-systems and derivative conjugations

systems which have been expanded into conjugations by the addition of other In the earliest language, tenses, and of participles, infinitives, and so on.
their forms outside of the present-system are still quite rare, hardly more with the exception of one or two than sporadic; and even later they are much less common than formations which attain a comparative frequency the corresponding forms of primary conjugation.

997.
II.

The secondary
;

conjugations
;

are:
;

I.

Passive;

Intensive

III.

Desiderative

IV. Causative

V. Denom-

inative.

The passive is classed here rather as a matter of convenience and of general usage than because it is of the same kind with the others.
I.

Passive.

998.

The

passive conjugation has been already in the

main

described.
It

Thus,

we have

seen that:
the

a.

has a special present-system,

stem of which

is

present only,
:

maining forms
sign
IT
yd*-,

this
it

and not made the basis of any of the restem is formed with the accented classtakes the middle endings.
It
is

and
ff.

treated

above, 768
b.

In the other tenses, the middle forms are used also

in a passive sense.
c.

But:
of the aorist,

There
^

is

a special passive 3d sing,
above, 842 ff.

ending in
d.

i: it is treated to

And:

may be formed grammarians, According from some verbs, for passive use, a special stem for the aorist and the two future systems, coinciding in form with the peculiar 3d sing, aorist.
the
there
,

3d sing, adayi], beside ddasi, dasye, datdhe, also The permission to make this double formation extends to. all roots ending in vowels, and to grah, drp, and han. The and they are, duplicate forms have not been noticed in the older language,
Thus: from yda
dayisye,
(aor.

adayisi,

ddyitdhe.

at the best, extremely rare in the later.

As

to

the prescribed passive inflection of the periphrastic perfect, see

below, 1072.

or gerundives. formation (961 999. Intensive. 'how is one to live?' yavad ane. cruyatam. participles. and future ff. ative) is The intensive (sometimes also called frequent- that one of the secondary conjugations which is least removed from the analogy of formations already deIt is. and not seldom it has a purely future sense. katharh jlvitavyam. iha "gamyatam. especially in the later language thus. evam uktva tena sarvesam bandhanani chittani (H.). of various root. 'as J nucarena maya sarvatha bhavi- thy companion'. is peculiar in having a strengthened reduless It is decidedly of a present-system than any other of the jugations.). adhuna tava : long as that sage shall exist'. or ^ na (957). he cut the bonds of them all'.). 'with that thou shalt be happy as long as thou livest'. The subject of such a construction is. vajjlvarh sukhina bhavitavyam (H. (H. According to the grammarians.). 'henceforth I shall always be II. an impersonal passive a frequent in the third person is used . 'hearing that. hear ye!). with the logical subject in the instru: and favorite one. INTENSIVE. like the present-system ff. scribed. sarvair jalam adayo 'ddiyatam 'let all fly up. and it may (as : in other languages) be formed be heard' from intransitive as well as transitive verbs (i. taking the net with them'. extended beyond the limits derivative con- The intensive conjugation signifies the repetition or intensification of the action expressed by the primary con- jugation of a root. 'let it e. is made directly from the passive construction. extremely frequently. The mental case. The gerundive is common in this construction. thus. 1001. 1000. And. (H. (771. of the second con- jugation-class (642 the inflection of a reduplicated stem.). tena tvaya yatavyam (H. 'thus saying. 'come hither'.). the intensive conin the jugation may be formed from nearly all the roots language the exceptions being: roots of more than one 21* . 5). tac chrutva jaradgaveno 'ktam. PASSIVE. 323 Besides the participle from the present tense-stem the passive has a past participle in rT ta (952). of course.).1001] e.ua munina sthatavyam predicate to the instrumental also in the instrumental thus. Jaradgava said'. but of one that plication.

janjap which is (B. and. The strong intensive reduplication syllable is made in three ways: The reduplicating is. tantas (ytans da().: and the later language dandah). taken With an exception or two. popruth. are : vavad. passages). tartar and tartur. after a final is is dissyllabic. Examples are: carcar. with an anomalous initial consonant in reduplication. rarandh. cankram. which contains about six sevenths whole number (rather over a hundred) quotable from Veda and Brah. of the except (comparatively) in the RV. and many of these in RV. jangah (RV. has less than half as many as RV. dadhr . cekit. Examples are: ganiyam (but ganigmatam}.). XIV. janghan. composed of single consonant with following vowel. tahstan. jarbhur from ybhr (compare the Vedic perfect jabhdra. sarsr. or a nasal. jarhrs .. jargur and jalgul and galgul. an /-vowel by e. the actual aspect of the language. is from the end of the sonant either r syllable has a final consonant. as Hence. In so rare that it earlier. different a. johu. nannam (ynam). Only roots having a or r as vowel make this form of reduplication. This /-vowel in the older language short before a double consonant. has . The reduplicating root. will be had primarily and especially in view. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. an /-vowel being added consonant of the reduplicating syllable. so far as the consonant is concerned. and The reduplication long before a single. . Irregular formations of this class are : with a final other than r or n in in the reduplication the reduplication. radicfect reduplication (590) al a and r (or ar] being reduplicated with a. intensives in the later language are extremely rare. The Q. neni. conjugated only causatively 1056\ and in general those beginning with a vowel. Examples b. follows the rules for present and perbut the vowel is a heavy one. danda$ (ydah? or or tas). babadh. cosku. dardar and dardir. badbadh. in the description to be given below. and an w-vowel by o. marmrj. varivrt. Nor are they at all common fact. dadr. root r is the only one with vowel initial forming an intensive : stem in the older language it makes the irregular alar or air. cacvas. 789 b) with various treatment of an r or ar-element. but with such roots it is more common than either of the other forms. with a final nasal not found in the root. and the examples will be of forms found there in use. a . is hard to tell precisely what value is to be given to the rules of the native grammar respecting them. those [1001 (below. vevli. mana-texts (AV. cocuc. however. carcar and carcur. tetij. carkar and carkir. janjabh (yjambh or jabh). vamvah. exhibited in the older 1002. formation. this conI) (or its substitute calcal. as elsewhere.324 syllable. caniskad.

In this class. ganlgam. strengthening of stem. nonu and 1004. nu. jarbhur and bharibhr. and kaniskand after the The reversion cekit. with. syand. in respect to endings. bhr. in the older language.1005] sanisvan. and of also occurs). dyut. and before the *i e a final vowel has t/wwa-strengthening. and r in the reduplicating twenty roots. san. fcand. 1005. their order. . and n in the reduplicating syllable. of roots having syllable. in accordance with what takes place elsewhere (216.: the grammarians allow also kas. karlkr (but the regular carlkr (but also caniskand occurs). tr. kanikrand. of roots assuming in the reduplication a n not found in the root. davidyut (and the participles ddvidhvat single exception as to the quantity of the i is davidhdva. . and this is indeed to a considerable extent followed. dddr and dardr . varvrt dodhu and davldhu. The same root more than one way. skand. finally. cdcal and carcar (and carcur) tartar (and tartur] and tantr . But deviations from the model are not rare in general of too infrequent and the forms are occurrence to allow of satis- factory classification and explanation. suem. vrt . We will take first giving up the parts of the present-system in what is recognized as regular in the . in 1003. A navlnu. bdbadh and badbadh. of roots having u or u as radical vowel. pat. and accent. kr 'make'. janghan and ghanlghan .). krand. mrd. This method of reduplication is followed in the older language by over final or penultimate n (once m]. According to the ^ grammarians. vrj. and varlvrt. tu. INTENSIVE. to more original guttural form is reduplication in and janghan and ghanlghan. vr. Present System. phan. han.9). but a medial one remains unchanged. of roots having final or medial r. dadhr and dardhr . sonant (590) are the general rules as to the form of the reduplicating conviolated in the case of ghanlghan and bharlbhr. this is allowed in all the strong forms before an ending beginning with a consonant. The most marked irregularity is the frequent insertion * between the stem and of an ending. gam. but 325 tdvituat). navlnu. pad}-. Thus. only vah (QB. The model of normal intensive inflection is the present-system of the reduplicating conjugation-class (II. further. pan. is allowed to form its intensive stem Thus. av before the i-vowel. dhu.

and (with irregular accent) badbadhe. nonavlti. dlarti. Present Indicative. 1006. jarbhuriti. vevidlti vevidati From y~^ would be havlti.). vevedmi. in the older language agree in general with Examples 1st pi. 1. Subjunctive forms with primary endings extremely rare: there have been noticed only janghdndni. As example of inflection may be taken is the root or. 2d sing. dedicate.. nenije. with irregular union-vowel. 3d pi.. sarsrte. auxiliary j6havimi. ganlgamti. carkarmi. and middle forms are few even in the Veda. v6vidlsi 3 vevidvds vevidmds vevitthds vevitthd ^fo|Tfr.. ku. veveti. nenijati. with irregular tartarithas. and then showing how the formation appears in As most grammarians do not allow a middle the earlier texts. i takes the auxiliary accent. ^|cj<{Jiri cfNTlH vevittds il<=^irj vevetti. vowel. in any of its No stem with forms.. . The forms found the paradigm. are: 1st sing. jdgardsi (AV. ifi^ veved. and. in strong forms. [1005 later language. tantasatte (3d du. jarbhrtds ddvidyutati. 3d du. 3d with the pi. more than a few scattering Neither from this nor any other root are forms actually quotable.. ndnnate. alarsi. dardariti. . with ending e instead of te. vevesmi. vdrvrtati. AV.. with irregular accent... 2. 2d sing. in the middle. jdngahe. Present Subjunctive. s. yoyuve. ndnadati. cdka$iti.. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. cdka&mi. Forms with secondary endings are more frequent: thus. f^ vidj of which the intensive stem cjf^ vevid. and.. ddrdarsi. kdnikrantti. bharibhrati. sii^cum johavlsi. and. dediste. has dissyllabic reduplication jdgrdti. janghanti. nenekti. A single dual form with I and strong stem occurs: namely.). tetikte. nonumas.326 XIV. 3d du. 3d sing. inflection. sarsrate . jdguve. 3d sing. vevidlmi 9 vevetsi. jdguve. are 1008. to occur are: 1st sing. sii^<Jiiri jo- 1007. no attempt will be made to set up a paradigm for the middle voice. d. bdbadhe. The middle forms found nenikte.. the singular forms with auxiliary vowel suc^ojiJZj jdhavlmi. jan- .

carkirama. . 3d pi. 3d 327 bdrbrhat. jagrtam. rardnas and their accent assimilates rardnat. d.. 3d du. jagrtd. nonuvanta. jdgarat. cakandhi. (as was pointed out above. Present Optative. Besides these. vavandhf. cankramata (RV. 1010. cdrkrsat. middle. jagrhi. dardrhi. has only cakanyat (pft. and cakdnanta jdnghananta. mdrmrjat.. dardirat. the unstrengthened stem.). fOfucanta perfect mode-forms long reduplication. 570) barbrhi shows an elsewhere unparalleled loss of h before the ending hi. Present Imperative. and raranddhf. and rarantu. to cdkafdn with (AV. 3d with double mode-sign. vevidyfima etc. The regular forms of the first including : the usual subjunctive persons. . the only accented example. 1009. apparently for cakanatu. RV. The first persons have been given above (janghdnani. janghanava. marmarttu. and the latter is used in AV. and raranta. the reduplicating present) . the ending tat is found in carkrtat and jagrtat. the proper imperatives are 1011. dadrhf.). veviditu vevittam are less vevidatu than optative. (and cakananta once).). vevisyat (AV. sasdhat etc. cdkdnas and cakdnat rather and cakdnama. nenijita (K. (8 10 a). This mode would show (566). does not correspond with the model. sanisvanat pi. with the usual endings accented. vevestu. davidyutat. once) has an anomalous union-vowel. vevidy&va etc. active. caniskadat.. Thus: _p.. parpharat..1011] ghanas. which like mamdhas and Of the middle are found only 3d persons plural: thus. ^f^ff vevitta vevettu. marmrjanta. jarhrsanta. imperative. 3d sing. . once) r In the middle voice is found only neniksva (QB. sing. jdnghanat. carkrdhi. The optative is represented by only an example or two in the older language: thus. only the anomalous cakantu (RV. pdpatan. 4.. carkiran. rarandhf. 2d du. jagrtam. 1st du.).?). pi. . jagryat (AB. vevidyftm etc. vevidama.. tfcucan. mdrmr?at... 3. . jalgulas . INTENSIVE. would be as follows vevidani 2 vevidava cjftrlH^ vevittdm vevidama 5!=l!i veviddhi . nenigdhi.). but is in conformity with the subjunctive of 2d sing. dardartu. 1st and.. as first person sing. 2d pi. Older imperative forms rare : .

. No middle participle shows the dissyllabic reduplication. marmrjma. rarahand. in the earlier texts are not numerous. and cakdn and rardn. 1012. are comparatively common in the older language. ndnnamat. araranws. ddndafana. dvevidlt dvevittam dvevidus 1015. as follows: in active. both active and middle. their y6yuvana. Marmrcantas (AB. if cakdt is to be referred to yka (Grassmann). droravlt. rendered uncertain by the unmistakably intensive badbadhand and marmrjand (beside mdrmrjana}. gen. and its accent is anomalous. The middle forms are . [1011 and johavltu. dvavarit.. 1st pi. Imperfect. it is the only example of an intensive from a root in a. Of imperative forms with auxiliary I. is including those from which the augment omitted. They are formed and inflected like those of the reduplicating present. anannamus. acaka^am.328 XIV. dedi^am. cekitat. z. adardhar. bdbadhana. mdrmrjat. and have the accent on the reduplicating syllable. The imperfect forms found They are. memyana. kdniskan. adardrtam. kdnikrat appears to be used once for kdnikradat. ftffweat. irregularly. acarkrsus. ddrdar. adardar. dyoyavit. 3d du. The RV. cekitana.. sarsrana. The imperfect regularly inflected as follows : dvevidam 2 dvevidva dvevidma 3^rT Sl^f^te^ ^ijfori^ dvevittam 5^j%fT dvevitta dvevet. 5. has vavaditu and such are sometimes found in the Brahmanas AV. Examples are: active. pdriiphanat. dardar. ddrdrat. although no other perfect forms with heavy reduplication from the same roots occur. djohavus. in 3d in sing. also.. rdrucana. 1013. dvavafit. 3d pi. The intensive participles.. cdkafat. dvevidis 3 dvevet. SECONDARY CONJUGATION.. adardar. ndnadat. raraksand. RV.. kdnikradat. with root. AV. avavafltam. ddvidyot. has against rule. ndvinot.. 1st sing. 2d du. tanstanihi and janghanihi. however.. On account of (beside jdrhrsana) accent. 6. . roruvat. The inference is. has none. ddvidyutat middle. djohavit. with auxiliary and. memyat.) is probably a false reading. sing. jdrbhurana.vowel cast out. 2d sing. ajagar. jdnghanat. has once jdnghnatas. 3d sing. anonavus : and. ndnnamana. avarivar. and jdhrsand are probably to be regarded as perfect participles. is 1014. adardirus. Present Participle.. cakdn.

as above described. marmrjydtam. from j/fcaf. from ytr.. along with middle endings only. every the is intensive stem. Derivative Middle Inflection. a passive value. yoyupydnte etc. coskuydse etc. participle marmrjydmana . from yvli. etc. etc. 3d sing.. etc. marmrjydte. an a-stem). the AV. five of which have also forms of the simpler conjugation.? the text reads amarimrt syanta) cakacydte . may be formed conjugation in present-system a further derivative which formally identical with a passive. 1016. marmrjydse. marmrjyethas. marmrjydte etc. imperfect dmarmrjye. from ymrj. from yjap. Thus: from j/mr/.. from yvrt. amarimrfyanta (QB. from ydif. Perfect. namely. is made the present thus.. adds one more. carcurydmana . the other earlier texts (so far as observed) only twelve more.: should be varivrty-). From . and half of them have likewise marimrjytta . avevllyanta. it is comparatively rare. from ymrf.. and forms of the simpler conjugation. ddedista. 1017.. from year. from yvi. from }/nam. A final vowel before this ya is treated as before the passive- sign ya (770). but is in meaning and use in- distinguishable from the simpler conjugation. dmarmrjyathas. sign yd. usual than the other in the later language. from yrih. nannamyadhvam . dedicate..vowel. elsewhere unknown). 7/6-forms are made from eight roots. yvah. In RV. varivartydmana (QB. weak form 3d pi. a perfect The grammarians are at variance as to whether may be formed directly from the intensive stem. however. being T made by the accented It has not.. optative marmrjyeya. etc. intensive stem indicative marmrjye. from ynud. etc. 1018.. The inflection is precisely like that of : any other stem end- ing in a in the middle voice marmrj. from ykrand. veviyate. This kind of intensive inflection is said to be in much more the earlier.. shows a transfer to marmrjata. nenlyeran vevijydte. from ysku. from yvad. vavadydmana. tarturyante. janjabhydte etc. from . from ynl. subjunctive forms do not occur.. from yjabh. janjapydmana. from yyup.1018] extremely few: radical in a if it INTENSIVE. of root). imperative marmrjydsva. vanivahyeta etc. kanikradydmana . dmarmrjyata. rerihydte etc. anonudyanta. .. marmrjyeta. 329 dnannata (with loss of the final and avavafanta (which. (with lengthened root. from yvij. belongs here.

Those of its forms which occur in the older language have been given along with the other intensives above. intensively reduplicated root in RV. Of all this. and jdgaritd.). has cdrkrse. also. the participle vanivahitd. In the older language. apparently. veviditavya. [1018 or whether only a periphrastic perfect 1070 if.: namely. up the scheme i where it is Thus. for the present-system. : and nonuvus. and its intensive stem. The old aorist (RV. davidhava and ndnava. sing. has once dodrdva. of a formation like hise and stuse (894 d). The older perfect is like the other intensive perfects found etc. and TS. jdgr. etc. 3d jdgara 1st sing. the grammarians are not agreed (occurrences of such forms. namely. and marmrjenya and vdvrdhenya . 3d sing. The RV. 3d sing. and is inflected throughout accordingly. in RV. jagarisydnt. in the ancient language.330 XIV. while by the grammarians this stem is reckoned as if simple and belonging to the rootto class (I. begins early assume the value of a root. them any basis for rules) in general. and a passive participle jdgaritd are met with in the Brahmanas. Aorist.. has the gerundives vitantasayya. ajigar. As to jdgarisydnt 1020. being too rare to afford even it is allowed to treat the intensive stem further as a root in filling of forms. pi. As to the remaining parts of a full verbal conjugation.) is to be admitted. 1019. using always the auxiliary vowel ^ ever used in the simple conjugation. jdgara with the participle jdgrvdns. the int finitive veviditum. and veviditasmi. . the aorist and futures would take the corresponding middle form. There are systems of inflection of certain roots.: and jdgara 3d but as to these. (below. Thus The root gr (or gar] 'wake' has from the first no present-system save one with intensive reduplication. intensive stem vevid. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. the : intensive character of which is questioned or questionable. see the next paragraph. where the intensive conjugation is the derivative middle one. They are. the same with those acknowledged as regular later. mid. And. To these may be added see below. and form a completer conjugation. and the infinitive dedlyitavdf. Future. and and QB.) is the usual reduplicated or so-called causative aorist: thus. would be made the the futures vevidisyami participles vevidita.. The grammarians give it in the later language a perfect with . and the gerunds vevidiiva and -vevidya. no example of an intensive periphrastic perfect A few unmistakable perfect forms are made from the has come to light. etc. from y vid the aorist avevidisam with precative vevidyasam. there is hardly a trace.... 1020. and a future.

RV. pass. 'regulate'. 331 additional reduplication. is [doubtfully referred to the intensive. of forms are rj. causative. from ydv or dar. has been viewed as an intensive from yraj or however. if veviddydmi. The same 'propitiate' is true of iradh. vis .. not infrequent in 'go'. A marked intensive or frequentative meaning is . Desideraiive. all. and leldyatas (gen. is 1026. thus. desid. and everything else that is needed to make up a complete con- jugation. The stem irajya (active only). with irregularly strengthened reduplication and they treat in the same way vie and vij. III. intensive of yi but with the oldest language. jajdgdra etc. The middle stem called an Tj/a. etc. The stem so-called root vevi 'flutter' is a pure intensive. Thus. of causative. and. from yvrt. apparently for iradhqdhyai}.).. The pples alelet root U 'totter'. and mj. The grammarians reckon the inflection of nij and vis as belonging to the reduplicating present-system (II. (only iradhanta and irddhyai. 1025. 1021.. sire for By the desiderative conjugation signified a de: the action or condition denoted by the simple root . 1024. use their intensive present-system as if it were an ordinary nor is it otherwise with rand/i. intensive of ydra 'run'. as avarivrtus. is made by the grammarians a simple root. and so thus. from vevid. as we have . make from on : the intensive also a passive.1026] INTENSIVE. pres. veBut such formations are not found in the older language. and alellyata. and furnished with a complete set of conjugational forms as : dadaridrau. quite irregular in inflection and accent: leldydntl and lelayate alelayat. etc. as it has isolated no analogy of form with any intensives. the roots cit. com- mon is in RV. It lacks. ran. (or dard). ajagarisam. with constant intensive reduplication. once) seems corrupt. 1023. anomalous form dart 2d and 3d as if sing. leldyati leli. not always easily to be traced in the forms classed as intensive in some of them it is quite effaced. from which a number made in RV. is usually very doubtful propriety. imafte. they account a simple root. kan (of conjugation-class which.. they occur at are excessively rare in the later. vevidye. caus. seen. impf. Also daridra. desid.) and lelayamana. abbreviated from dardar. with precative jdgarydsam. . vevidisdmi vidayisami. jagr. the forms admit of being referred to the perfect-system). any analogy with the intensive formation. 1022.. has once avarlvus (or -vur) where the sense requires a form The form rarandta (RV. as noticed above. adaridraslt. is also of questionable character. It does not occur in the older language. an zs-aorist. sing. and with gr (jagr). The RV. The 1st pi. It is allowed by the grammarians to desiderative.

more numerous in the Brahmanas and later not one third of the whole number of roots (about ninety) noted as having a desiderative conjugation in Veda and Brahmana have such in RV. bulhursa. pipasami. mate i or : (beside pipasa) from ypa 'drink'. however (like the tense-signs of aorist and future). a reduplication. 'I ist ^SRwfivami. desid. piplsa c.) from yha 'remove' (jihlte: 664). visami. make titahsa. thus. becoming ^ isa. juhusa final r b. and a penultiu or r optionally. A jiyamisa) from is ygam . the same finals necessarily.332 thus. 1028. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. cikirsa. jihlsa (AV. More special exceptions are d. Its forms are also of increasing frequency: much fewer than the intensives in RV. seen in cikisa Reversion to guttural form of an initial after the reduplication is from yd. but with : the following exceptions a. sometimes takes before it the auxiliary vowel S e. and also wish to drink'. jigisa . . jiglsa from yji. jigansa (beside jighahsa from yhan . an appended H sa which. root The desiderative stem is formed from the simple by the addition of two characteristics: a. nHlHl desid. said to f. 1027. cucrusa. 'I live'. A final A * or u is lengthened before sa: thus. tustursa (the only examples noted from the older texts). jihirsa. XIV.. cikitsa from ycit. The desiderative conjugation. A few roots in a weaken this vowel to I or even i: thus. although its forms outside the present-system are extremely rare in the oldest language. Before isa. is earlier and more fully expanded into a whole verbal system than the intensive. b. jighahsa from is yhan. ciksisa. sislrsa. . and yhi said to make jighlsa. few roots in an or am lengthen the vowel e. mlmahsa from ]/man and ytan : . have the ywm-strengthening (no examples are quotable from the older texts). I desire to live'. didhisa (beside dhitsa) from ydha. which always has the accent. becomes ir or ur before sa: thus. Such a conjugation is allowed to be formed from any simple root in the language. . from any causative stem. The root in general remains unchanged. cikisa. [1026 1 sHM ( pibami. 'I drink'.

or ft r.) from yiabh. ap is only root with yund.) or llpsa (TB. ripsa (GB. they form pitsa from ypat as well as pad .: ysanj). fiksa from ]/fafc. Initial s is usually left s the desiderative sign has unchanged to * after the reduplication when (184 c): thus. But: few roots A blbhatsa from ybadh j/ap or have a long vowel in the reduplicating syllable thus. The The : roots van and san make vivasa and from the root-forms va and sa. The consonant of the reduplication follows the is it general rules (590). : abbreviated found the older language as follows dhitsa (beside didhisa) from ydhd. and they add ritsa from yradh.1030] g. badh. has apsa once). DESIDERATIVE. mlmansa from yman. a. initial vowel which forms : In a the older desiderative stem. the vowel ^ is i if the root has an aif vowel.vowel. 'perish' mimanksa from ymajj mimar- 1029. instead of dipsa. From is made (in B). pitsa The gram(93. stems are rTT ditsa in from y^J da. Such 37 ~ipsa from |/^TC ap . form an abbreviated stem apparently by a contraction of reduplication and root together into one syllable : thus. Svap forms swsupser. with mutilated reduplication. jnlpsa and (beside jijnapayisa] from the causative quasi-root jnap (below. are added ipsa from yap (RV. and Irtsa from yrdh: the other texts furnish lipsa (3. 3 u the root has an u. in lv root jiv forms jujyusa (B. which have abbreviated stems C. and yaj. k. regarded desideratives from yynaf 1030. by the grammarians . The gramother cases of the same kind: thus. ditsa (beside didasa) from yda . and dhiksa (QB. ardidhisa from y-rdh. : ninanksa (or ninafisa) from j/nap. including some of very com- mon use.: in AV. b. jisa (or mimrksa) from J/mr/. and susyusa as and sisanisa. or an i-vowel. and to sisevisa. except ap and rdh. icithe ksisa from yiks. slksa from ysah: these are found in RV. undidisa from language. A number of roots. atffisa (with a mode of reduplication like that followed marians give sometimes in the reduplicating aorist: 862). 1042e). make the or have guna before isa: Dhurv forms dudhursa. VS. and tutursa (RV. h. sisanksa (B. marians prescribe dhipsa or dhlpsa from ydabh. susyusa same change before sa. according to the grammarians. mitsa from yyma ard ml and mi: this last could be only an anomalous .) from ydih (Or. as RV. and the other roots (or iv 765) are required thus. rather. dipsa from ydabh.) from ypad. has the stems fnaksa and 'attain' fyaksa. dah).). 333 sisasa.) from yrabh. see the next paragraph. i. Further may be mentioned prescribed . arjihisa from yarh.: to jijlvisa.) i'rom : ytur.

titiksemahi etc. Ipsama etc. bibadhisa. . The other examples noted in the early texts are afifisa. general. cicarisa. from ]/fer 'be sharp' (see below. and only one each in AV. cikramisa. It is declared to follow or in exceptions. riradhisa. in the older language. titikse etc. as elsewhere in this root). jigrahlsa (with I for i. in all the modes (including. vividisa. ithough not without the analogy of the futures (934. (jigomisa). 'endure'. titiksai etc. 1040). titiksavahe etc. Ipsava etc. active.. badh. Stems also without the auxiliary vowel are made from roots gram. in fect regularity. ipsamas etc. and TS. necessary optional. 1. jiv. vid. made after the analogy of the others. be sufficient to take as active give here the persons only.334 formation. 2. rather). i is 1031. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. titiksevahi etc. ipseva etc. 3. 'seek to obtain'. (jijlvisa). titiksamahai etc. 943). Present Subjunctive. jihihsisa: most of them are found only in QB. titiksamahe etc. The is desider- stem conjugated in the present-system with perlike other a-stems. quite rare it in the early language but more common later . jijanisa. |/5TFJ dp. 1032. and is allowed or prescribed by the grammarians in many stems which have not yet been found in actual use. Present Indicative. ipsavas etc. middle. titiksavahai etc. of the use of VS. The use of the auxiliary vowel ^ . It will the subjunctive). We may from tij\ model icifrtsl <% ipsa. XIV. ipseyam etc. No example (pipatisa). titikseya etc. ative Inflection: Present-System. and with participles first and imperfect. (it 1030 is Also moksa reckoned as a desiderative stem from )/mwc is denominative. ipsema etc. didlksisa. Present Optative. i is found in RV. as middle titiksa. Ipsani etc. d. both voices. psam etc.

1039) of them from stems which have lost their distinct desiderative The forms meaning. less a root. aipsisam tffriffiiji^ . from ruh. mimiksus. the complete system of verbal is allowed to be made in the desiderative conjugation. 1033. mimiksdtus. aipsava etc. and santa. ipsata etc. made QB. aipsam etc. Desiderative forms outside the present-system are The RV. irtsls and acikitsis. In found two aorist forms. Imperfect. 1035. dtitiksavahi etc. mimiksant (pple): they show that mimiks or miks has taken on the character of an independent root.). The desiderative perfect is the peri- Thus. Ipsatam etc. or impv. (viii. mimiksire along with the present forms mimiksati. titiksam cakre etc. being treated as Thus: 1034. in tat. are ipsam cakara in etc. mimiksdthus. noted from the other earlier texts will be given in full below. mimiksa etc. in ihana or tana. badh. titiksasva etc. its the desiderative stem. 21) has once didasitha. ^Hti ipsant (f. Apparent perfect forms of the ordinary kind made from mimiks in BV. has only perextremely rare in the oldest language. Present Participle. dtitiksamahi etc. 7 The aorist is of the dtitiksisi. fcilritf^ J ipsa etc. fysanfi] (rilrl^tHIUl titiksamana. dhurv. DESIDERATIVE. The quotable subjunctive forms are those in sani. 1037. phrastic (1070 if. Aorist. have been noticed in the preceding paragraph. and come to bear an independent value. 335 Present Imperative. aipsama etc. ^Htil 6. w-form (5): thus. No 1st pi. forms In the later language. and a all two from mimansa (see below. be reported from the older language. dtitikse etc. is met with. titiksadhvam etc. in most. or 2d pi. 'thou hast desired to give'.1035] 4. fern. Perfect. titiksetham etc.. sat There are almost no irregularities of inflection to and sat. san. mimikse. But the pple sisasati (instead of sisasanti) occurs once or twice in the older texts. 5. fect forms from a stem mimiks thus. final vowel. Such forms )/)/ kram. And AB.. are participle or AV.

). has titiksisyate and didrksitdras. ^H^UIM and Ipsisyami (rlirlRifli^ icifrti^Ti titiksisye titiksitahe. has aipsit. A desiderative u for appendage to the desiderative conjugation. 'despise'. Doubtless . jiglsd a present participle.). thus. llpsitavya (AB. ''ponder'.).). in all cases where older language have participle in ta. sisasu is of frequent occurrence. dipsu. mahsisthas. titties. 1052 b. TB.).). Adjectives in enya 966 b) are occasionally met with from the gerundive character earliest time thus. : A allowed to be made.).). thus. [1035 with and irtsis (augmentless. by adding the passive-sign 7J yd to the desiderative root (or stem without final a) thus. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. is adjective 1038. 'abhor'. 6. jijyusita (AB. ninlsenya (PB. 'it is desired to be obtained'. dcikirsls ma prohibitive : 579). The QB.336 The AV. and a caussCHTcT ipsydte. mimahsitd (AV. passive is Derivative or Tertiary Conjugations. example. been rioted : i. has also (having a : also a usual : didhisdyya (966 c). with irregular reduplication (apparently) paprksenya (RV. 'cure'. Some stems which are desiderative in form have lost the peculiarity of desiderative meaning. titiksisiya. are Verbal Nouns and Adjectives. acikitsis. The ^ i: futures are made with and the auxil- vowel asmi. tpsyasam. fUfrusitd and dhlksita (QB. 1039. GB. AV. ^HtillH ipsdyami. and aml- A but it precative is also allowed probably never occurs. juyups. 1037. The only participle trace of such formations noticed (apparently to mimansydmana in the older language is the be read instead of mimahsdmana. mimans. 1040. These is too made with In the that vowel the auxiliary vowel ^ ever taken. bibhatsii. didhyasitavya (QB. mimahsitva (K.. also. cause to desire obtain- ment'. has XIV. and QB.). ative by adding in like manner the causative-sign 'I 3BRJ dya (1041): thus. afrtsit. and assumed the value of independent roots: examples are cikits. bibhats. and has the meaning and construction of An abstract noun in a for example. ix. iary Futures. and ajighahsis. For the desiderative conjugation formed on causative stems. 'endure'. 1036. see below.24).). gerund in in tva. didrksenya (RV. cuprusenya (TS. gerundive in tavya. which is found as early as the Brahmanas. RV.

codaya from ycud. Causative. in the older lang: (if uage. A final vowel has the rrdfZ/-strengthening : thus. ri* dyut (dyutaya and dyotaya). from about one its but in the forms outside the present-system are (apart from the attached reduplica- ted aorist: 1046) exceedingly few. sprit. saraya. il and . The is a more obviously denominative one than any of the other con- jugation-classes. and some palpable denominatives. the proportion without causative value is fully one third. marjaya (beside sometimes has vrddhi. tuj. though not exclusive. But by no means sign 5RJ dya are all of causative value. is. an intermediate between them and the proper denominatives. I have the #ww#-strengthening thus. tur. vedaya from j/Wd. vip (vipaya and vepaya). made from more than two hundred and hundred and fifty). A causative meaning has established itself in and become predominant.10421 CAUSATIVE. early language (inRV. b. capable of it) from ~\/trp. mrd. cit (citaya and cetaya). IV. roots in the oldest. which (below. : mar/at/a). causative The cidedly formation into is of much more expanded It is a full conjugation. u. and either alone or along with others. bhavaya. 22 . In the later language allowed to be made from every root a complete causative conjugation. Mrj (rimya and resaya). sign 5HI The treatment as follows: of the root before the causative- ctya is a. yrabli makes in RV. of 337 some the apparent roots in the language with sibilant final are akin with the desideratives in origin. according to formation In RV. regard them as a conjugation-class. root. than frequent use.. connection with the formation. this is a causative stem. Grammar. Medial or initial i. as in other forms thus. and Dus and guh lengthen the vowel instead. which roots may be inflected as according to the other classes. A number of roots of late appearance and probably derivative character are included in the class. and more deeither the intensive or the fifty desiderative. is 1041 . tarpaya But a few roots lack the strengthening: these are.. grbhaya. The basis of formed by appending the causativeconjugation-stems formed by the and the grammarians the tenth or cwr-class. r. lack only the usual denominative accent 1055). Whitney. dharaya. 1042. and kalpaya from }/klp (only example). sign 5HT dya to the. cyavaya. usually strengthened.

chad. anaya. dhvan. sayaya from ysa (or si). cam. From . The roots in the older language which keep their short a are an. ghdtaya from yhan. yruh forms later ropaya (earlier rohaya). dr hr. skandaya. lengthened. llnaya (according to grammarians) from yil. the denominative of a derived noun. and later) from yji. pratfe. hrepaya from yhri. randhaya. . yu 'ward later off'. regular causatives . dapaya. jr 'decay". arpaya. * am dam. i [1042 (unless or I has vrddhi in the rather than pa) : older language as. hvayaya from yhva. adaya. paya from adhi-\-yi. drd 'run'. ksayaya} japaya (VS. also. it usually appears in the causative stem: thus.'an. 'weave'. from roots cha. and the root r. gam (gdmaya nad. and va 'tire'. fnath. bhlsaya from ybhl. are: pdlaya from ypa . "below] comes from pi indeed. da 'give'. mid. > nam. with various ac- companying irregularities: thus. and cdpaya (beside cdyaya) from yd. ma 'measure'. dhapaya. fru.. according to the grammarians. gla. sna. tvar. which does not occur) from ysmi. and vya. ran. d. earlier. sthapaya. lambhaya. ksepaya from yksi 'dwell' (RV. pu. dru. 'protect'. janaya. vr 'choose' makes varaya initial (it is not found in V. lapaya (TB. later language Stems from a-roots showing no p are. bhajaya. Some have both forms: namely. forms of a root. jnd. and. rambhaya. vd 'blow'. f. c. sr.). dhunaya (not causative in sense) from ydhu. once in RV.. Such stems are made in the older language from the roots khyd.). bhapaya (beside bhayaya and bhlsaya) from ybhl. or Br. payaya from ypa 'drink' pyayaya from ypya or pyay . dhvas. and later) from yil. payaya 'dwell' [d. vlepaya from yvll. ghrd. {or pi). crathaya. stan. later. ha 'remove' and ha 'leave'. mah. ram. pan. raj has svar. das. vyath. More anomalous cases. smapaya (beside smayaya. once) and ranjaya. and further. A few roots have (generally in the older language only) a form : also with puna-strengthening 'burst'. va payaya from }/f. see below. stha. dha 'put' and dha 'suck'. ( ) . thus. Moreover. has ksayaya from yksi few alternatively permitted forms. The roots which lengthen the vowel are If a nasal is taken in any of the strong decidedly the more numerous. in which the so-called palpably prlnaya from yprl. A medial or a in a light syllable is : sometimes thus. beside and ksapaya and ksayaya from yksi 'destroy' ksapaya AV. prath. and from fra only frapaya (not in RV. Most roots in final a. e. svan. according to the grammarians. krapaya from ykri. mad. and sometimes remains unchanged svapaya. Also gla forms in the glapaya. pat. for a from such roots are hardly quotable only RV. dhan. and yknii or knuy causative is is said to form knopaya. adhya. e. sphdvaya {according to grammarians) from ysphd or sphdy. rajaya (AV.). i The same p is taken also by a few and I-roots.na and sna are found in AV.338 But no root in XIV. and later the shortened forms jnapaya and snapaya. svad. nabh. repaya from yrl. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. add p before the conjugation-sign: thus.

AB. act. is maddyaite (RV.). mid. etc. 3. and AV. etc. active.1043] CAUSATIVE. p. 570).. 1. ].. Thus Present Indicative. in masi greatly outnumber of (as 10 to act. e for ate.) are used as 2d pi. d.) is 2d pi. act. d.. 339 1043. in No example occurs 2d pi. etc.. form in ai. dhardyami dhardyavas dhardyamas dhardye dhardyavahe dhardyamahe etc. dharayaite ( dharayatai aite occurs RV.). etc.. _ dharayathas dharayatha _ ( (dharayas \ dhdrdydti 3 { ( dharayatas dharayan dharayat one dual mid. is The causalike stem inflected f in the present-system precisely other stems in a : it will be sufficient to give here in gen- eral the first persons of the different formations.) is 2d sing. Brahmanas. and varayatat (TB. in thana. 1) those in mas RV. The only madayadhvai. etc. varayadhvcit (K. nor of 3d sing. from j/J dhr. Present Imperative. The primary end: more common than the secondary. etc. gamayatat and cyavayatat (K. etc. all For the subjunctive may be instanced as occurring in the older language 1 : the forms noted dhdrdyani (dhdrdydsi I dhdrdydva dhdrdydma dhdrdydi dharayase dhdrayavahdi (dhdrdyddhve (dhdrdyadhvdi 2 _ . etc. etc. The in both 1st pll. form in Only are dhdrdydte . etc. dhardyeyam dhardyeva dhardyema dhardyeya dhardyevahi dhurdyemahi etc._ . etc. two in the become more common 4. etc. Optative forms in AV. etc. Present Optative.). etc. taking as : model the stem UT^I dhardya. etc. except ings in 2d and 3d sing.. mid. etc. 2. s. Present Subjunctive. middle. and the only noted example (see above. they are very rare in the oldest language (four in RV. 22* . etc. Imperative persons with the ending tat occur: dharayatat (AV.. tive Inflection: Present-System. dhardya dhardyatam dhurdyata dhardyasva dhardyetham dhardyadhvam etc. in 1st du. has once kamayita.

the formations from the causative stem in aya outside the present-system are in the oldest language very limited. tr (bodhayitr.. etc.I 340 XIV. -yanfi) ^|(t(HIUI dhardyamana. to which the auxiliary is added. In the Brahmanas. perhaps. TT5[Ert cjsfil^ dharayam cakara STTfETt tT^IT dharayhm cakre. ddharayam ddharayava ddhurayama ddharaye ddharayavahi ddharayamahi etc. and but two or three in all the various texts cakdra Black Yajur-Veda.). is Its association with the causative an original intensive character belonging to form. causative stem in aya. . the derivative noun in 5TF a. For a few forms in see below. has been already fully described (above. As was above pointed out. [1043 Present Participle. more than which have no AV.. etc. for the reason that this work uses in considerable part the perfect instead of imperfect as its narrative tense). in accusa1045. also two s-future forms and four gerunds in tva. as will be below. 6. nidharayd. seven in and a few in a (atiparayd. 5.. Aorist. The accepted causative perfect is the periphrastic (1070). verbal deriva- forms become more numerous and various. In RV. being formed from the causative stem: thus. also one or two derivative nouns in itnu. except in Qli- (where they abound : chiefly. vacaminkhayd. coday- five in isnu. are found two forms of the future in syami. etc. 856 ff. Imperfect. in doubtless founded on it as a reduplicated in the Veda it is : (in RV. Of of the this gamaydm They are perfect no example occurs in RV. vi$vamejaya). and is a matter of gradual growth made from a considerable number of roots a third of its instances. Ttft dhardyant (f. but It made directly from the root. and which perhaps belong to the imperfect. from one of which is made a periphrastic perfect tive (gamayam cakdra}. tive form. In AV. and ten infinitives in dhydi itri).. about a fifth) . It etc. only one in AV. or VS. and a few derivative noun-stems. is The aorist of the causative conjugation the reduplicated. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. Is etc. which in general has nothing to do with is the causative stem. also by no means frequent in the Brahmanas. 1046. 1044. or SV.. noted in detail Perfect. and these not in the mantra-parts of the text.

LntllHH dharyasam etc. from the form of the root as strengthened in the causative stem.6| dharayisye etc. with the conditional. final f which takes the place of a. A precative is of course allowed by the grammarians to be made for the causative conjugation: in the middle. A small number of Vedic forms having sporadic attempts at and It after y of the : causal stem are apparently making an fc-aorist thus. in the active.).). jap. dharayisydmana. ^|^|6jo. jnap. etc. vyathayls (AV. bhis for ~\/bhi. unayls. 341 is The causative aorist of y J dhr. M adharayisyam etc. from the causative stem with the auxiliary S i substituted for its final ^ a. Both the causative its futures. Is from bibhisas etc. etc. In a few cases. made from stem. dhvanayit (RV. etc. RV. also with ma). E-H^lUcfltl dharayisiya doubtless to be regarded as purely fictitious. 1050. from 1048. Conditional. TS. thus.1050] CAUSATIVE. Periphrastic Future.. and the only other example from the older language sthap. dharayisyhmi etc. from quasi-roots in ap are made Aorist-forms of this character crap (above. etc. M(KJcn< dharayithhe etc. etc. 861) is . dharayit&smi etc. 1042 d if. are Futures. hap.. used with ma prohibitive (compare the denom. with the auxiliary ^ t. Thus: xS'-Future. and ailayit (AV. : The 5-future participles are made regularly syant (fern.) the reduplicated aorist is made from this form instead of from the simple root thus. but without the causative sign: thus. dharayi- . 1047. as follows : ddidharam ddidharava ddldharama ddidhare ddldharavahi adidharamahi etc. where the root has assumed a peculiar form before the causative sign as by the addition of a p or s (above. atisthipam from : sthap (stem sthapaya] for ystha. The two former are augmentless forms. has instead the anomalous dhvanayit}. -ydnfi or -yatl). This formation is etc. then. fc||^|kj adharayisye etc. 1049.

vajayddhyai. gerund in ya : -gharya. . cravitd. affords two examples (parayitdsmi and janayitdsi). 1052. -vasya. -padya.). -sadya. in the older language accusative: -sthapam (PB. isayddhyai. tdrpayitavat. trayaydyya (ytra : ?). but still sparingly. -arpayitvti (AV. in dhyai: irayddhyai. tahsayddhyai. are formed from the causative stem in the same manner in part as the futures cT namely. in part Verbal Nouns and Adjectives. gerundive in ya sthapya. From a. sadayitvn. -sthapya : .342 XIV.).: see 990). gerund in am: -sthapam (QB. QB. causative stem may be made a passive and a deThus is : siderative conjugation. The former begin to appear in the Brahmanas more numerously.). crapayitva (AB. follow the same rule as to accent with the similar formations from the simple root. and none of the periphrastic.).form. QB. vartayddhyai. f : later language (but tavya: tarpayitavya. -rocayitva (TA. sprhaydyya. infinitive in turn: josayitum. the Derivative or Tertiary Conjugations. the passive participle in and the gerundive and gerund in U ya (and the rootfrom the causatively strengthened root. showing no trace of the special accent of the causative stem. of the latter. pdyayitavai. and AV. na$ayddhyai. infinitive in tavai : jdnayitavaf. mandayddhyai. 1051. RV. with participles. janayitum. vasitd. syandayddhyai All these. and conditional (only adharayisyat. STRTrT dharydte. These .). Thus. risayddhyai. gerundive in lhaksavitavya <7 e7 . contain only two examples each of the s-future. -kalpayitavaf. dharayitum. the caus- ative-sign being dropped: thus. kalpayitavya. gamayitavya. of formations found only root-infinitive. parayittim.). (all madayddhyai. The passive-stem T formed by adding the usual pas- sive-sign yd to the causatively strengthened root.). SECONDARY CONJUGATION. infinitive) The auxiliary ^ i is taken in every formation which ever ta admits that vowel. of formations permitted in the the examples taken from the earlier): participle in ta : irita. it will be noticed. [1050 It has been mentioned above that RV. yajya . Further. -Ccotayitavaf (all infinitive $B. gerundive in ayya : panaydyya. gerund in tva: kalpayitva.

thus.). The grammarians teach the language that of an f that any noun-stem in be converted. In general. 'he rules'. are the final of the causative stem found V. 1054. examples are pipayayisa (K.). Denominative. vadya- sthapya.. 'acts 'resembles 'is (goddess)'. from clearest of which is bMsd&ti. DENOMINATIVE. allowed in this way.(AB. rajanati. are in their ultimate origin denominative and that many apparent roots are of the same character. has a few isolated and extreme rarity in actual use. bhisaj. patyate. its A denominative conjugation one that has for basis a noun-stem. 1039. . crayati. Qri malati. but they are met with here : Brahmana language (TB. and so on. that their origin is recent and undisguised.(GB. The desiderative stem is made by reduplication and addition of the sign ^ isa. vdnanvati. and so on.). bhavati. Veda. is 1053. didrapayisa and riradhayisa and apipayisa (QB. The RV. tarusema etc. kavayati. vanusanta.. 'acts of is like Krishna'. krpdNone of nanta. The denominatives which are so called differ from these only in . pitarati. too. 'master'. In the 343 Such passives are not found and there throughout the (K. 'is "plays the poet (kam)'. examples are jnapyd- (TS. without other addition than may a (as union-vowel enabling it to be inflected according to the second general conjugation) into a presentwhat stem.1055] CAUSATIVE. bhurafanta. the base of denominative conjugation . As examples kr swati. doubtful examples. But such formations are at the best of kingly'. bibhavayisa and cikalpayisa and lulobhayisa (AB.). b. 'he heals'. like the earth (bhuf. along with other formations analogous with a present-system. (^MI^fllMTH didharayisati here and there in the Brahmanas and later: These. the . and conjugated as such. sadya- padya.). of which the initial vowel replaces : . the father'.). 1055. As to causatives made from the desiderative stem.). Other possible cases are (Delbriick) isanas etc.). it is made like a form of the root-class 'physician' abhisnak seems to be its imperfect according to the nasal class. see above. It is a view now prevailingly held that most of the presentsystems of the Sanskrit verb. And the other Veda or Brahmana texts has anything additional of the same character. are given 'is like a garland (mala)'. appears to be a denominative of pdti.

is relation it sustains to the ya of the t/a-class of of of the passive. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. The modes of treatment of the stem-final are also various and the grammarians make a certain more or less definite assignment of the varieties of meaning to the varieties of form. What and the noun-stem the causative-sign aya. uages. ykr 'praise'). are reckoned by the grammarians as a separate conjugation-class (above. 1056. fied it are: 'be like. present sonal forms from hardly a third as many participles. but having the causative accent. the noun-stem by [1055 made from means of the conjugationso-called causative conjugation. The identity of this ya with the ya of the as making with the probable. QB.. will be the best one . beginning origin. along with like forms from roots which have no other present-system (though they may make scattering forms outside that system from the root directly). in . they are far from numerous which occur are "cwr-class" verbs. act as. which general. Denominatives are formed at every period in the history of the language. Hence the formal classification. crave' that which signi- by the noun-stem. as'. and so on. are from the earliest down. . has only half as many (and perfrom the rest. y 1057. : most frequent in RV. and the way in which this is denominative sign yd. the noun-stem.. of the greatest variety some of the most frequent 'regard 'use. These.I 344 is XIV. are mantrdyate man -\-tra] and kirtdyati (from kirti. 'cause to be.. of all varieties AV. is. but this allotment finds only a dubious support in the usages of the words as met with even in the later language. AB. less than twenty. In the later language hardly more than a dozen. is more open to question. to appear at the earliest period of the language. final a altogether (VIII. contains over a They hundred. (from mantra. forms of or treat tion of.which has the accent. sign ET ya. the derivative intensive stem. and still less in the earlier. plainly denominative in Examples. Intermediate between the denominative and causative conjugations stands a class of verbs. play the part of.). . The denominative meaning . and most of those as in other lang- 1058. 607). or which have this beside other present-systems without causative meaning. make into'. according to the final of the treated before to follow. or derivative nouns). make applicais 'desire. wish for.

a sibilant added: thus. in gopaydti. a. i From stems u] in e. dhunaydti. vowel-stems. urusydti. apasydti. 'grumbles. aratiydti (also -tiy-}. pitriydti. 'desires sakhiydti. u. 'fights'. 'is bhisajydti. sumanasydte. 'plays the physician. to 1062. 'craves flesh'. and tt. dropped (after n or r}: thus. Denominatives of this form show a special proclivity toward the mean- ing 'desire'. active'. 'is rapid'. thus. ularly jury'. . 'is 'acts the foe'. 'performs the sacrifice'. Final a protects'. 345 1059. usually remains. adhvariydti. 1063. use has been noted. 'seeks cattle. In the Veda. 'is (or else is gunated. From dhl. acvaydti. much less common.10631 DENOMINATIVE. is pious'. or rarely 'is . The final a of a nounremains unchanged thus. 'is a. gavydti. as to a (above. ' desires wealth'. It is : . : goes a-raiding'. prtanyati. i is treated as a thus. vasuydti. the change of a to e. Other modes of treatment are sporadic thus. i. amitraydti. catruydti. 'plans mischief. From other be changed to ri: thus. 'saves'. e). is sometimes treated in the other methods of an a-stem 'fights'. piitriydti or putriy&ti. gatuydti. 1061. tarmydti. 'acts like a bull'. adhvarydti. More is rarely. RV. the addition of s. 'holds 'desires food'. it From stems 'plays in a. turanydti. : A 'is final consonant namasydti. thus. From consonant-stems. as in stanasyati. favorably disposed'. 'fights'. the herdsman. usually remains before ya 'pays reverence'. dear'. 'sets in motion'. c. said makes dhiyaydte. thus. have their element changed to a semivowel thus. as in varcydti. mighty'. in the few cases that occur. b. uksanydti. vehement'. Final a lengthened: priyaydte. rjuydti. e. It is changed to ~i. 'plays the : enemy. Final r is fatherly': no example in final The diphthongs. 'seeks the breast'. forms of the same verb with short and long a before ya sometimes exchange with one another. 'comes snorting'. with loss of a y}: Sometimes. is oftenest is in a. Such stems are (especially those in u. acanaydti. aghaydti. thus. friendship'. as : but prtanayati. mahsiydti. is discontent': with short u. 'per- forms the sacrifice'. 'desires a son'. 'cultivates the gods. thus. 'plays the wooer' d. 'plots in'seeks a wife'. b. 'seeks for horses'. avisydti. 1060. asuydti. cures'. They show reg- and u before ya: (also jamydti -my-). straight'. devaydti. tavislydti. stem From stems hostile'.

with a making the denominative-sign virtually sya also added after an i or w-vowel. ojaydte from is said to be treated as a final thus. madhusyati 'craves milk'. 1066. look like the begin- new conjugation-class. and AV. stabhaya. putrakamyati. stabhuya. : mantrdya. added to a final vowel. and the preceding vowel 'is kingly'. with causative accentRV. 1064. saparya. although related words appear: thus. damaya. fromro/an: vrsaydte from vrsan is the only example quotable from the older language. prusaya. and this comes to be recognised in the later language as an independent sign. by analogy. susvayd). camaya. sabhagdya. or ma- 1065. while. adds kirtdya. (]/ur uation are 1067. n : [1063 sometimes dropped. paldya. The grammarians reckon as a special class of denominatives in kamya what are really only ordinary ones made from a compound noun-stem having kama as its final member thus. rajaydte or rajlydti. especially. krpdya. makhasya. nafaya. virdya. ruvanya. skabhaya. a sibilant is sometimes. (AV. ankuya. has grbhaya. mathaya. and.). vajdya (also vajayd). and panaya. outside of that sys- . asya. rathakamyati. dapasya. an a-vowel : is occasionally added to such a consonant before ya thus. SECONDARY CONJUGATION. (from satya]. on the other hand. which in general have A thus. The denominative stems Forms are in51 flected with regularity like the other stems ending in a throughout the present-system. thus. A number of denominative stems occur in the Veda for which no corresponding noun-stems are found. satvanayati from satvan.: son' only example noted from the older language). dhupdya. isaydti from 10. tudaya vasaya (yvas 'clothe').). putrakama. rtdya. musaya. 'longs for the chariot' : (K. Sporadic cases occur of other final consonants similarly treated: thus. susvdya (also AV. are a Vedic group of stems allied themselves to present-systems of the na-class (V. dhisanya. huvanya. arthdya. is The accent of dnniya and hdstaya (RV. isdya (also isayd)^ urjdya. few others have no na-class companions: $rathaya. By far the largest class of consonantal stems are those showing a s before the ya. ankhdya. panasya. or even. isanya. still b. The denominative stems in RV. 1068. And 'declares true' satyapayati. as has been seen above. in aya. f ratharya. beside grbhndti. and are found alongside the forms of that class: thus. vrsaya and perhaps afaya (j/ap 'attain'). sacasya. Those in anya. vlldya. 'rain'). Inflection. irasya. mrgdya. a. nings of a for all or nearly all of them isudhya. Having more that aspect. ojas . grbhaydti Of such.346 But a final XIV. is an example of yet another form- ation declared to occur. ratharya. ksirasyati. that express desire : longs for honey'. forming denominatives dhvasyati. however. 'desires a coming from the possessive compounds rathakama. RV. vavrdya.) wholly anomalous. risanya.

The gerundival adjectives saparyenya and atasayya also are met with. as the metre shows. the periphrastic it future. of the to-aorist.). with ai for z (555 b). mantraydm cakratus and cakre (QB. but. S 3). 20).). iii. 83 with md prohibitive) and avrsayisata (VS. occurs no form not belonging to likely) seems most sing. 2.. since has language a necessary part of every verb- conjugation. PERIPHRASTIC AND COMPOUND CONJUGATION. papayista (TS. as) and is coming only gradually into use in the Brahmai tense widely made and frequently used in the Sanskrit. the present-system. This (though almost unknown in the Veda. CHAPTER XV. though still remaining essenhas been so fused in its parts and alsince. certainly : is to be regarded as 2d Unquestionable examples of this aorist are asuyit (B. 1069. might be aorist. GB. the and one or two other like forms. and TS.). -mantrya (TB. appears to occur in TB. xiv. and rules for that class In which follow in all respects the are of the utmost rarity. The form dsaparyait (AV. a classical . 3. tered in construction as to assume in considerable measure the semblance of an integral tense-formation. 2. become in the al has been already described later (942 fT. unayls (with md prohibitive) imperfect. unless (as RV. By class is far the most important other formation of the The Periphrastic Perfect. (ii.. mantritd (QB.). 1070. amanasyait. participles kanduyisydnt and kanduyitd.1070] tern DENOMINATIVE. From roots assimilated to the causatives occur in the older language mantrayam asa (AB. TA. ONE periphrastic formation.). is probably a corrupt reading. and it tially periphrastic. 347 except from the stems which are reckoned to the causative or cwr-class.). pi. B. has the future gopayisyati..).

dayUm. and denominative . desiderative. a. roots more than one But urnu (712) is said to form urnonava only. PERIPHRASTIC AND COMPOUND CONJUGATION. oo *s causative SHMUIH bodhayam. bibhayhm. A few other scattering roots namely. The periphrastic perfect occurs as follows: : It is the perfect of the derivative conjugations causative. is by far the most frequent.. Even MBh. os&m.-stem hvaya). from their present-stem thus. denominative H^IUIH mantr aycausative stems. b. vidhm. 1024) to have a perfect of either formation. is met with from other roots thus. and from those denominatives which am. the noun in ^T a present-stem which is the thus. naydm from hvayam from yhvd (pres. in- tensive. as almost alone. general basis of each conjugation the : being made from intensive emsthiiH o *s bobudhdm.-stem naj/a). and hri. and kas and optionally vid and us. consonants (that is. bhu hardly 1071. jihrayhm (these with guna of the final vowel : . kr in used as auxiliary ever occurs all. Juhav&m. of ]/5fj kr 'make'. [1070 made by TT prefixing the accusative (accented) to of a derivative noun-stem in auxiliary verb 1 a the perfect tense of an of : namely. T^CJU^J^ cakasam. as. and bhu not at (Holtzmann). more often y^fc^as 'be . d. The formation from are assimilated to causatives. The : as roots) of formation stems reckoned by the grammarians syllable have their perfect of this thus. is 'be'. 1072. are the and anch. (long by nature or long by position) make this perfect and not the simple one thus. day. : An occasional example nl (pres. The periphrastic perfect of the middle voice is . desiderative SfarHM bubhutsdm. and those beginning (and taking an as reduplication: with a before two 788). and jagr and daridra (1020. and very rarely of ]/>T bhu. bhr. c. and a few roots of the reduplicating All these make the derivative noun class. roots ap ~S^\^ubjam from y3&!R ubj. hu. Most roots beginning with a vowel in a heavy syl- lable only. pointed out below. : before the a). bhi. ay. is In the older language.348 It is XV. bibhartim. ^IHH asam from yETITT : f^Fl^iksam Excepted from yjjfi^iks. from j/SfT budh.

prabhrancaydm yo naghusam cakarn..).). the same noun is combined with ykr in mantrayarh cakratus and As mantraydm cakre). Combinations of participles with auxiliary verbs. dudhursdm. It is unnecessary to give a paradigm of this formation. and ydjaydm cakara (K. but not entirely unknown: so. noun and auxiliary is not so close that other to come between them thus. janayam and sadayam and svadayam and sthapayam viddm (TS. akran. ykr. Participial Periphrastic Phrases.)... GB. of The connection the words are not sometimes allowed : tion 1073. In the Brahmanas.). ation in the later language.). . they are rather frequent.. tdm patayam prathamam asa. with akar occur ramayam (K..). Qr. Su. any other auxiliary than ykr appears only mantraydm asa in ^!B. combination of such a with various forms of the root kr. as the inflection of the auxiliaries is the same as in their independent use (for that of of y'cw. B.). occur viddm (TB. forming phrases which have an office 1074. GB. . Thus .) and viddm cakrma (K.. C. From simple roots having the same formruruksam.1074] PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT. Forms with the aorist of the auxiliary are in the oldest Brahmanas numerous as those with the perfect. the auxiliaries 3R7 as x For pas- and ^ bhu are c\ also allowed to take a middle inflection. as bibhaydm ($B. gamaydm cakara (AV. In the brahmana parts of the Black Yajus texts are found vidam cakara (TS. stems in aya example in begin to prevail over others.). 'him he first made to fall'.: they are cikramisdm... : : Of forms with the the perfect of the auxiliary occurs only a single whole body of Vedic texts (metrical): namely.). but quite infrequent. with any one of the three auxiliaries. Examples from desiderative stems have been noted only from QB. or and with has precative been noted only pavaydrh kriyat (MS. iksdm (B.a). as that general. asdm (QB. its aspect is quite different namely. K. TB. MS.). blbhatsdm. and also laydm (nilaydm) from yil (CB. see 800 b see 636). of condition or motion. edhdm (8. d. Like combinations with other tenses are excessively rare. 'who made Naghusha fall headlong' (both Raghuvanc. see 800 f) of ybhu. b. juhavdm (AB. the examples show. : the its noun (as in the case of the periphrastic future 945) has independent accent. examples from causative etc. xviii. MS. . 349 of y^\ kr . juhavam karoti (Qankh. With the aorist optative (MS..). GB. QB.). GB. TB. sive use. earlier.). and in B.. With (AB. Thus..)..). The above is an account of the periphrastic formawith a derivative noun in am as it appears in the later language of a more noun a. that of made only with the middle inflection the active.

'may be going to give'. chidram sarhdadhad eti (AB. 1076. havyam (QB. 'they continue sacrificing'. hi 'for he intending to cany the ddsyant syat vaksyan bhavati (K. bhu usually in other forms. They occur even in the Veda. a. 'surah pdrajitd Asuras. Thus: yah purvam ariijanah syat (AB. Examples of the various formations are present) participle as follows i.). 'just as one would mend [habitually] a garment This is the combination. to make d. may be about ytna vdhanena syantsydnt sydt to drive'. kept vehemently refusing'. 'Agni is constantly present in the fire'.). he is is not going to fall asleep again'. te pakramya prativavadato 'tisthan (AB. PERIPHRASTIC AND COMPOUND CONJUGATION. on the whole. and become again of little account in the later language. samavad eva yajne kurvana asan (GB.).). [1074 in analogous with that of verb-tenses. with a like l meaning.). All the forms. Thus : agndv agnfy carati prdvistah (AV. 'they were playing about'. as.). 'wherewith shall the other deities be won by me?' ydtra suptvd punar nh 'vadrasydn bhdvati (QB. juhvata asate (K. with predicates. The participle is oftenest a with as and bhu. The" same with the verbs Thus. of widest and most frequent occurThus yatha sucya vasah sarhdadhad iyad evam evai 'tabhir yajnasya rence.). parikridanta sleeping. 1075.).). agnir va this 'those vdifvdnaro te dahann ait (PB. future one. after at the sacrifice'. sacrifice'. and stha. dydvaprthivi updfrayan took refuge with heaven and earth'. are not unknown any period of the language. ydnto sya grhdh pafdva upamurydmana lyuh (B. 'they make a practice of beating with a rod what is undeserving of punishment'. c. In the later language. 'the animals. (AB. adandyam dandena ghnantaf caranti (PB. but are far more common and conspicuous in the Brahmanas. . 'they did the same thing asan (MS.). A participle fice before'. stha is the verb oftenest used. having gone off. signifying more distinctly than the preceding a continued or habitual action.). would be con- still b. 'they.). his family.). 'go (continually or habitually)'. te ( creation'. of verbal conof to jugation both primary and secondary conjugation.). personal and other. 'Agni Vaicvanara kept burning (TB. The same with the verb car. 'whoever may not have made sacri- various kind. (so and even some extent of denominative far as the . itara me kena devatd upaptd bhavisyanti (AB.350 XV. getting beaten. 'be'. 'when. so with these one mends any defect of the idarh sacrifice'. of a verbal phrase of continuance. 'sit'. as only is used in the optative. 'with what vehicle he Composition with Prepositional Prefixes.). tinually destroyed'. 'stand'. : with a needle. A (usually with the tenses of the verb 'go'.).

ami. up forth or out'. forth'. the conjugation of each root with prefixes is treated under the simple root. with their fundamental meanings throughout the : dtij 'across. 'unto. on to'. to the original use of that term. like simple words. away. chap. among. and the members retain so much of their independent value. around'. 'to. along. just as from the simple : root. Those verbal prefixes which have value as such whole history of the language are given below. elements of (see an adverbial character the next chapter). (often abhi. 'out. at'. from which then the whole conjugation (with many derivatives below. that in most dictionaries (that of Monier Williams is an exception) Yet. unto. denominative stems have become simple roots) - assimilated in value to - occur very frequently in combination with certain words of direction. 1077. 'to into'.PREFIXES. the so-called prepositions. ddhi. XVII. fore'. . past. and not in the alphabetic order of the prefix. within'. 'up.) is made. out of root and prefix. FKT m's. pdri. 3q ft upa. even there (and still more in the older language: 1081). over. 'to. Practically. "3 prdj 'forward. in. on. 'to. ctntdr. unto. beyond. forth'. 'between. . forth. 'round about. 'above. according or the verbal prefixes. in alphabetic order. 'down. onward. ^^\ pdra. 'away. close upon or on'. 3^" ud. R 5TT dva. Derivative words. against' with implied vio- lence) . it is as if a compounded root were formed. dpa. crf^ a distance. toward'. to excess'. in the later language. forth. toward'. are by universal agreement given in their independent alphabetic place. ni. off'. unto. the combination is so loose. dpi. 'down. however. 'after. off'. over.

purds. bhu. a. apa. upa. (or Of still : more limited use.. abhi. A 'without'. away. and kr . ati. only with kr (and obsolete in the classical language): hinkr. they vi. 'outside'. 'in 1077 reversed direction. common. with out of sight' hardly used except 'through. hin. trad 'believe. the roots they undergo In combination with yet much modification. rare. |cf m'. dha. asunder. 'forth to view': only with bhu. Apt of very limited use as prefix in also'. a. against. adhi. entirely lost in the later 'forth to sight. back to or against. of course. tiros. essentially akin with the above. is ltd. out'. prati. same Combinations of two are quite usual of three. indeed. antar. PERIPHRASTIC AND COMPOUND CONJUGATION.. -apart. as. crossways bhu (in RV. and AV. low. . the later language. dha. both literal and figurative seldom in such a way that the steps of transition from the fundamental sense are not easy to trace. used much more widely and frequently ?PT sdm. 1091. murmur'. are 1079. ni. 'along. 'too. and of noun rather than with dha (in adverb-value are prat/i?). saksat.352 XV. view'. An intensive force is not infrequently given by pari. prdti. as. but already very rare in AV. b. (only two 1078. the number of roots with In order of frequency in the older language (as estimated by which they are found used in RV. vina. pradus. stand as follows: pra. Prefixes roots). Their order much is in general determined only by the requirements of the meaning. pari. : especially kr. para. i. having become a conjunction. api. nis. with. only RV. More than one prefix root. sam. (used with over twenty roots). as bahia. together'. are than others. ava.). are these: distinctly adverbial. Sometimes. The meanings given are only the leading ones. kr. 'in front. less removed from ordinary adverbs. unto': tolerably frequent in RV. dcha (or acha\ 'to. 'kr. 'in still few others. 1080. and avis. in return'. forward': used with only half-a-dozen roots. . arm. credit'. but more and of more restricted use. 'make the sound hing. in view': language used only with the roots . And beside these stand yet more fortuitous combinations: see below. of more than three. vi. less may be set before the . once also with kr}: ?raddha. and sam. with three or four others). Some of these. the value of a root is hardly perceptibly modified by the addition of the prefix.

1082.). 'then . after'. of both Veda and Brahit may be mana. another prefix one that is expressed. verb and prefix are treated as two entirely independent words. alone. Grammar.1083] VERBAL ^PREFIXES.). the prefix always stands immediately before the verbal form. is A (592). be put in front of any of the others. the prefix or pre- fixes lose their accent. and the others lose 1083. [I have joined life'. 'may he come with gifts hither to us'. 'do ye two come hither quickly gdmad vdjebhir d sd nah (RV. scatter ye away forth to your home'. Thus. In the older language. samdcinusvd 'nusamprdyahi (AV. the one nearest the latter is so accented. e 'hd vaksyati (RV. qualifying a verb that is understood. when he goes up 23 Whitney. tdv d yatam tipa dravdt (RV. the prefix has its own accent or. myself] with ).). personal verbal form. 'protect me. 'from whence every day they advance and retire'. But a is never allowed and only extremely rarely in the older. : their accent. 'go away. 'I have separated from all ill-luck. only the case needs to be considered in which the prefix stands (as always in the later language) immediately before the verb otherwise. ydtah sadyd d ca para ca ydnti (AV. As regards the accent of verb-forms compounded with prefixes.). J woman come again quickly'. 'gather together. and may even (much less often) come after the form to which it belongs it may also stand : . its position is quite free separated from the verb by another word or words. 'may he lengthen out our lives'. ordinarily unaccented . sd devdn f or conjointly with pro.). my progeny. 1081. 1 .). prefix from a verbal noun or adjective is very much more and of quite rare occurrence. nah pdhi ydd dhdnam (AV.). If.). go to the together ydd grhdn upodatti (AV. dyunsi tdrisat (AV. In classical Sanskrit. and what wealth we own'. . dthd stam vipdretana (RV. That situated in every is prefix or prefixes J whole combination verb along with its normally constitutes a unity that the allowed to take but a single accent. The separation of the difficult. however.) 'he shall bring the gods hither'. if two or more precede the same form. 353 modification to the 5TT each added prefix bringing a further combination before which in the later language. the verb-form is accented. case. as has been seen above before such a form. is. pdri mdm pdri me prajdm pdri no. however.). . from disease. vy ahdrh sdrvena pdpmdnd [avrtam] vf ydksmena sdm dyusd (AV. the so far Examples are: pare hi nari ptinar e 'hi ksiprdm (AV. to it is set.

). 1085. pdreta. . C. which is not uncommon from the Brahmanas down. [1083 'now that you. Saraina. and has so lost the consciousness of its origin that it takes . language) sometimes lengthened. adhlvasd. dpivrta. and pra sometimes change their r to i. or as a preposition modern sense of that term). api with nah and dha. 185. In the later language. on the other hand. infinitives.). In combination with yi 'go'. The final vowel of a prefix. 'enveloped which thou didst enter the waters'. and are not divisible by any distinct and fixed line. the general rule is that the prefix loses its accent. tu (972). but throws the other back 'for following'. dnvetavai. dpabhartavai. dvagantos. which allow the mutual adaptations of the two to be made to some extent as if they were parts of a unitary word. accented dative in tavai retains its final cover upon the prefix : thus. 1084. with the infinitive in 'collect'. 192). evd ca tvdrh sarama ajagdntha (RV. b. ananuda. abhlvartd : thus. 'for carrying off. In the Veda.. sdmhartum. a. "to in all its cases : thus. sometimes lose their initial and ava. the prefixes para. as a general adverb of direction. b. opi. But the prefix instead has sometimes the accent namely. the initial of arm is sometimes lengthened after negative an : thus. 'fallen'. In this way is formed a kind of derivative stem palay.' 354 house 1 . parihara. in such case. inflected according to the a -class. when combined f : with the passive participle in ta or na thus. : 'complete'. 'flee'. in favor of the other member of the compound. not seldom has a more inde- pendent value. ava with gah. is (oftenest in the older adhi with stha. upavasu. A prefix. kinds of use shade into one another. belonging to and (in the usual governing a noun . in connection with certain vowel: namely. PERIPHRASTIC AND COMPOUND CONJUGATION. however. 1086. sdmpurna. but also by the euphonic rules (e. descending'. it is not drawn in to form The two part of a verbal compound. especially an i. dpidhatave. anurudh . virtidh. g. is is in a few cases found instead of nis with ykr. adhi. in middle voice. antdrhita. 1087 roots. dvapanna. 'concealed'. 'of up'. pratlkara. have in thus come hither yend "vistitah pravivefithd 'pah (RV. 'gone forth'. XV. and gerunds. A few special irregularities call for notice : a. but has its own accent. 1 . part. the doubly accent. In combination with the non-personal parts of the verb-system. especially in derivative words nivrt. the prefix The closeness is of combination between the root and indicated not only by their unity of accent. In the Veda. pravrs. with participles.

pariskrta. pari. 1089..1090] : VERBAL PREFIXES. i. are said to be sometimes combined with verbal forms are quotable from accentuated texts. Ind. As to the more general adverbial uses of the prefixes. Stud. inflected. 'go' of these are widely used in combination with a derivative in Such roots have also am to make a periphrastic conjugation. And ]/fcr 'scatter' said by the grammarians to add s in the same manner. s of stha and stambh after the prefix ud has been noticed above (233 a). 'make'. and upa: thus. adverbial prefixes sw. prefix root. 61). has once niniyoja and udaprapatat. and in MBh. 955 c. The stem palyay. The passive participle of the roots da of 'give' and da -final 'cut' has often i. are found a few cases like vivyasa from vi -\~yas (where. pratta. and anvasarhcarat (instead of anusamacarat) . atta. dvatta. 473. sarhskrta. and that from da of the derivative in 'give'. tamam to verbs. however.). (instead The AB. g. (see The loss of the initial Weber. and root. pariskrnvanti. vyac from in-j-ac. used in somewhat analogous combinations with 23* . under certain e. after upa and prati. but no examples of such combination As to the addition of the comparative and superlative suffixes taram and see above. 1088. apalayisthas . 'put'. an intentional play on the word may be assumed: Such unifications of Delbriick). d. vydtta. Thus. it 355 the augment prefixed thus. Some hold. The root kr 'make 1 is samaskurvan. nirdvatta. dha. above. circumstances. and dus. however. palayam cakre. apatta f. the abbreviated form tta after a prefix which the vowel. . ing frequency. are found : in Brahmanas. from the earliest period of the language.. if is lengthened (compare the similar contraction with other elements. It has been seen above that some of the preposi- tional prefixes are employed in combination with only very small classes of roots. namely those whose meaning makes them best such as kr. see the next chapter. that certain of the apparent roots of the language are results of this unification: thus. from da 'cut'. dp from a-\-ap. samskurute. chap. 'be'. samdvatta. ti. and their prepositional uses. with treatment of the result after the manner of a simple are extremely rare. XVII. pdritta. makes the periphrastic perfect seems to occur only in and play has been found nowhere except in MS. 'ill'. etc. Also (137 a. fitted for auxiliary and periphrastic uses and that the first three bhu and as. initial b). certain peculiarities of combination of a prefix with the vowel of a root. Other Verbal Compounds. upaskrta. tyaj from ati-(-aj. xiii. but with increasbeen. dpratitta below. similarly B. The 'well'. 1090. sometimes assumes (or retains from a more original condition) an initial s after the prefixes sam. of ni-yuyoja] from ni -\~yyuj. . from the same. in AV.

In the early but not in the earliest language. solitary combination with yi.). nagnambhdvuka. and if the prefixed stem takes the tone. only with the gerund. the first In the Brahmana language.). There is 1091) begin is is to no instance of this in RV. thus. The examples in accentuated texts. as anuvasatkuryat. prepositional prefix: thus. unless the I of akkhallkftya (above.. as vdsat. svdha. astamesydnt. And AV.). verbal derivatives of kr and bhu are found here Other ordinary accusative forms of adjectives in combination with and there in the older lanthus. ekl. sin. and The accent of the combination is in general QB. and alalabhdvant (RV. brahmam. (TS.).: but svadhd other prefixes are set before them. The I is variously treated now as an uncombinable in fyeti akuruta and mithuni abhavan (TS. [1090 . Most analogous with hin -\~ykr (1079) are a few other onomatocompounds in the Veda: akkhallkftya (RV. svagakardti (B. Sometimes a mere daridri in collocation takes place: (TB. in verbal nouns and ordinary derivatives. these and phali. janjanabhdvant (RV. three. this rests upon the final i. svadhd. accordance with the accent of compounds with the usual prefixes. but combinations in which the prefixed word is treated like a kartiti. 1093. vajri final. a. and so on.). The noun namas. which.. combinations of ykr with terms used at the sacrifice. and 1092. developed finally into a regular and indefinitely extensible method of increasing the resources of other elements. dstam. poetic 1091. guage : prtamkftya and etc.) bababakurvan. and then also in verbal forms. besides the obscure vatikrta and occasionally vaiikard. b. 'go'. nagnamkrtya (TS. phali : kriydmananam as bhutvd (TA.). pama- nambhdvuka. PERIPHRASTIC AND COMPOUND CONJUGATION. is in AV. mithum bhdvantis (TS. has masmasd with ykr (TS. appearing only in ordinary phrases in RV. verbal expression. 'flimmering'.. udvasl in TB.). examples and mithum in TS.). becomes combined with ykr: in the Veda. in namaskrtya (beside hastagfhya and karnagfhya: above. masmasd). a nounstem thus compounded with kr or bhu. cyetl occur kruri.).). dstamita the participles and in the (with accent like that of ordinary compounds with a prefix) Brahmanas and the later language is treated quite like a prefix thus.). A in astamydnt. and noun-compounds.). -verbal becoming svaga: at first phrases only. TA.. as in mithuny enaya syam and svyakurvata (QB. 990. and (in AB.. begins to assume a constant ending i (of doubtful origin). in a still more purely noun-value. to found only phallkdrana. 'crackling'.356 XV.). : compounded with astameti (QB. is shown by the accusative 'home'.. 'obeisance. 'crush'. homage'. and especially those in which the . with suphali. c. Further. in part. now as liable to the ordinary conversions. 'making a crackling sound'. 'making merry'. In AV. be so explained. and VS.. et al. substantive and adjective as well as adverbial and this has become.

'becomes a post'. fithilibhavanti. They however. : but no genuine examples appear to be Examples are stambhibhavati. are at least extremely rare). be briefly described here under the usual heads. is changed prescribed also that a final r become to t. are too few to furnish 357 more than a fragmentary illustration of the formation. Of all the forms which constitute or are attached to the verbal system. INDECLINABLES. It is it stem be an a or it is changed an w-vowel. in the If the final of the to ^ l\ if man- ner of a verbal prefix. THE indeclinable words are less distinctly diviis ded into separate parts of speech in Sanskrit than elsewhere in Indo-European language to the fact usual especially owing that the class of prepositions hardly has a real adverbial words existence. it is said. CHAPTER XVI. upaharikarosi. Any noun or adjective stem is liable to be com- pounded with verbal forms or derivatives of the roots ]/5fi kr and ^ bhu (and. n. ekacittlbhuya. 'becoming of one mind'. of ETH as also but such ca. entitled to the tone. to a greater or less extent used prepositionally. dinary adjective. 'ring-shaped. ses. Out rule : of such beginnings has grown in the later language the following 1094. Next to it come the gerund and the gerundCombinations of the kind here treated of are especially common with passive participles and gerunds. 1096. kundallkrta.' 1095. 'become loose'. 'thou makest an offering'.1096] verb is NOUN AND ADJECTIVE-COMPOUNDS. and that as and an be changed quotable. nakhapraharajarjankrta. i-vowel. . the passive participle is the one most closely assimilated in its treatment as a combinable element to an orives. to ^37 u. but is represented by certain which are will. if they occur. 'torn to pieces with blows of the claws'.

chagatas (H. from a case-form: patsutds}. sarvdtas. d (494) of asmattas. and occasionally also a locative These adverbs are formed from pronominal amtitra. purutrd. c. parttas. 'arriving jydyan (AV. anydtas. roots. the personal thus. noun and adjective daksinatrd. Cirsatds. Classes of adverbs. tatra 'ntare (H.). agratds. satrd. From noun period. thus. 'go there or thither'. accusative as well as a locative value tatra gacha. With the suffix tra (in V. are made a. stems.).). [1097 1097. a few prepositions thus. abhttas. 'in that interval'. cid 'from that (H. b. abhipatds (once. also are made adverbs having an an ablative construction. mukhatds. some- times of considerable' extent. of quasi-locative or locative construction are hdsta d daksinatrd 'in the right hand'. dharmatas. Examples sixth'.).). ktitas. tvattas.).358 XVI.). of adverb-making stems. 1098. vi$vdtra. mattds (only example in of V. yajustas. : Examples (RV. pardtas. ekatrapuruse (MBh. daksinatds. devatrd. but more thus. in dtas. itds. pathd devatrd ydnan (RV. Adverbs. and not rarely roots. as anydtra. Such From pronominal pronouns . from some region than they'.. is single man'. Adverbs by Suffix. often tra) are made adverbs having a locative sense. adverb has a more locative value our presence'. bahutrd. : dntitas.). and also ktitra. tdtra. and adjective stems freely later : every class. in have sometimes an express the goal of motion (304). 'with 'in accordance with duty'. ydtas. (H.). asmatrd. prabhutvam 'in a tatra yujyate 'sovereignty locative is suited to him'. rbhutds. But the 'in distinctive ablative meaning : is not infrequently effaced. INDECLINABLES. construction. and the casethis division no ultimate difference between these .). martyatrd. ydtra. 'altogether' (of also given as an alternative form). asmatsamlpatas. 'roads that go to the gods'. of ablative construction 'older are : tdtah sasthdt (AV. kuta? defad agatya or other'. nastds. yusmattas. . 1099. samandtra. and the 'in front' . tdtas. but also to There in the is are formed by the addition suffixes especially to pronominal roots or suffixes noun and adjective stems. As so the case tra used also to the : adverbs thus. : With the suffix tas ablative sense. except satrd. endings in declension and the adverbs of sometimes are used manner of cases. reference to the goat 1 . in From tdto RV. since the earliest hrttas. from namely dtra. and from the pronominal stems in or amutas. The words which satram is in (accented) trd are Vedic only. t svatas (not found earlier). agratds.

or two other suffixes of locality are 'where? and the Vedic vipvdlia k-'tha. almost only from pronominal roots. sarvdthd. updristat. the suffix has occasionally the form stdt thus. 'thus'. rtutha. Further.) and daksinahi (no occurrence). 'always' (compare below. uttarattdt. to adverbial ablatives. that tiger alleging as being really a mouse'. va in be compared that of tdti and evd (in V. 1 (also vifvdhd. anydthd. pecially from pronominal roots or stems. By the suffix da are made adverbs of time. as drattdt. 1101.). By the suffix tha are made adverbs of manner. One in iti. vifvcihd).). to prepositional adverbs. when used after a in the sense of iva noun forming the subject of comparison: thus. svargo lokd iti yarn vddanti (AV. vifvdthd. a. end). katha and ittha (by the side of which stand kathdm And dtha (V. "this is as particle of quotation. are brahmajdye ''yam iti ced dvocan (RV. then this way'. stems as.). or indicates a gesture (AV. in uttarahi (QB.) thus'. as prdktdt. ubhaydthd. and the rare imdthd and amuthd. but . a. Examples a (AV. ha.). ploughs first this way. 'he thus. ydthd.". but ajnam bdlam ity dhuh (M. purdstdt.). tidaktdt. often later a particle yvid : as. 1103. 'like. Apparently : by analogy with these last. and es- Thus. tarn vydghram munir musiko 'yam iti pa?yati : (H. ndmdthd (once. from a few adjective and noun itardtha.! tat. bahfs bal iti ity dgre krsaty dthe (^B.). doubtless belongs with them. 'let it come out of you with a "splash"'. 'like thieves'. : then'. vidarbharajatanaydm damayanti 'ti viddhi mam (MBh. often dthd]. for 'thus' is used the related evam. tdydvo yathd (RV. to adverbial accusatives. tdthd.).).1103] ADVERBS BY DERIVATION 359 : 1100. etc.). (519). 'know me to for the by name'. ti. which is added to 104. as'. or two other suffixes of 'thus'. tdrh devd abruvan vrdtya kim nu tisthasi 'ti 1 is 'the gods said to him: "Vratya. Vidarbha-king's daughter. words having and already a local or directive value: thus. 'whoever has faith that the gods exist'. and in AV. pardstdt. the iti used more pregnantly thus.).. evdm vidvdn. 1102. suffix of iti is later evd\ earlier emphasizing the preceding word.). iva more often counts for only a single syllable. why do you stand?" Often. 'why what reason) do you : sit?' te Or the astu 'ti iti marks an onomatopoeia. 'if they have said Brahman's wife"'. avdstdt. in zM. Damayanti 'they call an ignorant man a child'. Yatha becomes usually toneless in V. yuyarh kim sidatha (H. 'here'.). 'knowing etc. A word made by iti logically predicate to an object is usually nominative: thus. as adhdstdt. only with iva (toneless). from the earliest period. AV. urdhvdthd. One a. 'what they call "the heavenly world"'. C.. pardkattdt. In later Vedic (AV. yah fraddddhdti sdnti devd iti (AV. which hardly occurs in RV. very manner are: commonly used. b. iti 'the sage looks upon (lit'ly. : following the words quoted. hi. 'so itthdm}'. yatamdthd. With the b. bahistdt.

season'. with shortened final. from words having a quasi-numeral character : thus. angirasvdt. kadd. pamppds. and sdda. the manner of Jamadagni'. vifvaddriim. patafds. idd (only in V. though krt native grammarians as suffixes (AV. kdrhi. 1 1 1 1 e) of the suffix vant (with adverbial shift of (next chapter). : In a very few cases. times. 'like mdvant. . in every period of the language. 'as Manu did'.). 'with'.). 'wholly'. for 'once'. like'. a few 1105. beside which is Besides these. adverbs signifying ner of. agnivdt.). safcft. purvavdt or pratnavdt or purdnavdt.). taddnlm. and so on. ekadhd. etdvaddha. With made. Thus. signifying '-fold. a Vedic equivalent of dtha. is a compound rather than a more evidently to pancakftvas. really This accent : is the adverbially used accusative below. etdrhi. tadd.in several Vedic compounds. paristubdhd (PB. d. amtirhi. aksara^ds. tdvacchds. 'syllable by syllable'. The particle ddha or ddha. and perhaps sadha. Also. probably belongs here (purudhd and vifvddha. tvavant. ydrhi. 1107. riufds. and the same character belongs navakftvas. trfdhd (in the old language usually tredhd). rjudhd (TB. still The corresponding word derivative.). naturally. saddhd (also sodhd and saddhd). bahudha. From namely. 'one by one'. 'after the manjamad- 'like Angiras'. hundreds'. 'principally'.). manusvdt (RV. of a similar meaning : thus. 'of my etc. occur a few times in RV. b. dvfs. tatidha. in the older language. By or quantitative stems. By the suffix vat are made with great freedom. 'by bunches'. efcafas. 'by generally used distributively. By the suffix dha are formed adverbs especially from etc. frfs. only sarvadd . C.. roots. in a more general way. from pronominal found only in yddi. 'after the fashion of the crow and the palm-fruit'. which has an equivalent And the other adverbs in ha (1100 a) may be of like origin. numerals are made multiplicative adverbs with s: cattir and (probably. 'after 'as of old'. mitradhd (AV. later a few others.). etc. 'limb by limb'. also addhd. 'foot by foot'. The suffix di. 'if. in form as in meaning. sahd. 'in such and such number or quantity': and. thus. tdrhi. INDECLINABLES. yadd. mukhyafas. [1103 Thus. for caturs). as anyada. 'stingily'. nityadd. aparimitakrtvas. kakatallyavat. which in the Veda makes thee'. also from general noun and adjective stems priyadhd (TS. vifvddhd. By the perhaps related rhi are danlm are made iddnlm. stambafds. has dd$a krtvas and sapid krtvas).360 XVI. purudha. ekada. numerals. 1104. is perhaps related with da. dvidhd (also dvfdha and dvedhd). ganafds. certain adjective compounds sort'. 'in truth'. facvadha. and krtvas are regarded by the 110 6. sarva$dsi crowds'. ways'. sahasradhd. especially from numeral adverbs of quantity or measure or manner. 'season by 'in pacchas. dvada^adhd. found earlier sddam. the suffix cds are made. Thus. krchra$as. Thus. etc.

'why. But the cases are in the main too rare and doubtful to be worth notice here. The accusative is the case most frequently and Thus: widely used adverbially. 'constantly'. raftas. kucid . will. nttyam. CASE-FORMS AS ADVERBS.). Of like value. osdm.). 'long'. t/ad. Case-forms used as Adverbs. iddm. Of adjective stems. in pratdr.. 'more. 'turn atmasatkrta. n'iktam. 'if. bhasmasat -f. in daksintt. noffto. 'lest'. 1111. 'then' etc. 'variously'. etc. 1110. formed and used adverbially from a large class of compound stems which do not occur in adjective use (the so-called avt/at/i&/iaua-compounds The neuter and it is : below. 'early'. 'reduce to fire. tad. Thus. 1109. cirdm. ndklm and makim. a. and C. and so on.. 'happily'. 'quickly' (V. b. 'with right hand'. and cikitvtt.ybhu. as. 'away'. 'if. less plausibility not of noun-derivation or inflection. 'at svid. again'.. which is sometimes accompanied by an irregularity of form. Those of the next never used prepohowever. the (mostly Vedic) particles kdd. fcfm. that'. made from stems which are not otherwise in use.1111] 1108. kdmam. for example. bh&yas. with -kim. 'by name'. These derivatives are unknown in the in the later. singular is the case commonly employed in this way. XVIII. im and slm -kirn. (by cid (common every period). noun or adject- are used with an adverbial being distinguished from proper cases by some difference of application. some regarded as still possessing pronoun-value). and sanutdr. here'. cases of known stems. . so on. when. s. with cid. adds. in great numbers : as. Also i many ive. 'secretly'.)//cr. 'by night'. burn up'. may be traced with in a few other adverbs. satydm. suffix sat are 361 made adverbs signifying 'into the condition which are used along with verbs of becoming and of making. 'made one's own'. smdd and sumdd. Of pronominal stems: whether'. of this division are almost division. earlier language. etc. chap. consideration'. kdm and kam(?). pronominal or value. Compounds with fd are ced. 990). The adverbs sitionally. are in many instances so used. Of noun-stems if : as. and nandndm. 1. kuvfd .. and not common The s of sat is not liable to conversion into is The connection with the following verb not so close as to require the use of the gerund in ya: thus. you please'. and so on. Thus. By the of. to ashes'. 'now'. apparently. more 'with or Suffixes. A large num- ber of adverbs are more or less evidently cases in form. 'truly'. id. stikham. ncd. in nwndm. 'yonder'. bhasmasatkrtva (not -krtya: above. agnisat -f. are at 'now. and aklm.

d. ddksinena. 'at evening'. especially. by an irregular accent: as. tadttna. dram 'sufficient' the later language used with Isdt. ykr in the manner of a prefix). vifesena. in a few w-stems. amd. The instrumental : is also adverbial value in the plural. madhyd . and AV. roots as final having j/oe or anc as their final may be of the same character. afesena. once). may be inbahtita. mtthu and (in mithds. very often used with but sometimes also Thus : Of pronominal stems : as. More doubtful : cases. homvftha. 'completely'. and. e. samand adatrayd. svapnayd. 'usually'. irmd. 'long'. amnds. adhund (Br. and sasvdrta (all RV. perhaps guha. tirafcd. 1101.). end and ayd. especially in the taram and tamam. may be another example. before the ending. mrsd. 'fortunately'. 'suddenly'. b. aktubhis. uccd. and so on. 'quickly'.). 'by night'. the neuter instead of the feminine form of these suffixes d. yugapdt. nicd~. sakdm. fdnais paracafs. a.)'. 'together. to verb-forms thus. 'slowly'. both neuter 'to Of adjectives. bahfs. daksind. by a y inserted paced. mudha (not V. XVI. is to be seen a change of accent for the adverbial use (pple drdvant. The comparative and superlative suffixes (above. . (in 'vainly'. 'afar'. Of noun-stems 'especially'. naktayd.362 2. asthd(?). 'running'). But the feminine singular adverbial also is [1111 so-called endings of comparison. pratardm. of Madrtk and ninfk RV. 'stoutly' (RV. 'mightily'.. Compare 1099. cirena. it sometimes used. etc. C. silence'. tdvisibhis. c) show a like change . In the oldest language (RV.. : as. and drahydt. In (Vedic) dravdt. with prthak and fdhak. the south'. ksanena. which are : attached to particles. pracd. sdhasd. with (prep. as. devdta. rtayd. apakd. 5. jdtu. and even. 'by day'. distyd. kuhaydf?). oftener than any other case. dtva. and fdnakais. or atom. jyoktamdm. is almost alone in use: see 1119. and it is also to be recognized in the derivatives with vdt (1107). perhaps contracted forms (407 ff. and later). distinguished from normal instrumentals by differences of form: thus. 1112. uccaistaram. 'on high'. sdca. amuyd.). adverts of obscure form or connection are to be explained with probability as accusatives of obsolete noun or adjective stems: examples are Many 'in tusnim. sdna. mtihu and muhus. ubhayd. : (not distinguishable from masculine) and feminine 'within'. dlakam. 'outside'. as is claimed (473). prayas. stanced as follows tirafcdta. and visundk and The presence of other members is also probable for dyusdk. uttarena. dvitd. 'somewhat'. u^ddhak. amd and dfva (given above). 'to the north'. and so on. 'instantly'. Adverbially used instrumental are (in the older language). saydm. are adjectives vfthak. fanaistaram. pratamdm. uccafs^ antarena.). etc. beside those in above. generally in the singular. asayd. 'un- expectedly'. anusdk and also the forms in am e. 11 03 a. sumnaydf?). mostly from the older language. onymous instrumental from nouns in ta. kdyd. and so on.). INDECLINABLES. anusthu and susthu.

arthaya. ahnaya. having a special office and mode of use in connection with verbal roots and their more immediate derivatives. urvyd) and vfyvya (properly 1113. 'not long'. uttardt. 'completely'. 'why?' akasmat. The ff. 'long'. 1114. 'without' (prep. 'emulously'. they only very rarely occur (except as dpi has mainly changed its office from prefix to adverb or conjunction in the but their prepositional uses are much more frelater language) . (from the later language only): ciraya. 'from afar'. anusthuyd. Of pronominal stems: dt. sakafat. halat. Thus : a. and urviyd acuyd. quent and important: see below. d. -arthe and -krte 'in after time'. amuyd (given above). used are with and adverbial From noun and abhisvare. sandt. 'immediately'. : 1 by . 1118. 'casually. Even verbial value in nominative form appears fefs. and vdstos. language occur akttis. adjective stems: 'at 'near'. durdt.). unnormal forms. dgre. acirat. asdt.11181 which is CASE-FORMS AS ADVERBS. ardt. ever. 'from near 'behind'. vfcvayd] are more slightly irregular. hownoticed above (1084). 1115. verbal prefixes. nlcdt. sapadi. actually' . 'by day'. In a few instances. cirasya. ydt (V. (for dhrsnuya. as. 'in sthane. 'behind'. The locative Thus : is sometimes tike. home'. The genitive older is almost never used adverbially. instead of the pronominal kutu- asmat b. negative particles. Oftenest. etc. 'suitably'. raghuyd. sdna). . 'by night'. dure. adverbially used ablatives likewise show a changed accent in the early language thus. 1116. 'afar'. value .: kdsmat. 'from of old' (but instr. 1117. 'plainly. as. 'below'. 'below'. astamlke. 'afar'. the sake of. sadhuyd. : C. Verbal Prefixes and kindred words. 'afar'. front'. Their occasional looser connection with the verb has been In the value of general adverbs. Of noun-stems: as. adhardt. described in the preceding chapter (1076 are properly adverbs. rt". tdt. 'near'. In the later.). 'from the north'. 'for the sake a aparisu. to (Vedic) interrogative particle. (common in composition). amdt. balat. accented : 363 thus. The ablative is not infrequently used adverbially. pafcdt. be stereotyped into an adand its compounds ndkis and mdkis. Examples 'for The dative has only very seldom an adverbial are use. of".). 'presently'. 'forcibly'. samantat. expectedly'. 'long'. apakdt. of adjective stems saksdt. mithuyd . 'on the part of. 1125.

364

XVI. INDECLINABLES.

[1118

In composition with nouns, they (like other adverbial elements) not infrequently have an adjective value: see below, chap. XVIII.

1110. Several of the prefixes (as noticed above, 473 4) form comparative and superlative adjectives, by the suffixes tara and tama, or ra and

ma

: thus, uttara and uttamd ; ddhara and adhamd, dpara and apamd, dvara and avamd, tipara and upamd ; and prathamd is doubtless of the same charAnd accusatives of such derivative adjectives acter; also, dntara and dntama.

(for

and

the most part not otherwise found in use) have the value of comparatives, rarely superlatives, to the prefixes themselves: thus, sdrhfitam cit

sarhtardm sdrh fifadhi (AV.),
quicken'; vitardrh v{

'whatever
(RV.),

is

kramasva

'stride

quickened, do thou still further out yet more widely'; prd tdrh

vantage';

naya pratardm vdsyo dcha (RV.), ud enam uttardrh naya

'lead

(AV.),

him forward still further toward ad'lead him up still higher'.

parastardm.
accusative

Besides those instanced, are found also nitardm, avatardm, paratardm, In the Brahmanas and later (above, 11 lie), the feminine
is

used instead:

thus,

pratitardm,

sarhtardm,
once).

nitardm,

uttardm,

pratardm and pratamdm (and sarhtardm, RV.,

fixes,

1120. Kindred in origin and character with the verbal preand used like them except in composition with verbs, are a few other adverbs: thus, avds, 'down'; adhds, 'below'; paras,
off";

'far
dnti,

pura,

'near';

updri,

'before'; antara (apparently, antdr-\-a), 'among'; 'above': and sahd (already mentioned, 1104),

'along, with',

and

sdca, 'together, with',

Vina,

'without',

and

visu-,

'apart',

may be noticed with them. appear to be related with vi.
small

1121.

Inseparable Prefixes. A
Thus
:

number

of

adverbial prefixes are found only in combination with other

elements.
a.

The negative

prefix a or an

an before vowels, a before
;

consonants.
It is

more

rarely, with adverbs,

combined especially with innumerable nouns and adjectives much as aktitra and dpunar (RV.), dnadhas (TB.), akas-

mat, asakrt; and, according to the grammarians, sometimes also with pronouns (asas, anesas), and with verbs (apacati, 'does not cook'), but no such combinations appear to be quotable.

The independent negative adverbs, nd and md, exceptional instances used in composition: see below,

are

only in rare and

1122b.

b. The comitative prefix sa, used instead of the preposition sdm, and exchangeably with sahd, before nouns and adjectives. c. The prefix of dispraise dus, 'ill, badly' (identical with

ydus: 225).
It is

combined in the same manner
at least a single
ill'

as a or an.
to

Of combinations with
be quotable^ dupcarati

a verbal form,
(B.),

example appears

'behaves

(BR.).

1122]

ADVERBS.

365

d. The corresponding laudatory prefix *M, 'well', is in general so closely accordant in its use with the preceding that it is best mentioned here, through it occurs not rarely as an inde-

pendent particle in the oldest language (in RV. in the peculiar parts of AV. hundred times times], and even occasionally later.
;

,

more than two
only
fourteen

,

No combination
any accentuated
su-dpdyati at 49.
vijnayete
e.
?).

of

text
10).

su with a verbal form appears to be quotable from (though the worthless pada-text of AV. xix. reads K. has na su vijnayete and na vai su viduh (or su-

rogative pronoun

The exclamatory and usually depreciative prefixed forms of the inter(506) are most analogous with the inseparable prefixes.

1122.

Miscellaneous Adverbs.

Other words of

adverbial character and office,
of the classes hitherto treated,
a.

not clearly referable to any

may be mentioned
older language),
u,

as follows:

Asseverative particles
kila,

(in part,

Vedic only): thus, angd,
vai,

hdnta,
bhala.

khdlu,

tu

(rare
hi,

in

vavd

(in

Brahmana language
Of these, hdnta
is

only),

hind,

aha, ha, aha, samaha, sma,

a word of assent
it

;

hi has

won

also

an illative meaning,

and accents the verb with which

stands in connection

(595 d); sma some-

times gives a past meaning to a present tense (778 b); u is often combined with the final a of other particles: thus, dtho, no, md, uto, upo, pro; but The final o thus produced also with that of verb-forms, as datto, vidmti.
is

pragrhya or uncombinable (138c). Particles of kindred value, already mentioned above, are
evd.
of the asseverative
particles

fd,

kdm

or

kam,

cid, jdtu,

Some

are

much used

in the later artificial

poetry with a purely expletive value, as devices to help make out the metre (padapurana, 'verse-fillers'); so especially ha, hi, tu, sma.

b Negative particles are ma, signifying prohibition.
.

:

nd,

signifying simple negation

;

As

to the construction of the verb with

md, see above, 579

80.

In the Veda, nu (or nu : 248 a) has also sometimes a negative meaning. For the Vedic nd of comparison, see below, d. In nahf, nd is combined with M, both elements retaining their full meaning; also with fd in ned. 'lest'. It is perhaps present in nanti and
In general, neither nd nor md is used make negative compounds, but, instead, the inseparable negative prefix a or an (1121 a): exceptions are the Vedic particles ndkis and mdkis, ndkim and makim ; also naciram and maciram, and a few others.
cand, but not in

hind (RV., once).

in composition

to

c. Interrogative particles are only those already given kdd, Urn, kuvid, svid, nanu, of which the last introduces an objection or expostulation.
:

306
d.

XVI. INDECLINABLES.

[1122

Of

particles

of

toneless iva,
way).

and yatha

(also

comparison have been mentioned the toneless when used in the same

Of frequent occurrence in the oldest language is also nd, having (without loss of accent) the same position and value as
the preceding.

Examples
enmity
<as

are

:

rsidvfsa

like
to

an arrow at the
the
tree';
is

birds

{sum nd srjata dvfsum (RV.), 'let loose your enemy of the singer'; vdyo nd vrksdm (AY.), gaur6 nd trsitdh piba (RV.), 'drink like a thirsty
to be sure]

buffalo'.

This use

generally explained as being a modification or adaptation
thus,
'[although,

of the negative one:
buffalo';

not [precisely] a thirsty

and so on.

e.

may be
f
.

Of particles of place, besides those already mentioned, noticed kva (in V., always to be read Ma). Particles of time are nu, 'now' (also nu : nundm was
:

mentioned above, 1109) adyd and sadyds and sadivas (RV., 'today, at once' (all held to contain the element div or
hyds,
'long';

once),
dyu),

'yesterday',

qvds,

'tomorrow', jyok (also related with dyu),

punar,

'again'.

g.

Of

particles of

may be

noticed

nuna,

manner, besides those already mentioned, 'variously' (for nanandm, its derivative,
all

see 1109); sasvdr (RV.), 'secretly'. In the above classifications are included
and most of those of the later language
:

for the rest,

the Vedic adverbial words, see the dictionaries.

Prepositions.

1123.

There

is,

as already

stated,

prepositions (in the

modern sense of

that term),

no proper class of no body of

words having

"government" of nouns. But many of the adverbial words indicated above are used with nouns in a way which approximates them
to the
If

for their exclusive office the

more

fully developed prepositions of other languages.
as vina,
rte

one and another of such words

occurs almost solely

in prepositional use, this is merely fortuitous,

and of no consequence.

1124. Words are used prepositionally along with all the noun-cases excepting the dative. But in general their office is directive only, determining more definitely, or strengthening, the Sometimes, however, the caseproper case-use of the noun. use is not easy to trace, and the noun then seems to be more that is, to have immediately "governed" by the preposition its case-form more arbitrarily determined by its association with the latter. This is oftenest true of the accusative and of the
;

1128]

PREPOSITIONS.

367
(294),

genitive, which, has, here as elsewhere sion of its normal sphere of use.

suffered an exten-

1125. The adverbs by derivative form (1097 ff.) have
:

least

of a prepositional value (exceptions are especially a few made with the suffix tas 1098). Most of the verbal prefixes (exceptions are ud, ni, para, pra: and ava and ni are almost such) have their prepositional
or quasi-prepositional uses with cases in the older time than in the later
:

;

but
the

much more widely
classical

in

language the

anu, and a. words akin with the more proper presome of them as saha, vina, fixes are used prepositionally freely, earlier and later. upari, antara, pur a

usage

is

mainly restricted

to prati,

Most of the

directive

:

adverbially are in many instances used as was to be expected, with the genitive; but frequently, and from an early time, with the accusative more rarely with other cases.

The case-forms used
:

prepositionally also

oftenest,

;

We

will

take up

now

the cases for a brief exposition, beginning with

those that are least freely used.

can claim the
ative

1126. The Locative. This case name of preposition. Of
antard,

is least of all

used with words that
its later
it,

directives,

antdr and

derivin

meaning

'within,
as

in',

are

oftenest

added

to

and

the

classical

language as well
(illustrated

earlier.

and adhi

above, 305);
[sdnti] (RV.),

Of frequent Vedic use with it are a apt and upa are much rarer: thus,
sdca,

yd apdm dpi vrate amur yd Upa surye
'along with',
is

'who are in the domain of the waters';

pitrdh sdca sail,

'who are up yonder in the sun'; not rare in RV., but almost entirely unknown later: 'staying with her parents'.
[sdnti] (RV.),

thus,

1127. The Instrumental.
(most
frequent),

The

directives

used with

this case are
:

almost only those which contain the associative pronominal

root sa

as saha

sakam,

sardham,

Veda, the prefix sam : as, te By (RV.), ''may we be united with thy favors as men with their spouses'. substitution of the instrumental for the ablative of separation (283), vina,
'without'
(not Vedic),

samam, samaya, saratham- and, in the sumatlbhih sdm pdtnlbhir nd vrsano nasimahi

takes sometimes the instrumental
'beyond',

;

and

so,

in the Veda,

avas,

and much more normally, construed. And adhi, in RV., is used with the instrumental snuna and snubhis, where the locative would be expected.
'down', and paras,

with which the ablative

is also,

1128. The Ablative.
lative
(as

In

the

prepositional

constructions of the ab-

was pointed out and partly illustrated above, 293), the ablative value of the case, and the merely directive value of the added particle, are for the most part clearly to be traced. Many of the verbal prefixes are more
or less frequently joined in the older language with this case:

oftenest, adhi

and pari; more sporadically, anu, apa, ava, prati, and the separatives nis and vi. The change of meaning of the ablative with a, 'hither', by which

368
it

XVI. INDECLINABLES.
to
fill

[1128

comes

the office of

its

opposite,

the accusative, was sufficiently ex-

plained above (293 c).
as bahis,

words akin with the prefixes, many puras, avas, adhas, paras, pwra, -uma, and tzras, 'out of knowledge
directive
this

Of

of

accompany

case

by a perfectly regular

construction.

Also

the

case-forms arvak, prak, pafcdt, urdhvam, purvam, param, parena, prabhrti; and rte, 'without', of which the natural construction with an ablative is-

its

predominant earlier. Antikam, 'near', is said more normal companion the genitive.

to take the ablative as well as

1129. The Accusative.
take
essentially the 'to'-case), those

Many

of the verbal prefixes

and related words

an accompanying accusative.
as abhi, prati,

Most naturally
ati

that express

(since the accusative i& a motion or action toward anyto*

thing

:

arm, upa, a,

and adhi in the sense of 'over on

or 'across, beyond', tiras, 'through', antar

pan,

'around'.

and antard when meaning 'between', Examples are: ydh pradfyo abhf sUryo vicdste (AV.), 'what

quarters the sun looks abroad unto'; dbodhy agnfli prdty dyatim usdsam (RV.), 'Agni has been awakened to meet the advancing dawn'; gached kaddcit

svajanam prati (MBh.), 'she might go somewhither to her own people'; imam praksydmi nrpatim prati (MBh.), 'him I will ask with reference to the king'; mama cittdm anu cittebhir e '<a (AV.), 'follow after my mind with your
hy d nah (AV.), 'come hither to us'; tipa na e 'hy arvdn (RV.), 'come hither unto us'; yd devomdrtydn ati (AV.), 'the god who is beyond mortals'; adhisthdya vdrcasd 'dhy anydn (AV.), 'excelling above others in glory'. Also
minds'; e
abhitas and paritas, which have a like value with
J

and upari
accusative

:

'above'

(oftener
is

with
the

genitive).

Less

the simple abhi and pari accordant with ordinary,-

constructions

use of this case with

adhas, paras, puras,

vind, beside
particles.

other cases which

seem more suited
of

to the

meaning

of those

And
the
or

the

same may be said
is

most of the adverbial case-forms

with

which

accusative
as

situation
'those

direction:
are

ye

who

below the

Thus, a number of instrumentals of JJ varena "ditydm, ye pdrend ditydm (TB.), those who are beyond the sun'; dntarena sun,
used.
i

ytinim (QB.),

this universe is

womb'; te hi dam antarena sarvam (AB.), 'for all between them'; fittarena gdrhapatyam (B.), 'to the north of the householder's fire'; ddksinena vedim (^)B.), to the south of the sacrificial
'within the
hearth';

J

daksinena vrksavdtikdm (Qak.),
Similarly,

'to

the right of the orchard'; nikasd,

'near
as an

to'.

ablative;

urdhvam and purvam have an accusative object as well and the same is true later of rte. Abhimukham, 'toward',
construction with this case; and

has a more natural right to
samayd], 'through between',
is

samdyd

(later

analogous with antard and

tiras.

1130. The Genitive. The words which

are accompanied by the genitive

are mostly case-forms of nouns, or of adjectives used substantively, retaining

enough of the noun-character to take this case as their natural adjunct. Such are the locatives agre, 'in front of, abhydce, 'near', arthe and krte, 'for the sake of, nimitte and hetdu, 'by reason of, madhye, 'in the midst of; and other cases, as artham and arthdya, antikam and abhimukham (which
have also other constructions), kdrandt, sakdcdt,
hetos.

And

really,

although

1134
less

CONJUNCTIONS.
and obviously,
of the

directly

same character are other adjective cases

(some of them showing other constructions, already noticed): as adharena, uttarena and uttarat, daksinena and daksinat, pafcat, urdhvam, anantaram,

samaksam,

saksat.

More questionable, and
its

illustrations

rather of the general

looseness of use of the genitive, are
in the oldest language) with

constructions (almost wholly
:

unknown

derivative paritas,

paratas,

more proper words of direction thus, with the and antitas, and parastat and purastat (these
:

found in the Brahmana language
suktasya purastat,
'before the

as,

sarhvatsarasya parastat,

'after a year';
;

with upari, 'above'

hymn' [AB.]); with anti, adhas, auas, puras (common later); and with antar.

Conjunctions.

1131.

The conjunctions,
clauses
of

also,

as

a distinct class

of

words, are almost wanting.

The combination of
very simple character
;

is

in Sanskrit in general of a
is

much

what in other Indo-European
here manuse of the

languages is effected by subordinating conjunctions aged by means of composition of words, by the gerunds (994), and of iti (1102 a), and so on.

1132.
(1098 if.),

The

relative

derivative

adverbs,

already given

may

properly be regarded as

conjunctions;

and

a few other particles of kindred value, as ced and ned (1111 a.

1133. Purely of conjunctive value are
SfT
vcij

tf

c#,

'and',
first

and

'or'

(both toneless,

and never having the
in

place

in a sentence or clause).

Of copulative

value,
(later

along with
it

ca,

is

the
of

older

lan-

guage especially uta finite use); and api, and combinations of
clauses.

becomes a
tatha,

particle

more inde-

tatas,

particles,
'but'

him ca, with other particles are used often as connectives of
older language);
also r

Adversative
less strongly,

is

tu,

(rare in the

u

'for' (originally, and in great part at every period, asseverative only): compare above, 1122 a. To ca (as well as to its compound ced} belongs occasionally the meaning 'ifV

Of

illative

value

(toneless). is hi,

It is needless to enter into

detail with

regard to those uses which

may

be not less properly,
the particles

more properly, called conjunctive than already given, under the head of Adverbs.
or

adverbial, of

Interjections.

1134.

The

utterances which

may be

classed as intervoice-gestures, 24

jections are, as in other languages, Whitney, Grammar.

in part

370

XVI. INDECLINABLES.

[1134

in part onomatopoeias,

and in part mutilations and corrup-

tions of other parts of speech.

1135.
a,

a.

Of the
ahaha,

class of voice-gestures are,
he,

for

example

:

ha,

haha,

hai

(AV.), ayi,

aye,

haye (RV.),

aho,

bat (RV.), bata (RV.) or vata, and (probably) hiruk and huruk (RV.). b. Onomatopoetic or imitative utterances are, for example
(in the

older language); cicca,

'whiz'

(of

an arrow

:

RV.);

kikira

(palpitation: RV.); bal and phat (phds ?) OT pMl, 'splash' (AV.); bhuk, 'bow-wow' (AV.); cdl, 'pat' (AV.); as, Ms, as, and has (PB.); and see the words already quoted in composition with the roots kr and bhu, above, 1091.
c. Nouns and adjectives which have assumed an inter] ectional character are, for example bhos (for the vocative bhavas, 456) are or re (voc. of ari, 'enemy'); dhik, 'alas!' (may be mere voice-gesture, but perhaps related with ydih); kastam, 'woe is
:

;

me!'

distya,

excellent!'

None

'thank heaven!' svasti, 'hail!' susthu, sadhu, 'good, of these are Vedic in interj ectional use.

CHAPTER

XVII.

DERIVATION OF DECLINABLE STEMS.
1136. THE formation from roots of conjugable stems namely, tense-stems, mode-stems, and stems of secondary conjugation (not essentially different from one another, nor, it is believed, ultimately from the formation of declined stems) was most conveniently treated above, in the chapters devoted to the verb. Likewise the formation of adverbs by derivation (not essentially different from case-formation), in the chapter devoted to particles. And the formation of those declinable stems

which namely, of comparison, and of infinitives and participles attach themselves most closely to the systems of inflection, has also been more or less fully exhibited. But the extensive and intricate subject of the formation of the great body of declinable stems was best reserved for a special chapter.
Of course, only a brief and compendious exhibition of the subject can be attempted within the here necessary limits: no exhaustive tracing out of the formative elements of every period; still less, a complete statement of
the varied uses of each element; least of a discussion of origins: but all, enough to help the student in that analysis of words which must form a part

1140]

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SUFFIXES.

371

of his labor from the outset,

giving a general outline of the field, and preparing for more penetrating investigation. The material from accented texts, and especially the Vedic material,

be had especially in view (nothing that is Vedic being intentionally left unconsidered); and the examples given will be, so far as is possible, words found in such texts with their accent marked. No word not thus vouched
will for will

be accented unless the fact

is

specifically pointed out.

1137.
inal,

The

roots

themselves, both verbal and pronomor

are

used in their bare form,

without any added

suffix,

as declinable stems.
to this use of verbal roots,

As

The pronominal
and hence, in
roots.

roots,

so-called,

see below, 1147. are essentially declinable

;

their further treatment in derivation,

accordance with

other

declinable

stems,

they are in and not with verbal

1138.
suffix.

Apart from

this,

every such stem

is

made by

a

And

these suffixes fall into two general classes:
suffixes,

A. Primary
to roots;

or those

which

are'

added directly

B. Secondary suffixes, or those which are added to derivative stems
(also to

pronominal

roots, as just pointed out,

and sometimes
regular)

to particles).
suffixes nearly
suffixes

The. division of primary

corresponds

to

the

krt

and unadi

(less

regular)

of the

Hindu grammarians

(more the
;

secondary, to their taddhita-snfftxes.

1139.

But

this distinction,

theoretically
a.

and

practically,
to

is

though one of high value, not absolute. Thus:
that is to say,

Suffixes

come

have the aspect and the use of primary
the

which
earliest

really contain a secondary element

words exhibiting them were made by addition of secondary suffixes to words already derivative.
Sundry examples of
suffixes,
this will

tavya, anlya, etc., the suffixes

be pointed out below: thus, the gerundival uka and afca, tra, and others. This
than

origin

is

probable for more

cases

admit of demonstration

;

and

it

is

possible for others which

show no

distinct signs of composition.

b. Less often, a suffix of primary use passes over in part into secondary, through the medium of use with denominative " roots" or otherwise: examples are yu, iman, lyas and istha.

1140.

Moreover,

primary suffixes are added not only
24*

372
to original roots, but,

XVII. DERIVATION.

[1140

generally with equal freedom, to eleto

ments which have come
of such, hy being

wear in the language the aspect
to

made

the basis of primary conjugation

and even,

to

a

certain extent,

the bases

of secondary

conjugation, the conjugation-stems, and the bases of tenseinflection,

the tense-stems.

a. The most conspicuous examples of this are the participles, present and future and perfect, which are made alike from tense and conjugationstems of every form. The infinitives (968 ff.) attach themselves only in sporadic

instances

to

tense-stems,

and even from
is

sparingly earlier; and the same

conjugation-stems true of the gerundives.

are

made but

b.

General adjectives

jugation-stems, especially from the base of causative conjugation the suffixes a, a, as, anz, u, ti, tr, tnu, snu.
c.

and nouns are somewhat widely made from consee below
:

tense-stems, the examples are far fewer, but not unknown: present-stems, occasional derivatives in a (1148. 3b), a (1149), u (1178e,g,h), ta (1176e), tu (1161c), tra (1185d), ru (1192), vin (or
thus, from
in:

From

1232,

end);

from stems in a

s

infinitives

and gerundives),

occasional

apparently of aoristic character (besides derivatives in a (1148. 3 b), ana
istha

(1150.2b),

am (1159b), an (1160a), ana (1175), as (1151. 1 b), (1184), u (1178e), us (1154), tr (1182c), in (1183).
1141.

The primary

suffixes are

added also

to roots as

the

originally and strictly of production of the derivatives with prefixes, it is throughout the recorded life of the language as if the root and

compounded with the verbal prefixes. Whatever, namely, may have been
mode

its prefix or prefixes constituted a unity, from which a derivative is formed in the same manner as from the simple root, with, that modification of the radical meaning which appears also in

the proper verbal forms as compounded with the same prefixes. Not derivatives of every kind are thus made; but, in the main, those classes which have most of the verbal force, or

which are most akin in value with
The occurrence
of

infinitives

and

participles.

derivatives with prefixes, and their accent, will be noted under each suffix below. They are chiefly (in nearly the order of

such

their comparative frequency),

besides root-stems,

those in a,
as,

in ana, in

to',

in tar

and

tra,

and in

in,

ya,

van and man,

i

and u,

and a few

others.

1142. The suffixes of both classes are sometimes joined that is to primitives by a preceding union-vowel say, by one which wears that aspect, and, in our uncertainty as to its real origin, may most conveniently and safely be called by that name. The line between these vowels and such as deto

their

1144]
serve to be ranked

PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.
as

373
character

of

organic

suffixal

cannot be

sharply drawn.

Each
itself,

of the

for

more

two great classes will particular consideration.
A.

now

be

taken up by

Primary Derivatives.

1143.

Form
is

of root.
added
is

The form
to

of root to

which a

primary suffix

liable

more

or less variation.

Thus:
a. By far the most frequent is a strengthening change, by The former may occur under all guna or vnfr/^z-increment. circumstances (except, of course, where ywmz-change is in general forbidden: 235. 240): thus, veda from yvid, moda from y mud, vdrdha from ]/ vrdh : ay ana from y i, sdvana from su, sdrana from y sr ; and so on. But the latter is only allowed under such circumstances as leave long a as the resulting vowel that is, with non-final #, and with a final i or w-vowel and r, before a vowel: thus, nadd from ynad, grabhd from y grbh or grabh, vahd from yvah, nay a from y m, bhavd from ybhu, hard from ykr; such strengthening as would make vaida and mauda is

y

:

unknown in primary derivation. No general rules can be given as to the occurrence of strengthening it must be left to be pointed out for each suffix. derivation
entirely
:

in

b. Other vowel changes are more sporadic, and will be noticed in detail below: thus, occasional abbreviation of a root, as in ukti from yvac ; change of final r to ir and ur ; the loss of final a, or its conversion to an i-vowel
;

and

so on.
c.

The reversion

of

a or

final palatal or h to a guttural

has been already

noticed (216).
considered.

A

final

n

m

is

occasionally lost, as in formations already

root is used as

t : namely, where a and before a following y or v of van (1169), vara and van (1171), yu once (1165 a), and ya (1213). The presence of t before these suffixes indicates an original secondary

d.

After a short

final

vowel

is

sometimes added a

stem without

suffix (1147),

derivation from derivatives in
e.

ti

and

tu.
: :

The
vana,
Ifca,

root
z,

is

oftenest before
(ana,

sometimes reduplicated rarely in the use without suffix a, u; in only a few cases each, also before other suffixes
varl,

van and

vani,

vi,

vit,

ani,

in,

aw,

tnw, ia,

ti,

tr,

tra,

uka and

ma,

ya}.

1144.
the

Accent.
are
to

No

be recognized respect be considered by itself.
accent
In connection with a very few

general laws governing the place of each suffix must in this
;

suffixes

is

to

be

recognized a certain

of a [1144 actionis or infini- degree of tendency to accent the root in case tival derivative. the other is concrete. the as passive participles. solely) as finals of : they are chiefly feminines (384 in many instances. To follow an alphabetical arrangement. with in- . regards their signification. dfe/t. almost : compounds. The Vedic cases (irregular. the one indicating the action expressed by the verbal root. participial. 1145. These words and their uses have been already pretty fully considered above (323. suffix Differences of accent in words made by the same of are also occasionally connected with differences gender : see the suffixes as and man. the priclasses. They are used especially (in the later language. reduplication. Stems without suffix: Root-words. the reduplicated root is used without suffix. and is destructive of all natural connection. : As the gender). sec- ondary derivatives. 1146. As mary derivatives fall into two great meanings may be viewed as modifications or specializations of these two. and man. neuter or reflexive shows. 348 ff. Even the words are. 383 ff. The Index give what help needed toward finding any particular suffix which is sought. agent-nouns and adjectives (often governing an accusative 27 le). take up the suffixes by which derivatives of both classes are made. are not held sharply apart. however. Meaning. below. The gerundives as was pointed out above (961). and perhaps pffM. are: with simple didytit. 401). b. sasrut for susrut]. where the examples are considered. 1147. In a small number of words. an. There is hardly a suffix by which action-nouns are formed which does not also make agent-nouns or adjectives. they do not occur in situations that determine action-nouns. mostly of rare occurrence. seems too will artificial. as their use also indicating recipience of action. infinitival. and have both fundamental valas action-nouns and as ues.. didyd and juhu. although there are not a few by which are made In treating them in detail below. 400.. either substantively or adjectively. But these two classes. and then those forming only agent-nouns. only notably modified words of agency.374 XVII. All other stract. in the processes of formation. PKIMARY DERIVATION. a. the agent or actor The one class is ablatter. (frequently as infinitives 971). originally indicating only 'concerned with the action'. are. the other the person or the thing in which the action appears. we will first only the latter. nomen and the ending in the case of a nomen agentis or participial derivative: see the suffixes a. as. although in some respects more practically convenient. sasydd. ana.

action-nouns. 2. 'radiant'. Of the examples here given. jo'sa. esd. they are classifiable under the two usual genbut in part they have been individualized into more . 'inciting'. d. c. 51 a. being more 235. and those under b the ending. so that. 1 . agentis : as. pofea): or the other value according to its accent: thus. sard. of various meaning and showing various treatment of the root ^^-strengthening. 'order'. 'serpent'. crtitkarna (RV. plavd. 1148. b. smara. same with other preceding elements) on the root-stem. 'impelling'. others together. And this is in a majority of cases the fact as regards the two classes of derivatives it .1148] tensive reduplication. 'constrictor'. 'emission'. 'cloud'. are very e. agent-nouns the subject calls for a much wider and deeper investigation than it has yet received.. frdva. veda. 'living'. Many nomina sarpd. krodha. a t is regularly and usually added (383 b). man. asu-sfi. esa. If the root end in a short vowel. STEMS IN a. 'orderef (other examples compare a similar difference with other derivatives But exceptions are numerous thus. 'seizure'. area. fasd. Words numerous. aya. With the suffix ^ a is made a very large and heterogeneous body of derivatives. and redu: plication. svajd. 240). sdrga. mdgha. ksamd. of the indicates such difference of accent as a general tendency of the language. 'crossing'. 'movement'. those under a accent the radical syllable. ana. jogU. 'boat'. and jayd. of this form in combination with verbal prefixes The accent rests (as in combination of the 'of listening ears'. jivd. javd. vrddM-strengthening.). 'brook'. A few sporadic instances are met with same form having the one 'hasting'. fdsa. sible : With ^wmj-strengthening of the root (where that is posThese are the great majority. vdnlvan (with the intensive usual radical accent). 'enjoyment*. 'weariness'. With ^^'-strengthening of the root but only where . 'patient'. Examples. all than twice as numerous as a. 'haste'. in connection with kindred facts as to other suffixes. yamytidh. and the exceptions found to occur. Many nomina actionis : as. eral heads In good part. a stem of this class occurs as prior member of a compound. -nenf. taken a. are as. Mnsa. 375 instead of the a-declension. tdra. coda. 'wrath'. prdma. meghd. grdha. 'cair. In ddridra is seen a transfer to the AsusQ is probably to be understood as a compound. In a single instance. hdva. for example. an. feama. 'knowledge'. retention unchanged. c. have been given at the place just quoted. special senses. before the accentuation referred to can be set up as a law of the language in derivation. hinvd. fafea.

995). With unstrengthened yuga. Derivatives with this suffix from roots as compounded with the verbal prefixes are quite common. 'victorious'. 1 nayd. 'troop'. example of an action-noun has been noticed. a. in fact. 'over-pious . nimesd. 5. the examples are quite few: thus. namely with accent on the root. b. A number sruvd. -parayd. Only a single fipndtha. 1 vibodhd. -mrnd. b. 'share'. i or i (rare'. -trsya. adardird. -pacyd. jard. reduplication: uaura. A very few other stems have the same tone: for ex- . -dasya. 'seizing'. the derivatives in the older language are a some extent. varlvrtd.. 'striding'. 'noisy'. -canfcrama. vevijd. 'climbing'. hinvd. 'leading'. are probably results of the transfer of root-stems to the a-declension thus. especially as occurring in com: position. -Inkhaya. and that. -ghusa. -ksudhya. 'flowing'. sasrd. wdand. 'wink'. -dhdrayd. root. nada. 'carrying'. 'movable' often. -ejaya. 4. 'swallowing'. considerably the largest body of derivative stems with prefixes. 'licking'.376 a is XVII. : [1148 medial a. vrd. which are accented on the root-syllable. 'inciting. are: 'fire'. 'love'. They are made in a few instances with the simple thus. on the endto meaning. vahd. sarhjayd. -sphura. nesa (in nesatama. reriM. paricara. 'hasting'. Examples of agent-nouns are: grabhd. of action-nouns tard. in proportion to the frequency of independent words) constituting. with few exceptions. 'response'. 'crossing'. 3. atiyajd. yesd. the resulting radical vowel that is. of and of final r a. (?). Examples davd. -mud. 'assembly'. kama. Other examples of accent else- where than on the suffix are only the stems (of doubtful meaning or derivation) carcara and gargar a. caracard and calacald. 'crushing'. PRIMARY DERIVATION. -prnd. or secondary roots made from them (716). -sunvd-j from others. -jighrd. bhagd. A few Vedic examples are made causative from conjugational stems : thus. kupaya and tdnaya and mrgraj/a(?). 'enmity'. priyd. 'spoon'. They are of both classes as The accent is. fcrpd. from aorist-stems(?). once). kanikradd. panispadd. (most often). of words of this class. 'inciting'. anukard. in all the modes of formation (in each. cacard. udard. class of With reduplicated root. 'noise'. 'dear'. 'inspiration'. 'movable'. from present-stems of the nit-class (IV. abhidrohd. -mam/a. much more with the intensive reduplication thus. RV. samgird. : 'hiding'. -pinvd. 'lean'. 'weeping'. -jinvd. -piba. 'lover . -sinvd. 'rolling'. uttudd. elevated'. -roruda.). from the stem. 'assistance'. Hardly any forms of clear derivatior and meaning are quotable with accent on the root-syllable. 'yoke'. witlftmt any reference to the value of the stem ing as action-noun or agent-noun. -raja. 'attack'. 'quivering'. are : sarhgamd. cued. -jurya. definable class The only of exceptions in regard to accent appears to be that of the adverbial gerunds in am (above. u or u. pratyacravd. cicayd. 'wakeful'. 'bright'. adhicankramd. 'rousing'. : Examples 'wandering'.

). but the formation becomes common The later. edhd. of course. is frequently preceded by a case- Many words in the language appear to end with a suffix a. mostly agent-nouns. and denominative. in the making-up of the periphrastic perfect (above. vidd. This suffix has. There are. Brahmana language. A few others. It is comparatively little employed independently. see the next chapter. Their y is not resolved into i. . juhavd. 'play'. from conjugational stems. afanayd. etc. mentioned here that such compounds are numerous. causative stems. of both the principal classes of specializations. jwanasya.1150] STEMS IN a. 'plague'. the subordinate office of making corresponding feminines (especially adjective] it to masculines in % a in which use. jara. mimahsa. dbhaga.). for a similar office. 5TT a. From denominative numerous : for example. made derivatives from present-stems thus. 1150. utpata. apresa. 'lordship'. . in Ciksd. however. jigisd and bhiksd (RV. Examples from desiderative stems are very few in the oldest language. have been mentioned in connection with stems. latter and virtsd (AV. for the most part. 'portent'. The latter are especially action-nouns. 1149. but common later: thus. For the remaining compounds of these derivatives. etc.). R ana. the only Vedic From above. vf-osa). and form. urusyd. : Examples from simple : roots are : ifa. causative. and at will. 'neighbor'. a. pipasa. ana. oftenest the accusative. a considerable number of feminine nouns in a in the language to which no corresponding masculines exist and many of them are distinctly traceable to roots. afvayd. and with not infrequent The root has . bubhuksa. Ifcndd. vybsa (i. 'burning'. but especially. 1070ff. prdtivefa. accented on the suffix and such derivatives in u form a distinct class. 'appearance'. mean- ing. example is gamayd (compare the 1148. e. but also sdrhkufa. the blbhatsd (VS. asuyd. With this suffix (as with 5[ a) are form- ed many derivatives. sukratuyd. being made sometimes from simple roots. 'sharing'. with the inseparable It may be merelyprefixes and with other elements. desiderative. have the accent on the prefix: for example. 'reproach'. apasyd. and that the a-derivative has often an active participial value. $iksa or derivatives in -at/a. 'old age nindd.). might be open to question whether we should not regard it rather as an element of secondary character. while yet they are referable to no root which can be otherwise demonstrated as such. 377 ample. 3 b). the older instances are more this perfect (1073).

' A few examples are: akrdmana. vimocana. off'. The adjectives of this formation. The derivatives ening which formations from the same roots. and The normal and syllable. 'giving'. but sometimes vrddhi instead. makes sddvidhana. 1272). Derivatives and in a few cases it remains unstrengthened. however. -vdhana. 'visible'. 'increase'. nidhdna. 'burning'. co'dana. 'deed'. ddna. 'receptacle'. 1. rdksana. occur. An adjective compound. sextuple order'. supasarpand. cetana. being exceeded in frequency only by those made with the suffix a (above. also in composition with other elements. adhivikdrtana. prtiksani. -pdrana. pfyani. vdrana. 1148. as above indicated. The feminine of adjectives is made either in a or in 1 (for details. sarhgrdham. its 'of member. cdyana. vedana. 'assembly' and 'assembler'. showing the same accent (and the same feminine stem). 'falling away down'. jdmbham . below. prdnana. The more irregular formations may be classed as follows : . -dyana. 'enjoyment'. PRIMARY DERIVATION. and other as vowel of the radical b. 'upgoirig'. 'collection'. see the next chapter (below. With weZd/u'-strengthening (only in such circumstances that a remains syllable): examples (all that have been noted in the mddana. d. 'impelling'. dUsana and -mdrjana have the same irregular strengthappears in their present-systems (627. ndfana. hdvana. having a noun in ana as final feminine in a: thus. svddana. 'not to be ordered away'. 'expiration'. With strengthened and accented root-syllable. -spd?ana. -ydvana. 'property'. With ^Una-strengthening 'protection'. anapavacand. the derivatives of this formation are very older language) are -cdtana. From roots with prefixes. spdranl. 'call'. the great mass of forms. sddana. make their feminine usually in 1: thus. which are to be ranked as belonging to this suffix. vidhdrani (cetarii is of doubtful meaning : pramandani and nirdahani. 2 a). kdrana. : examples of action-nouns are sddana. cddanl. 'seat'. and the feminines simple or compound.378 XVII. For other compounds of these derivatives. 'of easy approach'. A few exceptions occur: vicaksand. The action-nouns are in general of the neuter gender. abhisdvanl. tdpana. c. samgrdmana. numerous. [1150 usually <7^#-strengthening. vdrdhana. 2 . of this formation are frequent from roots with prefixes. greatly prevalent accent is upon the root: without regard to the difference of meaning but cases occur of accented final. -vdsana. And a few feminine action-nouns in ana and am see below). upariyayand. Under this head fall. -vdcana. prajndnl. udydna. 'cutting avaprabhrdh$ana. a. and a few of accented penult (which last are possibly to be referred to another suffix of the same form but of a different origin). 'release' and 'releasing'.5). -srdvana. of agent-nouns. bhtijana. 'striding on'. 1042 a).

few feminine action-nouns have the same 4). 'miserable'). a concrete value. Examples of the ddhas. without : . first and principal 'pleasure'. fcrofemd. 'great deed'. and a still neuter action-nouns: dansdna. avas. roots. A few words of this class 'eye'. vrjdna. vdcas. The only noticed example of a feminine is in a : turdna. b. rajanl. unlike the more regular tvarana. 'sleepy'. Without strengthening of the root are made a very small number of derivatives namely (besides those already noted. class. etc. cdkms. cetana. {'act'). 'warmth. rafand). 'pond'. 'milking'. a very i. are of irregular formation thus. manddna. saksdna. 'speech'.). vaksdna. rocand. prathas. mandna. kirdna. And RV. 'mind'. ksayand. jectives. STEMS IN ana. fvetand (and compare kapand. And a few feminine nouns have the same form as jardnd. in the adjectives. cetas karas. kanydna. turdna). and a consid- number of infinitives. 'carrying' (with aoristic s). 'deed'. 'misery' (against krpand. 'fight'. accent on the penult a very small : number of adjectives : as dohdna. taparil (to tdpana). EfH^s. tedaril. a few agent-nouns and erable and also. but someolder times assuming language. 'fame'. 'shining'. without the usual strengthening 789 a) kfyana. 'active' (against kdrana. 'hasting'. 'breadth'. sdmana apparently from the prefix sam. smaller closure. vrjaril (with b. masculine kirdna. These. and on the ending and in a few instances words of the two classes having the same form are distinguished by their accent. prdyas. A few isolated cases may be here mentioned jagarand and pdlpulana vrjaril. grdvas. bhanddnd. krpdna and krpand. the infinitives have for the most part the accent on the in the second . (and compare the anomalous masc. sdras.1151] a. 'woman' (beside ydsan. a. etc. 1151. krpdna. By this suffix are made (usually with <7W^a-strengthening of the root-vowel) especially a large class of neuter nouns. dyotand (? make their feminines in a: thus. 'enwith the town'. favor'. With hdyani (with hdyand). 'overcoming'. cetarii vrjdna). 1. 'milking'. pffana. in words of the first class is on the root. yosana. 'yelling'. d. y6sa. and mdnas. 123. tvarand. c. tdpas. The accent suffix . 'habitable'. svapand. more or less doubtful character: arsant. etc. and pftana. vrsana are doubtful. 'considerate'. With accent on the as final: as. spandana. of Beside these may be mentioned (to a few feminines in ani. 'splendor'. 379 of agent-nouns a small number and ad- karand. of 'dust'. vrjdna : : and perfects of the : bhurana. -stivana and bhuvana (compare the sasuva and babhuva. 'aid. 'rejoicing'. anhurand apparently from ahhurd. are the only feminines with accented root-syllable. form: jarand. class are: tejas. mostly abstract (action-nouns). and perhaps number vaksdnd. same : : from reduplicated root-forms . name ufdna: 355 a).

(beside jdvas]. once). suffix After final a of a root is usually inserted y before the thus. ydfas. connection with this. 'call'. Adjectives in as without corresponding abstracts are: tavds. The instances in which : an an action-noun are dpas. like that between saJias and jards}. bhas and -das (often to be pronounced as two syllables). The infinitives : made by the suffix as have been explain- show various treatment of the root. vdhas.. once). probably ahands. and in most others apparently. d. 'head'... dtivas. 'work'. 'lively' (?).. nodhds. Abh. may be best treated the others. both meaning 'demon'. 'nymph'. n. The feminine apsards. 'heady'. and j/apds. between rdksas. Gott. 'descendant' (?). which end in the same sib- . and raksds. 'breast\ strengthening of the root. as uepas. dhhyas. possessive compounds of the noun with the prefix used adjectively: the most probable exceptions are -nybkas accent is always on the prefix. 'lap'. might and tvesds. jrias. 'greatness'. vedhds. xxiii. 'impulse'. Ges. kindred in and possibly also in origin. -uacas. belong either here or under the last preceding head. } accented on the ending: also havds. mas. perhaps with an hesas. 'pious'. 1878). and tyajds. fdras. 'quick'.380 XVII. 'fear'. accent from agent-noun is differentiated by its and apds. n. From a denominative stem is made mrgayds. dhvards. arcanands. with vrddhi- strengthening. The formation occurs of derivatives in as from roots if. a. 'wild animal' (RV. it is to be admitted at No infini- tive in as with a prefix. : The irregular formation of some of the words of this division will be noticed.. fixes is very restricted indeed. 'beauteous'.. and pfras. m. juvas. -svadas. and doubtless 'dawn'. 'active'. and tards (SV. and -jas and -dhas and -das. 'quickness' is [1151 uras. PRIMARY DERIVATION. 3. : in which as was added directly to radical a: thus. jards. is of doubtful derivation. s. Apparently containing a suffix as are the noun upas. nor any action-noun. 'great'. not neuter. and between tydjas. -hayas. the In suffix office ilant. ghyas. and 2. the most common and important ending in s. from the roots ja and dha and da (Benfey. mfdhas. But there are also a very few cases of abstract nouns. and a few other words of isolated occurence. mdhas. b. bhiyds. 'beauty'. mahds. compounded with preall. aoristic 'contempt'. The feminine usds. and certain proper names dngiras. 'old age'. m. As in these examples. ed above (973) they 4. thus. 'quickness'. and the adjective combinations are in some instances evidently. bhalands. 'strong'. (258) But there are in the oldest language apparent remains of a formation c. without special remark. and wfspardhas. 'missile'. c. to be compared. vdsas. and duvds. and various accent (which last may perhaps mark a difference of gender. 'worship'. the antithesis is much less clear. 'abandonment' (?).

The nouns are: are mostly neuter. jantis. is. and nahus. meanings. 381 these suffixes are ^H nas. of all genders: and mascu- agent-nouns. 'raw 'light'. and daksus. 'heat' and 'wound' and 'sore'. of various meaning. They are words signifying both action and agent. reknas. 'acquisition'. the accent in part nouns of action. us.appear inorganically or derivatives. 'brightness' and 'seeing. 1155. regard to gender. Examples are vartis. are accented on the ending jaytis. 'wave'. tas ETC. and srotas. 'light'. 'offering'. and tdrusas may be mentioned with (rather tarus-a?}. Of adjectives. . be seen the same suffix. 'sheen'. with rtrtf. form: thus. With sas it is perhaps made vdpsas. 'fulness'. and is on the suffix (except in jyotis. drus. amas. W$ sas. A few have both 'hot'. The forms in a few and surabhis. compounds 1154. tapus. weak. vidus (which alone shows an unstrengthened root). . present apparently to value of and in drdvinas. 'seed'. With nas are made dpnas. as. tvtii. ruci. rods. Thus : With tas are made retas. is -bharnas. exceptions in regard to accent. and a few neuters. mdnus. vanus. 1153. root-form. b. is. With this suffix are formed a considerable adjectives body of line derivatives. They are The cretely. and surablii hams. They show a various form of the root: strong. With made an extremely a. 'ploughing'. 'burning' (which appears to attach itself to the aoriststem) . With this suffix are made a few words. tuvis- /track'. ^FT With the suffix is is formed a small num- ber (about a dozen) of nouns. cdksus. 'beauty' (?). The feminine action-nouns weak root-form. eye'. 'man'. 'brightness'. is and reduplicated. for tuvi and cods. and amis. 'wonderful' and 'wonder'. C. meat'). 3HKus. 'house-friend'. 1. union-vowels. feminine abstracts. small number of action-nouns. 'wealth'.1155 1152. proper name. without difference of accent: thus. vdpus. Their accent also various. and accent. but most are used conradical syllable has the $wm-strengthening. 'oblation'. ^ *. cTR STEMS IN tas. : arcis. and pdrlnas. and accented 'birth'.. Probably the same is true of ddmunas. Many words in i have meanings much specialized and many (including most of the neuters) are hardly to be connected with any root elsewhere demonstrable. with prefixed elements having the 'riches'. are of very various krst. on the rootin syllable. vyathis (?). 'stream'.

Neuter nouns in dsthi. amtiri. With strengthened mdhi. forming many masculine comnouns in : pounds. and of obscure derivation: etc. of obscure connections. sdsni. 'bone'. vfvici. 'bright'. arcf. is most often on the reduplication. sasaM. root (or root incapable 'knot'. The adjectives and masculine agent-nouns exhibit the same variety. uddhi. PRIMARY DERIVATION. 'playing'. [1155 rdndhi. vanfand sanf. paradadf. and : apparent etc. bhrmi. i. and jarbhdri. dkraji. nidhi. yudhf.382 'dance'. As compounded with other preceding words. praniK. They are from the root compounded with prefixes are not at accented usually on the suffix. jdghni. vawrf. cdfen. is in the older language a considerable with weak or abbreviated root. and. but are probably onomatopoetic. tutuji and tutujt. 2. From ydha comes a derivative -dhi. r. to 1042 a). vdvahi. The suffix like ETT (above. 1156. with accent on the ending. t. paridhf. show an 'hand'. The few infinitively used words of this formation (above. have the aspect of belonging to the same class. 'beam'. -jey'fii. 'curds'. vfvavri. is to be regarded as formed with the suffix with weakening of a to i. from the wr-form of roots in changeable yuyudhi. it reduplication. ropi. papf. tdtrpi. babhrf. visasaht. displacing the radical a. 'lute'. with the value both of an abstract and a concrete: fixes. with preOpinions are divided as to whether i. or 3. drapf. d. and are regularly accented on the root see the next chapter. and dundubhi. 'lively' (ybhram]. like a present participle. : 'container'. strengthening. ajf. With reduplicated (yghar). but not seldom elsewhere (only once on the root). dadf. have a a. c. XVII. pani. 'fighting. thus. will The be noticed. nijaghnf. 'gain'. vyanavt. 'course'. with displacement of final a (or its weakening to the semblance of the suffix). which seems reducible no rule. dddhrsi. jdghri susvi. 'great'. of gruna-change) : dri. 975) weak root-form. -cacali. 'subjection'. pdpri. 'race'. all numerous. Thus : . -fifvi. 1149). with strengthened yuyudhi. Examples are: abhidrohf. i are few. b. dddhi. examples are 'eye'. This of quite various form. class. sdsri. with vrddhi: . Thus With unstrengthened root: fuci. 'enemy'. afcsi. 1276. e. jdgmi. 'drum'. poof. is illustrated by the examples given. grbhi. with ptma-strengthening (where possible). kridi. yayf (with a case or two from yayi]. jdguri. the adjectives or agenti are not rare. some words. but also ajdni. And karkart. The variety of accent. grdhi. thus. 'heat 'seizure'. with simple reduplication. dddhi . Thus: -mamrz. from ydus comes dusi (compare dusayati. etc. pdpuri. raft' 'heap'. ayaji. accent. It was noticed above (271 Formations in i f) that these reduplicated derivatives in i especially often take an object in the accusative. has in general the office of making a feminine from a masculine stem. root. tdturi. it antardhf. yUyuvi. 'pain'. vrdd/u-increment 'mantle'.

b. The roots which i form their participle in only gupt i. The adjectives and agent-nouns which. d. 'offering' (yyaj pple zsfd). and the action-nouns in tu) the accent on The the prefix examples are dnumati. wfefd). 383 : 376 a. as masculines. . but the exas infinitives a. dhautf. beside ta uditd. This suffix forms a large class of freof action. pezfctf. of the passive participle (952 ff. abhlti. beside the more regular tati and rati. form. above (355 ff. In the oldest language. A few roots having their participle in na instead of (957). nfrrti.) beside dhati. a few masculines also are made in final from many stems in stems in i very rarely I: they have been noticed. rait. 'increase'. vykpti.). 'flow'. 'motion'. : pple dhauta). 'stream' (ydhav 'repose'. sdmgati. from consonant-stems in general from some stems in u: 344. 1157. (yvac ita pple vfddhi. maghdtti (all RV. a weak.). The root has in general the same form as before the suffix rT to. 'bestowal'. of the normal formation are: bhutf. 'drink' (|/pa. the participle. and. Derivatives from roots with prefixes are numerous.1157] Especially. and perhaps the proper name yaydti. the accent is 1. fdnti. and often a weakened or abbreviated. 'fame'. the (small) majority of words quotable from accented texts In the few words used ceptions are numerous. dhuti. : see the next chapter. derivative in composition is sometimes -tfa. from j/uad). compare the participle-form bhdyatti. 'prosperity'. in analogy with that upon the suffix and it does . the accentuation is in general the same 2. 'division' (yda. A : various few derivatives are made from reduplicated roots their accent is thus. tsti. -drpti also before ti : thus. 1158). : only exceptions noticed are dsaktt and asuti. And from the roots tan and ran occur tdnti and rdnfi. i ti. -ukti. pple pita]. pple 'speech' trpti. ar): STEMS IN '. 'praise'. are to be . see the various suffixes ending in a): have corresponding feminines in I : an example is krmi (masc.). the also dhanti (once. maff. (but AV. : root. and their inflection described. jfyarti. 'bearing'. VS. -tti (for ddti with loss of radical vowel: vdsutti. quently used feminine nouns and also a few agent-nouns (masculine) and adjectives. above. niravatti (K. with accented ditd]. didhiti and -diditi. and have (as in the case of the participles in fa. ritf. from stems in r (or (for details. (975). (956) do not have tho has once tiditi. dfti. 'gift'. bhrtf. In other combinations than with prefixes. kfmi). Examples stuff. itf: 'progress'. 955c): thus. 'thought'. gdti. From roots having the form da. 'power'. pitf. fH ti.) that is to say. 'satisfaction'. carfcrff. c. . form the abstract noun also in ni (below. kirtf. to rest always The accent ought. of so in . on the suffix only. purtf.

Ib). rdmati. maiden'. fwrni. 'footman'. jirni. With rjiti and ddbhiti. -dhrajati. like jdnayati (TS. 'putrid'. meni. dhuti.). sometimes with concreted meaning 'injury'. 6). jdni. djani (a-djani the only example with prefix). : ksipanf. Iti. 1. Certain other feminine nouns of concrete meaning occur: thus. bhurni. xxviii. the Brahmanas appear occasional derivatives from conjugational The stems. 'woman'. 'injury'. and others. pUti. ofa ani. but 1158. and participle in later occur glani. Their accent pardm. 'brightness'. from the ydti. jnatf. the With ati are made a few. once). Examples of words of the other class are: vdhni. the a has probably the same value with 1157. A few words show the same suffix ti preceded by a vowel. ti is perhaps as applied a secondary suffix. The accent various. in which no organic character seems recognizable. but ani has gained a more independent status. As was noticed above (1157. from is seen a strengthening of the root.) and agamayiti (K. may be . na instead of ta make their action-noun From the Veda are quotable only -jyani. drfatf. action-nouns anhatf.384 XVII. vdsti. sastf. khalatf. a few making jurnf. apam. kdti. feminine abstracts 'shaker'. is of isolated character. Thus: : Feminine action-nouns. 'track'. : connected with these instead of thus. and snihitl and snehili. etc. of more or less dubious character. to it in the numeral derivatives from pronominal as vihcatf. 'eager'. 'missile'. 2. 'goad'. 'loving'. and may be best treated as a separate suffix. pattf. and from numerals. notwithstanding their long final. and which may therefore pass for a another with i is saniti "union-vowel". a. ft ni. : thus. ramdti. prenf. tdti. as. isani.. that of ati (above. \\ith the [1157 are very few 'relative'. and the agent-words In aratf. uditi. A kindred character belongs roots. vasatf 'nest'. mentioned with them. the The words made by this suffix have same double value with those made by the preceding 1159. variant. This suffix agrees in general in its uses and in the form of its derivatives with the preceding.3). feminine yuvati. (ending in vowels) in ni instead of 'heat'. vrsnf and vfmi. . vrkdti. freni. etc. 'blow'. y6ni. 3. particle addha. it makes a much smaller number of words. In some of the words instanced in the last paragraph. 'young (adj. Derivatives in ni from roots with prefixes do not appear to occur. has been quoted above (RV. variously accented vratdti. as in the other class. In the words ending in ani. PRIMARY DERIVATION. In prem. is various. 'virile'. with panktf (from pdfica). among which verbs the feminine abstracts are a minority. ones. such as does not appear among the derivatives in ti. One. 4. dyotani. 'excited'. 'impulse'. amdti and dmati. 'hasty'. and a is few others. and in addhatf. 'carrying'.. their passive ti.

Not many words appear still to be made with a suffix of this form. dhdtu. mahhdn (?). are such as 'enlightener'. 1 the reverse of the usual one). It is From a reduplicated rootstems are made ruruksdni. a. (RV. 385 cardni. ER an. ation are The great mass of the words of this formaccusatives in the infinitives the later lan: guage. 972. 25 . as accusatives of a formation in am. ani. STEMS IN Adjectives ti. rndntu. 'morning'. once: compare rdjan. The action-nouns in an are mahdn. 'ox'. or under the next locatives of a formation in an.. and filling out their declension. and gdmbhan. 1160. neut. 'movable'.words. But a few are also used independ- as action-nouns or with concreted meaning. and most of the others have the same a few have the tone on the ending.1161] b. From desiderative and (with prefix) a-pufuksdni.. and of these fewer are plainly to be connected with roots. appear to have the value of agent. A few stems in an. Certain rare neuters (along with of action. 'antagonist at (dtidivan. aoristic put here. 'king'. gdntu. 'element'. vdrtu. sisasani. questionable whether the infinitives in sdni (978) are to be suffix. b. : masc. 'counsel'. from roots and stems increased by an as s. Examples are: of the regular formation. The . The infinitives are those in which admit of being referred to this suffix. as locative am. small number of words appear to thus. a. carsant.. running parallel with those in other suffixes ff. masc. vfsan. saksdni. And a attach themselves to an s-aorist stem: 3. agent-words . tdksan. fern. the accent-relation 'depth' (VS. Grammar. 'liberality'. pratidivan. c. an. cases. neut. and an extremely small number. in the earlier likewise datives and ablative-genitives see above. 1161. form comes -paptani. of agent-nouns are wfesdn. but chiefly masculine. The accent is various. r<f?an. all genders. 'water . They other are all given above (978). play' cdksan. 'way'. and other vaksdni. ni. once). 'abode'. tu. 'superior'. The root has the guna- strengthening. strerigthener'. d. when infinitive words are accented on the radical syllable accent but simple. 'carpenter'. parsdni. of which the sibilant appears to be the final of a tense-stem. is rajdn. of somewhat questionable characThey are of ter. the rest are the doubtful infinitives) are nouns masculine and neuter agent-nouns.. vibhvdn. 'authority' 'greatness'. bull'. is with prefixes.). Whitney. vdstu. wddn. 970 b. caksani. were mentioned above (429 rT tu. AV. 'eye': Examples virile. ently. perhaps a bad reading).

the suffix tu appears to be added to a tense. and perhaps krfdnu belongs here. 'light' (later 'sun'). nabhanu (and -nti. 'offering'. f. dew'. (with a) gatha. dhenii. 'bold'.- and 'life'. gatti. bhrthd. sarhgathd. and having both the abstract and the concrete value. appears sometimes with a prefixed a : thus. 'song'. obscure. a form of this suffix to of thematic origin. turphdritu seems of the same formation. jantu. The words made with this suffix are al- most without exception action-nouns value). pita. suffix. In a few instances. and hdtha (as sometimes in the verbal inflection of the same roots: 637. 834 b). 'roaring'. Still thus. nithd. last is paralleled only by that of jivdtu. 'fountain'. This also (like <u). vibhanjanti instance with prefix). 1163. b. 'season'. suprattu. with unstrengthened root. when made from roots with prefixes. dusparihdntu. Examples nitha. In other use occur also and -dhdrltu (both with dus).strengthening. more common in the older language which has become prefixed an a. 'saying'. etc. a. -itha. [1161 and 'song'. hetit. This suffix forms a comparatively small body of words generally masculine. 'demon'. durniyGmtu.. it is which is further exceptional in showing a long a.). fern. with vrddhi. : masc. is A final: few examples of combination with prefixes occur. sunu. have (as was pointed But the same words. ddnu (with irregular accent). 'cow'. The of a weak are (or even weakened) form. but is infinitives. n. The accent strengthened. krandanu (only and nadanti. duratyetu. and the accent usually on the suffix. 'way' 'banner' sfttu. 'cause'. -ferffta. 'drop. with accent on the ending. (not infinitivally) in further combination (with su and dws). -tdritu The infinitives in tu have (972) often the union-vowel i before the and this in a few cases is lengthened to I. 'ford'. used sometimes in the manner of an infinitive. 'son'. 'making'. (all masc. Radical a m or n is lost in -gathd Final is weakened to i in -githd and -plthd. retain the radical The accent which belongs to the simple word : thus. nirrthd. ukthd. m. 1162. Examples are bhanu. 'song'. f. PRIMARY DERIVATION.or thus. tanyatu and tapyatu . vdstu (above). 972) the accent on the prefix. ^ nu. 'breaking to pieces'. : is usually on the ending. and the root un'sound'. fcetoJ. (though some have assumed a concrete root is They are of all genders. tlrthd. though . rtu. . vagnti. dhrsnti. 'going'.386 XVII. 'union'. 'drink'. when used out above. 51 ilia. neut. 'being'. with accent on the 'destruction'. 'way'. grdhnu. conjugation-stem in a The accent of the sisasdtu.). 'birth'. which is probably b. : edhatti and vahatu . 'hasty'. c.

'cry . from others. f. yudhmd. a. 'heat'. 'warrior'. 1 1 ma. 'song of praise'. fagmd. masculine and feminine. The action-nouns made by . -kurmi. FT mi. : Abstracts (masc. vepdthu. etc. laksmi. see the suffix below. 'flow'. 'curse'. stavdtha. 'absence'. root. are. treated as pran were an integral c. surrm.1168] become ravdtha. 'trembling'. if few agent-words nouns. 'ordering'. s. thu. 1178g. mrtyti. bhdma. . Isolated combinations of tha with other preceding vowels occur: thus. 'wave'. Later cases are nanddthu (TS. gharmd. 'sign'. if With a prefix. vamathu. vdrutha. made with this suffix are almost only action-nouns are neuter. etc. With Thus this suffix are made a very few nouns. 'pliable'. faydtha. pravasathd. a much smaller number and accented on the suffix. ' This suffix has an in the very few 5fST [ a attached derivatives to it (like V tha. this suffix are almost all masculine and they are of various root-form and ajmd. are 1165. 'mighty'. STEMS IN nu. may be conveniently noticed here. T dthu. Adjectives sdhyu. 'quaking'. 'abode'. Examples Examples is of the former class are : 'course'. 1166. 1168.). 'progress'. masculine. capdtha. which it makes. yundhyti. and have the 25* . reduplicated root 'fuel'. 'pious'. A single instance from a tutumd. 2T 51 O thu. 1164. formed with mi. idhmd. accent. R man. urmf. 1167. viddtha. Thus : masc. this. b. upon the 'breath'. 'earth'. mi. accent is thrown forward prandtha.. cardtha. 'mobility'. For other derivatives ending in yu. cvayathu. bhUmi or bh&mi. neut. 'strong'. and one or two more. 'sharp'. above). of the latter class are : s(dma. and. The derivatives .) are manyv. final is : 'vehemence'. are bhujyu. 'protection'. thus. 'relation'. f. 'speech'. yu. as are also the agent-nouns and adjectives. with unstrengthened root and various accent. yajdtha. tvesdtha. sdrma. avasathd. A very small number of nouns. also probably rafmf. jamf (?). tha. from r-roots. Thus. The great majority of them and accented on the root-syllable. ejdthu. 'pure'. ema. 'wrath'. The are masculine. 'line. 'roaring'. 'action'. both of agent and of action. 'tube'. 'couch'. appears only as The only Vedic examples standthu. . yu a union-vowel. 'enemy'.h. ddsyu. Before sometimes guna: the thus. 'death' (with t added to the short final of the root). man. 13 ma. bhimd. 'terrible'. with another doubtful case or two and matutha (yman ?). ydjyu. 'brightness'. a. ray'.. 'powerful'. ucatha. 387 'offering'. a root has 'praise'. b. tigmd.

'birth'. mahimdn. 'departure'. prativartmdn. varsimdn (beside the equivalent varsman and varsman). forming abstract nouns (masculine) from a certain number of adjectives. though masculine. b. PRIMARY DERIVATION. Corresponding neuter action-nouns and masculine agent-nouns are 'gift'.. : They thus. sdvlman. The root has in general the ^^-strengthening. are: 1. belonging (beside variman. as well as of the derivatives in simple man. svddmdn. slmdn. dnuvartman. Some of these. of rare On the other hand. are perhaps of pos- The same suffix. Very few other agent-nouns occur. variman (beside the equivalent variman and variman). 'conquest'. and imdn comes to be used as a secondary suffix. and dharmdn. of regularly formed neuters kdrman. 'name'. whether action-nouns or adjectives prdbharman. bhdrman. The derivatives in man used as infinitives (974) have for the most part the accent of neuters: the only exception is vidmdne. homan. syuman. harimdn. 'giver'. dhdrlman. and brahman. of either class. stand side by side. 'worship'. sddman. once). as the older language: thus. variman. attach themselves in meaning. are usually accented on the prefix.). and kdrsman. vefman. 'rule'. to The neuters in iman and Iman are all primary formations. bhujmdn. 2. Iman are hardly met with outside the Rig. stdrlman. 'strength'. Derivatives in man from roots with prefixes are not numerous. and ddrlman. 'action'. in several instances. prdydman. c. . visarmdn. jemdn. Those in bhdrlman. b. 'sweetness'. 'priest'. and daman. 'following the exceptions. A few words. and occurrence. 'earth'. has in a a. fdkman.) beside dragh: ticed above). and hdvlman. after' : 'forthbringing'. to adjectives. i or I. 'seat'. dhdrman. varsman and svadman (and variman) have the difference of gender and accent without a corresponding difference of meaning. Examples -dytitman. prathimdn. bhuman e. d. are 'sitter'. syllable. a neuter [1168 and a masculine. SV. 'track'. value. : brahman.388 latter accent : XVII. bhumdn 'abundance'. and draghimdn (VS. Examples of masculine abstracts are: ojmdn. a. vidmdn. have an irregular root-form : thus. though only with its abstract-making number of cases before it a union-vowel. compare the similar treatment of the primary 468): such are papmdn (to papa. mdn (RV. 'splendor'. is accented on the radical and two or three other questionable cases of the same kind occur. to which they seem the accompanying abstracts comparatives and superlatives : (above. of the one and the other value and accent. The masculines in imdn are in the oldest language less frequent than the neuters just described they are jarimdn. vijaman. or in form also. 'sacrifice'. ddman. 'dwelling'. jdnman. jdniman and variman no- pdriman (and pdreman. and sadmdn. all. ndman. vdrtman. except brahman. 'orderer'.Veda. The noun dfman. 'stone'. sdrlman. sessive formation.

vdriman (to urn. the latter mostly mas- root unstrengthened. -gatya). etc. and 1170. The very few words made with these suffixes may best be noticed here. 'excelling'.). sdtvan drvan (only example with strengthened root). and krsniman. iaruniman (K. as such. 'going'. 'overcoming'. 'leaving'. lohitiman (KB. both in the simple words and in compounds. which.) Brahmana language K. The feminines corresponding in van are not from vara. vdrsman etc. -gdtvan (like -gat.. culines. fdkvan.). 3H vani. u and tu. van. b. svddlyas. d. For the compounds with other elements. Examples of the usual formation are: masc. of action-nouns made. before the suffix. and kseptyas. 'active'. (to dirghd. dhumri- drdhd. 1169. van.). and a short final is Yowel is added a rT t The accent al- most always on the their root.). have the same accent. prdthistha) harimdn Mrz or ftan'ta). such as laghiman. also used as infinitive (unless this is rather dhurv-an).). but end in vari. 'bow'. adjectives and nouns. while ksepiman (to ksiprd. dhdnvan. 'conquering'. 'pressing'. and probably vivasa compound with governing preposition (1310). SR vana. -rikvan. etc. cR vanu. with the suffix van 'giving'. 1171 b. both used (?): finitives (974).. later tfaft. (to suadw. drdghmdn (to 389 etc. and bhurvdn. 'joint'. is the only one with a of union-vowel. 1234. 'unrest' likewise dhurvan. in con- . and turvdn. 'shining': abhfsatvan (which are not rare) are: atitvan. etc. vana. and so on. 1277. vdrlyas. see below.).1170] pdpiyas. 'robber' (RV. STEMS IN man. pdrvan. are allowed by the grammarians. (j/san). prdthiman (to prthu. 'capable'. is extremely as in- small : davdn. dradhiman (K. once). 'courser'. etc. see below. drdghlyas. 'offering'. 5R The By is this suffix are made almost only to agent-words. vdrslyas etc. ydjvan. 'injury'. . 2. drddhlyas. The number namely. svddman to etc. roots with prefixes 'reviler'. 1. sambhrtvan.). 'warrior'. etc. is Examples from upahdsvan. etc. kftvan. except in special cases. From a reduplicated root are made rdravan and cikitvdn (and possibly vivdsvan}. sfitvan. vanu. made to adjectives (apparently) directly from this suffix. (to etc. and is perhaps better regarded as a secondary derivative which a few are made with this suffix: see below. yet van has and must be treated a. -jttvan. indication that the words of this form are origof The insertion of t is an inally made by the addition an to derivatives in the present value of an integral suffix in the language. The stem musivdn. C. drtihvan. 'collecting'. Then in the man (TS. 'harming'. neut. vani.).).: still are found further examples: thus.

and so RV. VIII. take up now the suffixes by which are made only stems having the value of agent-nouns and adjectives beginning with a brief mention of the participial endings. PRIMARY DERIVATION. 'excelling'. -advard. kdrvara. on the penult urvdra. -$ivari. in combination with which alone it is employed (not directly with the root. and urvdrl. a. vidvald. of cTf vara. with accent 'tow' (both of doubtful etymology). We been already sufficiently treated. arharisvdni is and.). XIV. c. lord'. wukvand. formally accordant (except with the accent) feminines: 'ruler. 'sitting'. and from bhurvdni. 'striving after'. double-tongued' (RV. and. 'warrior' (beside sdtvan. above). [1170 are probably sec- 3R van are (of which the others ondary extensions). roots 'shining'. are made from simple 'shining'. tuturvdni.). on (about twenty-five such formations in -f if van. in %R[^ant (or ETcT^). itvard. just above). 'not pronominal roots lyant and kiyant (517). atives. b. is obscure. -jttvari. 6. making The office of this suffix. and a feminine or two. 'thicket'. satvand. 'field'. in connection with the various tense-stems and conjugation-stems (chaps. once). and with them doubtless belongs 'knowing' (with I for r). (compare turvdn and bhurvdn. The feminines in van accord in treatment of the root and in accent : with the masculines in van to which they correspond sftvari. having for the most part the value of agent-nouns and adjectives. With . thus. and future participles active. A few masculine adjectives in vara occur. from a reduplicated root. from a reduplicated root. and jugurvdni. 'daring'. 'eating'. A very small number of neuters 'deed'. Much more common vari. 'tone. appears to contain a similar form. from the earliest period. 'talkative'. b. all With this suffix are made a few deriv- genders. noise'. fUfukvdni. serve as the corres- ponding feminines a. 1172. -yavari. 'going'. gdhvara. thus.390 nection with XVII. With vanu made only vagvanti. : with accent on the root: thus. has been fully present explained above. ifvard. in to the masculine stems in 3Ff van. 1171. are the feminine stems in of^t which. the same or a formally identical suffix are made from And ddvayant. dadhrsvdni. 'praising': turvdni. occur. With vana With vani 'restless' made vagvand. which in general have . ydjvari. -sadvard. unless this is also used as tense-stem). reduplicated roots.

nandanta and nandayanta. ve$dnta]. 'skilful' (beside words in va and and perhaps khidvas (ykhad). The neuter abstract vdrivas. Pdr$ana. room' (belonging to urti. The as has been seen. rT ta. is quite isolated.j. The RV.1176] ation STEMS IN vara. 1175. and 458 ff. pfthavana. X.. pdnta. 'winter'). The oldest language (RV.). is doubtful. vasantd. has the adjectives vdsavana.) has a very few words in relations: van]. apparent transfers to a form us or usa. 'well-endowed' r evidently made on the model of participial stems. Extremely few such words occur in the oldest language 'draught' (RV. The participles ending in like TR ana are and passive value. or the derived passive. 3"fa vans ticiples (or cfH vas). chaps.. and cydvana and cydvatana. namely. : jayanta. or (partly with the form $TH sana: above. and have participles the middle. Here may also be best mentioned the words the so-called suffix anta fers (Prakritic) (fern. value belonging in general to the stems to which the suffix is attached. a certain healing plant (RV. ana. 'seizing'. anta or anti]. or from a conjugational (not . are. jivanti. 1174. above. and urdhvasand. ta. etc. prananta. 391 from the numeral dm unless we are to assume a de- nominative verb-stem as intermediate. aorist. 1173. perfect. and probably the proper name tarantd (RV.). 'abyss'. possibly to be divided tatanus-ti. For the see (perfect active) par- made with this suffix. made with being evident trans: of stems in ant to the a-declension. above. vas. mana.. having this ending present and future only. vefantd or ve$anti.. JTH mana. 'tank' 'spring' (RV. is The unique tatan'usti (RV. of doubtful fbhvas. 1176. (AV. jaranta. vans. A different extension of the same suffix is exhibited in the proper names dhvasdnti and pucantf (RV. those just noticed. 897) A few other words ending in the same manner in the old language may be mentioned here. once) and connected with this suffix. 'uplifted'. in the same manner with variyas and varimdn]. of middle ^H ana. ant. A few others are instanced as admitted later thus. 'broad'.). gadayanta. 'breadth. with which may be mentioned purusdnti. A few words of irregular and questionable formation were noticed 462.: beside it also hemantd. and either present. Also.: all are said to be accented on the final. Also the proper names dpnavana. QB. and at XIV. and ffkvas. The use of this suffix in forming parti- ciples directly from the root.

having the be'. making form. or nouns with concrete ita. Examples 'furnished with a chariot'. 'black'. of was explained above. however.392 a tense) stem. c. and more For the frequent use of the connecting vowel suffix. 3^ una}. jatd. and with them may be mentioned gdrta (?). 'seen. ible with roots of d. words are: although their specific meaning They pacatd. and so yajatd. but in much its larger measure. nafcta. mdrta.'. made in ed. worth The y of pafyata and haryatd that of a seeing'. vdta. A (for few general see also chap. no instances are quotable from the Yeda). enl and cyenl . palitd. rtihita 'gray'. also occurs). rtd. PRIMARY DERIVATION.). cyetd. to and the like (compare the similar English formation rathita. not to be separated from the participial in part gerundive. caritd. The adjective tigitd i 'sharp . e. 'dance'. chap. The use of the suffix ^ na in forming from certain roots participles equivalent to cT ta. 'variegated'. affected by. XIII. Examples are: dutd. stems Doubtless after the example and model of participles from denomin(of which. dyutd. a single example from b. and are dsikni. a. is reversion of palatal to guttural before the (216). 'silvery'. sutd. ita derivatives in are in the later language made directly from noun and of adjective-stems. akin with them are eta. as horned. hdrita. (RV. but in great part passive in value fixes. ^ na (and ^T ina. 'messenger'. but are hardly connectdsita. very doubtful: such are dsta. of more obscure relation to yraj 1177. barefooted. hdrina pdliknl. shows anomalous 'dear'. bluecoated). 'life'. those in either alongside the latter or instead of them. ticiples thus XVII. (957). are 1 . and . XIII. hdsta. [1176 was explained above. derivatives 'wind'. chap. 'home'. (like made by the two preceding sufdecidedly:. 'gambling'. fivitd. and hdrinl (but the corresponding masc. 'night'. Vavdta. adaptations of this participle. also is and pafyata. 'rough'. 'red'. etc. XIII. nrttd. 'green'. and lohita. of these stems are in part irregular : thus. dar$atd bharatd. 'kind'. haryatd. Rajatd. A few words ending in to fa are accented on the radical syllable. 'behavior. ative a reduplicated root. to be seen. citd. and hdriknl. adjectives. those The par- made are in part intransitive. 'hand'. 'white'. 'charioteer'. Several adjectives denoting color end in kindred meaning: thus. and is their relation the participial 'mortal'. drdhd: 224 a). a. meaning are 'endowed with. 'firm'. A small number is of adjectives in the older language ending in ata in fa. indicates pretty plainly that the a is present tense-stem. 'cold drdhd 'right'. 'cooked'. ita. The feminines rohinl and lohirii. ghrtd. With the same suffix are made a number general adjectives. trsta. 'color'. with the meaning. 'ghee'.

jayu. fern. neut. An antithesis of accent is seen in fedrna. 'sweet'. 'young'. 'sleep'. 'heat'. 'supplication'. dpna. u are not readily. few are dharuna. 'question'. But many of the stems ending in na are not readily connectible with 'ear'. body of derivatives. and in such use wins in part the aspect of a secondary suffix. are : a. 'wing'. 'Varuna'. With this suffix are made a considerable adjectives. 'white'. suffixes forming agent-nouns with those which have more or less 1178. wrti. pat/tJ. 'hot'. under the head of secondary derivation. prtJiu. fcart/na. making adjectives with the value of present participles. later We and will take up now the other adjectives. clearly referable to roots: thus. sadhu. anusthu). tdpu. 'good'. rivatives in ana. The very few words ending in ina are perhaps 'violent'. (perhaps rather with those in ana): thus. na. 'fortunate'. The root has oftenest a weak (or weakened) form but . 'conquering'. trena.1178] of STEMS IN of various ta. desiderative (particularly later) and denominative (mainly earlier). 'thirsty'. rdtna. b. 'thirst'. it without any apparent con- A derivatives are made from in the reduplicated root. 'lying'. amind. all These are The gerundives. u. of very various character and agent-nouns of the root. 'jewel' (?). with different treatment of accent. Of the words in wna. are in so great part evident secondary formations. vdsu. 'bearing'. 3 u. roots. payti. 'action'. least often has the ^wna-strengthening all nection with either accent or meaning or gender. 'offering'. uarna. is 393 on the suffix or nouns the root. : na). Final a appears to be lost before the suffix in -sthu (susthu. reku. masc. ddksina. and earlier. (when capable of guna]. 'straight'. fvitna. 'good'. 'crooked'. 'bursting'. tdruna. 'ravenous'. 'color'. ghrnd. drjwna. After final few radical a is usually addded y (258) before the suffix. beginning a participial value. prapnd. 'showing'. In meaning and in accent they vary like the de- -cetuna. that they will be noticed farther on. in few examples are umd. 'hot'. 'right'. rju. mrdu. all. 'eared'. c. yacnd. It is especially different used with certain conjugational stems. darti. 'empty'. and with all genders. the proper participial endings of the language. 'white'. 'wide'. related with these vrjind. and one or two others of questionable etymology. The accent yajna. svdpna. Many words ending roots . on puna. or not at connectible with examples will be given only of those that have an obvious etymology. parnd. vdruna. 'protecting'. svadti. Examples' of ordinary adjectives 'broad'. A gender (fern. 'soft'. and fcarnd. dhayu. . it it is sometimes vriddhied .

mahhayu.. stanasyti. and the more anomalous ahamyti. mandayu. piplsu. b. s) apparently. 'life'. and they are still rarer in the Brahmanas). memasyw. every desiderative.). e. duvoyti (and beside duvasyd]. masc. (all are made tanyu. yavayti. bhajayu. sisnu. 'body'. 'terrible'. including six or eight of them. personal verbal forms from the same denominative stem thus. asmayu. may take an object in the A few similar adjectives are made in the older language from caus- dharayu ('persistent'). Especially where no other denominative forms accompany the adfrom the noun with jective. svayu. isu (also masc. yuvanyti. mdnu. c. bhdvayu. cramayii. -raru (araru). words). extensible (stems with loss the ancient language (RV. 'deceiver'. 'thundering'. this has often the aspect of being made directly the suffix yu. Examples (older) are: dipsu. A few derivatives are made from roots with prefixes. 'going to destruction'. rjuyu. ah$u. AV. or nothing at all. sdmvasu. 'man. Manu'. sfndhu (also masc. or : are in use sanisyii. either with a meaning of 'seeking or desiring'. 'wind-god'. which are not found in RV. 'river'. and mrgayu from the caus. may be made from cikitsti. caranyu. for example. 'rein (director)'. urnayti. . from reduplicated roots are: cikitu. pramayu. or with a more general adjective sense: thus. ahhoyti. above. aratlyu. and the : kirhyu.-denom. vayii. 'boar-hunting'. saparyu.394 XVII. thus. in others. cases. mumuksu. 'desiring the breast'. and doubtless some others. malimlu (?) lost). urusyu. jigyu. From tense-stems. dsu. later. atives : earlier and and. a&Tifpw. dskrdhoyu. 'youthful'. 'seeking grain'. abstract noun in yd (1149). only a quarter as many. vikUndu. ydyu or yayu and yfyu (with final a (unless -didhayu. however. fern. only the present participle in ydnt. -tatnu this is made with nu or tnu]. 'ray'. d. ddksu and dhdksu adjectives in sufficiently RV.J. 'dwelling to- accentuation gether'. A few are made upon denominative stems from pronouns thus. varahayu. And so the "secondary suffix yu" wins a degree of standing and application as one forming derivative adjectives (as in aharhyu and kimyii. 'on-coming'. upayu. and (with aoristic f. mrgdya. are such formations from the more denominatives. has so many) to show that the format will . These adjectives. bhimayti. g. PRIMARY DERIVATION. with various : for example. pfpru (proper name). Much more numerous. and later such adjectives ditsu. a certain disease. proper eighty h. In a majority of cases. both accusative (27 la). with prefix. not quite ation was already a regular one. even of the RV. yuvayu or yuvayfi. abhidipsu. 'woolen'. Examples of nouns are : [1178 ripu. the final as of a noun-stem is even changed to o before it: namely. fifliksu. tanu. 'arrow'. to aghayu. has toward AV. Derivatives have the aspect of being similar formations. and babhru. desiderative "roots" in Participial u from of their final a) are numerous more than a dozen of them. tvayu (beside tvaydnt and tvayd}. especially in the oldest language (RV. titiksu. None of the words in yu show in the Veda resolution into duvoyd iu. In three RV.).

a right to be the other. upasthdyuka vydyuka.) is probably of another character. (SB. u. (258). we seem to to a derivative in have a suffix made by secondary addition of 3fi ka for the same reason as f a. 'talkative'. already described (1149. ability. . of whose language they are a marked characterand they are found occasionally in the later language. 355 c. from the Brahmana a. pramayuka b. language. (later). but they become frequent in the Brahmanas. has pramayu}. The root is strengthened. 'wakeful'. 3Sfi uka. haruka. alambuka. bhdvuka. perhaps. ndfuka. masculines in : 1180. but it has. (a A formation in : uka suffix of like origin. fiksu]. and two or three very rare masculines as to all which. 1181. dandafwfca. AV. 1155 It makes a small number feminines corresponding to u. two is there found in actual use an w-word from which they should be made. and it has the accent. ydyajuka. 'biting'. has very few examples in the older language. has also ghdtuka from ytian. see above. kstidhuka. vdrsuka. whether the derivative is made from simple root or from one with prefix. et al. The long u of a vastly rarer suffix than . as in the preceding case. Examples. with uka} may be mentioned here namely. prapdduka. Exceptions as regards root-form are: nirmdrguka (with urdd/u'-strengthis usual with this root 627) -kasuka. In all probistic The derivatives in . et al. mentioned here. but they have gained fully the charand in only an instance or acter of primary formations. vasukd is Afandyuka (PB. vdvaduka salaluka is questionable. uka are hardly known in the Veda. 395 1179. the only example noticed from a conjugation-stein. accents sdrhkasuka : . has ening. veduka. has sdnukd (which is its only be one AV. and has the accent. the other long simple vowels. a very few independent feminines. ddn?uka. jdgaruka. .: RV. : .1181] STEMS IN "37 w. u. they are originally suffix fca (1222) to a derivative in and properly obtained by adding the secondary u. Here. are : vdduka. upakrdmuka. uka^ is aka. suffix is Its free use in the manner of a primary it of still later date than that of uka. as ((^B. 'sacrificing much'. The (79) root is only so far strengthened that the radical syllable is a heavy a one. With this suffix are made derivatives having the meaning and construction (271 g) of a present participle. from reduplicated roots. dpramdyuka) c.) (TS. samdrdhuka. has sarhkdsuka) of and vikasuka if it example and the formation. RV. yiksuka (GB. fi aka.

later language such derivatives are common. mrdaydku. I thus. : "Without grwna-change apparently uks-tf grah has. A unionvowel i (very rarely. as the metre shows. bhiksdka. cT tr (or rT|" tar}. suffix. bodhika. and appear to be very rare at every period. The derivatives made by and this as regards both their mode of formation their uses. which has and which. With dku is made in RV. below. but they are not found in the Veda (unless in "pavaka": see above). found (besides pavakd. one of another character) is often taken as regards its presence or absence in the periphrastic future forms. but more usually in ika: ndyikd (with ndyakd).. and sdnutr.). see above (943). PRIMARY DERIVATION. these in the oldest langparticipially. compare secondary aka. assuming a future meaning. is usually to be pronounced pavaka] only sdyaka. and designation'. khanaka. in connection with 1182. RV. dhdnutr. bhakayabhaksaka. 942 if. The root has uniformly the ^tma-strengthening.vowel . AV. adds piyaka and vddhaka. and. and VS. b. pdcaka. long in varutr strengthened to o in man6tr and manotf. nayaka. abhikr<S$aka. : usually with raising of the root-syllable by strengthening to heavy quantity thus. The corresponding feminine is made sometimes in aka or in aki. a periphrastic future tense (942). : jalpdka. 'plough-ox' (no proper agent-noun compare the nouns of relationship further on). An u. declared grdhaka. That the derivatives in aka sometimes take an accusative object was pointed out above (27 Ic). is [1181 a different accent. bodhaka to . is taken instead by tdrutr and tarutf. from the causative stem pfdaku and the proper name : fksvaku are of obscure connection. pacika. dravaka. -grahitf . . and so on. . make a. From a re- duplicated root comes vdvdtr. 1222 d. uage are very frequently used ject in the accusative (271 d) later they enter into combin- ation with an auxiliary verb. thus. Derivatives in those in ka (1186). Agent-nouns are formed with it governing an ob- every period of the language. but also by the grammarians have the janaka. They are accent on the radical syllable. ika and Ika will be treated below. Derivatives in aka are said to be made from a few roots thus. dravika. But in the 'missile'. above at have been the subject of remark more than once (see 369 ff. In XVII. root: They often occur in copulative composition with gerundives of the same thus. The root as usual.396 a. Their corresponding feminine is in tri. is only ustr. and the same appears in -taritf : : and -maritf. ddyaka (258). 'designated vacyavacaka. 'eatable and eater'.

dfdrdisin. is indicate. sometimes on the suffix and sometimes on the prefix. examples: j/amttfr. In nestr. The words of relationship which. yuydm mdrtarh frtitarah. a certain priest (RV. mano/mrm. as well as the form. tr 'conqueror of c. saksfn. bhadravadin. with prefixes. the accent on the root or prefix accompanies the participial use of the word. 'winning treasures'. of mano'tr is an isolated irregularity. in all cases alike. chiefly in composition. duhitf. dew. the accent is on the suffix. from roots combined . are pitf. 'soul-winning'. but. and jeta jdndndm. Apparently formed by a suffix r (or ar) are usr. and examples of it. is sometimes on the suffix and sometimes on the root or. Instead of tr is found tur in one or two RV. in the older language. and later). very much more often. the formation in e. a medial a being sometimes lengthened 'truth-speaking'. The accent. accent on the root appears along with ordinary noun value. and not very rare in the Brahmanas. 'ye listen to a mortal'. The radical syllable is usually strength- ened. is met with but once or twice in the Veda (bodhayitf and codayitri. For other words ending in 1183. vivyadMn. . The accent. while yet evidently identical in real character with the frequent secondary suffix of the same form denoting possession (below. the last two being r. is apparently seen the aoristic s. yarhtd vdsuni vidhate. How far it had gained a primary value in the easy to determine. have gained the aspect of derivatives in tr. ndnandr. in. and. abhibhasin. with aoristic 8. tr. Examples are: jeta dhdnani. the primary employment is unquestionable. kevaladfa. satyavddin. jdmatr. 'bestowing peoples'. early language. RV. niyayin. ndptr. only mdtf and ydtr are in accordance with the ordinary rules of tr. la bhdvin has established a prevailingly future meaning: 'about to be'. d. is not Most . bhrdtr. with reduplication. nitodtn. The formation of these nouns in from conjugation-stems. see 369. ydtr. both with prefixes and with other frequent. This is another suffix which has assumed a primary aspect and use. mat/. 1230). Later. 397 b. a word with accented suffix has an accusative object. on the the other hand. Of these. and sometimes remaining unchanged. dnamin. regular and frequent in the later language. As the examples elements.). sthattir. f. and in a few distinctly suggested : thus. and. but there are exceptions to this: in a very few instances (four).1183] STEMS IN aka. in whatever way. In general. good things on pious'. words of relationship. ?T in. are explainable as possessives it is in many the other value is possible. of the words in in occurring in RV. Thus. composition. itself 'addressing'. and AV. are frequent. savyasthr.

and often having a specialized meaning. mostly neuter. as signifying the means or instrument of the action expressed by The latter has usually the ^^-strengthening. 'authority'. 'garment'. have often fasfra. have come to be used. of neuter primary suffix. under the head of comparison (466 It may be further noticed that jyestha has in the 470). within somewhat narrow limits. astra. adjectives. fesatra. attra (or atrd: 232. of an XVII. ddttra. prcftra. 'wing'. with aoristic s added. . ed above. jyestha . 'vessel'.vowel" appears before the not usually the equivalent of the union-vowel used with suffix. Mitrd and vrtrd are later to sometimes neuters gender. ustra. its y No other suffixes make derivatives having participial value otherwise than in rare and sporadic cases those that remain. The words accented on the thus. the root. ledge'). we have probably a suffix originsecondary. final of praise'. 'limb'. 'devourer'. camel'. C. stotrd. but sometimes remains unchanged. and mitra comes be regularly of that 'sac- Feminines (in tra) are : astra. 'sacrificial session' 'know- b. 'friend'. tr but this is (above. 'song ksetra. an abstract meaning: sattrd. 'sacrifice'. have been already sufficiently treat1184. a "union. rifice' even in the Veda. 'urine'. quency and importance. 'son'. ally Here. vdstra. 'cup'. . These. for ddhstra}. 'measure'. 'tusk'. ^ tra. 'bond'. as 'buffalo. nastrd. as in certain other cases above. which. rm'fra. PRIMARY DERIVATION. danstrd (later. 'kingdom'. rastrd. will be taken up mainly in the order of their fre. of m<atra. 1182 a). accusative object [1183 was noticed above with words in in J$ istha. Not seldom. mantra. of questionable etymology.) the accent also on the final. use like that of a Examples ytiktra. With. matra. When is never to the comparative suffix has the abbreviated form yas (470) be read in the Veda as i. potrd. more general meaning. 'destroyer'.a. Masculines are: ddhstra. 'gift'. and that pdrsistha is made from a secondary from of root. nouns are : gdtra. 'ear'. but its is . as suffixes of adjective comparison. hotrd. 1185. 'prayer'. d. and a few 'foe'. made by adding a to the primary tr or tar (1182). (beside hotrd). (also jnatrd. this suffix are formed a very few of and a considerable number nouns. therefore. forming ^TJH lyas intensive adjectives corresponding to the adjective of root-form. vrtrd. 'goad'. but more often on the radical syllable. older language (only and from two or three times in RV. pdtra. pdttra.398 The use (271 b). ftdfra. 'doctrine'. 'field'. The accent is various. putra. 'missile'.

and -sphaka. i: ka. . 1210 13). 3fi ka. 'drop'. parpharika. 'devouring'. thus. almost always with weak root-form. gayatrd (L 'violent'. pdtatra. derivatives ET yet" It of those which are above so reckoned. 'dry'. and. are with so much doubt and difficulty to be separated from the great mass of secondary derivatives made with the same suffix that it is preferred to treat them all together under ed as made with this primary than many altogether probable that a part of the suffix are not less entitled to be rank- the head of secondary formation (below. to 1180. ^ ra. santtra. 'increased. 'venerable'. 'overcoming'. pavftra. a few words used as nouns. A are few words in which ika and Ika seem added of though they really a kindred : niently noticed here 'aspect'. 1222). seem to belong together to Other words in ka are of obscure connections. With this suffix are made a considerable number of adjectives. corresponds to tarutr. The words which have most distinctly 'hear'). 'birth-place'. 'cutting-place'. 'grace'. krntdtra. for the most part. dffifca. janttra. floka (j/fru.: For the words in khanttra. of various gender. dnlka (?). into the composition of certain suffixes reckoned as primary: see aka and uka (above. thus. 399 oar'. 'flake'. vddhatra. and stokd. a root. Such. 'gripes'. vrdhlkd. and varatrd. thus. 'song'. istha. the combination lira has almost The preceding vowel ent-stem) : is also won the character of an independent suffix. 'scattering' Compare secondary ka (below. 'scorpion'. 'enemy'. 'strap'. arcdtri. -rjlka. dttri. formation with the preceding. 1181). 'gift'. itra tra. (?). and usually with accent on the Also. but also dmatra. used as adjectives in tra are mostly such as have unionA single example from a reduplicated root is tri 'crying out'. as perhaps of kindred formation with those in tra fdtru (fdttru: 232). 'shred'. however. The suffix ^ ha is of very common it use in secondary derivation (below. Tarutra. whether : is directly added ly any few primary derivatives are made with it. arttra. 'shovel'. 'noise.1188] STEMS IN iyas. But ka enters. suffix from reduplicated root. A word or two in and : tru may be added here. still vowels before the suffix. 1186. suffix. 'impelling. in its value as secondary. to roots is almost questionable at rate. ydjatra. 'wing'. e. stuka. 'face'. etc. a$arlka and ufpcwifca. sometimes a (sometimes apparently of the pres-trl). 1222). is 1187. weapon'. report'. may be most convethus. 'deadly -krtatrd. 'teeming'. 'beaming'. mrdlkd. have the accent on 'sieve'. 1188. 'beaming'. ya. extreme- the aspect of being made from roots are fuska. and a root stu. The words johutra. etc. ra. vrfdka (jAmifc)..

With ira are made gabhird or gambhird. PRIMARY DERIVATION. 'tottering'. 'depth'. 'gain': bharvard and vasard are doubtless of secondary formation and the same thing may be plausibly con- jectured of others. grdhra. 'pleasing'. With ura are made a few words. . some of which are in common use : thus. 'protecting'. is 'embracing'. ahhurd (an/m-ra?). dsura (dsw-ra?). dhvasird. and pdumi. 'runand the neuters 'suiting'. With ara patard. : example or two : thus. sdnara. 1189. 'fat'. 'flying'. are made ning'. b. vajra. With ira are made isird. Thus d. 'wise' 'inspired'. 'split'. e. and sphird. for ksird. a few words. vithurd. 'hero'. badhird. 'pleasing'. 'defilement'. cithila. yddura. dhdra. 'hard'. 'joining in ra are. 'mighty'. salild. niczra. f. The forms here. in others prevalently or solely used from their first appearance. 'body'. paferd. later capala and tarala "(said to be accented (the same). the suffix is found with a preceding vowel.. 'shuttle'. the 'wind'. 'narrow'. of which the secondary character is still more probable: thus. 'quick'. stira. and sthird. madird. dnila 'joyous'. (with w/ocard. of cukld. and one or two other words of obscure derivation. Examples (or am'to). 'profound'. a. [1188 In some cases. 'firm'. and perhaps pdnra. apparently. 'mighty'. turd.400 XVII. hihsrd. 'quick'. neut. although of this suffix with preceding vowel may best be considered of some : of them have nearly gained the value a few rare words prefix) : independent endings. 'strong'. example masc. with displacement of final radical a. 'injurious . preceding. 'bright'. 'stream'. (secondary?). 'thunderbolt'. Examples J of adjectives in ra of obvious derivation are : ksiprd. more independent use are: paid. sthuld. 'stirring up'. From Nouns roots with prefixes conie only an on'. made (compare sthdvira). and harsula Many words ending clear in la are of obscure etymology. on the final). the adjectives dravard. 'attentive'. bhadrd. vfpra. also sarird. pwfera. gambhdra. 'milk'. 'wave' (usually salila). 'lively'. cy'ird. They are of various meaning and accent. 'living'. Very few words of too derivation are made with a few to be worth classifying. dhira. sthurd. 'intoxicating drink'. This suffix is only another form of the exchanging with it in certain words. and generally show this suffix weak root-form. trpdla. ^T la. nimrgra. 'stout' With wra. 1190. vird. . chidrd. with accent on the root. riprd. perhaps sthdvira. Conspicuous examples of the interchange are -micla. having the aspect of a union-vowel. c. pura. 'deaf. 'man'. fern. tdsara. ^ va. 'greedy'.

). with union'going'. vi. 'generating'. pra-janayisnu c. i. rfcrd. 'biting'. (and perhaps jvvri. 'sustaining'. With this suffix are formed. cyavayisnti (AV. ru. 4 : number of derivatives. dfua.1195] STEMS IN ra. 'exhausted'. fjfcud. Grammar. I for patayalu. saneru. r] 'praising'. Whitney.). jdsuri. course'. are still snu. are : la. down'. "^ ru. directly or with preceding Thus. and perhaps in flaksnd. 'mortal'. ri. ddpuri. for u. 'sitting jianti. and vrdhasnu (?). stem. fcardsna. b. -marisnu. apparently made with a from a reduplicated root-form. fcf m. bhusnu.. 'awake'. with or without a union- made a few adjective derivatives from roots. : a small fubhrf. 'desiring' with preceding doubtful meaning). 'shining'. 'abundant'. 'rejoicing'. for jirvi: BR. va. sna. ghrsvi. and -ruksna. and also in vadhasnu. 'scoffing'. and. or three derivatives from reduplicated roots didivi. The words into ua. f^" ri. 'sharp'. With this suffix. (K. 'thriving'. 'causing to thrive'. 'twisting'. but more from causative stems. 26 . parayisnu. vowel camnw. a-vowel : -sucking'. urud. 'murderous'. va exhibit only in sporadic cases resolution of the ending 1191. 'wandering'. 'obtaining'. 'praising'. 'deadly weapon'. 401 ranvd. angfiri (or anguli]. 'artful'. 'generating'. cdru. to which nu is added. once). 'flying'. and peru (of 1193. 'gift'. eva. 1192. maderu. dddhrvi. ni-satsm'i. but it has (like snu. urd/iud. 'setting in: posayimu. with un. bhuri. snu. vandaru. sthasnu. 'rescuing'. and Unless in the last. From simple 'thriving'. 'pleasant'. causative with e. gamisnti (TB. 'mighty'. 'firm' 'shining'. rocisnu. Thus: dharu. patdru. vowel. roots: direct. 'timid'. T 1194. pra-janisnti. above) a before it in vadhasnd. pious sdhuri. This suffix makes a few adjectives and neuter nouns.). 'attacking with heat'. 'flying'. It is seen in tlk&na. piyaru. Examples 'joyful'. in ^ sna. It seems not unlikely that the s of this suffix is originally that of a Such a character is still apparent in kravisnv stem. example 'beautiful'. bhiru. 'fore-arm'. abhi-focayisnti. it is not desnd (usually trisyllabic: ddisna). . danksnti. in 'horse'. 'victorious'. 'finger'. . sruvd. Extremely few words have this ending. with preceding and (from (late). 'spoon'.). either directly or with a preceding vowel. 1195. 'craving raw flesh (ferain*)'. From causative stems: motion'. sprhaydlit. 'lively'. 'ripe'. 'fixed'. a. for example. pakvd. 'stall'. 'lofty': vdkva. found preceded by i. Here may be mentioned suffix vit cikitvti (RV. By this suffix are made: : Two dhruvf. 'quick. jdgrvi. and a very few other words 'worn out'.

apt/sa. which nu is then added : 'active'. bhisd. gardabhd and rasabhd. a-rujatnu.. of which the etymology rivative. 'shining'. a certain fabulous a certain snake.). H sa. C. AV. 'winning' (aoristic ?). Thus. or doubtfully deducible from isolated words traceable to known roots.. 'breaking into'. The words ending in suffixal H sa. Also. manlsd. 1194). 'thunder'.. equivalent to sthuld. disputed) trsndj appears to be a secondary defrom trma. 'station'. vrsabhd and rsabhd. and kavatnu. are a heterogeneous group. All the words with these endings were mentioned above (383d). ferabha. (obscure derivation).. A . artm). 'running'. 'devotion'. 'firm'. -amayitnu. m.402 1196. ^V. ^ snu (above. The words with is these endings were 'healer'. and dhasf. 5T^ ad. a. tavisl]. 'red'. 'biestings'. given at the same place is (to : be added bhisdj. atasf. 'drink'. C. and few examples are in considerable part of obscure derivation. A few names of animals. mahisd (f. 5RH a i asi. up by number of other primary suffixes are either set the grammarians and supported with examples of questionable value. but also dartnti. 'mighty'. 'ass'. 'deadly'. 'ravenous'. 35fr^a#. tarasa. example. jigatnu. b. the adjective sthulabhd. 'bursting'. in 'sickening'. show 'bull'. 'fountain'. eT tnu. A : a. ma/im). ptirusa and mdnusa (-us-a?). hatnti. or from words of obscure connection. The words in ad are also given above (ibid. 'harming'. As used with simple roots. this ending. With preceding 'miserly' piyatnu. PRIMARY DERIVATION. with or without preceding union-vowel. They have tracethose in at are probably reable root-connection only in part lated to the participles in ant. : b. plyusa. 'winning'. from reduplic- ated roots. ruksd. fcrfniJ. f. 'seeking booty'. 1200. suffix to as}. farabhd. f. dravayitnu. With sa simply: jesd. : Wf rt. after a short root-final. 1201. with union-vowel. 1199. 'hasting'. for the most part of obscure derivation. and. the t is generally capable of being conto sidered the adscititious thus. a. f. titsa. few words in the oldest language are having this form (perhaps made by the dharnasf. 3s{ uf.. 3rT^M^. A made with addition of Thus. b. c. and for jighatnu. 'scoffing'. With preceding i-vowel: With preceding w-vowel 'overcomer'. 'fear' (rather from the secondary root bhis}. has animal. 1197. XVII. arusd (f. 'vagabond'. 'man'. (s{ ajj SsT if. 'strong'. n. P7 ablia. 1198. sanasi. 6/iama(?). "With causative stems stanayitnti. [1196 This suffix is used nearly in the same way t with a. 'hasting'. drauifntJ. 'intoxicating'. madayitnu. -tatnu. 'stretching'. : tavisd (f. 'thirst'.

from vrsan. the As to accompanying accent. : radic: thus. and elima (above. semi- usually vriddhied. mara (ma or man with secondary ra added) in ghasmara etc. fcara in ptiskara and other ( obscure words. This is most frequent where the y or v belongs to a prefix Su altered before a following initial vowel: thus. syllable in secondary derivation the vrddhi-sti'eiigthening of an initial syllable of the stem to which a The strengthened al. is The most frequent change suffix is added. B. w-vowel also sometimes remains unstrengthened. 1203. of a prefix. 403 A certain few such may be mentioned here anda in karanda and vdranda and unquotable words (prakritized a-forms from the present participle). is regularly taken thus. The stem to which is liable to certain changes of form. naiyayika from uij 26* . (aqvin). asi. and sometimes an a is lost. samrajya (samraj). the see the next paragraph. vrsana. Of a stem ending in ant. while a final w-vowel has the gunastrengthening and becomes av. as if it were i or u. is variously treated. weak form. r and o and au (all of rare occurrence) are treated in accordance with usual euphonic rule. acmna saumyd (soma). parthiva saukrtya (sukrtd). pa in piispa and a number of other obscure words. Words of secondary derivation are to made by the addition of further suffixes stems already ending in evi- dent suffixes. at. But also. and the resulting ai or au has y or v further added before the succeeding vowel. 1202. a. vrsnya. being sometimes retained even along with a preceding a. auccaihcravasd amitrd (amitra). Before a suffix beginning with a vowel or with y (which in this respect is treated as if it were i]. 1204. final a and /-vowels are regularly lost altogether. the suffix a. in at. while the n remains thus. final A n and sometimes lost. as nz. vrsanvant. roots. : era and ora in unquotable words.