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CHAPTER 3 1. Type of substances moving through the diff.parts of the plasma membrane.
4. Hypertonic / hypotonic:- Water molecules
diffuses out / into the cell sap (plant cell) / cytoplasma (animal cell) through the plasma membrane by osmosis
a) Phospoholipids bilayer – small lipid
soluble molecules, charged ions, gases Process involved : simple diffusion
5. Hypertonic:- Plant cell becomes flaccid due
to plasmolysis / animal cell -crenates. Hypotonic:- Plant cell becomes turgid / animal cell – burst (haemolysis)
b) Carrier protein – large water soluble
molecules e.g glucose, amino acids Process involved : facilitated diffusion
6. When you draw flaccid cell, make sure the
cell still has two layers (cell wall), the vacuole is smaller, the plasma membrane is pulled away from the cell wall. Turgid cell – the vacuole must be bigger than normal
c) Carrier protein – ions
Process involved: active transport (When explain any process, make sure to mention the diff. in concentration and end up the sentence with the process involved) (When discuss any process, do not write like this : e.g facilitated diffusion moves from high concentration area to low concentration area, but always write , in facilitated diffusion substances move from high concentration area to low concentration area.)
7. Movement of water into root hair cells:Soil water is hypotonic towards …. // Excess fertilizers causes soil water to become hypertonic towards…
1. DNA - Structure: Made up of two
polynucleotides. Double helix. Function: Carries / stores all genetic information RNA – Structure: Made up of one polynucleotide. Single chain. Function: Carries genetic information on protein synthesis
2. Metabolic / respiratory poison inhibits
the production of ATP energy, therefore, inhibits active transport. Denaturing of protein can cause destruction to the carrier and pore protein, therefore, inhibits facilitated and active transport.
2. DNA /RNA :- Elements:- Carbon,
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Nitrogen. Components:- Phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitrogenous base. Basic Unit:- Nucleotide
3. 30% sucrose solution is hypertonic / Distilled
water is hypotonic towards the cell sap (plant cell) / cytoplasma (animal cell) 3.
First Class protein
4. Points to remember in explaining the
formation of extracellular enzymes:-
a) DNA unwinds, exposing the codes
on protein synthesis
b) Protein from the ribosomes move to
the membrane of RER. The membrane buds off forming transport vesicles which moves towards Golgi Apparatus and fuses with the membrane of GA.
Contain all Fats Saturated essential a.a Solid in room Animal protein temp. NoEssential A.A double bond btwn be Can’t carbon atom. synthesized by body cells substrate molecules to come into contact with enzymes molecules.
Second Class protein Does not contain all Unsaturated Fats essential room Liquid in a.a Plant protein temp. Non essential A.A Double bond is still be synthesized Can presence
7. Relating pH and enzyme activity:Changes in pH, changes the charges on the active site and surface of substrate. Active sites and subtrates must have diff. charges. Low pH causes more H+ attach to the active sites. High pH causes more OH- attach to the active site.
c) GA modifies, sorts and packages
the proteins and the membrane buds off forming secretory vescicles which moves towards Plasma membrane and fuses with the membrane to release the enzymes.
1. Cell cycle:- the period from the time
a cell is produced until the time the cell completes a division
5. Lock and Key Hypothesis:- When
name of enzyme is given, make sure to specify the explanation. E.g If Lactase is given.
2. G1:- Proteins and new organelles
produce. S phase:- DNA undergoes replication forming identical sister chromatids. G2:- More proteins and organelles produced
a) Lactose binds at the active site of
Lactase to form Lactose- lactase complex. Hydrolysis occurs which breaks lactose into glucose and galactose which later live the active site living lactase unchanged. 3. Chromosomal Behaviour
6. Relating temp. and enzyme activity:Any increase towards optimum – more heat which increases kinetic energy of both enzyme and substrate molecules, increases the collision so more chances of the
Metaphase :Align at equator / metaphase plate Sister chromatids align …..
Anaphase:Move to opposite poles Centromere divides. Sister chromatids separate Daughter
Meios is 1
Bivalent align randomly
chromosomes move…. Centromere does not divide Bivalents separate Sister chromatids move …. Centromere divides. Sister chromatids separate Daughter chromosomes move….
Somatic cells from desirable animal removed
b) Unfertilised ovum from a donor is
removed and its nucleus is also removed
c) Fusion between the somatic cell and
the ovum without nucleus
Meios is 11
Sister chromatids align …..
d) The embryo is implanted to the
4. Points to remember in explaining
1. Balanced diet:- a diet containing all
the seven classes of food in the correct proportion
a) Remove meristematic tissues
(explants) from a desirable plant
b) Place it in sterile cultures medium c) Incubate at 37 C for 3 weeks until
callus is formed 2. Diet for different groups:Pregnant ladies More protein-fetus tissue formation More caliums and phosphorus – bone dev. Of fetus More folic acid and ferum – more fetus RBC formation More calcium and phosphorus- teeth and bone formation More protein – enhance growth More carbohydrates More proteinmuscle formation More sodium - to prevent muscle cramp More vitamins and minerals- maintain healthy
d) Cut callus into smaller pieces and put
every cut into sterile growth hormones to form embryo and later plantlets
e) Plantlets taken to soil
Infants and children 5. Tissue Culture Advantage Inherit desirable characteristics Large quantity produced in shorter time Disadvantage No variation Having the same resistance towards certain diseaseshorter life span Atheletes
6. Points to remember in explaining animal cloning
3. Symptoms of kwashiorkor:distended stomach due to water retention
in duodenum are produced by pancreas
8. If any enzyme failed to be produced,
4. Explaining digestion, e.g:In the mouth, starch is digested / hydrolysed into maltose by maltase in the presence of water molecules remember that digestion still occurs but at slower rate// incompletely. So, don’t write, no digestion takes place.
Digestion along the alimentary canal. Digestion Starch into maltose Protein into polypeptide Polypeptide into peptide Starch into maltose Tiny droplets of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol Enzyme Salivary amylase Pepsin
9. Structural adaptation of ileum a) Long and forms folded structureincrease surface area for more absorption and digestion
Trypsin Pancrea tic amylase Lipase
b) Contains numerous number of villiincrease surface area for amore absorption of nutrients
10. Structural adaptation of villi a) Long projection- increase surface areamore absorption of nutrients
Peptide into amino acids Maltose into glucose Sucrose into glucose Lactose into Glucose
Erepsin Maltase Sucrase Lactase
b) Have numerous of microvilli ot the surface- increase surface area
c) Wall –thin-one cell thick- rapid
absorption of nutrients
d) Contain (not covered) network of
blood capillaries – more transport of glucose, a.a, water soluble vit. And minerals
e) Contain a lacteal - transport of lipid 6. Bile produced by liver and stored in
gall bladder. Is used to emulsify lipids into tiny droplets of lipids. soluble vitamins and fatty acids and glycerol
11. Glucose, a.a, water soluble vitamins and 7. No enzyme produced by duodenum.
The enzymes minerals are transported to liver through HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN.
REMEMBER:- Therefore, this vein contains higher concentration of those nutrients than other veins.
15. Points to remember rin explaining
digestion in RUMINANTS
12. Fatty acids , glycerol and lipid soluble
vitamins are transported out from the villi by lymphatic vessels to thoracic duct and is drained into left subclavian vein.
a) Partially chewed food is taken to
b) Cellulose is digested by cellulose
which is produced by symbiotic microorganisms ( WHY SYMBIOTIC ????) - The microbes use a part of digested food.
13. Assimilation in the liver
c) Partially digested food enters the
Glucose Excess – converted by insulin into glycogen Used by the liver cells for cellular respiration Excess- converted into urea (deamination) to be transported to kidney for excretion. Used by liver cells to produce new protoplasm Synthesis plasma protein reticulum for further digestion ( similar to the one in the rumen) and cud is formed
d) The cud is regurgitated into the
e) The cud is reswallowed and taken to
the omasum where large particles of food is broken into smaller parts. Water from the food is removed here
f) The food particles move to the
abomasums – true stomach . (WHY ???? - It contains gastric juices like our stomach – to digest proteins and other substances.)
g) The digested food then taken to small 14. Assimilation in other body cells
intestine to be absorbed
Excess – converted by insulin into glycogen and stored in muscles Used by the cells for cellular respiration Used by cells to produce new protoplasm , repair injured tissues, synthesize enzymes and hormones and plasma membrane Phospholipids – used by cells to produce plasma membrane
16. Points to remember rin explaining
digestion in RODENTS
a) Cellulose is digested in its large
b) Soft faeces are produced at night
and are eaten to enable the animal to absorb the products of digestion causing the second faeces to become harder.
17. COMPARING THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF
HUMAN, RUMINANTS AND RODENTS
19. Structural adaptation of a LEAF for optimum rate of photosynthesis
All the three have stomach where digestion of protein occurs All the three cannot produce their own cellulase
Waxy layer on top of epidermal tissues Leaves are arranged in an arrangement called leaf mosaic Thin lamina
Prevent higher rate of transpiration
Leaves are spread out for optimum exposure to sunlight
Rumina nt 4
No.of stomach chambers Cellulase producing bacteria Place for digestion of cellulose Regurgitat ion Size of caecum
Allows rapid diffusion of gases involved in photosynthesis Allow penetration of maximum sunlight
No chloroplast in epidermal tissue (transparent)
Rumen & reticulu m Occurs
Contains vascular tissues-xylem and phloem Pallisade mesophyll cells are closely packed and contain abundant of chloroplasts Spongy mesophyll cells are loosely packed and contain abundant of chloroplast
Transport of water and products of photosynthesis Maximum amount of light receive
Allow the presence of large air space for exchange of gases to occur
18. Nutrient deficiency in plants Nitrogen Chlorosis - synthesized of chlorophyll is inhibited Stunted growth Chlorosis
Magnesiu m Phosphor us Potassiu
20. Adaptation of plants in different habitats
Poor growth Land plants Reduce protein synthesisMore stomata at the lower epidermal
tissues- to prevent excessive lost of water Floating plants More stomata on the upper epidermis Chloroplasts found all over the surface (therefore, the whole leaves and stem is green) as low intensity of light in water Very few stomata and some are sunken stomataembedded in the leaves –to reduce water lost Chloroplasts found mostly on stems
22. Points to remember in explaining dark reaction
Occurs in stroma Hydrogen atom binds with carbon dioxide to form glucose (reduction)
23. Comparing light and dark reaction Light reaction Grana Requires light energy, water Dark reaction Stroma Requires carbon dioxide Does not require light energy Produces glucose and water Uses hydrogen atoms Occurs with and without light
Produces water and oxygen Forms hydrogen atoms Occurs only in the presence on light
21. Points to remember in explaining light reaction
24. How Greenhouse aids in ensuring crop
production takes place throughout the year Controlling Carbon dioxide concentration Burning paraffin to ensure continuous supply of CO2 The use of glass allows penetration of light. When light intensity is low- use artificial lighting.When light intensity is too high - use shades or light reflector
a) Occurs in Grana b) Chlorophyll captures light energy
which excites the electron in the chlorophyll to leave the chlorophyll
Light energy splits water molecules into H+ and OH- (photolysis) H+ receive electron to form H atoms
e) OH- releases electron to form hydroxyl group
f) Hydroxyl group binds with other
hydroxyl group to form water molecules and oxygen Temperature Always warm inside as heat can’t
escape through the glass. If too hot, use heat regulator, shades and ventilation Water Automatic sprinkler
produces ethanol – inhibit the activity of microbes
25. REMEMBER: In highly industrial areas,
photosynthesis might be affected due to dust and smoke covering the stomata , hence inhibits diffusion of carbon dioxide. CHAPTER 7
Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration Aerobic Definati on Oxidation of glucose completely Glucose & oxygen Carbon dioxide, water, 38 ATP Anaerobic Breakdown of glucose incompletely Glucose
26. The importance of photosynthesis is to
ensure continuous existence of life on earth as photosynthesis supplies oxygen to living organisms
27. Food preservation
Substrat es Product s
Human:Lactic acid, 2 ATP Yeast:Ethanol, CO2
Food placed under hot sun – water in the food evaporated – food dehydrated- inhibit growth of microbes The solution is hypertonic towards ……, water diffuses out by osmosis. Food dehydrated- inhibit growth of microbes Vinegar- acid medium – not suitable for microbes to live Sites
Pickling – sugar and salt solution
Respiratory surface of different organisms Human Frogs Fish Insect Ameoba Alveli Lungs, Skin Lamella Tracheol Plasma membrane
Milk is heated:-63 C for 30 minutes// 72 C for 15 seconds followed by rapid cooling Use yeast which
General Adaptation of Respiratory surface Moist surface Allow oxygen to dissolve before diffusion occurs Allow rapid diffusion of gases Large surface area for more exchange of gases to occur Allow more transport of gases
Oxygen is transported to body tissues by binding with haemoglobin in RBC to form oxyhaemoglobin.
Carbon dioxide is transported in three ways:-
Numerous in number- alveoli, tracheal and lamella Alveoli and frog lungs – covered with network of blood capillaries Gills – contain numerous blood capillaries
a) In a form of carbonic acid by
dissolving in blood plasma.
b) In a form of carbaminohaemoglobin
by binding with haemoglobin
c) In a form of bicarbonate ions
a) The tube is immersed in potassium
hydroxide first as the solution only absorb carbon dioxide.
REMEMBER:- Tracheols are embedded in body
b) Later the tube is immersed in
potassium pyrogallate solution to absorb oxygen
tissues. Therefore, no transport of gases required
c) Do not immerse the tube in
potassium pyrogallate first, as it can absorb both carbon dioxide and oxygen. Therefore, unable to determine the concentration of both gases.
NOTE:- Frog lungs : lungs , there is
no alveolus. Exchange of gases occurs through the wall of the lungs. Therefore, the wall is moist, thin and covered with blood capillaries
10. Points to remember in explaining regulatory mechanism of blood pH
COUNTERCURRENT EXCHANGE :- to allow efficiency of the gases exchange at the respiratory surface of fish. The mechanism MAXIMIZES THE OXYGEN TRANSFER BECAUSE AS WATER FLOWS OVER THE GILLS IN ONE DIRECTION, THE BLOOD FLOWS IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION.
a) During vigorous exercise, more
CO2 produced, thus blood pH becomes lower than normal
b) Detected by peripheral
chemoreceptor ( at the carotid arteries and arch of aorta) and central
chemoreceptor ( at the medulla oblongata)
c) Receptors generate impulses which
are sent to the breathing center at the medulla oblongata
12. COMPENSATION POINT: The rate of
carbon dioxide production is equal to the rate of carbon dioxide consumption. The rate of photosynthesis is equal to the rate of respiration.
d) Breathing centre interprate the
information and produces appropriate responses
13. REMEMBER:- For plants to grow, the
rate of photosynthesis must always be HIGHER than the rate of respiration as excess sugar can be used for growth and other important living processes.
e) Impulses are then sent to
respiratory muscles(intercostals and diaphragm muscles) and cardiac muscles. CHAPTER 8. 1. Problems faced by mangrove plants
a) Muddy soft soil (water logged
condition) – easy to collapse b) Exposed to strong winds – easy to collapse c) Exposed to high intensities of sunlight – higher rate of transpiration d) Surrounded by sea water – high concentration of salt 2. Structural adaptation of mangrove plants and therefore no other plants can grow in mangrove swamp a) Long cable root – provide support b) Aerial roots (pneumatophores)allowing gases exchange during low tide c) Small leaves with sunken stomata – reduce transpiration d) Hydathodes (pores on the lower epidermis) – remove excess salt e) Cell sap of the root hair cell is always hypertonic towards surrounding water f) Viviparous seeds – germinate while still attaching to the mother plants – increase the chances of survival
f) Increase the contraction of the
three muscles g) Increase breathing , ventilation and heart beat rate
h) Remove excess carbon dioxide,
return the blood pH to normal
11. Points to remember in explaining the intake of oxygen by plants for respiration
When stomata opens, oxygen diffuses in and dissolves in water found in the air spaces
b) As oxygen in the air space is higher in concentration than in the cells, oxygen diffuses into the cells,
REMEMBER THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROOT BELONG TO DIFFERENT MANGROVE SPESIES. REMEMBER THE ZONING AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE ZONE IN WHICH DIFFERENT MANGROVE SPESIES BELONG TO Point to remember in explaining colonization and succession in a mangrove swamp a) The physical changes that cause succession to occur are:-
REMEMBER ALL THE FORMULA IN DETERMINING A POPULATION USING THE TECHNIQUE – CAPTURE, MARK, RELEASE, RECAPTURE.
Why Nitrogen cycyle is important ??? Plants cannot absorbed atmospheric nitrogen directly. But they need nitrogen to synthesize protein. Therefore, nitrogen need to be converted in a form of ammonium, nitrites or nitrates as only these three can be absorbed by plants
10. Nitrogen Cycle
i) Soil becomes more compact and
firmer , and the river bank becomes higher – due to accumulation of silt and mud which are trapped by the root of the mangrove plants ii) The shore extends further to the sea – as more sediments deposited 6. Point to remember in explaining colonization and succession in an abandoned pond a) The physical changes that cause succession to occur are:i) The pond becomes shallower due to :- soil erosion form the sides of the pond - The decomposition of dead plants which forms organic matters. The organic matters settled at the bottom of the pond.
a) Nitrogen fixation:- Lightning - Nitrogen fixing bacteria
- Rhizobium sp.– living in the root nodules of
leguminous plants . It fixes atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium
- Nostoc sp. – live freely in soil – fixes
atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium b) Decomposition Dead plants and animals are decomposed by microorganisms to form ammonium compound c) Nitrification
Oxidation of ammonium compound into nitrites – by Nitrosomans sp. Oxidation of nitrites into nitrates – by Nitrobacter sp.
d) Denitrification Denitrifying bacteria breaks down nitrates into gases nitrogen
REMEMBER ALL THE THREE FORMULAE IN DETERMINING A POPULATION USING QUADRAT SAMPLING
11. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF DESTROYING
ANY OF THE MICROBES INVOLVED IN
NITROGEN CYCLE ON THE GROWTH OF HERBIVORES ?????
a) If nitrogen fixing bacteria or
decomposer is killed – no ammonium can be produced, therefore, no nitrites, no nitrates to be absorbed by plants. REMEMBER, NITRATES IS ABSORBED TO OBTAIN NITROGEN TO SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS IN PLANTS. IF PLANTS ARE LACKING OF PROTEINS, LESS PROTEIN TRANSFERRED TO HERBIVORSLESS PROTEIN FOR THE HERBIVORES TO GROW.