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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO.

2, MARCH 2008 793

A Novel Zero-Voltage-Switching
PWM Full Bridge Converter
Wu Chen, Student Member, IEEE, Xinbo Ruan, Senior Member, IEEE, and Rongrong Zhang

Abstract—Introducing resonant inductance and clamping rectifier diodes is reduced, and without introducing losses or an
diodes into the full-bridge converter can eliminate the voltage additional controlled power device. The difference between the
oscillation across the rectifier diodes and increase the load range two locations of the resonant inductance and the transformer
for zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) achievement. The resonant
inductance is shorted and its current keeps constant when the was analyzed and an optimal position was presented. Ruan
clamping diode is conducting, and the clamping diode is hard et al. [17] analyzed the issue in detail and also observed the
turned-off, causing significant reverse recovery loss if the output effects of the blocking capacitor in different positions, and a
filter inductance is relatively larger. This paper improves the best scheme was determined.
full-bridge converter by introducing a reset winding in series with No matter what the positions of the transformer and the reso-
the resonant inductance to make the clamping diode current decay
rapidly when it conducts. The reset winding not only reduces the nant inductance are, the resonant inductance is clamped and its
conduction losses, but also makes the clamping diodes naturally current keeps constant when the clamping diodes conduct. The
turn-off and avoids the reverse recovery. The operation principle output filter inductance must had enough current ripple so that
of the proposed converter is analyzed. The design of the turns the clamping diodes turn off naturally, otherwise the clamping
ratio of transformer is discussed. A 1 kW prototype converter is diodes will be forced to be turned off, resulting in serious re-
built to verify the operation principle and the experimental results
are also demonstrated. verse recovery.
In this paper, an auxiliary transformer winding is introduced
Index Terms—Clamping diodes, full bridge converter, reset
winding, zero-voltage-switching (ZVS).
to the ZVS PWM full-bridge converter to be in series with the
resonant inductance. The introduced winding not only makes
the clamping diode current decay rapidly and reduces the pri-
I. INTRODUCTION mary side conduction losses, but also can makes the current
ripple of the output filter be smaller; hence the output filter ca-
pacitor can be reduced. The winding plays the role of forcing
T HE full-bridge converter is widely used in medium-to-high
power dc–dc conversions because it can achieve
soft-switching without adding any auxiliary switches. The
the clamping diode current to decay to zero, so it is called reset
winding.
soft-switching techniques for PWM full bridge converter can The operation principle of the proposed converter will be dis-
be classified into two kinds: one is zero-voltage-switching cussed in Section II. Section III gives the comparisons between
(ZVS) and the other is zero-voltage and zero-current-switching the full-bridge converters with/without reset winding. The ex-
(ZVZCS) [1]. The leakage inductance of the transformer and perimental results are presented in Section IV to verify the va-
the intrinsic capacitors of the switches are used to achieve lidity of the proposed converter.
ZVS for the switches. The ZVS characteristics are load depen-
dent and will be lost at light load [2]–[6]. In ZVZCS PWM II. OPERATION PRINCIPLE
full-bridge converters, one leg achieves ZVS, and the other
The proposed ZVS PWM full-bridge converter with reset
leg achieves ZCS [7]–[13]. However, there is serious voltage
winding is shown in Fig. 1, where is the introduced reset
oscillation across the rectifier diodes caused by the reverse
winding. The popular phase-shifted control is used for the
recovery no matter ZVS or ZVZCS is realized for the switches.
converter where and form the leading leg and and
In order to overcome this problem, Redl et al. [14]–[16] in-
form the lagging leg. The converters in Fig. 1(a) and (b) are
troduced a resonant inductance and two clamping diodes into
the primary side of transformer. The solution eliminates the defined as type and type, respectively, since the
voltage ringing and overshoot, thus the voltage stress of the primary winding is connected with the lagging leg and
the leading leg, respectively. The operation principle of the two
types is similar and the difference is the same as described in
Manuscript received April 25, 2007; revised July 23, 2007. This work was
supported by the College Young Teachers Fund of Fok Ying Tung Education
[17], i.e., the clamping diodes conduct only once in type
Foundation under Award 91058 and by the Delta Power Electronics Science while conduct twice in type. The following description
and Education Development Fund. Recommended for publication by Associate will be focused on the type.
Editor M. Vitelli.
The authors are with the Aero-Power Sci-Tech Center, College of Au-
The key waveforms of the ZVS PWM full-bridge converter
tomation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, with/without reset winding are shown in Fig. 2. The full-bridge
Nanjing 210016, China. (e-mail: chenwu@nuaa.edu.cn; ruanxb@nuaa.edu.cn; converter without reset winding was analyzed in detail in [17],
zhangrongrong xin@163.com). so the operation principle of the converter with reset winding is
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. analyzed as follows.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2007.915764 To simplify the analysis, the following assumptions are made.
0885-8993/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE

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794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 2, MARCH 2008

Fig. 1. Proposed ZVS PWM full bridge converter.(a) T type. (b) T


type.

1) All the switches and diodes are ideal, except for the rectifier
diode, which is equivalent to an ideal diode and a paralleled
capacitor to simulate the reverse recovery.
2) All the capacitors, inductance and transformer are ideal.
3) The turns ratio of the transformer is the primary winding:
the reset winding: the secondary winding .
Fig. 3 shows the equivalent circuits of the switching stages in
a half period. The second half period is similar to the first half
period.
1) Stage 1 [Refer to Fig. 3(a)]
Prior to , the power is transferred from the input source
to the load through and . is turned off
at zero voltage due to and limit the rising rate of
the voltage across . The resonant inductance current
charges and discharges , and the potential voltage of
point decays. In the meanwhile, the capacitor is
discharged. As the potential voltage of point is greater
than zero, is reverse biased. The voltage of de-
creases to zero at and conducts naturally. Fig. 2. Key waveforms of ZVS PWM full-bridge converters. (a) Without reset
2) Stage 2 [Refer to Fig. 3(b)] winding. (b) With reset winding.
can be turned on at zero voltage when conducts.
continues to be discharged since the voltage of point
is still higher than zero. and continue decaying. of them decay linearly with the rate of . At
This stage finishes when and the voltage of and cross zero, and continue increasing linearly in the
point reduce to zero correspondingly. negative direction. The load current flows through both the
3) Stage 3 [Refer to Fig. 3(c)] rectifier diodes. At and reach the reflected filter
and conduct simultaneously, clamping the sec- inductance current, and turns off.
ondary voltage at zero. is equal to , and the circuit 6) Stage 6 [Refer to Fig. 3(f)]
operates in free-wheeling mode. resonates with after , and is charged in
4) Stage 4 [Refer to Fig. 3(d)] a resonant manner. and continue increasing. At ,
is turned off at zero voltage at , and is charged and the voltage of rises to 2 , and the pri-
is discharged in a resonant manner. This stage finishes mary voltage of the transformer, is , the poten-
when rises to and falls to zero at . tial voltage of point reduces to zero. So conducts,
5) Stage 5 [Refer to Fig. 3(e)] clamping at , and the voltage of is clamped
conducts naturally when decays to zero, and at 2 accordingly.
can be turned on at zero voltage. is equal to , and both 7) Stage 7 [Refer to Fig. 3(g)]

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CHEN et al.: NOVEL ZVS PWM FULL BRIDGE CONVERTER 795

Fig. 3. Equivalent circuits of each operation stages. (a) [t ;t ] . (b) [t ;t ] . (c) [t ;t ] . (d)[t ;t ] . (e) [t ;t ] . (f) [t ;t ] . (g) [t ;t ] . (h) [t ;t ] .

The reset winding is in series with the primary winding


after turns off, the further simplified equivalent circuit
of this stage is shown in Fig. 4(b). During this stage,
resonates with . The rectifier voltage is given
by

Fig. 4. Further equivalent circuits. (a) Stage 7. (b) Stage 8.


(1)

declines downwards to the reflected filter inductance


current when conducts, and increases in the negative where , and
direction. The voltage of the reset winding is , .
which is applied to , making decrease quickly. Equation (1) illustrates that the maximum value of
is greater than before , and the current difference will never exceed though slight oscillation ex-
flows through . This stage finishes when equals at ists. In practice, will finally stay at the average value
, and turns off naturally. The further simplified equiv- since the inherent parasitic resistance
alent circuit of this stage is shown in Fig. 4(a). exists in the power circuit, which will be presented in Sec-
8) Stage 8 [Refer to Fig. 3(h)] tion IV.

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796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 2, MARCH 2008

A resistor or two back-to-back Zener diodes are introduced


to reduce the current in the clamping diodes [16], how-
ever, these components are lossy. In the proposed con-
verter, there is no component is added and the method is
lossless.

III. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CONVERTERS


WITH/WITHOUT RESET WINDING

A. Conduction Loss
It can be known from the above analysis that the voltage os-
cillation across the rectifier diodes can be eliminated in both the
full-bridge converters with and without reset winding, the dif-
ference is the conduction time of the clamping diode.
Before the reset winding is introduced, when the clamping
diode conducts, the resonant inductance is shorted and its
current keeps constant, the difference between the resonant
inductance current and the primary current flows through the
clamping diode. The conduction time of the clamping diode
depends on the rise rate of the filter inductance current. The Fig. 5. Primary current comparison. (a) Without reset winding. (b) With reset
winding.
filter inductance is usually quite large, so the conduction time
of the clamping diode is very long.
When the reset winding is introduced, a negative voltage
is applied to the resonant inductance, makes its current For the convenience of description, we define the turns ratio
decays rapidly, so the clamping diode current declines to zero of the transformer as
rapidly correspondingly and its average value is also reduced,
and the efficiency can be further increased. (6)

B. Transformer Turns Ratio


The output voltage , which is the average value of , C. Output Filter Inductance and Clamping Diode Current
can be calculated according to Fig. 2(b). The time intervals
The transformer primary current and resonant current wave-
and are very short to be neglected compared with
forms with and without reset winding are shown in Fig. 5.
, so is given by
is the primary current spike caused by the resonance of the reso-
nant inductance and the junction capacitor of the rectifier diode
(2)
(7)
where is the switching period.
Generally, is shorter than by choosing the proper turns
ratio of the reset winding to the primary winding, then (2) be-
The rise slope of the output filter inductance current is
comes

(3) (8)

where is the secondary duty cycle. Taking into account the voltage drops on the clamping diode
The output/input voltage ratio of the full-bridge converter and the switch, the decay slope of the resonant inductance when
without the reset winding is the clamping diode conducts is

(4) (9)

where is the primary turns of the transformer.


where is the output load current; is the static
From (3) and (4), we can see that in order to obtain the same
drain-to-source on-resistance of the main switch; and is the
voltage ratio, we should have
forward voltage drop of the clamping diode.
(5) From (8) and (9), the conduction time of the clamping diode
without reset winding can be derived as
It means the transformer primary winding in the full-bridge
converter is split into two windings, and one of them is used as (10)
the reset winding in the proposed converter.

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CHEN et al.: NOVEL ZVS PWM FULL BRIDGE CONVERTER 797

Fig. 6. Maximum value of L when reset winding is not introduced.

Fig. 7. Clamping diode conduction time comparison (V = 270 V).

Fig. 8. Transformer winding structures. (a) Turns ratio n : n : n = 14 :


In order to avoid reverse recovery of the clamping diode,
should be smaller than . Substitution of (4) into (10), 1 : 13. (b) Turns ratio n : n : n = 13 : 2 : 13. (c) Turns ratio: 15:13.
yields

(11) (13), yields

(14)
In the proposed converter, when the clamping diode conducts,
the decay slope of the resonant inductance current (the voltage
drops on the clamping diode and the switch are so small com- In order to observe the concrete comparisons, a prototype is
pared with the reset winding voltage that they are neglected) is designed and built with the following parameters:
• input voltage % VDC;
(12) • output voltage : 180 VDC;
• maximum output current : 6 A;
• switching frequency : 100 kHz;
The conduction time of the clamping diode can be derived
• resonant inductance H (Ferroxcube, core:
from (8) and (12)
E32/16/9-3C90, bobbin: CPH-E 42/20-1S -12PD, 8 turns
Litz wire: dia. 0.1 mm, 200 strands);
(13) • main switches : IRFP450 (International Recti-
fier), and its ;
Similarly, should be shorter than to avoid • clamping diodes: DSEI30-06A (IXYS), and its forward
reverse recovery of the clamping diode. Substitution of (3) into voltage V;

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798 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 2, MARCH 2008

Fig. 9. Waveforms of the Tr_lag type converters. (a) Without reset winding. (b) With reset winding (n : n : n = 14 : 1 : 13). (c) With reset winding
(n : n : n = 13 : 2 : 13).

• rectifier diodes (full-bridge rectifier): DSEI30-06A is assumed to be large enough to be infinity, hence the
(IXYS); maximum value of is
• : designed with two cases: 14:1:13, 13:2:13,
respectively; (17)
• turns ratio : 15:13;
• reflected capacitor : 600 F, which is approximately When
calculated by the experimental results. It can be seen that the maximum is shorter than the min-
According to (11), Fig. 6 shows the maximum filter induc- imum conduction time , so the clamping diodes
tance to ensure the clamping diode turn off naturally, it can be can be turned off naturally without reverse recovery over the
seen that should be less than 230 H. whole input voltage range.
The minimum duty cycle of the proposed converter is Fig. 7 shows the conduction time of the clamping diodes of
the converters with and without reset winding, where the output
(15) filter inductance varying from 100 to 200 H. It can be seen that
the conduction time of the clamping diode is reduced signifi-
cantly in the proposed converter and insusceptible to the output
So the minimum conduction time is
filter inductance. So the output filter inductance can be designed
to be large to obtain small current ripple and thus the filter ca-
(16) pacitance is reduced.

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CHEN et al.: NOVEL ZVS PWM FULL BRIDGE CONVERTER 799

Fig. 10. Waveforms of the leading switch and the lagging switch. (a) v ; v
and i of the leading switch Q . (b) v ; v and i of the lagging switch Q .

The voltage stress of the rectifier diode in the proposed con-


verter is 2 , which is slightly higher than the converter
without reset winding, and the difference is

(18)

In the prototype, however, the difference is too small to influ-


ence the choice of the rectifier diodes.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Fig. 11. Waveforms of the T r type converters. (a) Without reset winding.
(b) With reset winding (n : n : n = 14 : 1 : 13). (c) With reset winding
A prototype with 180V/6A output of the proposed ZVS (n : n : n = 13 : 2 : 13).

PWM full-bridge converter was built and tested to verify the


operation principle. The output filter inductance is 230 H
(Ferroxcube, core: E42/21/20-3C90, bobbin: CPH-E 42/20-1S 0.1 mm 20 mm) and the other parameters are the same as
-12PD, 40 turns, copper strip and its cross section size is listed in Section III.

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800 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 2, MARCH 2008

ductance. The efficiency of type converter is also higher


than that of type converter.

V. CONCLUSION
A new ZVS PWM full-bridge converter is proposed in this
paper, it employs an additional reset winding to make the
clamping diode current decay rapidly when the clamping diode
conducts, thus the conduction losses of the clamping diodes, the
leading switches and the resonant inductance are reduced and
the conversion efficiency can be increased. In the meanwhile,
the clamping diodes can be turned off naturally without reverse
recovery over the whole input voltage range, and the output
filter inductance can be designed to be large to obtain small
current ripple, leading to reduced filter capacitance. Compared
with the traditional full bridge converter [14]–[16], the pro-
posed circuit provides another simple and effective approach
Fig. 12. Efficiency comparison of three kinds of converter.
to avoid the reverse recovery of the clamping diodes. The op-
eration principle, features and comparisons are illustrated. The
Experimental results from the prototype are shown to verify the
Three kinds of transformer are built with different turns ratio, feasibility of the proposed converter.
and their winding structures are shown in Fig. 8. All the trans-
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CHEN et al.: NOVEL ZVS PWM FULL BRIDGE CONVERTER 801

[15] R. Redl, L. Balogh, and D. W. Edwards, “Optimal zvs full-bridge dc–dc Xinbo Ruan (M’97–SM’01) was born in Hubei,
converter with pwm phase-shift control: Analysis, design considera- China, in 1970. He received the B.S. and Ph.D.
tions, and experimental results,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. degrees in electrical engineering from Nanjing Uni-
Conf. (APEC’94), 1994, pp. 159–165. versity of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA),
[16] R. Redl, L. Balogh, and D. W. Edwards, “Switch transitions in the soft Nanjing, China, in 1991 and 1996, respectively.
switching full-bridge pwm phase-shift dc–dc converter: Analysis and In 1996, he joined the faculty of the College of
improvements,” in Proc. INTELEC’93, 1993, pp. 350–357. Automation Engineering, NUAA where he is now a
[17] X. Ruan and F. Liu, “An improved zvs pwm full-bridge converter Professor. He has authored over 100 technical pa-
with clamping diodes,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. pers in journals and conferences and also published
(PESC’04), 2004, pp. 1476–1481. three books. His main research interests include soft-
switching dc–dc converters, soft-switching inverters,
power factor correction converters, modeling the converters, power electronics
system integration and renewable energy generation system.
Dr. Ruan received the honor of “Delta Scholar” in 2003. He is a Member of
the IEEE Power Electronics Society.

Wu Chen (S’05) was born in Jiangsu, China, in Rongrong Zhang was born in Jiangsu, China, in
1981. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in 1983. She received the B.S. degree in electrical
electrical engineering from Nanjing University of engineering from Nanjing University of Aeronautics
Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA), Nanjing, and Astronautics (NUAA), Nanjing, China, in 2005,
China, in 2003 and 2006, respectively, where he where she is currently pursuing the M. S. degree in
is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical electrical engineering.
engineering.
His main research interests are soft-switching
dc–dc converters and power electronics system
integration.

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