You are on page 1of 20

BULKDEFORMATION PROCESSES IN METALWORKING

@2002John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

M. P. Groover,

"Fundamentalsof ModernManufacturinqze'

BULKDEFORMATION

Metalformingoperationswhichcausesignificantshape

changebydeformationinmetalpartswhoseinitial

isbulkratherthansheet

o

Theseprocessesworkbystressingmetalsufficiently

causeplasticflowintodesiredshape

o

Performedascold,warm,andhotworkingoperations

IMPORTANCEOFBULKDEFORMATION

o

Inhotworking,significantshapechangecanbe

accomplished

o

Incoldworking,strengthcanbeincreasedduringshape

change

o

Littleor nowaste - someoperationsarenearnet shape or netshapeprocesses

. Thepartsrequirelittleor nosubsequentmachining

FOURBASICBULKDEFORMATION

PROCESSES

i.

Rolling - slaborplateissqueezedbetweenopposing rolls

2.

Forging - workissqueezedandshapedbetween opposingdies

3.

Extrusion - workissqueezedthrougha dieopening, therebytakingtheshapeoftheopening

4.

Wireandbardrawing -

diameterofwireor barisreduc

by pullingitthrougha dieopening

l

l. Rolling

Deformationprocessinwhichworkthicknessisreduced

bycompressiveforcesexertedbytwoopposingrolls

Directionof workflow

-,--,------_>-

The rollingprocess(specifically,flatrolling)

THEROLLS

Therotatingrollsperformtwomainfunctions:

o

Pulltheworkintothegapbetweenthembyfriction

betweenwork-partandrolls

o

Simultaneouslysqueezetheworkto reducecross section

+6,

TYPESOFROLLING

o

Bygeometryofwork:

.

Flatrolling - usedto reducethicknessof a rectangular cross-section

.

Shaperolling - a squarecross-sectionisformedintoa shapesuchasan l-beam

o

Bytemperatureofwork:

.

.

HotRolling - mostcommondueto the largeamountof deformationrequired

Coldrolling - producesfinishedsheetandplatestock

lntermediaterolledlom

Finalrolledlom

Structumlshapes

J+fr*

7

ct

Bars, rods

Someofthesteelproductsmadeina rollingmill

A rollingmillfor hotflat the steel plate is seenas the glowingstripextending diagonallyfromthe lowerleft corner (photocourtesyof Bethlehem SteelCompany)

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONSOF

ROLLINGMILLS

(a)2-highrollingmill

ffis

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONSOF

ROLLINGMILLS

-%

v2w),,

(b)

(b)3-highrollingmill

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONSOFROLLIN

MILLS

(c)four-highrollingmill

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONSOF

ROLLINGMILLS

(d)

(d)clustermill

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONSOFROLLIN

MILLS

&

rc

(e)tandemrollingmill

"

$;

")sf

THREADROLLING

Bulkdeformationprocessusedto formthreadsoncylindricalpartsby them betweentwo dies

o

Mostimportantcommercialprocessfor massproducingboltsand

o

Performedby coldworkinginthreadrollingmachines

Advantagesoverthreadcutting(machining):

.

.

.

.

Higherproductionrates

Bettermaterialutilization

Strongerthreadsdueto workhardening

Betterfatigueresistancedueto compressivestressesintroducedp"v rolling

THREADROLLING

Movingdi€

Threadrollingwithflatdies:

(1)startofcycle,and(2)endofcycle

Finishedpan

,.,,'B

+- .'!t\\i\:i:,

RINGROLLING

Deformationprocessinwhicha thick-walledringof smaller diameteris rolledintoa thinwalledringof largerdiameter

o

o

o

o

As thick-walledringiscompressed,deformedmetalelongates, causingdiameterof ringto beenlarged

Hotworkingprocessfor largeringsandcoldworkingprocessfor smallerrings

Applications:ballandrollerbearingraces,steeltiresfor railroad wheels,andringsfor pipes,pressurevessels,androtating machinery

Advantages:materialsavings,idealgrainorientation,

strengtheningthroughcoldworking

a1#

RINGROLLING

Ringrollingusedto reducethewallthicknessand increasethe diameterof a ring:

(1)start,and (2)completionof process

II.FORGING

Deformationprocessinwhichworkis compressedbetween two dies

o

Oldestofthemetalformingoperations,datingfromabout5000

BC

o

Components:enginecrankshafts,connectingrods,gears,

aircraftstructuralcomponents, jet engineturbineparts

o

Inaddition,basicmetalsindustriesuseforgingtoestablishbgsic

formoflargecomponentsthataresubsequentlymachinedtoriq;

finalshapeandsize

CLASSIFICATIONOFFORGING

OPERATIONS

o

Coldvs.hotforging:

 

.

Hot or warm forging - mostcommon,dueto the significantdeformationandtheneedto reducestrength andincreaseductilityofworkmetal

.

Cold forging - advantageis increasedstrengththat resultsfromstrainhardening

o

lmpactvs.pressforging:

.

.

Forge hammer - appliesan impactload

Forgepress - appliesgradualpressure

,'&,,n

TYPESOFFORGINGDIES

1,

Open-die forging - work is compressedbetweentwo flat dies, allowingmetalto flowlaterallywithoutconstraint

lmpression-die forging - die surfacescontaina cavityor impressionthatis impartedto workpart,thusconstrainingmetal flow - f/ashis created

s. Fleshlessforging - workpartis completelyconstrainedin die

andno excessflashis produced

Lowar dis (9blionary)

l.F

1.OPEN.DIEFORGING

Compressionof workpartwithcylindricalcross-section betweentwo flatdies

o

Similarto compressiontest

o

Deformationoperationreducesheightandincreases diameterof work

o

Commonnamesincludeupsettingor upsefforging

2. IMPRESSION.DIEFORGING

Compressionof workpartby dieswith inverseof desiredpart shape

o

Flashis formedby metalthatflowsbeyonddiecavityintosmallgap betweendie plates

o

Flashmustbe latertrimmedfrom part,but it servesan important functionduringcompression:

.

As flashforms,frictionresistscontinuedmetalflowintogap, constrainingmaterialto filldie cavity

.

In hotforging,metalflowis furtherrestrictedby coolingagainstdie plates

*"m ffiffi x': ;i'""i,jig#;;_:_*

l"F

t

t".

gapbetweendie plates

IMPRESSION.DIEFORGING

ADVANTAGESANDLIMITATIONS

o

Advantagescomparedtomachiningfromsolidstock:

 

.

Higherproductionrates

.

Conservationof metal(lesswaste)

.

Greaterstrength

.

Favorablegrainorientationinthemetal

o

Limitations:

.

Notcapableofclosetolerances

.

Machiningoftenrequiredtoachieveaccuracies andfeaturesneeded,suchasholes,threads,and matingsurfacesthatfitwithothercomponents ffii

3.FLASHLESSFORGING

Compressionof workin punchanddietoolingwhosecavitydoesallow for flash

o

Startingworkpartvolumemustequaldiecavityvolumewithinvery closetolerance

o

Processcontrolmoredemandingthanimpression-dieforging

o

Bestsuitedto partgeometriesthataresimpleandsymmetrical

o

Often classifiedas a precision forgingprocess

Flashlessforging:

(i)

just beforeinitialcontactwithworkpiece,

(2)

partial compression,and

(3)

finalpunch anddie closure

FORGTNGHAMMERS(DROP

HAMMERS)

o

Applyan impactloadagainstworkpart - two types:

.

Gravitydrophammers - impactenergyfromfallingweightof a ram

.

Powerdrophammers - acceleratethe ram by pressurizedair or steam

o

Disadvantage:impactenergytransmittedthroughanvilintofloorof

building

o

Mostcommonlyusedfor impression-dieforging

ffi;^

W8

w-*

Tflil:l"ffi,:::il::LTfifl,

FORGINGPRESSES

o Applygradualpressuretoaccomplishcompression operation - types:

.

.

.

Mechanicalpresses - convertsrotationof drivemotor intolinearmotionof ram

Hydraulicpresses - hydraulicpistonactuatesram

Screwpresses - screwmechanismdrivesram

.,.?.1i€!

"l

2r\

",

III.EXTRUSION

Compressionformingprocessinwhichtheworkmetalisforcedto flow througha dieopeningto producea desiredcross-sectionalshape

o

Processis similarto squeezingtoothpasteoutof a toothpastetuoe

o

Ingeneral,extrusionis usedto producelongpartsof uniformcross- sections

o

Two basictypesof extrusion:

.

.

Directextrusion

lndirectextrusion

Rem

?

Directextrusion

Wht;.

u*,

COMMENTSONDIRECTEXTRUSION

o

Also called forward extrusion

o

As ramapproachesdieopening,a smallportionof billetremainsthat cannotbeforcedthroughdieopening

o

This extraportion,calledthebutt,mustbe separatedfrom extruded productby cuttingit just beyondthedieexit

o

Startingbilletcrosssectionusuallyround,butfinalshapeisdetermi

bydieopening

otl

c E

(a) Directextrusionto producea hollowor semi-hollowcross-section;(b) hollowand(c)semi-hollowcross-sections

,.-:,,1

rfrf-N

COMMENTSON INDIRECTEXTRUSION

o

Also calledbackwardextrusionandreverse extrusion

o

Limitationsof indirectextrusionareimposedbythe lowerrigidityof hollowramanddifficultyinsupportingextrudedproductas itexits die

lndirectextrusionto oroduce

(a) a solidcross-sectionand (b) a hollowcross-section

GENERALADVANTAGESOF

EXTRUSION

o Varietyof shapespossible,especiallyin hotextrusion . Limitation:partcross-sectionmustbeuniformthroughout

length

o

Grainstructureandstrengthenhancedincoldandwarm extrusion

o

Closetolerancespossible,especiallyincoldextrusion

o

Insomeoperations,littleor nowasteof material

'i1

)

HOTVS. COLDEXTRUSION

o

Hotextrusion - priorheatingof billetto aboveits recrystalIizationtemperature

.

Thisreducesstrengthandincreasesductilityofthe

 

metal,permittingmoresizereductionsandmore

complexshapes

o

Coldextrusion - generallyusedto producediscrete

parts

. The termimpactextrusionis usedto indicatehigh speedcoldextrusion

!

:

li,

::::::::::::::

A complexextrudedcross-sectionfora heatsink

*ffi

IV.WIREANDBARDRAWING

Cross-sectionof a bar,rod,orwireis reducedby pullingitthrougha die opening

o

Similarto extrusionexceptworkispulledthroughdie indrawing(itis pushedthroughin extrusion)

o

Althoughdrawingappliestensilestress,compressionalsoplaysa significantrolesincemetalissqueezedas it passesthroughdie opening

-f

.L

_L

Figure19.41 - Drawingof bar,rod,or wire

.si

WIREDRAWINGVS.BARDRAWING

o

Differencebetweenbardrawingandwiredrawingis

stocksize

 

.

Bardrawing - largediameterbarandrodstock

.

Wiredrawing - smalldiameterstock - wiresizesdownto

 

0.03mm(0.001in.)arepossible

o

Althoughthemechanicsarethesame,the

methods,equipment,andeventerminologyare

different

qh

DRAWINGPRACTICEANDPRODUCTS

o

Drawingpractice:

 

.

Usuallyperformedascoldworking

.

Mostfrequentlyusedfor roundcross-sections

o

Products:

.

Wire'.electricalwire;wirestockforfences,coathangers,and shoppingcarts

.

Rodsfockfor nails,screws,rivets,andsprings

.

Barsfock metalbarsformachining,forging,andother processes

;;;;1.:.:.1;;;;::!;

:

WP

WIREDRAWING

o Continuousdrawingmachinesconsistingof multipledrawdies (typically4Io 12)separatedby accumulatingdrums

.

.

.

Eachdrum (capsfan)providesproperforceto drawwire stock throughupstreamdie

Eachdie providesa smallreduction,so desiredtotalreductionis achievedby theseries

Annealingsometimesrequiredbetweendies

BARDRAWING

o

Accomplishedasa smg/e-draftoperation - thestock ispulledthroughonedieopening

o

Beginningstockhaslargediameterandisa straight cylinder

o

Thisnecessitatesa batchtypeoperation

:.ll\i.!:!::+

::r:l38:':

Hydraulicallyoperateddrawbenchfor drawingmetalbars

BULKDEFORMATIONPROCESSES

INMETALWORKING

1

.

3. Extrusion -tu

---

-

o.tr c"E

t'

*.'*--*,

.*

#_

ffi:

*Pg:ffi

-*,

*-:-}*Ei:t

dj",{--

;, :4#n'