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Ciass

Book

University of

Chicago Library GIVEN BY
topic this took also treats of

Besides the
Subject No.

main

OH page

Subject No.

On page

^r

4:

I

THE PASSION OF

Sv'

i>EBPETUA
MSS.

NEWLY EDITED FROM THE

WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND NOTES

TOGETHER WITH AN APPENDIX CONTAINING THE ORIGINAL LATIN TEXT OF

THE SCILLITAN MARTYRDOM

BY
J.

ARMITAGE ROBINSON

B.D.

FELLOW AND ASSISTANT TDTOE OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE

CAMBRIDGE
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS
1891
[All Eights reserved]

Cambriligt

:

PRINTED BY

C.

J.

CLAY, M.A. AND SONS,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

"1
I

S~ a"

FRATRI
QVI
-

-

MEO

APVD ALIENIGENAS AFRICAE OCCIDENTALS

DVM MARTYRVM
PRO VIRIBVS
NVPERRIME
IN

FIDEICOMMISSVM

EXEQVEBATVR
-

CHRISTO

OBDORMIVIT

HOC OPVS QVANTVLVMCVMQVE
DE
PRIMITIIS

ECCLESIAE

AFRICANAE

DEDICO

SVMMO

DESIDERIO

PREFACE.
FT1HE
_J_

interest in the

Decent discovery of a Greek text has awakened a fresh most beautiful of all the records of Christian

Martyrdom. The occurrence of Greek words in the familiar Latin document had previously led some scholars to suspect that it might be a translation from the Greek. This may help to account
for the hasty welcome which has been accorded to the theory that the newly found Greek text is the veritable original. This view moreover found some support in the parallel theory of Aube that Usener's discovery of the still earlier Scillitan Martyrdom in a

known

Greek dress gave us another Greek original for a record hitherto to us only through somewhat amplified Latin recensions. In the poverty of our knowledge as to the beginnings of the African. Church any new information must be eagerly welcomed. But it must first be tested by critical processes before it can be added to the-scanty materials of history. The present study is an
attempt at such criticism. The result, unless I am mistaken, is that both theories alike break down, The beautiful Latin of
S. Perpetua's Martyrdom holds its own against its clumsy rival and I have endeavoured by the aid of the MSS. to present it in a
:

more

I have been fortunate in finding the satisfactory form. Latin of the Scillitan Martyrdom and I edit accordingly original
;

for the first

may perhaps claim to be the earliest consecutive piece of Christian Latin which has been preserved
The important problem of the language commonly used in the Churches of the West receives, I believe, some new light from the observations which I have made in an additional note, in

time what

to us.

earliest

which I have adduced evidence to prove that the Churches of Vienne and Lyons were better acquainted with a Latin Version than with the original Greek of the New Testament. The famous

vm

PREFACE.

Letter which describes their sufferings was addressed to an Eastern Church and was therefore written in Greek: but the Scriptural quotations and allusions which it contains point to a process of
affinities

extemporaneous retranslation from a Latin Version which betrays with what is known as the African Old Latin.
Several other matters of interest have come out in the course
of the study of these problems.

Two

sources from which the

Carthaginian Martyrs unconsciously drew the materials of their Visions appear to be the Shepherd of Hennas and the Apocalypse

These two books may accordingly be added provisionally to the early Latin Bible of the West. I have moreover been led to the belief that we owe the record of the Martyrs' sufferings to
of Peter.

no

powerful a writer than Tertullian himself. The present Study was accepted by the Professors of Divinity I owe it to the courtesy as a Dissertation for the Degree of B.D.
less

of the Regius Professor that I have been allowed to

make some

small additions previous to its publication. To edit the Passion of S. Perpetua with the fulness which is called for by the many questions of history, of doctrine and of
I can Latinity which it involves, would demand a large volume. offer a short study, of the incompleteness of which I am painonly a fully aware but I hope that I have done something towards
:

purer text and a better understanding of a document which few students of Latin can fail to appreciate and no one can read without emotion.

CHRIST'S COLLEGE,
S. Peter's

Day, 1891.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGES

INTRODUCTION
The Relation between the Latin and Greek Texts The MSS. of the Passion The Origin and Use of the Short Latin Acts Were our Martyrs Thuburbitan ? The Shepherd of Hermas and the Visions The Apocalypse of Peter and the Vision of Saturus The Authorship of the Visions The Authorship of the rest of the Martyrdom
.

...
. .

1-58
2

10
.

15

.... ... ....
. .
.

22 26
37

43
47

THE LATIN AND GREEK TEXTS OF THE PASSION
ADDITIONAL NOTES
Additional Variants in the

60-95

96-103

MSS
Churches of Vienne and Lyons
c.

96
97
xvi

The Old Latin Version

in the

On

The Text

the emendation of a passage in of the Short Latin Acts

100 100
106-121
106 112 118

APPENDIX
Introduction to the Scillitan Martyrdom The Latin and Greek Texts

Two

later Latin Recensions

INDICES
Index of words in the Latin Text of S. Perpetua Index of words in the Greek Text of S. Perpetua Index of subject matter
. .

123-131
.

123
128

.

.

.

130

INTRODUCTION.

companions has come and without the name of its author; and moreover, if we except certain incidental allusions, with no These untoward indication either of its locality or of its date. circumstances have exercised, as we shall see, a strange influence upon its literary history and in only one manuscript has it surof S. Perpetua and her

THE Martyrdom

down

to us without a title

;

vived even approximately intact in its original form. This copy was discovered by L. Holsten in the Benedictine Monastery of

Monte
to edit

Cassino.
it.

He

transcribed

it for

the press, but did not live

His work was subsequently taken up by P. Poussin, who published it at Rome in 1663, adding to Holsten 's valuable In the following notes others scarcely less important of his own.
it

was reprinted at Paris by H. de Valois, who prefixed a preface in which he discussed the locality and date of the martyrdom and contended that the collector of the Visions was a Montanist. It was next reprinted by the Bollandists in 1668, with a few It was additional annotations, but no fresh recension of the text. edited at Oxford in 1680, in a duodecimo volume, at the again end of Lactantius De Mortibus Persecutorum, with a few additional notes and some variants from a MS. called Codex Sarisburiensis. Ruinart in his Acta Sincera endeavoured to improve the text by the aid of two imperfect MSS. (Salisburgensis and Compendiensis): but his emendations were for the most part infelicitous, and his list of variants was both incorrect and incomplete. So that up to the present time the editio princeps has remained
year
the best authority for the text. In the spring of the year 1889 Prof. Rendel Harris discovered a complete Greek text of the
E.

1

2

THE PASSION OF
in the library of the

S.

PERPETUA.

Martyrdom

at Jerusalem.

Convent of the Holy Sepulchre This was published by him, in conjunction with Prof. Seth K. Gifford of Haverford College, Pennsylvania, in

1890 at the Cambridge University Press, with an introduction and short notes. At the same time he reprinted Ruinart's Latin text with a few emendations suggested by the Greek. In the present edition I have given a fresh recension of the Latin text from the manuscripts and I have discussed the relation of the Greek to the Latin text, and also to the shorter Latin Acts. I have also
:

ventured upon the question of the authorship of the Visions themselves and of the framework in which they are preserved. Besides this, I believe that I have been able to point out some

from which what may be called the raw material of the Visions has been largely drawn and I have added some notes and illustrations which I trust will throw light on several obscure passages in the text. My interest in the subject has been stirred by Mr Harris's book, to which, as well as to his subsequent suggestions, I desire at the outset to acknowsources, hitherto unrecognised,
;

ledge

my

indebtedness.

The Relation between the Latin and Greek

Texts.

in the library of the Convent of the Holy Sepulchre (Cod. S. Sep. 1). The MS. contains /9tot real fjiaprvpiai for the month of February. It is labelled
:

The MS. discovered by Mr Rendel Harris him " The Greek text is taken from a MS.

is

thus described by

with the name of Symeon Metaphrastes, but inasmuch as the writing is of the tenth century at least the title must not be

taken literally. will be found on
Gaza.

the interesting matters in this Codex p. 136 the martyrdom of Polycarp (i.e. the letter On pp. 144 173 the life of Porphyry of of the Smyrneans).

Among

On
first

p.

173 Hippolytus, De Christo

et Antichristo.

The

martyrdom, of Perpetua will be found on p. 41 of the

MS. 1 "

The
this
liar for

Greek text

question which calls for an answer is the relation of to the Latin with which scholars have been fami-

the last two centuries.
1

Are we

to regard the

Greek as a

Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas, p. 36.

THE LATIN AND GEEEK TEXTS.
translation of the Latin, or vice versa?

3
discoverer of the

The

Greek form has endeavoured
that the Latin
conclusion
1
.

to prove that it is the original,

is

a translation

is

very startling:

made half a century later. for we naturally expect
will

and Such a

that the

martyrdoms of a Latin
tongue
~~

Church

be chronicled in the Latin

in a question of this kind may conveniently be considered under three main heads. First, a translation, being

The evidence

obviously intended for foreign readers, will often introduce explanatory phrases which would have been, superfluous to the persons
for

whom

the original was intended

sometimes suppress details late or do not readily lend themselves to explanation. Secondly, the translation will generally be weaker and more diffuse than the original and this will be specially the case if the original be Latin. Dependent clauses will often be coordinated, and words
will
:

while, on the other hand, it which are troublesome to trans;

which cannot easily be paralleled will be represented by a double or an alternative rendering. Thirdly, when there is a play upon words in the original, this will as a rule be lost in the translation and this last indication, if we are fortunate enough to meet with I shall endeavour to give it, is perhaps the most conclusive of all. illustrations in the present case under each of these heads, to support the view that the Latin is the original and the Greek a subsequent translation. If I dismiss the subject somewhat summarily, it will be in the conviction that almost every topic sub:

sequently treated of in this Introduction will furnish new proofs For the convenience of the argument to substantiate this view.
I shall from the outset speak of the Latin original, and of the

Greek
(1)

version.

In the introductory chapter we find a difference in person between the Latin and the Greek, which is explained at once if we suppose that the Latin was written for readers who lived on the
1

I

have now

Mr

Harris's authority to say that he has seen reason to change

his view of the matter, and to regard the Latin as the original. A similar contest is being waged over the Greek and Latin forms of the Scillitan Martyrdom;

where Usener

is undoubtedly right, in spite of Aub's efforts to refute him, hi declaring the Greek to be a translation from an original Latin document. See the Appendix at the end of this study.

12

THE PASSION OF
scene,

S.

PERPETUA.
eye-witnesses of the events

and some of

whom had been

described.

Et nos itaque quod audiuimus et contrectauimus annuntiamus et uofilioli, ut et uos qui rememoremini gloriae Dointerfuistis mini, et qui mine cognosdtis per

Kai
KCU

jfiels

e^
TCKVO.,

bis 1 , fratres et

aSeX^oi Kai

iva Kai of

povres dvafivr^a-daaiv SO^TJS Qeov, Kai ol vvv 81 aKorjs yivwo-Kovres
Kotvmviav ex 7? 7" 6
pu>v, K.T.\.
A167""

auditum comrnunionem habeatis cum
sanctis martyribus, &c.

v uyiav paprv-

This suggests that in the Greek a translator is drawing a line of distinction between persons who had been on the spot and only needed -to be reminded, and others at a distance or at a later time,

who through
between
S.
'

his writing
'

would now
3

ship with the African martyrs.
fratres

time have fellowBut the contrast in the Latin is
for the first
'
'

and
;

'

filioli,

John's Epistle
('

that

is

terms suggested by the filioli of to say, between the writer's own gene-

ration

and a younger generation now growing ') nunc cognoscitis per auditum '). up (' qui Immediately after this quotation there follows in the Greek a mention of the locality to which the martyrs belonged (c. ii.)
qui interfuistis
in the

Church

:

e'r;

7roXet Oov/cpirdvcov (sic cod.)

from the Latin

:

and

its

piKporepa. absence may be accounted for on the
777

This

is

entirely absent

ground that such a localising of the martyrdom was superfluous for the original readers. Indeed it is open to question whether is not altogether false and based on a later misapthe statement
2

prehension

.

In

c.

v.

we read:
TroXX^s
dvefBr)

Superuenit autem et de ciuitate et pater meus, consumptus taedio ascendit ad me, ut me deiceret.
:

Hapeyevero de KQ\ u Trarrjp CK rfjs air o firm ins papaivopevos- KOI

npos

fie Trporpeirofjievos fie

Kara-

1

It is

worth while to observe that the omission of the
:

Kai before vfuv is a late

variant in S. John's Epistle and it is hard to believe that an original writer would give evayye\if6(jie6a instead of d,Trayy\ofjiei/, though it might easily come in as a

rendering of derived from
vfj.Sit>

'

its

in

c. i.

Other indications of the later date of the Greek, rendering of quotations, are found in the change of eorum into (see note ad loc.), and in Aireta-ffe Kai \r//j.i{/e<r0e (e. xix.), which

annunciamus.

'

'

'

one can scarcely believe possible from an original writer. 2 See below, pp. 22 ff.

THE LATIN AND GKEEK TEXTS.
The

5

1 expression e/c TTJS TroXX-^9 ewroS^/Aia? is a reminiscence of rore 0X1709 ij/j,epas aTroSiyfjir/cravTos avrou, K.T.\., where Perpetua describes her relief at the temporary absence of her father.

c. iii,

The Latin however does not suggest that he had gone on a journey, but merely that he had not come again to the prison tune diebus quod caruissem patrem Domino gratias egi, et paucis The exaggeration of the Greek is refrigeraui absentia illius.' apparently the result of an effort to avoid the ambiguity of de
' :

'

ciuitate,' which however was quite intelligible to those who thought of the martyrs as confined at this period in the prison of the Proconsular palace, which was on the Byrsa, 200 feet above

the

city.

The Forum was down by the

sea,

and the

local touch in

'ascendit' may be illustrated from Appian's statement that the Byrsa was the Acropolis of Carthage, and that in the time of Scipio's siege there were three streets going up to it from the

Forum 2
In

.

c.

x.

we read

in

the Latin 'ad portarn Sanauiuariam,
717309 irvKt}v

(Saneuiuariam BC)' the Greek has
%u>TLKr)v.

rrjv 'Xe^ofjbevrjv

Of

betrays the translator. omission and modifications which are apparently due to a

The explanatory phrase

desire to shirk a difficult phrase,
c. iii.

we may
aliucl
;

notice the following
(TKCVOS Keipevov
rj

:

uas hoc iacens, urceolum siue

aAXo

ri

raw

TOIOVTCOV.
c. xiii.

Aspasium presbyterum doctorem
et de factionibus certantes
;

;

'Ao-Trao-ioi/

TUV

ibid,
c.

KOI irepl
;

avrmv

xv.

ex ininistris cataractariorum
flagellis eos

TVV

TrapcrnypoiWcoi/ vT
;

c. xviii.

uexari pro ordine uenatorum postulauit

6fjvai O.VTOVS e^oi

than the Latin is found in the addition of epithets such as 'holy' and 'blessed.' These are not altogether unknown in the Latin, but the Greek is alone
indication that the Greek
is later

An

in introducing

them

in the following instances

:

c.

xviii.

ol

1 Von Gebhardt in the Deutsche Literaturzeitung for Jan. 24, 1891, ingeniously emends the Greek, by tbe aid of an expression in c. ix. (rrj aicrjSiq. papavdets), as

follows

:

e/c rrjs

TroXews

CLTT'

aKqdias (or

aKijSig.) /j.apaivo/j.evos.

If tbis

form of the Greek, the explanation which I have given
corruption.
2

may
:

were the original serve to account for its
128

Appian, De rebus Punicis,
ayopas dvodwv
ets

1 ^ KapyTjdoviwv a/cpoiroXis

and

rpi<3i> 5'

euro TTJS

avrfy, K.T.X.

6
qrya\idcr8r)crav.

THE PASSION OF
c.

S.

PERPETUA.
Be vedviaiv.
c.

xx. rat?

pa/cap Lais

xxi.

Bid

r&v dylcDV
piqj

i a-(opdT(t)V...Kal ol pa/cdptoi, p,dprvpe^..,e jrl ro3 /^a/ca-

Oavdrta

ceivable that,

avrwv .TWV pafcapimv f^apTvpwv. It is inconif these were in the original, a Latin translator
. .

should have rejected them. parallel case is found in the later Latin recensions and the Greek version of the Scillitan Martyrdom
:

A

see the Appendix.

We may next
lator to

observe the evident desire of the Greek trans-

minimise the Montanistic allusions to the work of the Holy Spirit. Thus at the outset (c. i.) we have
:

Itaque et nos qui sicut prophetias
ii&ei'aisioTLiesTiouaspariterreprom'issas

'H/ms
opdo-eis
a-K.ofi.ev

fie

owives

irpo<pT]Teias

KOI

nan/as
KOI

dexopeOa KOI emyivu-

etagnoscimusethonoramuSjCeferasg'tte
uirtutes Spiritus Sancti

Tiprnpev no. eras TO.S

8wd-

ad

instru-

^eis TOV dyiov irvevpaTos,
rfj

as

mentum

ecclesiae

deputamus.
c

dyia eKK\r)(riq.

Here the translator omits
instead of the Latin
'

pariter repromissas,'
'

and gives

which implied that the prophecies and visions were themselves powers of the Spirit intended for the equipment of the Church.' In c. xvi. the beautiful phrase permisit et permittendo uoluit
ceteras,'
'

appears merely as eTrerpetyev TO ayiov Trvev/xa. is most conspicuous in the concluding sentences of the book, which have been miserably rewritten, so that

Spiritus Sanctus

'

But the tendency

the great moral of the whole,
is

'

ut nouae quoque uirtutes

unum

et

eundem semper Spiritum Sanctum usque adhuc
ficentur,'

operari testi-

exchanged

for

a frigid commonplace, y Travdperos
/e.r.X

TWV [AaKapiwv paprvpcov,
(2)

I shall next quote a few passages in which the superior strength and terseness of the Latin seems to support the view that
it is

the original.
Perpetua, honeste nata,
liber-

c. ii.

nepTrerova, TJTIS

r\v

yevvr}8eia-a

aliter mstituta, matronaliter nupta...

evyevas KOI
TTJV

Tpatfrelcra

TroXureXws

haec ordinem totum martyrii sui iam hinc ipsa narrauit, sicut conscriptum

yafirjdela-d re
a-aro, as Kal

f6xa>s...T)Tis iraaav raj-tv TOV papTvpiov evrevdev Siijyi]-

manu

sua

et

suo sensu reliquit.

TW

VOL avrfjs KCU
KareXijrev

rfj

(Tvyypdtyaa-a

ovTcas

THE LATIN AND GREEK TEXTS.
one will deny to the Latin in this place a true ring of genuineness: but I would call special attention to the phrase The Greek rendering, /cal ro3 vot avTijs, is a et suo sensuV caricature of the somewhat rhetorical phrase of the Latin.
c

No

lam in magna dignatione iv. tanta ut postules uisionera et es, ostendatur tibi, an passio sit an comc.

"HSi; ev /ueyaXw dgicopaTt
Toa-avrr] ovcra cos el alTr/creias

oTrracriav Xa/Sot?
e'iirep

av

els
rj

TO deix^vai

a-ot

meatus.

dva^oKf/v exeis

jradelv fj.e\eis.

undoubtedly the ablative case but the transshewing a defective knowledge of the Latin language such as also appears immediately below, where he renders non nisi singuli as et fjbrj fiova-xpv eva and again,
'tanta'
is
:

Here

lator takes it as a nominative,
;
' '

:

when arserunt is translated by KpepacrOevTas commissum by KeXevtrpa (c. xvi.).
' '

'

(c. xi.)

;

and

'fidei-

It would be easy to increase this list almost indefinitely ; but I shall content myself with noting a few phrases which speak for

themselves.

c. v.

Ibid.
pietate.
c. vi.
c.

Depone anirnos. Haec dicebat pater pro sua
lus gladii acceperat. Sordido uultu et colore
Efferens xiirgam quasi lain quo erant

'Airodov TOVS

Tavra eXeyev
yovecov evvoiav.
'E^oucri'az/

cos

Trar^p KOTO. TTJV TCOV

elX^ei /za^ai'pas.
pvTrapdv coxpov Ty
cos /3pa-

vii.

'Ecr^ra

e^oi/rci

pallido.
c.

XP9'EjSaora^ev Se KOI paftBbv
{Sevres
rj

5.

nista, et

ramum uiridem

TrpooraTTjs

mala aurea.
c.

5e KOI K\a8ovs
Xpvcra.

xAwpou?

ex. OVTas

xviii.

Agnouit

iniustitia iusti-

'~ETreyvco

17

dSt/ci'a TTJV 8iKaioa~uvr]v.

tiam.
c.

xs.

Pudoris potius memor qxiam

AtSou? juaXXov/zj^/ioveuo-ao-a ^ TTOVW
aiSovfJievr)

doloris.

prfdapcos

(ppovTivacra

TCOV

d\yT)d6vcov.

The

instances quoted from

c. x.

and

c.

xx. are examples of an

alternative rendering in the Greek. o

Cf. Tertull. T)e Fuga, 9, Denique exitum audierat, de suo sensu admonet

1

'

memor
et ipse

Apocalypsis suae, in qua timidorum

timorem reiciendum

:

Timor, inquit,

non

est in dilectione.'

8
(3)

THE PASSION OF

S.

PEKPETUA.
c.

In the account of the death of Saturus in

xxi.

we have

a remarkable instance of a play upon words in the Latin. Et statim
pardo
eiecto,

in fine spectaculi, leo-

Kcu

evdiis ev reXet rrjs Beapias irdpefB\-ij6r),

de uno

morsu tanto

ddXis OVTW

KOI ev evl 8^y^.ari

sanguine, ut populus reuertenti illi secundi baptismatis testimonium reclamauerit Saluum

perfusus

est

TOV cu/iaro? TOV aylov eveTrXycrOrj' TO(TOVTOV aipa eppvr), cos \oyicr6rjvai dev-

:

repov jSaTmoyzoG paprvpiov'
TT6(f}(oveL

Kadas
KOI

KCU

lotum, saluum lotum. saluus erat, qui hoc

plane utique

6

o^Xos

/3oc3i>

yaiv'

modo
:

lauerat.

KaXeoy

e'Xouo-co,

KaXcos eXova-to.

Kal

fj.^v

tune Pudenti militi inquit Vale, inquit, et memor esto fidei meae.

vyir/s T]V o TOIOVTO) rpoTra \e\ov pevos. TOTE TOO Hovdevri efprj' <TTpa.Tia>TT)

'Yyiaive, KOI
ep.ov.

p,vr][j.6vfve

Trtorecos

Kal

Here we may note, first of all, that the translator has got into confusion about 'perfusus/ which he seems to interpret of the leopard and, secondly, that he comes dangerously near to the
:

absurdity of making the spectators in their coarse jest consciously 'Saluum lotum' is a phrase of allude to the Second Baptism.

the baths, to which AraXcG? ekovaw properly corresponds. But the play upon words is lost when /ca\(ns e\ovaco is followed by ^7^779, the literal translation of 'saluus.' The translator, indeed, seerns
to have

been conscious of the
reparation

loss,

and

to

have endeavoured to
'

make some
vylaive.

by

his grotesque translation of

uale

'

as

The examples which I have given above are sufficient to create a strong presumption in favour of the originality of the Latin form of the document: and I hope that our subsequent investigation of the Latin text itself will set the matter beyond dispute. Meanto a curious notice in the Vision which confirms this judgment. There it is (c. xiii.) expressly stated that Perpetua talked in Greek with the bishop and presbyter outside the heavenly gate. Such a notice is hard to explain if the original document was composed in the Greek language. But it is perfectly natural if it was written in Latin. Thus, conversely, in the Greek letter of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons it is thrice stated expressly that a speaker used the Indeed it is quite Latin tongue (Eus. H. E. V. 1, 20, 44, 52).

while I would
of Saturus

call attention

THE LATIN AND GREEK TEXTS.

9

conceivable that Saturus mentioned the fact because he did not

understand Greek himself.

But while we cannot admit the priority of the Greek document, we may gladly recognise its general excellence as a translation,

and look to

it

for great assistance in the

emendation of
its

the Latin text.
for this purpose.

Two

instances

may

here be given of

value

(1)

c.

i.

quasi repensatione rerum A.
'

Here Holsten edited repensitatione,' without recording the reading of his MS. Kepensatio could scarcely mean anything but 'repayment.' The Greek has: to? irapova-Ca rwv Trpaj^dTrnv XpwjjueOa, from which Mr Harris at once restored repraesentaThe tione,' although he was unaware of the actual reading of A. to be a very simple one, when we remember error is now seen that prae would be written with the usual abbreviation. It is
' ' ' '
'

interesting to observe that this palmary emendation is confirmed by a passage in one of S. Augustine's Sermons on these martyrs

Hodiernus dies anniuersaria replica(Migne, P. L. 38 p. 1281) tione nobis in memoriam reuocat, et quodammodo repraesentat diem, quo sanctae famulae Dei Perpetua et Felicitas,' &c.
' :

ment

An important restoration is in c. xviii. where the replace(2) of the lost words 'ad sanguinem' after 'a sanguine' (airo at/taro? et? alpa) redresses the balance of a sentence which proved
troublesome to the earlier editors.
the words
' '

It is

somewhat strange that
' '

ad sanguinem should have been lost in both the lines of the Latin text but probably this is due to the fact that ad
:

was written

'a,'

and then, as the

final

'm' does not

necessarily

distinguish the accusative from the ablative (for it seems to have been sounded very lightly if at all in the vulgar Latin, and was
often wrongly inserted or omitted), there would seem to be a dittography of 'a sanguine,' and so the loss would be certain. 'A' for 'ad' occurs just before in the same sentence, 'a bestias'

AB:

so too in

c.

x. (p. 78,

1.

10)
'

where

for 'ad bestias'

we have

'a bestiis' A, and 'a bestia' B.

We

find the

same

spelling in

Codex Bezae

;

e.g.

Acts

xvi. 38,

quae dicta sunt a praetores.'

10

THE PASSION OF

S.

PEKPETUA.

The MSS. of

the

Passion of S. Perpetua.

The first edition, that of Holsten, was made solely from a MS. which he found in the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino. It will be convenient to describe this MS. first for, although it is not the oldest, it is the most complete.
;

1.

CODEX CASINENSIS
cod. 204) this

(A).

In the Bibliotheca Casinensis

(vol. iv.

described as coming at the end of an llth cent. MS. of Cyprian, and being itself written in a 12th cent. hand. But at the end of the description of our part of the
is

MS.

quod uidetur xi saeculo,' judgment coincides with the view of the present The opening lines of the Archivist, Don Ambrogio Amelli. are given in facsimile opposite p. 164 of the CataMartyrdom The size of the leaf is 10| inches by 7^. Black capitals logue.
it

MS., the same Catalogue speaks of

as

c

and

this latter

are used at the beginning of sentences, but not for proper names. The hand is quite distinct from that of the works of Cyprian, but

apparently of the same period.
ration of leaves the

Martyrdom commences on

According to the present numef. 168 r., and ends

173 v. There are 32 lines to the page. The Martyrdom has no title, but commences at once with the words: Si uetera
f.

on

exempla this is the only Latin authority for the important opening section. The edition of Holsten was a posthumous work, and his text is marred by many inaccuracies which a careful
fidei
:

revision with the aid of the

MS. would have removed.
for their

I have to

thank the Benedictine Fathers

kind hospitality shewn to me, when I visited the home of their great founder and collated this MS. in September 1890.
2. CODEX COMPENDIENSIS (B). Readings from this MS. were used to some extent by Ruinart but his witness is very incomIn his time the MS. belonged to the plete and often inaccurate.
;

Abbey

of

Compiegne.

It is

now

in the Bibliotheque Nationale at

Paris (fonds latin, 17626). It is assigned to the 10th century. Our Passion commences on f. 64 with the words INCIPIT PASSIO SCAB
:

FELICITATES ET PEBPETVAE.

Reuocatus et
missing
:

felicitas

conserua

eius.

Thus the prefatory

section

is

and, generally speaking, the

THE
condition of the text

MSS. OF

THE

PASSION.

11

is far inferior to

that of the Codex Casinensis.

But

it fills

up some

serious blanks of that Codex.

3.

CODEX SALISBURGENSIS,
it,

MS.
from

I have searched in vain.

and speaks

of

it

as

'

For this or SABISBURIENSIS (C). Euinart made use of readings Ecclesiae Salisburgensis, cuius codicis

uarias lectiones sapientissimi uiri Antonii Faure Theologi ParisienThe sis et Remensis Ecclesiae Praepositi beneficio accepimus.'
of the Domkapitel at Salzburg have been dispersed; and most of them seem to have gone either to Vienna or to Munich. In neither place could I find any trace of this codex, nor was it to be found in the Peterstift at Salzburg. In the edition of the Martyrdom published at Oxford, without

MSS.

name 1

,

in 1680 at the close of Lactantius

De Mortibus

Perse-

cutorum, Holsten's text is used, with corrections and various readings from a MS. spoken of as Codex Sarisburiensis. It is
evident from a comparison of these readings with those given by Ruinart that Cod. Sarisburiensis bears the closest relation to Cod.

A

Salisburgensis ; indeed they are almost certainly one and the same. but who confusion has arisen between Salisbury and Salzburg
:

has

made the mistake we cannot say. The catalogue of the Cathedral MSS. at Salisbury, made by Mr Mauude Thompson, now Librarian of the British Museum, contains no mention of such a MS., and Mr H. J. White, who kindly made enquiry for me on the spot, can learn nothing of it. At present therefore we have
2

to content ourselves with the testimony of the Oxford edition , supplemented by the notices in Ruinart. But, fortunately, these
suffice to give

us a

fair

conception of the MS., and to shew its close

relation to

Codex Compendiensis.

Substantial help for the criticism of the text is afforded by the Greek Version (g), the description of which by its discoverer, Mr Rendel Harris, is given above on p. 2. I am indebted to Mr Harris for having collated afresh on my behalf the Greek text

have not however
1

printed in his edition with his original transcript of the fully recorded its numerous blunders.
There can be no doubt that
it

MS.

I

was edited by Thomas Spark of Christ Church,

who
it

reprinted the De Mortibus in his larger edition of Laetantius in 1684. 2 When the Oxford editor silently departs in his text from the text of Holsten, is generally safe to assume that he is following Cod. Sarisburiensis.

12

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

The problem of the relation of the various authorities which have been enumerated is by no means a simple one. Cod. Casinensis is linked with the Greek Version by the prefatory section, which they alone have preserved: Codd. Compendiensis and Salisburgensis on the other hand are linked together by its But in the body of the work the two last mentioned omission.
have many striking points of agreement with the Greek Version against Cod. Casinensis. At first sight therefore it might seem as though this triple combination (BCg) would be the securest but the single fact, that in c. vii. all foundation for the text three omit the name of Geta, may teach us to be cautious in our
:

judgment.
I shall
first

gensis (C), as far as

endeavour to shew the relation of Cod. Salisburwe are able to judge of its readings, to Cod.
:

and then enquire into their common relation After this I shall examine the relation of to Cod. Casinensis (A). the Greek Version (g) to the two lines of Latin testimony which will thus have been marked out.
Compendiensis (B)

1.

B

and

C

not found in A.
prefatory section.

are together in certain obvious errors which are I have already mentioned the omission of the

This

may have been due

to

a dislike to

its

Montanistic tendency, or to a desire to shorten the treatise for Church purposes; or, again, the MS. from which they were
copied
Christi

may have
'

lost its first page.

In

c. iv.

together against A and g in the insertion
:

(p. 66, 1. 21) they are of 'Domini' before Jesu
'

probably an addition made, as so often, for They are probably wrong again in the same liturgical purposes. 68, 1. 1) in reading eleuauit,' as against eiecit A, and chapter (p. of the Greek. Trpocrrfveyfcev
this
is
' '
'

More certain
c. x. c. xi.

errors are the following

:

p. 76, p. 78, p. 86, p. 86,

1.

1.
1. 1.
1.

c. xvii.

c.

xix.

p. 90,
p. 90,

1. 1.

Ag aqua BC Ag carcere BC om. Ag 14, iudicii BC multi BC 15, omnes] Ag 3, apro] Ag aprum BC 5, substrictus] Ag subreptus B
14, afa]
;

15, carne]

;

;

;

;

;

;

subrectus
;

C
om. BC.

c.

xx.

p. 90,

10, et reticulis indutae]

A (displaced in g)

THE

MSS.

OF THE PASSION.

13

On

the other hand
:

B

and

C

are right

when

A

is

wrong

in the

following cases
c. ii. c. iii. c. iv.

p. 62,

1.
1.
1.

19,
1,

Saturninus]

p. 64,
p. 66,

8,

inquam] BCg inquit A aeream] Cg (auream B) ; om.
;

BCg

;

om.

A
A
BCg
;

p. 66,
p. 68,
c. ix. c. x. c. xiii.

1.

17,
4,

qui(a) ipse nos aedificauerat]
;

om.

A

1. 1.
1. 1.

canum] BCg
mouerent]

sanum
; ;

A A A
A
;

p. 74,

20,
4,
6,

BCg mouerentur
concalcans
;

p. 78,
p. 82, p. 82,

non calcans] BCg
graece]

BCg

om.

A
fatigationibus

1.
1.

11, factionibus]
4,

EC
;

;

om. g

c.

xvi.

p. 86,

humanius] BCg

manibus A.

Hence we may conclude that
which
2.
is

B

and

C

have a common ancestor,

independent of A.
instances already quoted enable us to see that the

The

Greek Version cannot have been made either from A or from the immediate ancestor of B and C for it sometimes has a right reading with A as against B and C, and sometimes a right reading with B and C as against A. We may now proceed to enquire with which of these two lines of text it has the closest To do this we must examine the mistakes which it has affinities.
:

in

common with

the one or the other.

I am not aware of any instance in which it can be shewn with and g have the same mistake, while B and C certainty that

A

On the other hand there are have retained the true reading cases in which BCg are wrong together, as against A. Thus many
.

1

in

c. iii. p.

64,

1.

6,

we must almost
:

certainly retain
p. 66,
1.

'

'

profecto

A,

against 'profectus'
'

BCg

and

in

c. iv.

7, 'fidenter'

A, against

and Trio-Tews irXrjp^ oixra g. In this latter chapter is certainly right B and C 13) 'adtendens ascenderet' of read 'ascendens adtenderet/ and the paraphrase in g seems to
fidens
(p. 66,
1.

'

BC

A

:

be due to the attempt to make some sense out of this. Further examples may be gathered from the apparatus at the foot of our
printed text.
apparent exception to this statement is in c. xix. (p. 90, 1. 6), where B and a corrupt sentence, not found in A and g, about Pudens feeding the bear. I have not taken this into the text, as my theory of the genealogy of the MSS. leads
1

An

C have

me

But possibly it was corrupted at an early date and to regard it as a gloss. consequently omitted by A and also by the Greek translator.

14

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

As a

rule the readings of

are only preserved to us in cases

where the editors have supposed them to be preferable to the text given by Holsten: so that its more obvious blunders have no doubt been passed over in silence. But if we may accept B as giving generally the text of the ancestor of B and C, we may find many more examples of coincidence in error between that ancestor and the Greek Version. Thus in c. vi. p. 70, 1. 17, A reads et cum staret pater ad me deiciendam but B has the corrupt
'
'

;

et contemptaret (for cum temptaret ') pater me deiciendam g renders this by /ecu 009 ecnrovSa^ev 6 irarrip pov KaraIn c. vii. p. 72, 1. 14, we have cum /3a\elv aTTo r^9 o/ioXoytW
'

'

reading
'

:

'

moreretur
in

'

A

'

;

cum moraretur B
'

;

this latter being represented
c. xii.

g

by Trepiwv en.
:

A striking instance is found in
stabant,

p. 80,

1.

12

:

angeli quattuor Candidas et

qui introeuntes

uestierunt

stolas

A
'

erant angeli quattuor introeuntes et nos uestiti stolas Candidas B

Here introeuntes has passed in B from the accusative into the nominative case and this is reproduced in the Greek Version, which however must have been made from a text less hopelessly
'
:

corrupt than that

now given

in

B

:

elcre\.6bvTe<s ol recro-ape^ a<y<ye\oi,

eve&vaav

?7/-i9
'

Xef/c<? o-roXa?.
'

In the same chapter (p. 80, 1. 22) we have stemus et stetimus A stemus et stemus B. The reading in g, a-radw^ev teal irpoa-evgoo/jLeOa, looks like an attempt at restoring sense by the aid of a
'
'

;

liturgical formula.

led to postulate for BCg a common ancestor of A. This ancestor among other defects had lost independent the name of Geta, but it retained the preface, which is wanting in

Thus we are

B

and

C.

ment
which

of the confusion as to the date
is

commenceand locality of our Martyrs, found in the Greek Version and in the Short Latin
it

To

I

am

also inclined to attribute the

recension.

As
:

to date, the omission of Geta's
;

name opened the

for it is the only decisive note of time in door to conjecture the piece and with regard to place, it is interesting to compare the phrase 'in ciuitate Turbitana,' in the title of C, with the words

ev TroXei Oov/cpiTavfov (for (dovpfiirdvajv) ry fjuiicporepa, which in the Greek Version immediately follows the prefatory section which C has omitted.

THE SHORT LATIN

ACTS.

15

It will be seen from my text that of these two lines of testimony, and BCg, I have almost always given the preference to the former. Again and again A gives a more difficult reading which commends itself on further investigation, but which is exchanged

A

in

BCg

for

something

easier,

though

less idiomatic or less forcible.

The Origin and Use of

the Short

Latin Acts.

The longer form
for the

of the

Martyrdom was obviously inconvenient

annual commemoration, especially in localities which were not directly interested in the African Church, and at a time when other martyrs had to be commemorated on the same day 1 Consequently the time arrived when the story of our martyrs had

.

to be rewritten to bring it within a more manageable compass. At what period this was done it is perhaps not possible to de-

termine

it was probably after the confusion as to their locality had been already effected (see below, p. 25). But the and date manner in which it was done is plain to see. The old story was lacking in the one feature which characterises so many of the fictitious narratives of martyrdoms, and to which the appellation Acta more especially refers. There was no account of the prolonged controversy between the martyrs and the cruel or the kind-hearted judge. This had to be supplied and the new ma:

but

'

'

:

terial carries

with

it its

own condemnation.

No

one who appre-

ciates the noble

and dignified picture of Perpetua in the longer

Martyrdom will for a moment believe that before the proconsul, and again in answer to her father's appeal, she punned upon her name. Nor is it likely that Felicitas when asked whether she had a husband, replied, Habeo quern nunc contemno.' For the rest the compiler has made a very bad use of the longer form, which must have been fresh in his memory, if not actually before him. He has marred everything that he has touched. The verbal coincidences are too close to allow of the supposition
'

that his narrative
1

is

independent of the longer form

:

as

may be

Even

our martyrs.

in the old Carthaginian Calendar Septimia comes on the same day with In the old Syrian Martyrology we read, ' Perpetua, Saturnilus and

ten other Confessors.'

In the Menology of Basil and in the

takes precedence of them. In the before S. Thomas Aquinas.

Eoman

Breviary they at last give

Menaeum Trypho way altogether

16

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

seen, to take a single instance, when he reproduces in his own manner the rhetorical contrast of c. xviii. 'a sanguine ad san-

guinem,' &c.

But on the other hand towards the end he most strangely deserts the authority which should have kept him right, and says that Saturus and Perpetua were devoured by lions. The brevity of the account of the scene in the amphitheatre may
have been due to his having already exhausted the space allotted to him; but the error is hard to explain, for it does not seem
that his copy of the original Martyrdom was defective at the close. It is not improbable that the Latin MS. which the abbreviator

used was either that from which the Greek Version bad been made, or some other descendant of the ancestor of BCg. For, if this

were so, we can account for certain strange points of resemblance between the Greek Version and the Short Latin, which deserve to be noticed somewhat in detail. The short Latin Acts commence with the words " Facta persecutione sub Valeriano et Gallieno, comprehensi sunt uenerabiles uiri iuuenes, Saturus et Satu minus, duo fratres, Reuocatus et The Greek Felicitas soror eius, et Perpetua, quae erat," &c. a mere heading, text begins with two titles, the first of which is correcting the false date of the second and earlier title from
:

vovats

Qevpovapiais to
is

rfj

irpo

recrcrdpcov

vovoSv

<&evpovapia>v,

and adding
second
as the

But the evyr)o-ov, the ejaculation of the Reader. a complete sentence, as though it were intended to serve
of the

commencement
Bia)jfj,o<;

Martyrdom:
co

'E-Trt

QvaXepidvov KOI
ol ayLOi

ejevero, ev

epaprvprjaav

After this commences the translation of the

Long Latin

Martyrdom.

Now

the correspondence between this sentence and the com-

mencement of the Short Latin is very striking. We have (1) the same mistake as to the emperors, (2) the phrase 'persecution
arose,' (3)

the

first

place given to Saturus in the

list

of martyrs,

(4) the omission of Secundulus. It is hard to explain these coincidences except on the hypothesis that the Greek is a direct translation of Latin words prefixed to

the Martyrdom in the copy used by the translator: and that the Latin abbreviator found the same words in his copy, and

THE SHOET LATIN ACTS.
' ' '

17

modified them (1) by inserting comprehensi and iuuenes,' from (2) by apprehensi and adolescentes at the beginning of c. ii.
'

'

'

'

;

soror ems,' perhaps from his own (3) by placing Perpetua last, in order to run on imagination with the fuller description of her which he has drawn from c. ii.
'

introducing

duo

'

fratres

and

'

;

Moreover we can explain in this way how the Greek translator Nonis has come by his wrong date, the nones of February. Martiis still survives in the title of C, and it is found at the
' '

close of the Short Latin.

This

is

memoration in the west, and indeed

the unvarying date of the Comit is retained in the old

But the Greek date was Syriac Martyrology (see below, p. 23). 1 the second of February He seems therefore to have taken his
.

day from the Latin heading
his work, has altered the

;

month from a

whilst he, or a subsequent copyist of recollection of his own

calendar.

I have already referred to the puzzling insertion in the
a
'

Greek

of the words ev iroXeL OovKptrdvcov (sic) ry jjuKpoTepa, and have noticed their correspondence with the words in ciuitate Turbi-

tana

'

in the
'

heading of C.

They correspond
is
:

still

more

closely

with

in ciuitate Turbitanorum,' which
of the Short Latin
'

the reading of

many

and rfj pifcpoTepa no doubt points early to an original minore/ which may have been afterwards neglected as unnecessary, or may have fallen out after -norum (TURBITANORVMINORE).
'
'

MSS.

In

c. ii.

Perpetua's age

is

given thus by our various authorities

:

Erat autem ipsa circiter annorum uiginti duo, A. Erat autem ipsa annorum circiter uiginti et duo, B.
TTY
.

*

tf

3

"*

if

Hi> oe avrq eroov

^

/

eifcocrt

ovo.

Annorum enim

erat ilia

duorum

et uiginti, Short Latin.

1 The Commemoration of both Trypho and Perpetua Menaeum; probably to keep Feb. 2 clear for the Feast of

is placed on Feb. 1 in the the Purification. But in

the Basilian Menology (see below, p. 21) both of these saints are

commemorated

on Feb.
2

2.

In the

Menaeum

(see below, p. 21)

we

find QovppLTavav,

which in MSS. which

used the zt-shaped /3 would be almost undistinguishable from QovKpu-avtav. In the account of the 7th Council of Carthage by Joh. Zonaras (Migne, Pair. Lat. in. 1090) we read of Q-fiSaros airb Qovpfiwv. In the Latin (ibid. p. 1062) it is * Sedatus a
Tuburbo.'
R.

2

18
It

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

seems probable tbat tbe ancestor of the BCg group, with which our theory connects the Short Latin, had omitted circiter from the text, but had retained it in the margin. It reappears in
'

'

a new place in B, but it and in the Short Latin.

is lost

altogether in the Greek Version,
first

At
read
:

the close of Perpetua's

interview with her father

we

Long Latin. Tune pater motus

Short Latin.
lioc

Greek Version.
T6re
6 irar-ftp
//.ov

Tune

pater eius audito

uerbo, mittit se in me ut oculos mihi erueret: sed

hoc uerbo irruit super earn,
nolens oeulos eius eruere
et
;

rois
fiov
/j.6vov

uexauit tantum etprofecto (profectus BC) est uictus

exclamans confusus

e-

gressus est for as.
0et$

viKtj-

cum argumeatis diaboli.

T&V TOV 5ta|36Xov

Here we may note the correspondence and more especially of exclamans and
'
'

of 'uolens
icpdl;a<s.

5

and
is

rjde\.r](rev,

The

latter

may

point to a misreading of
'
' '

'

uexauit as

'

'

uocauit.'

B

in confusion
'

the reading of C is not recorded. Prohere, reading uexauero and C reappears as e^rjXdev and egressus est foras V fectus of
:

B

'

In

c. vii.

we have

noticed the loss of the

name Getae from
' '

'

BCg.
'

place but Geta's

in Caesaris natale,'

Corresponding to this we read in the Short Latin in one and in another die natali Caesaris
'

;

name

is

absent.
as follows
:

In

c. xviii.

we read

Long Latin.
post partum baptismo secundo.

Short Latin.

Greek Version.

Lotura

De lauatione post partum balnei sanguinis efEusione meruit relauari.

MAXoucrd

\o6cra(rdai fie-

ra rbv TOKerbv

would seem as though baptismo secundo had evoked a marginal gloss, which was adopted as a correction by the abbreviator, and incorporated as an addition by the Greek translator.

Here

it

'

'

1

reading

In one of the preceding sentences, 'Pater, inquam, uides uerbi gratia' &c., the of- B is uidens and it can hardly be a mere coincidence that uidens
'

'

'

'

:

appears in the

same sentence

in"

some

of the oldest

MSS.

of the Short Latin.

THE SHORT LATIN
But by
far the

ACTS.

19

most remarkable modification which the Greek the Short Latin is found in Perpetua's first Vision (c. iv.). Here the Greek translator tells us that the ladder was so narrow that no one could go up, save only one by himself 1 alone He then leaves out the epithet 'prior/ which was applied to Saturus and which suggested that he was not the only one to climb and presently he omits the words et ascendi,' and so
has in

common with

.

'

:

leaves Perpetua to find her garden at the ladder's foot. It cannot be a mere coincidence that in this he is in complete harmony

the matter clearer, and at the same time serve to illustrate the loose way in which the

with the Short Latin Acts.

It will

make

abbreviator has dealt with his materials,

if

we

transcribe the three

documents at

this point in full.
Short Latin.
Vidi in uisu hae nocte

Long Latin.
Video sealam aeream mirae magnitudinis pertingentem usque ad caelum, et angustam per quam nonnisi singuli as:

Greek Version.

El 6 of
ov

K\iii.a.Ka

sealam

aeream

mirabili

fj.^Kovs'

TJS

TO

altitudine usque ad caelum, et ita erat angusta

X|Ots

ovpavov'

(rrevri

yv,

us

/j.f]Seva 61' O.VTTJS

cendere
lateribus

possent:
scalae

et

in

ut nonnisi unus per earn ascendere posset. Dcxtra

Svva.ffda.1

et

/XT)

jj.ova.xbv
e

eva

dvaffivai'
5k

KO.TK\l/J.O.KOS
rp>
efi.-

omne

uero laeuaque inerant
nullus circa se
nisi

fixi

pUV
fj.epdv

T&V
Tray

TT]S

genus ferramentorum infixum. Erant ibi gladii,
lanceae, hami,

cultri et gladii ferrei, ut

eTSos
e/cet

ad

TreirrrYfJ.ei'OV

^i(p(av,

macherae

:

ut

si

quis neglegenter ant

caelum respicere posset. Sub ea uero iacebat latens
draco teterrimus ingenti forma, ut prae metu eius
quiuis
daret.

dopdrwv, d-yKicrrpuv,
p>v, 6f$e\iff K(av

/uaxcti-

tva.

iras
(J.TJ

non

sursum

adtendens

6 at* aj3a.ii> UP afJ.e\us /cai
a,va@i\eir<av

ascenderet, laniaretur, et carnes eius inhaererent

rots
ff

a

ferramentis.

Et

erat sub

ascendere formiYidi etiam ascen-

ras crdpKas
Se
itir'

avry

ry

K\i/J.aKi

ipsa scala

draco Cubans
insidias

dentem per earn Saturum
usque ad sursum, et respicientem ad nos et dicentem: Ne uereamini hunc

p&KWv

inrepneyeB-rj^,

8s 5r?

mirae magnitudinis, qui
ascendentibus
praestabat, et exterrebat ne ascenderent. Ascendit
prior, qui postea se propter nos ultro

TOVS avafiaivovTas ev/iSpevev,

eKOafj-ftuv

STTUS

fj.7]

TO\fJ.G>ffi.v
6/3-77

avafiaiveLV. dv-

draconem qui

iacet; con-

^

o

Sdrupos*

os

5 77

autem Saturus

fortamini in gratia Christi,
ascendite et nolite timere,

vvTepov
daiKei>

di' 7]/j.as

eK&v
O.VTOV
'

Trape-

eavrov

yap
dXX'

tradiderat, quia ipse nos aedificauerat et tune cum

ut

mecum partem

habere

Kal

olKoSofMrj

-rmev

possitis.

Vidi etiam iuxta

ore

ffwe\rj<f>6r]fj.fv dirTJv.

ws

1

Apparently
it

monk'; but
choice of so

[iava.-x.bs efs in this place means 'one man at a time,' and not 'one must be admitted that the translator has been unfortunate in his ambiguous an expression.

22

20
adducti

THE PASSION OF
sumus praesens Et peruenit
et

S.

PERPETUA.
Trpbs

scalam hortum ingentem,

rb

(Licpov

TTJS K\i-

non

fuerat.

copiosissimum

et

amoe-

irapey&ero,
Kal elirev
<re~

effrpa-

in caput scalae,
uertit
se
et

con-

num,

etc.

Hepirerota,

dixit

mihi:
:

a\a

J3\eire

sustineo te Perpetua, sed uide ne te mordeat

fjL-fi

ere

6 SpaKiav SaKy.

Kal

elirov

Ou

pdi

/j,e

fiXa-tyy

draco

ille.

Et

dixi ego:

ev 6v6fJLari

'Iijffov

XptoroC.
K\i/J.aKos

Non me
mine
desub
timens
caput
illi
:

nocebit, in noChristi.

Kal inroKaTO)
uffel

TTJS

lesu
ipsa

Et
quasi
eiecit

<t>ofioTjfJLevl>s

scala lente

Tty

Keipa\r]}>
etS

me
et

Kfd COS
fj,bv
rj

TOV TTpWTOI/

quasi

primum

6 4j a a

gradum

calcarem, calcaai
eldov
e/cet
KrjTrov

caput. Et ascendi, et uidi spatium immensum
horti, etc.

K.T.X.

seems then that the Greek translator considered that Perpetua's triumph consisted in treading on the dragon's head, and not in climbing the ladder and that he was led to conceive of
It
:

the garden, as the writer of the Short Acts has also apparently done 1 as heing at the foot of the ladder (e/cet, iuxta scalam ') and
' ,

not at

its

summit.

The Sarum Breviary is a good instance of the use which was made of the work of the Latin abbreviator. There we find it
distributed into three lections, as follows: (1) 'Facta itaque persecutione Orantes uero dignos esse (2) egressus est foras'
' ;

effectos.'

'

(3)

Videns uero proconsul

in

saecula saeculorum.

Amen.' So that nothing is omitted, except the miserable alterIt is of course open cation between the Martyrs and their judge. to us to suppose that this was itself a later interpolation but the
;

style of

it is

too like the rest to favour this view.

The old Roman Breviary (quoted by Holsten, p. 72) contains the same matter, though in a somewhat embellished form. But from the later Roman Breviaries our Martyrs have been ousted
altogether by S.
1

Thomas Aquinas.

may

In the Sarum Breviary we have the interesting variant 'circa scalam,' which any rate shew the interpretation that would naturally be put on the Short Latin in this place.
at

THE SHORT LATIN

ACTS.

21

It is interesting to trace the struggle

commemorations in the

local Breviaries.

Thus

between the competing in the copy in the

Cambridge University Library of the very rare printed Breviary of Upsala (Stockholm, 1496) we find SS. Perpetua and Felicitas with a collect in the text, but S. Thomas is written in at the side as 'eodem die,' and his collect runs round the margin. In the Calendar of the Roman Breviary of 1728 S. Thomas is entered on July 15 (' canoniz. 1323 '), but with a cross reference to March 7, where he is found in brackets after our Martyrs.
In the Breviary of Quimper in Brittany (Paris, 1835) they hold their own unchallenged; and the lection is a really admirable abbreviation of the Long Latin, without a single mistake or unworthy alteration, and with the simple addition of the true date and locality sub Seuero Imperatore, Carthagine in
still
'
:

Africa.'

This same lection in a slightly corrupted form

is

found

Rennes (1822). The Greek day of the Commemoration is now (see p. 17 n.) the first of February, and under this date in the Menaeum we find
also in the Breviary of

a brief lection, which wrongly describes Perpetua as etc TroXeoj? ov/3pi,Tdvc0v T?;? 'Atypifcrjs, but rightly states that she and Felicitas

were tossed by a

mad cow

:

so that it

must be independent

of the Short Acts.

In the Menology of Basil we find a double entry, which is interesting in connection with the transference of the festival.

Under March 14 we have
before S. Alexander of

after S.
:

Euschemon

of

Lampsacus and

Pydna KOI d6\iqcn^ TWV dylcav /maprvpcov ^arvpov, ^a,TOVpvi\ov, 'Pevicdrov, TlepTrerovas, KOI ^iXrjKtTaTT}^ e The writer was no doubt misled as ev rfj Pw//.?7 fiapTvprjcravran'.
by the absence of any definite statement in the Longer Latin which he had used in his previous entry. Under February 2 we have a most extraordinary mutilation of the story, which is worth reproducing in full, as it illustrates the controversy between East and West on the subject of Purgatory. "A.0\tjcris T&V dryiwv TlepTrerovas, ^.arvpov, 'T^ev/cdrov, ~2.arvpto the locality

Vl\OV, 2*KOVvBoV KOI <&r)\lKlTdTr)$.

'H rov ^picrrov pdprvs HepTrerova r v K
t

'

rijf %(apa<;

eVet

Be TOV %picrTov (afj,oyet, KparvjOeiara Trapd TWV TOO T^? ^twpa? dp^ovrt /uera TO>V \oiirwv d^/icav.

rfv

Be

22
rfj

THE PASSION OF
djia
/3pe<o?
viro fidfyov
/cal

S.

PERPETUA.
ovofjua

a8eX<o<?

ovv Trapd
/cal Oecopei
rj

TOV

ap%ovTO<>.
tear

elra

e/A/SaXXoyrat

ovap <rKa\av ^dkicrjv (j)6dvov<rav OTTO 7779 et<? ovpavov, e^ovaav et? rd Bvo peptj efjmeTrrjrypeva TcdvTa rd rwv Kokaa-r^piwv eilBr)' KOL SpaKovra VTTO Trjv aicdkav

dyia

Kw\vovTa
teal

dvaftalvovras' KOI TOV aryiov ^arvpov dvafBdwra arpa^evra 7rpo<> avrrjv Kal ###BOT_TEXT###lt;yovra' M.rjrep fjuov ITepTrerova, yv Be Kal 6 ae###BOT_TEXT###lt;o9 avrrj<? ev erepa <^v\aKy' Kal opa Trepifjbevfo <r.
TOI)?

Kal Trepl avrov, art TrapicrraTO "keKavrj vSaros' Kal dvekwv eirivev /cal TO Trpwi avrr/ fiev yitera el; avrfjs' Kal ejvoj on eTeXeuT^cre.
^fjK.LKi'rdrr)^

VTTO

SafJidKewv dypiwv KepaTiffOeiaai dir&Qavov' 01

8e XotTrol ecr^djirjffav. The use of o-tcd\av,

and not K\ipaKa, as well as other differences in the Greek words, points to the fact that this summary is independent of the Greek version.

Were our Martyrs Thuburbitan

?

In the original Latin Passion of S. Perpetua, as contained in the Monte Cassino codex, no locality whatever is assigned to the This is natural enough in a contemporary document Martyrs.
intended for the use of the African Church, especially
if

the

Martyrs belonged to Carthage and suffered there. Indeed the 1 omission in itself suggests that they were Carthaginians This view is confirmed by the statement of Victor Vitensis that their
.

remains rested in a Basilica at Carthage which bore their names. After speaking of the desolation wrought by the Vandals among
the public buildings of Carthage generally, he goes on to say: 'Et ut de necessariis loquar, basilicam maiorem ubi corpora

sanctarum martyrum Perpetuae atqne Felicitatis sepulta sunt, Celerinae uel Scilitanorum et alias quas non destruxerunt, suae 9). religioni licentia tyrannica mancipauerunt (Viet. Vit. I. 3 This of course does not preclude the possibility of their having been brought from another town to suffer at Carthage, as was the case with the Scillitan Martyrs.
'

1

of the

The silence of S. Augustine, who frequently same interpretation see below, p. 24.
:

refers to

our Martyrs,

is

capable

WERE OUR MARTYRS THUBURBITAN ?

23

Moreover in the old Roman Calendar 1 which goes back to the time of Liberius in the middle of the fourth century, we read simply: 'Nonis Martii, Perpetuae et Felieitatis Africae.' In Prosper's Ghronicon (Migne, Pair. Lat. 51, p. 566) under the head of the Fifth Persecution, in the time of Severus, we have
:

'Qua tempestate Perpetua et Felicitas pro Christo passae sunt, nonis Martiis, apud Carthaginem Africae in castris bestiis deputatae Antonino

word
185).

for

word in Bede, De sex

And

This notice reappears almost aetat. (Ed. Basil. 1563, II. 2 other authorities might be cited in the same sense
II.

et

Geta.'

.

old Carthaginian Calendar, discovered by Mabillon in the of a book and published by him with annotations in his binding 3 Vetera Analecta , unfortunately fails us at this point. It begins

The

with

'xiii

Kal. Maias' and ends with

'xiiii
it.

Kal. Mart.,' so that the

Mabillon says that this is because during Lent no such festivals were celebrated in the African Church Ruinart thinks that we have not the whole of
:

nones of March are not contained in

the Calendar.

Thus

far

then

we have no
in

indication that the Martyrs were

Martyrology (Hoist, p. 60) Nonis Martii, In Mauritania ciuitate Tuburbitanorum SS. Martyrum Perpetuae et Felieitatis.' This notice is found elsewhere and in the Martyrology included in Bede's works (Ed. Basil. 1563, ill. 397) it is combined with further statements and

Thuburbitan.

But

a short

Roman

we read

'

:

;

1 Commonly called the Bucherian after its discoverer, Bouchier: printed by Ruin. p. 617. 2 See Acta Bolland. under Mar. 7, and Analecta Holland, n. 16, where in the

Martyrol. Trevirense we find [Non.] Mar. Africa passio Perpetuae Felieitatis Saturi.' For the Basilian Menology see above, p. 21. The Syriac Martyrology published by Dr Wright from the old Nitrian MS. in the British Museum (Journ. of
'
:

.

.

Sacr. Lit. vol.

vm. N.

S. pp. 45

56,

423

especially interesting as being almost the only which finds a place here :

432) gives the following entry, which ismention of a Western Martyrdom

KLLasa
Translated by Dr Wright : Adar (March) 7. In Africa, of the number of the ancients, Perpetua, Saturninus (MS. Saturnilus), and ten other Confessors.' 3 in. 398. The Calendar without the notes is given by Ruin. pp. 618 f., and
'

with additional notes by Miinter, Prim. Eccl. Afr. pp. 251

ff.

24

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETTJA.

among them
is

the date 'sub Seuero principe'; and the whole entry
1
.

reproduced in Ado under March 7 It is to be observed that in all these notices the date, if given at all, is given correctly. But now a new confusion awaits us. In
the
'

Martyrology published by Galesinius (Hoist, p. 74) we have as the locality Thuburbae in Mauritania/ and as the date Valeriano et Galieno imperatoribus.' On this Galesinius remarks
'

Roman

that though the statement

is

to be

found elsewhere, yet ueteres

'

emendatioresque rei Ecclesiasticae annales aliter ostendunt; quorum auctoritatem secuti reponimus, Septimio Seuero imp. anno scilicet
Christi cciix,

Antonino

II

et

Geta ConsulibusV

just the confusion which meets us in the Short Latin Acts and in the Greek version of the Long Latin. How are we to

This

is

account for
'

it

?
:

In the old Carthaginian Calendar we have the following entry ill Kal. Ag. Sanctarum Tuburbitanarum et Septimiae.' And in Ado's Roman Martyrology (and, with variations, elsewhere) under the same date Apud Africam, ciuitate Tuburbo Lucernariae,
' :

natale sanctarum uirgirmm Maximae, Donatillae et Secundae quae persecutione Gallieni sub Anolino iudice passae sunt,' &c., &c.
:

Thus the Ttmburbitan Martyrs are Maxima, Donatilla and Secunda, and they suffer under Anulinus in the persecution of Gallienus. Together with this we may set the fact that S. Augustine,

who

does not mention these

speaks of the festival

famous Martyrs by their names, 3 of the Thuburbitan Martyrs in a sermon
(Ed. Ben. v. 1338, note b)
S.

De

Contemptii Sirmondi. by

first published never connects S. although Augustine Perpetua and her companions with Thuburbo, yet Sirmondi at once identified the Thuburbitan Martyrs with them. Perhaps the

Mundi

Now

mistake was made by others long before, and the source of the whole confusion.

may even have been

Compare the confused entries in Marty rol. Fuldense (Anal. Boll. i. 9), and in the Hieronymian Marty rol. ex cod. Bernensi (Brux. 1881), where some of the same names are repeated three times in the entry, and we have ' In Mauritania ciuitate
:

1

Turpitanorum passio SS. Perpetuae et Pelicitatis.' 2 But Antoninus II. and Geta =205, whereas Antoninus

III.

and Geta

II.

= 208.
3

To add

to our perplexity there is a variant here

:

Suburbitanarum.

WERE OUR MARTYRS THUBURBITAN

?

25

the story of the Thuburbitan Martyrs as (July 30), we find great reason to doubt its genuinegiven ness. For, in the first place, they cannot have suffered in the reign of Gallienus at all. For in the Acta Crispinae (Ruin. p. 450) the proconsul Anulinus mentions their names to Crispina, as being

When we examine
by Ado

and threatens that she shall suffer as they have But these Acts mention Diocletian and Maximian as the reigning emperors and this must be the right date for 1 Anulinus Moreover their whole story bears a suspicious resemblance to that of S. Perpetua and her companions. Thus, they are exposed
her
'

consortes,'

already suffered.

;

.

to the beasts, they kiss each other in the arena

(

to complete the
to

injure
I

martyrdom with the peace them they are put to the sword.
,'

2

and because the bear refuses

would venture therefore to suggest that there has been complete confusion between our Martyrs and the Thuburbitans of
July 30, whose names only seem to have survived and whose story had to be written down from imagination. The Thuburbitans gave their locality and their own false date (Gallienus) to our
3

Martyrs
1

,

and received in turn some of the

details of our Passion.

Tuscus and Anulinus were consuls in 295.
(c.

Anulinus as a persecutor under Diocletian

Optatus Milevitanus refers to Donat. in. p. 76, ed. Paris, 1676 in
'

:

prouincia proconsulari...Annulinus, in Numidia Floras '). There were the 'dies turificationis,' C. I. L. Afr. 6700.

The earlier Anulinus, the general of Severus, was consul in 199, and also proconsul of Africa, ibid. 1170. We find Anulinus as a persecutor very frequently e.g. in the Passion of Felix,
:

Euin. p. 356; of Saturninus and Dativus, Bum. p. 383 Vet. Anal. iv. 93 ; of the Alatinensian Martyrs, ibid.

and in the time
'

of

Nero in the obviously

fictitious

Mammarius, Mabillon, and even in Italy Greek acts of Nazarius and
;

of

iv.

104,

Gervasius, Migne, Symeon Metaplir. in. 895. 2 Quae cum inducerentur, in media arena osculatae sunt se inuieem, ut martyrium pace complerent.' Compare Perp. c. xxi., 'ante iam osculati inuieem, ut

martyrium per solemnia pacis consummarent. 3 This was the more easily done because the original Latin Passion seems to have given no locality and no date for the Martyrdom, if we except the incidental notice, 'natale tune Getae Caesaris.' The name of Geta moreover survives only in Holsten's MS. It is quite conceivable that it was erased in some copies almost at once in consequence of the well-known action of Caraealla. Compare Dio 77. 12
(quoted by Clinton):
el'

'

rts gypa-fie

TO

6vo/j,a,

rb TOV IVra
TI

fj,6vov,

TJ

etire /J.OTOV,

evdds

cbrt&XeTo' 66 ev ouS' ev rats Ktojity Situs oi Troirjral

had

ceased,

it

would

still

avry exp&vro. Even if persecution be dangerous to recite the name of Geta in commemorating

the Martyrs.

26

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.
I

Another consideration which mav shake our belief in the assignment of our Martyrs to Thuburho is the frequently repeated phrase Mauritania in ciuitate Tuburbitanarum/ For although there are two towns in proconsular Africa within a radius of forty miles from Carthage called respectively Thuburbo Mai us and Thuburbo Minus, we have no evidence of any town of that name in the Mauritanian district. So that we may regard the whole
'

statement as probably the fiction of a later time. If the account of the matter which I have here suggested is a reasonable one, it will be at least hazardous henceforward to speak
of S. Perpetua and her companions as Thuburbitan Martyrs 1
.

The influence of the Shepherd of Hennas upon of the Martyrs.

the

Visions

It is a familiar experience with us all that our dreams can frequently be traced back to thoughts which have been present to

our waking moments; and that their materials, in whatever strange combinations they may present themselves, are derived from our recollections. If therefore largely, if not exclusively,
it

should appear on examination that

many

of the details in the

Visions of the African Martyrs

may have been suggested by the we shall not for that reason be tempted Shepherd of Hernias, to question their genuineness, unless it can at the same time be
shewn that the phraseology
in

further

which they are narrated

bears a suspiciously close relation to that of Hermas. Before entering on this enquiry it may be well to note to what

extent the Visions are indebted to narratives contained in the can scarcely doubt that the Ladder in Canonical Scriptures.

We

was suggested by the story of Jacob's the words of Perpetua, 'Video scalam aeream Compare mirae magnitudinis pertingentem usque ad caelum,' with Gen.
Perpetua's
first

Vision

Dream.

1 The to the Passion of S. epithet was challenged by Valois in his preface Eccl. Afr. p. 208) and Perpetua, and has also been rejected by Miinter (Prim. Letters Apostolic of recently by Pillet, who quotes with satisfaction from the Leo XIII., who, in restoring the 'Apostolic Chair' of Carthage in 1884, refers to the

Martyrs as Carthaginians (Histoire de Sainte Perpetue,

p. 66).

THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS AND THE VISIONS.
1

27

xxviii. 12,

Vulg. 'Viditque in somnio scalam stantem super terrain,

cacumen illius tangens caelum.' It is interesting in this connection to recall a passage in the Acts of Montanus and Lucius, which are a base imitation of our Martyrdom, where the
et

message of the Lord in the Vision of Victor
lacobi' (Ruin. p. 232). Again, in the Vision in which she
'

is

'
:

Die

illis

signum
read
:

first

sees Dinocrates,

we

Et

inter

me

inuicem a.ccedere
S.

et ilium grande erat diasterna, ita ut uterque ad With this we naturally compare noil possemus.'

est:

Luc. xvi. 26, Vulg. 'Inter nos et uos chaos magnum firmatum ut hi qui uolunt hinc transire ad uos lion possint, neque inde

hue transmeare.'

Again
she

in the Vision of her conflict with the
iii.

obvious reminiscences of Gen.

Egyptian we have The Egyptian, whom afterwards

knows

to be the devil, rolls himself in the dust,

and presently

endeavours to catch her by the feet; but she tramples upon his head. Here we have the conflict between the Woman and the
Serpent, and perhaps even a testimony to the antiquity of the rendering ipsa conteret caput tuuni, et tu insidiaberis calcaneo
' :

eius.'

Nor

is it

of the devil in the
insidias praestabat.'

unreasonable to combine with this the appearance first Vision as a dragon 'qui ascendentibus

In the Vision of Saturus we have the snow-white hair of the Lord (cf. Apoc. i. 14) and the elders, 'seniores, standing round Him and stolae candidae and stetirnus ante thronum,'
3

'

'

'

;

answering to 'stantes ante thronum amicti stolis albis' in Apoc. vii. 9. It is possible even that the strange phrase et de manu sua
'

traiecit nobis in faciern'

may have been
' ;

suggested by the last

words of the same chapter ab oculis eorum.'

et absterget

Deus omnem lacrimam

But there still remain a multitude of details, which must have been suggested by something which the Martyrs had either heard or read, and for the origin of many of which I believe that we

must look
1

to the

Shepherd of Hennas.

light

The question of the Latin Version used in Africa at this time has no clear thrown upon it by the words of our Martyrs themselves, although something
I have given the

perhaps

may be learned from the quotations of the redactor. Vulgate renderings for obvious reasons of convenience.

28

THE PASSION OF
Thus

S.

PERPETUA.

in her first Vision Perpetua sees beneath the Ladder a dragon of wondrous size, who endeavours to terrify those who would climb. Saturus, having climbed, turns and says to her:
'

She
'

Perpetua, I wait for thee but see that that dragon bite thee not.' 'He shall not hurt me, in the name of Jesus Christ.' replies And from underneath the ladder as if in fear of me he gently put out his head and as though I were treading on the first step, I
:
:

;

When she reaches the top she is greeted with hast well come, my child (Bene uenisti). Hernias sees in his fourth Vision a very great beast, a hundred feet in length' and with a strange head (Qripiov f^eyia-rov cJo-et
trod on his head.'
'

the words

:

Thou

'

'

ACT?T09

Ti...T&>
1
.

/j,r}Kei

cacrel
'

vroStwy

'

p

TTJV Se

fce^>a\rjv

ei%ev

co?

Kepd/Mov

Lord that the word which

And I began to weep and to ask the He would deliver me from him. And I remembered
Vis. iv. 1.6).

I

had heard

(it

had been

spoken to

him

mysteriously just before),

Hermas be not

of doubtful mind... and I

boldly presented myself to the beast...! come nigh to him; and that huge monster stretches himself out on the ground, and does

nothing but put out his tongue.' Immediately after this the Church meets him in the guise of a Virgin, and he relates to her his escape

Thou hast well escaped (/caXw? e^e^evye^), she from the beast. because thou didst cast thy care on God and open thy heart says, to the Lord, believing that by none other canst thou be saved, but only through the great and glorious Name.' He is then charged
' '

'

with a message to the Lord's elect to 'tell them that this beast is about to come,' is a type of the great tribulation which but which through repentance and faith they may be able to
escape.

In the Garden near the top of the ladder Perpetua finds a tall with white hair, in a shepherd's dress (' in habitu pastoris '), milking sheep. This no doubt is intended for the Lord, and, when we remember how often the figure of the Shepherd occurs in

Man

Christian literature and art, we shall not be willing to press too But it is worth closely the parallel of Hermas's Shepherd.
noticing that it mentioned that
1

is

in the very next Vision to the one
for the first

we have

Hermas

time

is

introduced to his
'

Hilgenfeld's ingenious emendation the parallel would be still closer. serpent,'
If

we could accept

/cepdcn-ov,

a horned

THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS AND THE
Shepherd,

VISIONS.

29

whom

he describes as

dvrjp TIS eVSo^o? rfj ofyei,

TToi/jieviKw (Vis.

v. 1).

who had
face.

In Perpetua's second Vision she sees her brother Dinocrates, died of a gangrene in the face at the age of seven years,

in a dark place, dirty

and pale and with the wound still in his moreover hot and thirsty, and is vainly trying to get at the water of a font ( piscina,' Ko\v/uL/3ijdpd) whose rim is above his head. The boy no doubt had died unbaptised 1 and this was the cause of his appearing to be in a place of torment. Piscina

He

is

f

,

'

'

in its ecclesiastical use at once suggests a baptismal font, and although the boy is represented as anxious to quench his thirst
this does not prevent us

from interpreting his real need as that of baptism. In a later Vision she sees him, in answer to her prayers, cleansed, well clothed and refreshed only the scar of the old wound is to
:

be seen
drinks

is lowered to the boy's waist and he of a golden goblet that never fails. His need was supplied and he departed from the water 'to play in the manner of children with great delight. Then I understood that
:

the rim. of the font

;

w ater out
r

he was released from punishment' ('Tune intellexi translatum esse de poena ').

eum

Now

in the third Vision of Hernias
;

we have

the

first

account

of the Building of the Tower and, among the stones which are ' some falling into fire and being burned rejected, we hear of

:

falling near to water, and not able to roll into the water, although they wish to roll and come into the water (Vis. iii. 2. 9). It is explained later (iii. 7. 3) that 'these are they that have

and others

'

heard the word and wish to be baptised into the name of the Lord,' but their baptism is prevented by their own unstedfast1

It is fair to state that this

view

is directly

challenged and contradicted by S.

But he could only argue from the probaAugustine (De Anima ad Benatum i. 10). bilities of the case, and moreover he was blinded by the desire to dispose of a
disagreeable objection. It is most improbable that in a pagan household a boy of seven years old should have been baptised even if his sister were a Christian at the

time of his death

;

and

of this

we have no evidence whatever

:

indeed she was

probably a recent convert, and was only a Catechumen at the time of her arrest. S. Augustine's suggestion that the child was old enough to tell lies, and so though
baptised to need a period of torture after death, is a mournful illustration of the straits to which a good man may be driven by the exigencies of controversy.

30
ness.

THE PASSION OF
There
is still

S.

PERPETUA.
'

a hope for the rejected ones but only when have been tormented... and then (if they repent) it shall they happen to them to be released from their torments (jjLeraT0rjvai
;
'

K TWV (3a(rdvo3v avrwv). In the ninth Similitude

we have

great stress laid on the ne:

cessity of the water, or the seal (77 o-<f>payl<; ovv TO tfSwp ecrrtv) and we are distinctly told of some who have received it after

death.

(Sim.

ix.

15. 5 ol cwrocrToXot KOI

01 8tBa(TKa\oi,.
fcal

8evTes...efCijpvt;av teal

rofc

TrpoKeKoifAij/jievois,

avrol

avrols
'

Trjv crtjjpa'yio'a
r/ -v

rov Kijpvyparas.

Kareftrja'av ovv

per avrwv

6t9 TO VOOtp,

V

\

/C.T.A-.)

Passing on to Perpetua's last Vision (c. x.) we find Pomponius the deacon coming to her in a white robe and with manifold
'

He conducts her to the amphi(' nmltiplices galliculas '). " Fear not I am here with theatre and departs with the words and suffer along with thee." After this comes a hideous thee,
shoes
'
:

;

Egyptian with his attendants to fight with her. Then 'there come to me beautiful young men, as my attendants and supporters. And I am stripped and turned into a man and my supporters begin to rub me down with oil, as they do for the games and I see that
:

:

Egyptian on the other hand rolling in the dust. And there came forth a man of wondrous size, so as even to reach above the top of the amphitheatre... having also manifold shoes, made of gold and
silver ('galliculas multiformes ex auro et argento factas'), and bearing a rod like a trainer (' quasi lanista '), and a green bough,

She wrestles and fights with the apples.' and at last throws him and treads upon his face. Egyptian, Then she comes and receives the bough, and begins to go with glory to the porta Sanauiuaria (a sort of Gate of Life, mentioned later on in the actual history of her martyrdom). And I awoke, and understood that it was not with beasts but against the devil that I was to fight. But I knew tha.t victory was mine.'
on which were golden
'

The appearance
promise to

of

Pomponius in a

glorified form, with the

be with her in her struggle against the devil, may be with the promise of the Angel of Repentance to Hernias, compared "Fear ye not the devil, for there is no power in him against you for I will be with you... The devil can wrestle against you, but wrestle you down he cannot." (Hand. xii. 4. 6, 7 and 5. 2,
:

THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS AND THE
rov Sid/3o\ov...$vvaTai
ov Bvvarai).
6

VISIONS.

31

8i/3oXo9 avmrakaiffaL, KaTcnraKaiaai Be

Sprinkling with sand or dust after being anointed was a common but in Perpetua's mind it is no doubt conpractice in the games 1 and the influence of this nected with the language of Genesis iii.
;
:

is further to be traced when the Egyptian passage, as we have seen, tries to take her by the feet, and she at last tramples on his

head.
to support her, together with the extraordinary stature of the man who appears as the trainer, may be paralleled from Herm. Sim. ix. 6. 1 where we

The

beautiful

young men who come

have a man of

by others
which he

who

are

lofty stature, overtopping the Tower, surrounded ' also has a rod in his hand, with glorious.'

He

tests all the stones of the building (dvr/p

-m v^Xo?

T&>

fj^yeOet, wcrre

rov Trvpyov VTrepe^iv). beautiful shoes, observed in two instances in Perpetua's Vision, have a curious counterpart in the 'white shoes' of the Church when she appears to Herm as after he has escaped the

The

Beast (Vis.
tall.'

people are given rods

in the eighth Similitude various a glorious angel of the Lord, exceeding by These he presently examines. Then he commands crowns
iv. 2. 1).
'
'

Once more,

to be brought forth, their rods with buds

and he crowned the men who shewed up upon them and some fruit as well, and

dismissed

them

Shepherd,

"Who
"

and

is told,

As

the Tower.' Presently Hermas asks the are they that are crowned and go to the Tower?" many as wrestled against the devil and wrestled
to
:

him down are crowned these are they who suffered on behalf of the Name." Similarly in the ninth Similitude those stones which come from the eleventh mountain, where are trees full of
'

fruits,

adorned one tree with this
suffered for the

fruit

they who
glorious

name

of the

and another with that... are Son of God... they are all
these are
:

with God... but they

who

suffered willingly,

more exceeding glorious with the Lord for their fruit it is that excelleth.' Of such a company would Perpetua be with her golden apples going with glory to the Gate of Life. When we come on to the Vision of Saturus the same phenomena
1

So in Herm. Vis.

iv. 1.

5 the Beast comes with a great dust, on which

much

stress is laid.

32

THE PASSION OF
.

S.

PERPETUA.

After death he finds himself together with Perpetna borne away by four Angels to the East: and their hand 'being touched us not.' Now at the close of Hermas's first vision the

meet us 1

Woman who represents the Church is carried away,

as her chair

had

already been carried away, to the East. She is taken by the arms by two men who are afterwards described as Angels (Yis. i. 4. 3 r/pav

The dyfcwvwv /cal d7rr)###BOT_TEXT###av...'jrpo<; rr/v dvaro\r)v). on the method of carriage may perhaps be compared emphasis with the statement of Saturus, 'But we went not on our backs
avrrjv
TOOV

heads downward ('ibamus autem non supini sursum uersi'), but as though we were climbing a gentle slope.' But perhaps this was suggested by the contrast with their position as they lay in the
stocks
(cf. c. viii.).

When
met by
such, as

four

Saturus and Perpetua reach the Garden above they are more glorious Angels, and are bidden to go in and
'

salute the Lord.'

They come then

to a place,
:

though they were built of light

whose walls were and before the door of

'

that place stood four Angels,

who

clothed those

who

entered in

with white robes.'

Now

in the ninth Similitude of Hernias there stand around
'
:

the gate of the Tower twelve Maidens but the four that stood at the corners seemed to me to be more glorious.' It was the
part of the Maidens to carry the stones through the Gate for the building of the Tower. Those and those only that were so brought in by the Maidens became white. Others retained their various
colours,
later
'

and had

to

be rejected (Sim.

ix. 4).

This

is

elaborated

on into wearing the vesture of the Maidens (Sim. ix. 13). In no other way can a man be found in the kingdom of God, except they clothe him with their clothing.' So, returning to the
metaphor, we read (Sim. ix. 17. 4), 'The building of the Tower became of one colour, bright as the Sun.'
first

The Martyrs found
a youthful

sitting within countenance, whose feet

'

a

Man

with white hair and
'

we

did not see

('

niueos

habentem

capillos et uultu iuuenili," cuius

2 pedes non uidimus ').

1 Some of the following details from the Vision of Saturus admit of explanation in connection with another source from which the main portion of his Vision seems

to

come
2

:

see below, pp. 38

ff .

We may perhaps

compare Herm.

Vis.

iii.

10. 1 TO^TUV rb irptotairov otix elSov,

STL

THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS AND THE

VISIONS.

33

To return once more to the fourth Vision of Hermas, the Church is there described as having white hair, as well as white robes and white shoes (Vis. iv. 2. 1). And reference is made to the three preceding visions in which he had seen her in three
iii. 10): first, as very aged; secondly, with her countenance young, but her flesh and hair old (rrjv i^ev otyiv

successive forms (Vis.

vearepav el^ev, K.T.\.} thirdly, as wholly young and beautiful, and only her hair old (0X77 vewrepa teal xd\et eKTrpeTrea-rdrj], fjiova? Se
;

rpfyas Trpecr/SvTepas el^ev}. In the vision of Saturus it would be easy to refer the white hair of the Lord to Apoc. i. 14 but this would not account for the strange addition et uultu iuuenili,' which however is accounted
; '

ra<?

for at

once

if

we may suppose a reminiscence

of the Shepherd,

on the combination of newness and oldness see again Sim. ix. 12. 1 of the Rock and the Gate. The four Elders on His right and 011 His left,' and the many other elders behind them/ in the vision of Saturus, may be compared with 'the six men who presided over the Building, and walked with Him on the right and on the left,' while there were

where great
:

stress is laid

'

'

'

other glorious ones round about Him (Herm. Sim. ix. 6. 2). After they had kissed the Lord, the Elders bade them, " Go " and play (' Ite et ludite '). Adding to this curious command the
'

many

subsequent statement, 'we were nourished with an unspeakable odour which satisfied us (' odore inenarrabili alebamur, qui nos satiabat '), we turn again to the Shepherd.
'

by the Shepherd under the care of the Maidens They treat him as their brother: 'and she who seemed to be the first of them began to kiss me and the others seeing her kissing me began to kiss me also, and to go round about the Tower and to play with me (irai&iv per epov). And I became as it were a young man and began myself to play
is left
f.).

Hermas
ix.

(Sim.

10

;

with them.' When the Shepherd returned the next morning he asked him had he supped. He replied " I supped on the words of
the Lord
all

the night long" (eSei7rvr)<ra...Ta pri^ara rov Kvpiov

o\f}v rrjv vvfcra).

Lastly, when they came out from the Presence they found 'before the door Optatus the bishop on the right, and Aspasius

the presbyter-teacher on the
R.

left,

separated and sad.

And
3

they

34

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

threw themselves at our feet and said to us, " Make peace between The angels presently us, for ye have gone forth and left us thus." " interfere and say, Let these refresh themselves and if ye have
' :

any quarrels among yourselves, forgive one another"
to Optatus,
"

:

and they say
:

plebem tuam ') for so do they come to thee, as if returning from the Circus and contending about its factions." The Greek version here omits the words 'on the right,' and so sets the bishop and the presbyter on the Mr Harris thinks that the Greek is left hand outside the door. the statement in Herm. Vis. iii. 1. 9 that the right justified by hand is the place of others, those, to wit, who have already pleased God and have suffered for the Name.' But the words separated and sad seem to require the Latin form in its fulness. Nor is it probable that the right hand place of honour would have been
Correct thy people
('

corrige

'

'

'

'

outside the door.'

But
there
is

to the rebuke to the rulers of the

Church

for quarrelling

warned

parallel in the Shepherd. 'lest their quarrellings rob them of their

more than one

Thus they are
life.

How

will

they chasten the Lord's elect,' if they be not at peace among themselves ? (Vis. iii. 9. 7 vvv ovv vpfiv \eyco TO?? irpo^ov^evoi^ 6KK\ r)<ria<; KCU rot? TrpcoroKaQeSpiTaW... Trots u/tet? TratSeveLv
/

Compare too the praise of who were always at harmony with themselves, and had peace among themselves, and hearkened to
TOJ)? e/cXe/crov? nvplov, /c.rA.).
'

those leaders of the Church,

one another.'
I think that the instances which I have adduced are sufficient

to establish a strong probability that the Martyrs were familiar with the Visions of Hernias. Evidence of this kind is cumulative ;

and even if individual instances of comparison may seem fanciful and overstrained, yet when we recall at once Perpetua's escape
from the monstrous dragon by the help of the Name her vision of the Man in a shepherd's dress the effort of Dinocrates to get
; ;

subsequent release from punishment the_ promise of Pomponius and the beautiful shoes the green bough with the golden apples, and the going with glory to the Gate of Life and then the passage of Saturus and herself, borne by four
at the water,
his
; ;
:

and

angels to the East

;

the four more glorious angels

who

clothe

them

THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS AND THE
and take them in
; ;

VISIONS.

35

countenance

the Man with the white hair and the youthful the kiss, and the command to go and play, and the unspeakable odour which took the place of food the bishop and presbyter rebuked for their quarrellings it is difficult to believe
;

that

these details, some of which seem to cry for an explanation of some kind, are wholly independent of the striking parallels
all

which are offered to us

in the

Shepherd of Hermas.

worth while to bring a few passages in the earlier Latin Version, which Hartogether nack assigns to the second century, where the language has points of correspondence with that of Perpetua and Saturus. The correspondence is often slight in itself, but it gains in importance when
is

Hitherto our comparison has been It original of the Shepherd of Hermas.

made with the Greek

considered in

its

context.

c. iv. lam in magna dignatione es, tanta ut postules uisionem et ostendatur tibi an...

Herm.
bilia sua.

Vis. iv. 1

Quia

me dignum

aestimauit ut ostenderet mihi miraVis. iv. 2

Bene
c.

uenisti.

In habitu pastoris.
viii.

Tune
Et
facta

intellexi translation

Bene effugisti. Mand. proem. Habitu pastorali. Vis. iii. 7 Tune illis continget
mini iunior

eum

esse de poena.

c. x.

sum

masculus.

transferri de poenis. Sim. ix. 11 Et uidebar

factus esse.

Efferens...ramum uiridem in quo
erant mala aurea.
c.

Sim.
Vis.

viii. 2. 1

Alii afferebant uirgas

stias uiricles.

xi.

Coepimus

ferri

angelis in Orientem,

a quattiior quorum mantis

i.

et tulerunt

4 Venerunt quatuor iuuenes cathedram ad Orientem...

nos non tangebat.

duo quidam uiri...sustulerunt illam
humeris et abierunt, ubi et cathedra erat, ad Orientem. Vis. iii. 10 Faciem quidem iu.uenilem habebat... capillos aniles.
Ibid,
uidi.

c. xii.

Niueos habentem capillos et

uultu iuuenili, cuius pedes non uiclimus.

(supra)
ix.

Horum

faciem non

Osculati

sumus
:

ilium. .et dixerunt
.

Sim.
et

11 Osculari

me
ut

coepit...

nobis seniores

Ite et ludite.

ipsae coeperunt

me

fratrem

osculari,

et ducere circa turrim, et

ludere
Si quas habetis inter uos dissensiones, dimittite uobis inuicem.
c.

mecum.
iii.

xiii.

Vis.

9

Pacem habete
dissensiones
. . .

alius

cum
ne

alio...et suscipite

uos inuicem...
uestrae

forte

hae

fraudent uitam uestram
ergo uos inuicem.

Commonete

32

36

THE PASSION OF
These
slight

S.

PERPETUA.
scarcely
sufficient

indications

are

perhaps

to

justify us in assuming, what is probable enough in itself, that the Martyrs used this early Latin version of the Shepherd ; and it

quite possible that Perpetua may have known the book in the original Greek. The fact that the correspondence consists so much
is

more

in matters of detail than in points of language is just what if the visions are visions at all, and not literary creations of a later time. The reminiscences would primarily be

we should expect

those of incidents and situations; and the verbal coincidences would only come in by the way when the Visions were being
related or written down.

We may regard

it

that the Shepherd of
;

Hermas was

in the

then as fairly certain hands of the African

martyrs and we may further regard it as quite conceivable that they read it in the early Latin version. We know from Tertullian that arguments were drawn from
the Shepherd in his day in matters both of Church practice and Church doctrine. He himself had a J.ow opinion of the book 1

;

was evidently appealed to by the Anti-Montanistic section And the present investigation shews that of the African Church.
but
it

to say the least display what are called Montanistic and sympathies, were no less attracted by its fascinating tendencies allegories, whatever they might have thought as to its teachings on certain controverted topics. So that here we have an addiothers,

who

tional reason for believing that in the African Bible of the close of the second century, as in the Sinaitic Codex at a later period, the

Shepherd of Hermas found a place at the Books of the New Testament 2
.

close of the Canonical

cannot see any sufficient ground for supposing, with Gebhardt and Harnack, Pastor, prolegg. pp. xlvii. ff., that Tertullian materially changed his view in regard to the Shepherd. In the passage De Orat. 16 he passes no judgment whatsoever on the book, but merely meets by a common-sense reply an argument drawn
I

1

Hermae

.from

If he speaks of it as Scripture, this is it as to the right posture in prayer. in a highly ironical sentence ('Immo contra scripturam fecerit, si quis in only cathedra aut subsellio sederit'), from which it is manifestly unfair to conclude

that he himself regarded
evidently did.

it

at this time with as

much

reverence as his opponents

2 For a full discussion of this point see the notes of Gebhardt the place referred to in the preceding note.

and Harnack in

THE APOCALYPSE OF PETER AND THE

VISIONS.

37

The Influence of

the

Apocalypse of Peter on the Vision of Saturus.

In the History of Barlaam and Josaphat (Boissonade, pp. 280 f, find two remarkable Visions, which present so many ff.) we of contact with the Vision of Saturus, that it will be points

360

desirable to quote them here somewhat fully. On the first occasion Josaphat, having been fiercely assailed by fleshly temptations, offers a prayer for protection he then falls asleep and has the
:

following Vision. 'Opa eavrov VTTO rtvcav (po/Bepwv dp7ra<yevra, KOI TOTTOVS 01)9 ovBeTrore ewpaKei Oie6vra, KOI ev rivi <yei>6jjbevov
fAeyicrrrj

TreSidSi wpalois dvOecrt KOI

\iav evwSecn

KOfjuaxry,

evOa

(f)VTa /j,ev ewpa TravroScura KOI Trot/aXa, /eapTrofc ^evois ricrl KOI Oavfjuacrrois jSplOovra, ISeiv re yBlcrrois Kal a-^racrOai irodetvols.

ra re

(f)v\,a

rwv BevSpwv \i<yvpbv
teal

VTrri^ei

avpa nvl \eTTTOTdrrj,
. .

^apieo'Tdrrfv eKTrefjiirovra evaSlav Kivovp^eva. rrjv Se OavfJiao-Trjv ravrijv fcal {j,e<yakir)v TreSiaSa ol <j)o/3epol eKeivou StaydyovTes avrov els Tr6\iv elariyayov apprjrw rtvl \afiir p6rr}Ti

Kal dfcopecrTOV

.

a7rocrTi'A,/3ou(Taz/,

etc

%pvcrlov jmev Siawyov? ra reL^rj, \idwv 8e wv
e^ovcrav

ouSel?
<^>w?

TrcoTTore

ewpa/ce ra? eTraA-^et?

dvmdev

TTVKVO, raZ? dfCTicrL Starrof Trdcra^ avrrjs

ra?

Kal VTTOTrrepoi rive? err par Lai, avrfj kicdcrrri <f}do<; ovcrai, ravrr) eTreSijfiovv, //.eXo? aSoucrat d/cofj jSporela /ZT/SeTrore aKovcrOev. Kal (j)(t)vfjs tf/covcre \e yovcrr)s' AVTIJ TJ az/avraucrt? TWV Stfcaicov' avrrj
eir\ijpov'
i

r)

the torments of and then he awakes. Long afterwards, on the death of hell, Barlaam, he has another Vision, which is in fact a continuation of the first. Kal opd rot)? <bo{Sepov$ dvSpas e/ceivovs, oz)? /cal irporepov ecopd/ci, eX96vra<s Trpbs avrbv, KOI dTraryayovras avrbv et?
Trjv fAeyicrTiyv
Bo^acrfji,evr]v

evcfrpocrvvr) TCOV evap<TTr)crdvTa)V ru> icvpiw. After this he is carried off reluctantly to see

Kal Oavfjuacrrrjv eKeivrjv 7re$id8a, KOL irpos

rrjv

Se-

Kal uTrepXa/iTrpoy elaajayovres iroKiv.

elcrep%o/j,eva)

Se avrq) rrjv TrvKn^v erepoi VTTIJVTOVV vroXXoS KaT7)y\alcr/u.voi,
crre(f>dvov<;

<am,

o2bu9

e%ovre<; ev %epcrlv dpprjra) &ia\dfj,Troi'ras Ka\et, Kal ovSeTTore ftporetoi ededcravro. epofjievov Se rov 6<f>da\ijLol
'

T/z/o? ol (rre(f)avoi rijs 80^779 ol vTrepKa^/Trpoi
el<$,

01)9

opa ;

fjuev

6

etfyqcrav, K.r.\.
,

elire

ravra, Kal rov BapXaa/i

/c.r.X.

88

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

The points which specially concern us are the angelic bearers who carry him to Paradise: the very great plain covered with
flowers: the city shining with unspeakable brightness and with walls of transparent gold, which he finds when he has crossed the

the singing of the hosts of heaven. And, in the second the more glorious ones who meet him at the gate as he part, enters; and the recognition of his preceptor Barlaam. These coincidences are so striking that we feel at once that they must
plain
:

have some common source

and, as the Shepherd of Hermas offers us nothing to correspond to them, we naturally enquire whether any other early series of Visions with a somewhat similar sanction
;

can with probability be supposed to have been current in the African Church.
Before entering upon this enquiry,

remarkable coincidence which
'

we may notice a most may be added to those already
letter in the
'
:

mentioned by the change of a single Saturus sees arbores rosae,' and adds
erat in

Latin text.

altitude

autem arborum

modum

cypressi,

quarum

folia

cadebant sine cessatione.'
'

These enormous rose-trees correspond well enough with the But why do their leaves fall fragrant trees of Josaphat's Vision. without ceasing ? No explanation of any kind has been offered In the Apocalypse of S. John of this extraordinary statement.
'

'

the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations/ but, in
(xlviii.
'
5

12) from which this description is In taken, it is expressly stated that their leaf shall not fade. the Apocalypse of Moses (Tisch. 1866, p. 11) the leaves of all the

the passage of Ezekiel

trees in Paradise, except the fig-tree, fall off when Eve eats the forbidden fruit (tcareppeov ra (f>v\a). This alone would be
sufficient to

condemn the reading 'cadebant'

in the Vision of

Saturus.

but the united and the Greek Version (fcare^epero) renders this reading impossible on textual grounds, even if it were in itself an improvement. Now in Josaphat's Vision we read rd re <f)v\a T<V SevSpwv \iyvpov vTrrj-xei, the leaves of the trees made a tuneful sound.' If we read 'canebant,' all is The trees in heaven were always singing. clear.
In Cod.
find instead of
it

C we

'

ardebant

'

;

testimony of Codd.

A

and

B

'

:

What

support can we find elsewhere for such a statement

?

THE APOCALYPSE OF PETER AND THE

VISIONS.

39

First, we may observe that to the Eastern mind there would be nothing strange in the conception. A few passages from the Old Testament may remind us of its frequency as a metaphor. Then shall the trees of the wood sing out at the presence of the Lord (1 Chron. xvi. 33; cf. Ps. xcvi. 12): 'Break forth into singing,
' '

and every tree therein (Isa. xliv. 23 cf. Iv. 12) The desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose it shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing'
ye mountains,
'
:

'

forest,

;

:

(Isa.

xxxv.

1, 2).

1 Again, in the longer recension of the Testament of Abraham , not far from the beginning, as the Archangel Michael is going

with

Abraham

to his house, a remarkable incident occurs

r?79 oSov TOV 0eov
,

efceiwr)? to-raro SevBpov Kv-rrctpia-cros' Kal

Kara Kara irpoarafyv
:

efiorjcrev

TO SevSpov avOpcoTrivy fywvy, Kal eljrev'

ef

A.<yi,o<?,

ayios, /cvpio<; 6 #605, o TrpoffKa\ovp,evo^ avTov rot? cuyairwcnv It is at the least a strange coincidence that the singing
'

grew 'in modum cypressi': and also that on he hears uocem unitam dicentem Agios, agios, agios sine cessatione.' Moreover it may be noted that sine cessatione 2 is the phrase which he also has used of the trees In the latter
trees of Saturus's Vision
later
:

:

'

'

.

part of his Vision he is clearly influenced partly of S. John and partly by liturgical formulae

quite possible that in the original actually the song of the trees of Paradise, though he has reserved If this be the case, possibly we may find it for the angelic hosts.

by the Apocalypse and hence it is source the Ter Sanctus was
:

here some clue to the extraordinary phrase in Jeremiah's prayer 3 c. ix. in 'the Rest of the Words of Baruch rjvgaro ev%rjv, \ej(ov TO Qvuiaua T&V SevSpwv TWV WVT(OV. "Ajyto?, ayios,
,'
:

ayW

There
text
is

another passage in the Vision of Saturus where the clearly corrupt, and where the emendation which I would
is

venture to propose derives a measure of support from Josaphat's
description.

The words

are, as

Angeli, qui gesfcabant nos, transiuimus stadium uia lata.'
1

edited, 'quattuor illi deposuerunt nos et pedibus nostris
:

commonly

Here Codd.

B

and

C (?)

read

'

uia

To be published in the second volume

of the present Series,

by M. E. James,

M.A., Fellow of King's College. 2 See note ad loc. p. 81.
3

Edited by Prof. Eendel Harris (Cambridge, 1889), to

whom I owe

this reference.

40
lata';

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

and the Greek has ical 6Sov \a{36vres, which points to a But this gives no similar reading, as far as 'uia' is concerned. tolerable sense: and Cod. has 'uiolata.' I would read 'uiola-

A

tum,' and conceive the plain to have been covered with violets.' The word uiolatus in a similar sense is found in Palladius, in Feb. This 32 conditum uel absinthiatum uel rosatum uel uiolatum 1 use however is so rare, that the word was extremely likely to suffer corruption at the hands of later scribes. But its restoration us an admirable sense, and harmonises well with the Vision gives itself and with the statement of Josaphat, pzyiGrr) TreSidSi wpaiois
' '
' ' :

.'

av6e(Ti fcal \(av evooSea-t Ko/jLUHTp. must now proceed to our enquiry as to the common source of the details found in both Visions. The later Apocalypses, such

We

and the Vision of Paul, again and us with descriptions of Heaven and of Hell which again present are evidently derived from some earlier apocalyptic work which is
as the Apocalypse of Esdras

A comparison of their common materials leads us back with almost indisputable certainty to the lost Apocalypse of Peter. To establish this conclusion would be beyond our present scope
now
lost
2
.

:

and I must content myself with bringing together here some points of contact between several of these works and the Visions of Saturus and Josaphat. Apocalypse of Esdras (Tisch. 1866, p. 30) KOI dirrffyayov /j,e ol ayye\oi Kara dvaro\d<;' teal iSov TO CJJVTOV rf)<^ teal bBov 0)779.
efcei

TOI>

'Ez>&>;

coepimus

ferri

locundum
p.

/cal 'HXtaz/ /cal Mcovarf), K.T.\, Cf. Perpet. xi. a quattuor Angelis in Orientem...ubi inuenimus et Saturninum et Artaxium/ &c.

31 o <rre<az/o9 aoi

rjToLfjbaarrai.

Cf.
i

BarL

et Jos.

(Boissonade,

p.

360) TtVo9 ol arefyavoi
o et9, e(j>r)<rav, K.T.\.

rrj^

S6?/9

ot v rrep\d/ui7rpoL, 01)9

opw

;

^09

Apocalypsis Pauli, p. 43 ol Be dyaOol ayyeXot rrjv ^rv^v TOV Bitcaiov rjcfrracravTo avrrjv
Kal
eTropevO'rj (TVV avTols,

ol
6)9

Trapdkayvcopipov et9 airav-

KOI

e%rj\,6e

TO
et9

irvevfjua

avroSv \eyo)v'
1
'

AeOpo,
'

ifrv)(ij,

icre\de
p. 81.

rov TOTTOV,

2

For the word uiolatio cf. note ad loc. This subject has been investigated by

Mr M.

E. James, to

whom

I owe the

suggestion that the Apocalypse of Peter is the ultimate source of all such descripI hope that he will publish the results of his investigations in a future tions.

number

of this Series.

THE APOCALYPSE OF PETER AND THE

VISIONS.

4-1

Cf. Perpet. xi. 'alii quattuor Augeli clariores ceteris, qui, ubi uiderunt nos, honorem nobis dederunt, et dixerunt ceteris Angelis Ecce sunt, ecce sunt: cum admiratione.
p.

:

51

/col

i$ov

etcet

SevSpa Tra/a^jeOij,

/c.r.X.

p.

53 KOI
Cf. p.

crvv-

etcviTTov avToi?

ra BevSpa.

These

last are fruitless trees,
souls.

but are to

be noted as displaying sympathy with certain
iBov
e/cet

64 63

/cat

SevBpov Traf^fjueyedr] wpalov, ev

oa

eTraveiravero TO Trvevpa
:

TO ayiov.

We
p.

may

also notice the following phrases

p.

teal

i&ov TOV<$ K&'

TOV Oeov'

59

7rpecrf3vTepov<i...Kal Trdvra irapeKoXovv Trjv fyepofjievov VTTO recrcrdpcov dy<ye\(oi> cnrovScua)?
ere

$6av
:

and

p.

65 e%eelv
irdvTa

TOV

Koarfjuov,

Apocalypse of Moses,

p.

TO, <f)VTa

a phrase of frequent recurrence. 20 KCU fj###BOT_TEXT###ov el? TOV TrapdSetfrov, KOI TOV TrapaSeicrov, W9 TrdvTas diro TOV ev&Sias vva-rd^ai, %copt9 TOU 280 /cat d/copeo-Tov KOI

ryeryevwrjpevovs a?ro Trjs
K.T.\.

Cf. Sari,

and

Jos. p.

Besides these Apocalypses there are other writings of a similar character such as the Vision of S. Furseus (see the Bollandist Acts, January 16), from which might be adduced further coincidences

with the details of our Visions.

mon

element in

all

of these

It is quite certain that the comand it is to be traced in the descrip-

even more plainly than in those of Paradise is derived from some early apocalyptic work which is no longer It has been suggested above that this original source was extant.
tions of hell

the Apocalypse of Peter. Is there any ground for supposing that this work would be current in Africa and known to our Martyrs ?

The Apocalypse
torian

of Peter seems to be mentioned in the Murait

Fragment

1
,

where

Hennas.

The
it

notice of
'
:

it

immediately precedes the Shepherd of adds: 'quarn quidam ex nostris legi in

ecclesia nolunt

but this very statement implies that in some

Churches
It
is

was

read.

quoted by Clement of Alexandria, who, according to Eusebius, H. E. VI. 14. 1, commented in his Hypotyposes on all the Books of the New Testament, 'not even omitting. ..the Epistle of

Barnabas and the so-called Apocalypse of Peter.' Eusebius himself (H. E. ill. 25. 4) classes it with the Shepherd of Hermas and other books which he rejects from the Canon ev
:

1

See however Zahn Gesch. des N. T, Kanons

11.

pp. 105

ft'.

42

THE PASSION OF

S.

PEBPETUA.
7rpdt;6(0v
/cat
tf

Tot9 vodois KaraTerd-)(0<t) KOI
\ey6fjievos Ylo(,fj,r)v, teal
rj
r\

T(V TiavXov

<ypa(f>r),

o re

fapopewr) Bapvdfta eVtcrToA,?},

'ATroKctXvfyis Tlerpov, teal r<ov dirocrToKcov at Xeyoyitez/at

TT/SO? roi/rot?

Codex Claromontanus of the Pauline with the Shepherd, the Acts of Paul and the Apocalypse of Peter. It is also included in the stichometry of Nicephorus. It is clear therefore that at one time it was bound
stichoinetry of the
closes

The

Epistles

copies of the New Testament, and was read in the public have seen that this was probably worship of some Churches. the case with the Shepherd of Hermas in the early African Church. It is not unreasonable then to add to the African Bible

up with

We

of the second century the Apocalypse of Peter in which case we should have in the Vision of Saturus a fresh illustration of a
:

passage in Tertullian (De Anima 9, quoted below, p. 52) in which he speaks of the public reading of the Scriptures in the Church as
affording materials for visions to a certain inspired sister. Before we leave this subject I would call attention to

some

curious points of resemblance to the story of our Martyrs in the Symposium of S. Methodius. As the Apocalypse of Peter is
directly quoted in another part of the same work (ii. 6 f.), these coincidences, if they are of any value, will be a fresh confirmation

of the view taken above.

2 we have the following description of the rewards of at 8e evirrepoi KOI Kov<j>at et? TOV vTrep/cocr^tov TOTTOV Virgins inrepKV^raaai TOV /3tou /cal ISovcrai TroppmOev a fir) ere/309 a

In

viii.
:

eOedcraTO,

TO 1)9 \eip(Sva$ avrovs
/cat
rj

TT)$ dfydapa-ias,
/c.r.X.

dpij^ava

/c

/cat avBrj (f>epovras

TreTrhrjptofjievovs,

aXXa

/cat et rt9

avrwv 6 i^p Lois
/cat TT/ocSrat

rd aw^ara 7rapa8i86vat...ScrTe o0ey SoKeiv avVa9 eV /coo-pa) ovcra9 prj elvai ev /coo-fim, /c.r.X.
irvpl ftov'X.oiTO

rwv aXkwv perd

Trfv dvaK\r]<n,v /cat rrjv

evrevdev

et

at dp#&>9 /cat 7n<rT(o<} irapdeveva-a<rai ro3 ^picrrot ra <j>epovTat TWV ad\tt>v, rot9 r^9 a(j)0apa'ia<> dvBecri
6el<rai

7rpo9

avrov'

apa yap
et9

ro3

/caTaXet-^rat TOV KOO-JJLOV

.

?ro\X^9
auTa9,
/cat

evcjjrffjiias

/c.T.X.

evTavda

TO 2)9 TrpoetprjiAevovs TrapaTreftTreiv Xet8r} eKOoiHras Oav/jLacrTa Ttva ded-

e'/cXa^t7rpa...etvat

yap

AUTHORSHIP OF THE VISIONS.
eivai cvyaTTijs, eivai crvveo'eco$...ai be

43
e//-/ieA,&)9

%opevovcriv
(viii.

yepaiev ro5

povaai rov 9eov,

/c.r.X.

And

lower down

4)

we have

:

ovpavw fjirj Sei\,idcrr)Te \o%a)VTa KOI etyeSpevovra TOV ofyiv. The references to the beasts and to the state of trance, and the
last reference to

the serpent that lies in wait, may perhaps be dismissed at once as merely coincidental. For we have no

reason to suppose that S. Methodius was acquainted with our But those introduced by the word ^0709 Martyrdom itself.
evidently are derived from some apocalyptic source, and, though S. Methodius has worked his material up into Platonic form, we

may well conjecture that the tradition to which he refers was derived from the Apocalypse of Peter 1
.

The Authorship of

the

Visions.

The Compiler

of the

Martyrdom

distinctly states

more than

once that Perpetua and Saturus themselves wrote down their

own

Visions, whereas he in compliance with Perpetua's wish added the narrative of their final sufferings. It is a fair question therefore

whether there are any traces of difference in style and composition between the portions said to have been written by Perpetua, Saturus and the redactor respectively. In so brief a document it would be hard to charge the redactor with falsification if no such traces were to be seen but on the other hand their existence would confirm us in the belief that we had the actual words of the Martyrs themselves.
to ask
:

If
piece,

we we

shall find that the

consider the distribution of adopted Greek words in the most striking of them occur in the

writing of Perpetua, who, as Saturus tells us, could speak Greek. Thus it is she who uses machaera, draco, tegnon, catasta, horoma,
:

Saturus uses stola and diastema, phiala, agon, a/a, psallere. thronus (cf. Apoc. vii.), and hears the song of praise in heaven as
Agios, agios, agios.

He

also hears

Perpetua address the bishop

Optatus as Papa. The redactor uses: catechumenus, psallere (as a direct reminiscence of Perpetua's use of it), agape, ecstasis, and
scandalizemini (in quoting words of Perpetua). Now in the case 1 For parallels between the Acts of Thomas and Perpetua's Vision of Dinoerates,
see the notes

on

this Vision.

44

THE PASSION OF

S.

PEEPETUA.

of Saturus and the redactor

we

find only words that were
:

no

doubt familiar Bible or Church phrases but Perpetua's words do not, for the most part, admit of the same explanation and accord:

are justified in reckoning them as evidence of indiingly of style in her portion of the narrative. viduality Moreover a close examination of the vocabulary and manner

we

of

what purports to be her writing leads us to the same result. Thus Perpetua uses deicere three times in the sense of to over'
' ' '

but in the only place where the throw a person's stedfastness redactor employs it (c. xviii.) it has quite a different sense. Again refrigero,' in the intransitive sense of to refresh oneself, comes
;
'

Perpetua, once in Saturus, and twice in the redactor but in the first of these cases he is quoting Perpetua's word, and the second case immediately follows the quotation
four

times
;

in

'

(c. xvi.).
'

Beneficio
'

'

'

petua mirae magnitudinis
;

subito

three times
'

with a genitive occurs three times in Perostendi,' of a vision, three times ;
'

;

three times

' ;

'

coepi

eleven times in Per-

petua, three times in Saturus, and only once in the redactor. The narrative of Perpetua, and the same is true of that of

Saturus, is marked by extreme simplicity it is eloquent indeed, but with no touch of conscious art or rhetoric. The narrative of the redactor is equally beautiful, but in a very different way
: :

it is full

and chastened rhetorical contrast. The simplicity of Perpetua's style is due to two principal causes first the constant use of the simplest of conjunctions; and secondly the incessant repetition of the same words and phrases. The first of these may be illustrated by an analysis which I have made of the use of the word 'et' throughout the whole Perpetua employs it 152 times in 172 lines Saturus 57 piece. times in 52 lines the redactor only 90 times in 170 lines 1 That
of epigram
:

;

;

.

is, roughly speaking, Perpetua uses it nearly once in a line; Saturus still more frequently ; and the redactor only about once in two lines.

Again, there are passages in Perpetua where, with her constant habit of repeating a word she has just used, she employs tune
'
'

instance of this

as her connecting particle again and again. The most conspicuous is in c. iii., where for 13 lines 'et' is almost

banished, and
1

we have

'

tune

'

four times,

and three sentences
New
Testament.

I

have eliminated from the calculation quotations from the

AUTHORSHIP OF THE VISIONS.

45

In Saturus we have are without any introductory conjunction. ' tune only once, and that in a strong sense at the end of his
'

Vision

:

and in the redactor 'tune' occurs only once
'
'

as a connect-

ing particle. The use of
'

ut absolutely is also worth noting in Perpetua et factus est mini career subito praetorium, ut ibi mallem e.g. essem quam alicubi and in three similar instances (c. iii., ut.
'
:

;

.

,

laniaretur;

c. x.,
'

ut excederet, ut...mitterem).
c. vii.

Compare with this

her use of

ita ut,'

(bis).
;

These
it is

may seem

trifling points

but we must remember that
find the surest evidence of the
is

in the use of particles that sameness or difference of styles,

we

where there

any room

for the

suspicion that a forger has been at work. The second peculiarity which we have noted in Perpetua's style is the repeated employment of the same words and phrases

where a careful writer would have been at pains
language.

to

vary his

Thus
'

in

c. iii.,

within the space of 9 lines
'

we

find

'

paucis diebus,'
' '

in ipso spatio paucorum dierum,' post paucos dies and paucis horis': in 10 lines we find 'sollicitudine infantis' (twice), 'sollicita

pro eo' and 'tales sollicitudines'; and the expression
infantis' comes again in times and in 10 lines
;

'

sollicitudine

c. vi.
'

In 13
'

lines

we have

'career' five

infans

four times.

We may
' '

note too

Tdbescebam ideo quod illos tabescere uideram mei beneficio.' In c. iv., in 5 lines we have scala five times and in 6 lines 'ascendere' five times. We have moreover 'ferraand the characteristic sentence: mentorum ferramentis
the
'

sentence,

;

'

. . .

;

'lente
illi

eiecit caput;

et quasi
'
:

primum gradum

calcarem, calcaui

caput!

In

c.
'
:

v.

we read

remur
have

with which we
'

post paucos dies rumor cucurrit ut audi' subito rapti sumus may compare c. vi.
:

ut audiremur... rumor statim per uicinas
also
:

fori partes cucurrit.'

We

pater meus consumptus taedio,' which recurs word for word in c. ix. In c. vi. we have a good example of repetition in the following sentences Et ego respondi Non facio. Hilarianus, Christiana es? inquit. Et ego respondi: Christiana sum. Et
' :

:

cum

staret pater

ad

et uirga percussit.

fuissem percussa

;

deiciendam, iussus est ab Hilariano d&ici, doluit mini casus patris mei, quasi ego sic dolui pro senecta eius misera.' With the

me

Et

46
last

THE PASSION OF
words compare
'et dolui
infelici
c.

S.

PERPETUA.

v.,

c. vii.,

commemorata
senecta
' :

'Et ego dolebam causam patris mei'; casus eius'; and c. ix., 'Ego dole-

bam

pro

eius.'

In

c. vii.

we have

Erat demde...ubi Dinocrates erat piscina

plena aqua, altiorem marginem habens quam erat statura pueri; et extendebat se Dinocrates quasi bibiturus. Ego dolebam quod et
piscina
ilia

bibiturus

non
:

laborare

aquain habebat, et tamen propter altitudinem marginis esset. Et experrecta sum, et cognoui fratrem meum sed fidebam me profuturam labori eius et orabam pro
:

eo omnibus diebus quousque transiuimus in carcerem castrensem.

Munere enim
In
c.

castrensi

eramus pugnaturi.'
'quern retro uideram,'
'

viii.

we have
'

and 'quam
:

retro

uideram.'

In c. x. we have fautores mei three times and in the words of Perpetua's writing Hoc usque in pridie muneris ipsius autem muneris actum si quis uoluerit scribat.'
' :

last

egi

:

I think that after this detailed examination

we

are justified

in saying that Perpetua has a distinct style of her own, which marks off her writing from that of the compiler of the Martyrdom.

The absence
written
it is
is

in what she has what we should expect, when we remember that only edited for us by a writer of unusual literary ability and of of glaring instances of

'

Africanism

'

cultured style.

We may

well believe that the rougher phrases

have been smoothed away.

"When we turn

to the Vision of Saturus
;

we have much

less

material for comparison but even here a fair case may be made have already noticed the out for individuality of authorship. with which he couples his sentences by extraordinary frequency

We

We may further observe that he the simple conjunction 'et.' more than once which are not found elsewhere in the has phrases
piece.
'

Thus he
'

tales erant quasi
'
:

gives us 'tale fuit quasi' twice (c. xi.), and * sic quasi twice : cum admiratione (c. xii.)
'

'

'

:

twice

sine
' :

cessatione
'

'

Perpetua)

exire

in the sense of

twice (but this occurs also once in mori three times. Moreover
'
'

he uses 'dixi, dixit, dixerunt' eleven times, never varying the word, whereas Perpetua has also inquit and respondi.' So too he uses uiridarium three times for a garden, while Perpetua uses 'hortus. Considering then that we have only 52 lines of his
'
'

'

'

'

3

AUTHOESHIP OF THE REST OF THE MARTYRDOM.
writing, the

47

evidence

is

much

fuller

than

we had

a right to

expect.

When we now
we

return to the Greek form of the Martyrdom, find that these peculiarities of style are entirely obliterated;

and thus we are supplied with a fresh and most powerful argument on behalf of the originality of the Latin document as a whole.

The Authorship of

the rest

of the Martyrdom.
is sufficient

If the evidence which I have adduced

to establish

a real difference of style between the writers of the Visions and the redactor who edits them and supplements them with an
account of the actual Martyrdom, no one, I suppose, will hesitate for a moment to leave the authorship of the Visions with the

Martyrs themselves.
Is
It has
it

possible also to identify the redactor

?

I believe that

it is.

been several times suggested that the whole character of

the composition points to Tertullian as its author. Holsten, the first editor of the Martyrdom, although he does not anywhere suggest that Tertullian was its author, yet takes pains to collect

from his writings many illustrations both of matter and of vocabulary.

It must always be difficult and hazardous to attempt to assign a work to a particular author, when there is no tradition connecting it with his name. But I can scarcely conceive that any

instance could be found in which identification can be

made with

a greater probability than

is

attainable in the present case.

I shall begin by examining the Scriptural quotations in the piece, and then pass on to parallels of thought and diction be-

tween our author and Tertullian, and finally bring together some of the more important coincidences in vocabulary. First, let us examine the way in which the redactor quotes the New Testament. The first citation is in the Preface, and comes 'In nouissimis enim diebus, dicit Dominus, from Acts ii. 17. effundam de Spiritu meo super omnem carnem, et prophetabunt filii filiaeque eorum; et super seruos et ancillas meas de rneo Spiritu effundam et iuuenes uisiones uidebunt et senes somnia
;

48
somniabunt.'

THE PASSION OF
'

S.

PERPETUA.
of the I have

The reading eorum suggests a comparison

'

Bezae. rendering of this passage in the Latin, of Codex also given the Vulgate version, italicising its divergences.

CODEX BEZAE.
Erit in nouissimis diebus, dicit

VULGATE.

Dominus, effundam Spiritum
;

meum

Et erit in nouissimis diebus, dicit Dominus, efiundam de Spiritu meo
super omnem camera, et prophetabimt filii uestri et filiae uestrae ; et iuuenes
uestri

super omnem camera, et prophetabunt et iuuenes fill eorum et filias eorum
uisiones uidebunt et seniores somnia

somniabunt

;

et ego super seruos

meos

uestri

uisiones uidebunt et seniores somnia somniabmit et quidem
:

et super ancillas

meas effundam

Spiri-

tum meum.

super seruos meos et super ancillas meas in diebus illis effundam de Spiritu
meo,
et

prophetabunt.

he seen that most of the peculiarities in our quotation are explained by supposing the currency in Africa in the second century of a text closely related to that of Codex Bezae. But there
It will

remains the curious disarrangement of the sentences, which seems to be an idiosyncrasy of the writer himself. Now it is remarkable that Tertullian (Adv. Marc. V. 8) quotes the passage In nouissimis diebus effundam de meo Spiritu in omnem thus
still
'
:

carnem, et prophetabunt filii filiaeque eorum et super seruos et Here we have the same ancillas meas de meo Spiritu effundam.'
;

displacement, as far as the quotation 1 variants in the text
.

extends,

and the same

itaque quod audiuimus

'Et nos annuntiamus et uobis, fratres et filioli, ut et uos qui interfuistis rememoremini gloriae Domini, et qui nunc cognoscitis per auditum communionem
little later in

A

the Preface
2

we

find these words:

et contrectauimus

habeatis

cum

sanctis martyribus,' &c.

we have the language of two verses worked up somewhat confusedly. They stand in the Vulgate thus
In this passage
:

1

Of. Tert.

De
'

Eesurr. 63,
'

'

Effundens in nouissimis diebus de suo Spiritu in
'

omnem
2

carnem, in seruos suos et ancillas.'
et
'
;

uidimus has fallen out after audiuimus for the Greek version Martyrdom has a qKO&ra/xeo Kal ewpaKajaei/ /cal e^ijXa^>^<rayu.ev. With the order which we should thus get Cod. Sinaiticus corresponds, reading, apparently against
Possibly
of the
all

other Greek MSS., o d,Ki}K6a./j.ev /cat ewpdjcaju.ei'. It is also to be noted that the Latin of the Martyrdom, though not the Greek, has the true reading 'et uobis.'

AUTHOKSHIP OF THE REST OF THE MARTYRDOM.
1 Jno.
'

49

i.

1.

Quod

fuit

ab

initio,

quod audiuimus, quod uidimus
nostrae contrectauerunt

oculis nostris,

quod
'

perspexinms, et
et

manus

de uerbo

uitae.'
i.

1 Jno.

3.

Quod uidimus

audiuimus, annunciamus uobis,
is
'

ut et uos societatem habeatis nobiscum.'

The most
(1 pers. plur.),

curious result of this combination

contrectauimus

'

which cannot be explained from any MSS. or Versions. Tertullian (Adv. Prax. 15): 'Vidimus et audiuimus et contrectauimus de sermone uitae/ which is a loose citation of 1 Jno. i. 1, which he has quoted somewhat more accurately a little before. Here then we seem to have another example of the way in which an individual writer may have a habit of his own in

But we find

it in

quoting a special text. The next quotation
pietis,

The

Sed qui dixerat, Petite et accipetentibus dederat eum exitum quern quisque desiderauerat.' actual phrase is found in Jno. xvi. 24 Petite et accipietis, ut
is

in

c.

xix.

'

'

gaudium uestrum
Lc.
xi.

sit

plenum.'
'

But the more natural
'

text to
vii. 7,

have quoted would have been
'

Petite et dabitur uobis

(Mt.
'

in the writer's mind 9), and that passage was probably which is parallel to pulsanti when he added petentibus dedit,' aperietur in S. Matthew and S. Luke. Now this same confusion is to be traced in more than one passage of Tertullian. Thus we read (De Orat. 10) 'Dominus,
'

prospector

humanarum
:

necessitatum, seorsum post traditam orandi
' ;
'

where he certainly Again (De Bapt. 20) ought to have Petite et accipietis, inquit. Quaesistis enim et inuenistis pulsastis et apertum est uobis. Again after combating the Marcionist use of Quaerite et inuenietis (De Praescr. 8) he goes on to quote, Pulsate et aperietur uobis,' and later on in the same chapter, 'Petite et accipietis': and in c. 11 he loosely quotes the Petenti enim dabitur, inquit, et pulsanti next sentences thus
disciplinam
Petite,

inquit, et accipietis written et dabitur uobis.'

:

'

;

5

'

'

'

'

:

aperietur, et quaerenti inuenietur.' The same confusion is to be found several times in S. Augustine's writings (see Sabatier, ad loco) so that we are not justified in
:

an idiosyncrasy of Tertullian. The confusion is an easy one but it is apparently not to be accounted for by any known Version, and the fact that it is made both by our R. 4
laying stress

on

it

as

:

50

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

author and by Tertullian is certainly an interesting coincidence, and one which acquires importance when added to those already mentioned.

The next

instance I shall give

is

from the Epilogue.

It does

not, strictly speaking, contain a quotation though it involves a reference to Mt. xxii. 14 and perhaps also to Rev. xviii. 14 ; but
it

may

serve

as

a point of passage from the consideration of

which we find parallels between our author and Tertullian. We read at the close of the narration of their sufferings: 'O fortissimi ac beatissimi Martyres!
Scriptural citations to other instances in

uere uocati et electi in gloriam Domini nostri lesu Christi quam qui magnificat et honorificat et adorat, utique et haec non

O

;

minora ueteribus exempla in aedificationem Ecclesiae legere debet.' The first point to notice is that 'the glory of the Lord' is regarded as the great end of Martyrdoms, and is set forward by The same thought is twice their public recital in the Church.
expressed in the Preface
'necessario et digerimus et ad gloriam Dei lectione celebramus'; and, in a passage cited above, 'annuntiamus et uobis...ut et uos qui interfuistis rememoremini gloriae
:

Domini.'

Now when

Tertullian discusses Flight in Persecution, he takes
is

the high ground that Persecution judging the Church and shewing
great end of Persecution
is

who

a dispensation of God for are truly His. And the

found to be 'the glory of God':

De
est,

Fug.

1

:

'Totum quod agitur in persecutione gloria Dei

probantis et reprobantis, imponentis et deponentis.' In c. 9 lie says: 'nolite in lectulis.-.optare exire, sed in martyriis, uti
glorificetur qui est passus pro nobis.'

Again
'

(c.

12) he asks, if

may escape by the payment of a bribe, 'quomodo et martyria fieri possent in gloriam Domini ? At the close of the book (c. 14) after admitting the hardness
Christians
of its sayings
love,

and yet insisting on fearlessness as the true sign of Et ideo multi uocati, pauci electi.' The whole line he says
'
:

of thought

is

Martyrs, Lord.

who were not

closely parallel to the words of our author about the only called but chosen to the glory of our

interesting parallel in thought rather than in words is to After speaking of the Divine grace be found in the Preface.

An

AUTHORSHIP OF THE REST OF THE MARTYRDOM.
displayed in his
'

51
:

Cum

own day in Martyrs and in Revelations, he adds Deus operetur qnae repromisit, non credentibus in semper
'

testimonium, credentibus in beneficium.' 51) tells of a Christian girl, uernacula

Tertullian (De Aniina ecclesiae,' who had died

laid out for burial, but who, when the priest began to say a prayer over her, raised her hands from her side and folded them in the form of a cross on her breast, and afterwards, condita pace of peace had been given to conclude the prayer), (i.e. when the kiss

and -was

(

'

returned them to their former position. This he vouches for of similar facts he has heard related. his own knowledge Then he
:

tale quid traditur, ubique Deus suae signa proponit, suis in solatium, extraneis in potestatis testimonium.' The thought is precisely the same, and the two sentences though so differently worded are almost interchangeable.

adds,

'Si

et

apud ethnicos

On

the other hand in

c.

xx.

we have a

parallel in

words rather

than in sense.
her only care
is

When

Perpetua has been tossed by the

mad

cow,

quam
put

doloris.'

to rearrange her torn robe, 'pudoris potius memor In Tertullian (De Paenit. 10) we read of some who
'

off

the open confession of their sins

pudoris magis

memores

quam

salutis.'

The distinctly Montanistic tone of the Martyrdom may be illustrated by two facts in the history of its transmission. The
first

of these has already been noticed (p. 6):

the Greek trans-

lator has carefully modified passages which he regarded as unand especially the closing section satisfactory on this ground similar fate has awaited the document in the of the piece.
;

A

for both Cod. Salisburg. and Cod. Compend. have omitted whole of the Preface, and the Short Latin recension has the nothing to correspond to it at all. Accordingly it has only been preserved in the Monte Cassino MS., and in a modified form in

West

:

the Greek Version.

Now

this Montanistic tone, using the expression in its best

sense, as connoting the emphasis laid on the present work of the Holy Spirit in the Church and especially in Martyrdoms, is just what we should look for in a work of Tertullian. It is needless
"to

multiply quotations on this point but I cannot forbear quoting two passages out of many. The first is at the outset of his exhortation to the Martyrs in prison Imprimis ergo, benedicti, nolite
: ' :

42

52

THE PASSION OF

S.

PEEPETUA.

contristare Spiritum

Sanctum, qui uobiscum introiit carcerem. Si enim non uobiscum nunc introisset, nee uos illic hodie fuissetis
'

(Ad Mart.

i.).

We may
'

benedictus applies the epithet benedictus '). The other passage

note in passing that our redactor also to a martyr (c. xi. Saturus
'
'

is

from the
'

De Corona

'
:

Plane

superest, ut etiam martyria recusare meditentur, qui prophetias eiusdem Spiritus Sancti respuerunt (De Cor. 1).

We have the technical phraseology of Montanism in c. x-x., where 'adeo in Spiritu et in ecstasi fuerat may be compared with; the striking passage in De Anima 9, which gives an interesting illustration of the materials out of which visions were formed and so far bears out our view of the use made by our Martyrs of the Shepherd of Hermas, which no doubt they had heard read in the
'

Est hodie soror apud nos reuelationum charismata sortita, quas in ecclesia inter dominica sollemnia per ecstasin in Spiritu patitur; conuersatur cum angelis, aliquando etiam cum Domino, et uidet et audit sacramenta, et quorundam corda dinoscit, Church.

'

lam uero prout scripturae aut psalmi canuntur aut allocutiones proferuntur aut leguntur petitiones delegantur, ita inde materiae uisionibus subminiset medicinas desiderantibus submittit.
trantur.'

Again,

it is

interesting to observe the
is

which suggest that the writer phraseology of Roman law, and
of Tertullian.

of expressions conversant with the familiarly so form a fresh link with the style
'
'

number

To pass over such commoner words as 'exempla' testimonium (bis), (bis), 'documentum' (bis), 'testificari' (bis), haereditas,' we find the rarer word fideicommissum,' which is seldom met with outside the law books, in the striking metaphor of c. xvi. quasi mandatum sanctissimae Perpetuae, immo fideicommissum eius exequimur, unum adicientes documentum de The word implies a ipsius constantia et animi sublimitate.'
' '
'

sacred trust of moral rather than of legal obligation. 'Fideicommissum est quod non ciuilibus uerbis sed precatione relinquitur;

nee ex rigore iuris
'

ciuilis proficiscitur,

sed ex uoluntate datur

relinquentis (Ulpian. Frag. 25, 1). Again, if Tertullian be the author it is curious to see how he can turn the edge of his own
favourite

argument from prescription when used against himself, that too in words every one of which can easily be paralleled and
'

'

AUTHOKSHIP OF THE REST OF THE MARTYRDOM.
from his writings.
'

53

Compare

c.

i.

Vel quia et haec uetera futura

quaudoque sunt
'

et necessaria posteris, si in praesenti suo
'

tempore

minori deputantur auctoritati, propter praesumptam uenerationem with Apol. 19, auctoritatem summa antiquitas antiquitatis
;

uindicat'; and

De

Virg. Vel.

2,

'sed nolo interim mine

morem
' ;

Lastly, in one of the various senses in
'

ueritati deputare.'

we may

note the word
'

'

instrumentum
to use it

which Tertullian loves
:

c. i.

De
and

ad instrumentum Ecclesiae deputamus compare especially Cor. 8, 'per communia ista instrumenta exhibitionis humanae';
for other
'
'

examples both of this word and of Holsten's note on Per-pet. c. i.

deputari

see

Two phrases which, although they occur in earlier Latin writers, are conspicuously characteristic of Tertullian are also to be found in our author. The first of these is uiderit,' let him see to it,'
' '

in dismissing
it

is

somewhat contemptuously an opponent with not worth while to argue. Thus in c. i. we have

whom
'

:

Sed

uirtutem...'; of those who deny the variety of the Spirit's manifestations in all ages of the Church. Compare Ad Scap. 4, Viderint qui sectam mentiuntur,' and see Oehler's note

uiderint qui

unam

'

on

De

Cor. 13,
'

where many examples are
'

collected.
'

The second
' ;

is

the absolute use of
c.

si

forte,'

in the sense of

if at all

compare
Mart.
i.

xviii.
fin.,

ad

gaudio pauentes, non timore,' with and see Oehler's note on De Cor. 5.
si forte,

Ad

Our enquiry

is

rendered more

difficult

by the want of any

piece of sustained historical narration in Tertullian's recognised works, which might have given us an opportunity of observing his

method of telling a plain straightforward story. Wherever we open him we feel that we meet with the rhetorician, passionately
in earnest but always pleading a cause. On the other hand, even in our short and simple narrative we have touches of rhetoric which

form a strong contrast to the quiet naturalness of Perpetua's own These come out from time to time in the narrator's comstyle.

ments on the incidents which he
of his

relates.

Thus, at the very outset

narration, in speaking of the death of Secundulus in he makes the remark 'non sine gratia, ut bestias lucraretur. prison 1 gladium tamen etsi non anima, certe caro eius agnouit .' With
:

own

this special use of
1

'

'

lucrari

we may compare De

Res. 42

'
:

Quis

See the notes on this passage, pp. 82 f.

54

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

tatein et continuare
'

enim non desiderabit dum in carne est, superinduere immortaliuitam lucrifacta morte per uicariam demutaTimebit With the second clause compare Ad Mart. 4 tionem ? forsitan caro gladium,' &c.; and later on in the same chapter: Ornamentum enim et gloria deputabitur maiore quidem titulo, si anima potius cesserit plagis, quam corpus.' The same characteristic is observable as the narrative proceeds, and it is specially to be noticed in the rhetorical contrasts employed Saluam se peperisse gaudens in speaking of Felicitas, in c. xviii.
'
:

'

'

:

ut ad bestias pugnaret, a sanguine in sanguinem, ab obstetrice

ad retiarium, lotura post partum baptismo secundo.' The Second Baptism, to which our author again rhetorically alludes in c. xxi., is so frequently spoken of by Tertullian that it would be superfluous to collect illustrations of
it
1
.

I cannot help quoting in this connection the epigrammatic

comment, 'Agnouit iniustitia iustitiam,' which is rendered the more striking by the use of the rare word iniustitia.' The comment on the eagerness of Saturninus to be exposed to all the beasts, 'ut scilicet gloriosiorem gestaret coronam,' may be com'

pared with Ad Scap. 4: sed maiora certamina, maiora praemia.' That on the provision of a mad cow contrary to custom in the
'
'

arena,
latus/

is

diabolus praeparauit, sexui earum etiam de bestia aemucuriously parallel to the opening sentence of the treatise
'
:

Adv. Praxean
alluded

Varie diabolus aemulatus est ueritatem.'

in c. xxi., to which we have already where the author puts a new and unexpected (p. meaning into the taunting shout of the multitude in the amphi8),

The play upon words

theatre, is

Cum very like Tertullian's irony in Ad Scap. 3 de areis sepulturarum nostrarum adclamassent Areae non sint
'
:

:

!

areae ipsorum non fuerunt.' At last the orator breaks out in the noble peroration O uere uocati et electi in fortissimi ac beatissimi Martyres
'
:
!

gloriam Domini

nostri lesu Christi

'
!

The second

of these clauses

has been already illustrated from Tertullian (p. 50), and we may add to the passages there quoted De Bapt. 16, where we have the

same words applied
'

to Martyrs in speaking of the Second Baptism nos facere aqua uocatos, sanguine electos.' It is interestproinde
1

:

Cf. Oehler

on Apol.

50.

AUTHORSHIP OF THE REST OF THE MARTYRDOM.
ing also to note that 'fortissima Martyr' l applied to Perpetua in De Anima 55
.

55

is

the very epithet

I must now close this investigation with a few parallels of words and phrases, given in the briefest possible form. I do not of course pretend that they are peculiar to our author and
Tertullian, or that they would prove anything by themselves but they are useful as supplementary evidence of the harmony of lan;

guage and thought which we have already found to exist between them. I need scarcely acknowledge my indebtedness to Oehler's valuable Index, and to Honsch's Itala und Vulgata.
c. i.

Si uetera fidei eccempla, &c.
2.

(cf.

c.

xxi. haec

non minora

ueteribus escemplis).

De Fuga

Exempla

in scripturis signata demonstrant (e.g
3.

c

Ibid. Saul, Phygellus and Hermogenes). in persecutionibus eueniant. exempla magis

Cum
et

ergo et haec

In

literis

sunt digesta. .digerantur. .necessario
.

.

digerimus.
:

Ad
'

Natt,

ii.

1.

Ex omnibus
erit

digerere et

digestum

retro digestis (and Oehler's note Tertulliano usitatissima sunt uocabula').

De
&c.

Bapt.

1.

Non

otiosum digestum istud, instruens tam

eos,

(In the Classical use of these words the idea of orderly

arrangement generally prevails.) Quasi repraesentatione rerum.
Jejun. 13. Ipsa repraesentatio totius nominis Christiani a Universal Council). De Praescr. 36. (of Ipsae authenticae litterae eorum (sc. apostolorum) recitantur, sonantes uocem et

De

repraesentantes faciem uniuscuiusque (where the general sense the same as here). Cf. also De Res. 17.

is

Pro

aetatibus temporum...in ultima saeculi spatia.
1.

Adv. Jud.

Noster uero minor aetate temporurn intellegatur,
'extremior,' 'extremis-

utpote in ultimo saeculi spatio, &c. Nouissimiora. Cf. Tertullian's forms,
1
'

Quomodo Perpetua

disi solos illic

mistake in this

fortissima Martyr sub die passionis in reuelatione paracommartyres suos uidit,' &c. Tertullian has been accused of a passage, which he could scarcely have made had he been himself
:

the editor of the Visions

namely, that of confounding the Vision of Saturus with
'

that of Perpetua. But, in truth, he is strictly correct: for Saturus saw others beside Martyrs in Paradise whereas Perpetua speaks only of the candidati milia
:

multa

'

in the Garden at the top of the Ladder

:

and these obviously were

'

only

fellow-martyrs.'

56
'

THE PASSION OF
'

S.

PERPETUA.

simus,'

postremissimus
are

instances
formations.

given

and Ronsch, /. und V., 278, 280, where from other writers of these provincial
;

Omnia donatiua administrans
Adv. Marc.
8.
'

in omnibus.

Donatiua, quae charismata dicimus.

De

Res. 47.

Donatiuum autem Dei

uita aeterna.'

Sine in martyrmn sine in reuelationum dignatione. Adv. lud. 1. Per gratiam prirnae dignationis in lege...gratiam diuinae dignationis consequitur.

De
c.

Patient. 11.

diuinae castigationis
xvi.

Gratulari et gaudere nos docet dignatione (cf. c. xviii. ad fin., of our Martyrdom).
tantae gloriae describendae.

Ad supplementwn
iv.

Adv. Marc.
c.

16.

Plane haec Christus adiecerit ut suppleCf.

menta conseutanea
xvii.

disciplinae Creatoris.
ipsis erat

De Anima,

35.

Pridie quoque

cum illam cenam ultimam, quam liberam
non cenam liberam, sed agapen cena-

uocant,
rent.

quantum in

Apol. 42. Non in publico Liberalibus discumbo, quod bestiariis supremain cenantibus mos est.
Ibid.

39

(in reference to the

'

agape

').

Vt qui non

tarn

cenam

cenauerint
c.

quam

disciplinam.
redusdt.

xx.

Ad

uelamentum femoris

De

Fuga,

6.

Ad uelamentum
Velamentum
its

timiditatis suae utuntur.

Apol. 36.

Ad uelamentum
and

sui potest fungi.
sibi obduxit.
is

Adv. Val. 16.

(The word

is

not a

common
c.

one,

use in classical writers

quite different.)

xxi.

Adv.

Ad summam. Marc. v. 17. Ad summam
osculati inuicem, ut

subiungens.

Ante iam
consummarent.

martyriwn per solemnia pads
sancti osculi integra?.
?
. .

De

Orat. 18.

Quae
est

oratio

cum diuortio

Quale sacrificium

a quo sine pace receditur

This investigation might doubtless be carried further by one who had a more intimate acquaintance with the writings of but Tertullian than my cursory reading allows me to claim
:

hope that I have done enough to render it in the highest degree probable that we have in this beautiful MartyrI cherish the

AUTHORSHIP OF THE REST OF THE MARTYRDOM.

57

dom a genuine addition to the hitherto recognised works of the great master. It is hard indeed to force oneself to imagine another such writer, living at the same time and in the same Church, filled with the same Montanistic fervour, delighting in the
same
same passionate rhetoric to the same good purposes, even making the same confusions in his Scriptural quotations who yet must be distinguished from Tertullian himself; and that, forsooth, only because tradition has assigned to him no name.
legal phraseology, able to wield the
;

An argument
estimate
to
if
it fairly

force to different minds.

of this kind will appeal with different degrees of I would beg any one who desires to

to read over again Tertullian's
it

De

Patientia,

and

ask himself whether

we suppose
I

that

its

Perpetua.
passages:
c.

would

does not gain a new meaning and beauty author had already written the story of especially call attention to the following

1.

Nihil enim nostrum, quoniam Dei ornnia, cuius
nos.
alio secari
?

ipsi

quoque

Quis enim ab
corpore suo ducit

omnino non sustinens

ipse i'errum in

c. 9. Christum laedimus cum euocatos quosque ab miserandos non aequanimiter accipimus. c. 10. Nos utres (v. I. putres), uasa fictilia.

illo

quasi

c. 11. Quin insuper gratulari et gaudere nos docet dignatione diuinae castigationis. c. 13. Carnis patientia in persecutionibus denique proeliatur.
. .

si

et career praeueniat, caro in uinculis, caro in ligno, caro in

(v. I. penuria) uero producitur ad experimentum felicitatis, ad mundi. occasionem secundae intinctionis, ad ipsum diuinae sedis ascensum,

solo et in ilia paupertate lucis, et in ilia patientia

cum

nulla plus

illic

quarn patientia corporis.
:

Almost every phrase here quoted has its parallel, in thought if and many smaller coincidences not in word, in our Martyrdom be collected. But the whole feeling of the piece is of more might importance than its phraseology. Patience, he tells us at the close (c. 15), temptationes inculcat, scandala pellit, martyria consummat.' And then he draws her portrait and did he not draw it from the life ? Was he not thinking of her whose one prayer at
'

;

58

THE PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

her baptism had been at the Spirit's bidding for this very Patience ? Had he not in view the scene in the amphitheatre where the Martyrs shake their heads at the judge whom God will judge and
:

the noble picture of Perpetua herself, 'the bride of Christ, the darling of God,' with her bright step and flashing eye, soon to find herself enjoying in the Spirit the beatific vision before the
time, and only recalled to earth to taste of pain and to point the clumsy sword to her own throat ?

'Age iam
Vultus
illi

et effigiem habitumque eius comprehendamus. tranquillus et placidus, frons pura, nulla maeroris aut
si

irae rugositate contracta ; remissa aeque in laetum modum superos tacurnitatis cilia, oculis humilitate non infelicitate deiectis
;

honore signatum

color qualis securis et innoxiis ; motus frequens in diaboluin et minax risus; ceterum amictus circum pectora capitis candidus, et corpori impressus, ut qui nee inflatur nee inquietatur:
;

sedet enim in throno Spiritus eius mitissimi et mansuetissimi, qui non turbine glomeratur, non nubilo liuet, sed est tenerae serenitatis,

apertus et
ibi et

simplex, quern

tertio uidit Helias.

Nam

ubi

Deus,

alumna

eius, patientia scilicet.

Cum

ergo Spiritus

Dei descendi t, indiuidua patientia comitatur eum.'

THE LATIN AND GREEK TEXTS
OF THE

PASSION OF

S.

PERPETUA.

PASSIO
I.

S.

PERPETVAE.
Dei gratiam
testificantia et
litteris

Si uetera fidei exernpla, et

aedificationem

hominis

operantia,

propterea in

sunt

digesta, ut lectione eorum quasi repraesentatione rerum et Deus honoretur et homo confortetur ; cur non et noua documenta
5

uel quia aeque utrique causae conuenientia et digerantur ? haec uetera futura quandoque sunt et necessaria posproinde et
in praesenti suo tempore minori deputantur auctoritati, sed uiderint propter praesumptam uenerationem antiquitatis. unam uirtutem Spiritus unius Sancti pro aetatibus iudicent qui
teris, si

10

sunt nouitiora quaeque ut nouissimiora, secundum exuperationem gratiae in ultima saeculi In nouissimis enini diebus, dicit Dominus, spatia decretam.

temporum

:

cum maiora reputanda

Act.ii.

effundain de Spiritu meo super
filii filiaeque

omnem

carnem,

et

prophetabunt

eorum

:

et

super seruos

et ancillas

meas de meo
B
;

Deest titulus in A.
SS.

INCIPIT PASSIO SCAB FELICITATIS ET PERPETVAE

PASSIO

FAELICITATIS ET PERPETVAE, QVOD EST NONIS MAETUS IN CIVITATE TURBITANA C 2 aedificatione 3 repraesentatione] coni. Harris; 1 Deest cap. I. in ISO

A

repensatione

A

12

decretam] decreta
Cf. Act.

A

1 Dei gratiam testificantia]

xx. 24 testificari euangelium gratiae Dei. 3 repraesentatione] See above p. 9.

4

et

homo
it;

confortetur]
:

The Greek has

indie, in a causal sense is found in early Latin writers, and is very common in African Latin see Oehler on Tert. Apol. 1 (note n). There is no need to read
:

lost this clause

ally

had

and,

hut probably it originif so, we should read

'sint'

with Holsten.
See above p.
'

11 nouissimiora]
'

55;

below eKarepav epya&fteva Jxf>e\eiaj>. 8 sed uiderint] See above p. 53. Those
are blamed

who limit

the manifestations

of the Spirit's working:

with 'unam'
3.

contrast 'ceteras,' p. 62,

1.

and add postremissimas (C. Gracchus, in Wordsworth's Fragments and Specimens of early Latin p. 354). See also Bo'nsch Itala und Vulgata pp. 277 ff. 12 decretam] The Greek suggests either
this or perhaps 'decretae,' instead of the

10 cum. ..sunt] The use of 'cum' with

MAPTYPION 7TEPTTETOYAC.
crvv avrrj

MapTupiov T^S ayuxs
j]'

IlepTreTOijas /cat

TOJI/

TeXeiuOevTW

iv

rf) Trpo

reacraptov vovwv <&eupovapicn>.

EvAoy^ow.
eyevero, ev

'E?rt

OvaXepidvov Kal TdX.nrjvov

BicoyfJios

&

e'/iap-

rvpycrav ol aytoi ^drvpos, 2arou/mX,09, 'Peou/caro?, IlepTreTova,
<&rj\LK Y)'rdT'i] ) VOVCLLS Oeupovaptat?.
I.
i

5

Et ra TraXata r^9

(fravepovvra KOI olKoSo/jLrjv
ea-riv yeypajA/Aeva,

Boypara, KOL $6l;av Oeov dvOpwTrots a,7ror6\ovvTa, Bid rovro
Tricrreo)?

/jieOa
,

iva ry dvayvuxrei avT<ov co? irapovaLa, TCOV Kal 6 ^eo? ^o^acrOrj, Btari /i?) Kal rd icaivd
Br)

are

ypa<j)y TrapaBoOeiv) ; r) Trappycrtav e%et, eVet Boieei TTCO? elvai rd dp%aia ae^vorepa; 7r\rjv KOL ravTa vcnepov TTOTC yevo/Mva TraXatd, axravTcos rot?

exdrepa ep<ya6fj,eva axfreXetav, ffl<ravra)? yap rd vvv Trpa^devra ov rrjv avr^v

10

yevrjcreTai Kal

dvayKaia Kal

Tt/Aia.

aX,V

oi^rcayrai
77\t/aa<? 15

fiLav BvvafjLiv evos dyiov irvevf^aTO's Kpivovcn T&V %pova)v' ore Brj Bwarwrepa

Kara ra?
eBei
Trjs et?

voelcrOai,

rd

xaivorepa,

009

e%ovra
<\no
oi

avfjavo/jLewr)? TJ;?

^aptro?

rd

rekt]

r&v Kaipoov
Kypioc,

7^7776X^6^77?.

'EN

ec)(ATAic

yap

1^660

TOY
yio'i

nNeyMATOc
YMOON
KAI

MOY
<5J

em

HMepAic, Aepei 6 TTACAN c^pKA, KAI

Byr^Tepec

YM^N'
7

KAI

0120

3
11-

ydKivov

6

et

rd] efra
87?]

ffoY^ara] forsan Tra.paSetjfj,aTa

TrapaSodeis

16

Se

17

^oira] gffxara

coni. GebJi.

18

reading of A, 'decreta.' Final 'm' is very frequently omitted in this MS., e.g.
'

aedificatione

'

1.

2.

ii. 17 f. see above pp. 47 f. See also pp. 49 ff. for various parallels between the whole of this prefatory sec-

from Act.

12 in nouissimis]

On

the quotation

tion

and

Tertnllian's works.

62

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

Spiritu effundam: et iuuenes uisiones uidebunt, et senes somnia somniabunt. itaque et nos qui sicut prophetias ita et uisiones

5

nouas pariter repromissas et agnoscimus et honoramus, ceterasque uirtutes Spiritus Sancti ad instrumentum Ecclesiae deputamus, cui et missus est idem omnia donatiua administrans in

omnibus prout unicuique distribuit Dominus, necessario et ut ne qua digerimus et ad gloriam Dei lectione celebramus aut imbecillitas aut desperatio fidei apud ueteres tantum
;

aestimet gratiam diuinitatis conuersatam, siue in martyrurn siue
10 in

reuelationum dignatione
et
et

:

cum semper Deus

operetur quae
iii

repromisit, beneficium.

non credentibus in testimonium, credentibus
:

annuntiamus

nos itaque quod audiuimus et contrectauimus Un.i. ut et uos qui interfuistis uobis, fratres et filioli
'

15

rememoremini gloriae Domini, et qui nunc cognoscitis per auditum communionem habeatis cum sanctis martyribus, et per
illos

cum Domino

lesu Christo, cui est claritas et honor in

saecula saeculorum.
II.

amen.

Apprehensi sunt adolescentes catechumini, Reuocatus inter et Felicitas conserua eius, Saturninus et Secundulus.
-20

et Vibia Perpetua, honeste nata, liberaliter instituta, matronaliter nupta, habens patrem et inatrem et fratres duos,

hos

alterum aeque catechuminum, et

filiuni

infantem ad ubera

:

autem ipsa circiter annorum totum martyrii sui iam hinc ipsa
erat
25

haec ordinem uiginti duo. narrauit, sicut conscriptum

manu

sua et suo sensu

reliquit.

III.

me
2

adhuc, inquit, cum prosecutoribus essem, et pater uerbis euertere cupiret et deicere pro sua affectione
nos et
19

Cum

et nos]

A

5

administrator
om. in

A
+

6
hii

onem A
uerboinc.~B

9 diuinatis

A

om.

A Saturninus A

13 ut]

A

7 lectiprout] pro A 18 Reuocatus] ex hoc

honeste nata] honesta

A

duo] et duo B ; et duorum C euertere cupiret] auertere 27 om. uerbis A
2 prophetias... nouas] Of. Tert. adv. Prax. 30 Spiritum Sanctum... OIKWO/U'CIS
interpretatorem, si quis serrnones nouae prophetiae eius admiserit.

20 hos] quos 23 erat autem] et erat B 25 suam manu B

B

ubiaA;uiuiaC annorum circiter B
26
essem] essemus

B

B

1 ad gloriam Dei] See above p. 49. 9 diuinitatis] Dr Hort has suggested to me 'diuinitus' as a possible emendation,

10

cum semper Deus]

Of. Tert. de

5
Of.
'

idem omnia... distribuit Dominus] Rom. xii. 3, 1 Cor. vii. 17, xii. 6. For

Anim.

51, quoted above p. 51.

donatiua' see above p. 56.

12 contrectauimus] See above p. 49. 13 interfuistis] This gives us an ap-

PASSIO
NGANl'cKOI
nNi'oic

S.

PERPETVAE.
KAI
01

63

YMCON

dpACEIC

(fyoNTAI,
?7/i,e45

TTpecBfTAI

eNYTTNiAcGHCONTAi.

Be oiTives TrpotyrjTeia? Kal opacre45

Kaivds Beyoaeda Kal

e ejrtfyi,v(oo~Kouev

KOL

Tiu<*)fj.ev

Tracra?

ra5

Bvvdueis TOV dyiov irvev^aro^, a$5 y^opr^yel ry dyia eKK\t)o-ia 7rpo5 r)v Kal eTreutyO'T) Tcdvra TO, ^apio~fiaTa ev iracriv BLOLKOVV, etcdo-Tq) co? euepio-ev 6 6eos, dvajKaiax; KOI dva^i^vrjcricofiev Kal
vrpo?
oiKoSofArjv
eia-dyofjiev,
f

5

/ttera

dydirr)<;

ravra iroiovvre^

elf
7}

Sogav Oeov, Kal iva
Kal rot? TraXatot?
icfy,

urf

TTW? y dfieftaios TIS Kal oXtyoTTHrTos,
rrjv "xdpiv

/J.6vov

Kal

TTJV

Svvafjuiv

BiSocrOat

Tlaro

TWV f^aprvpcov elre ev TO?> T&V diroKa\v- ro TrdvroTe epyafofjievov TOV Oeov a eir^^eLdt,&>fjLacrtv 64? uaprvptov fiev r<av dirio-Twv els dvrilvrj'fyiv -Be roov
eire ev rot?

Kal

77/^645

a HKoycA/weN
d8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;jjol

KA\ eoapAKAiweN
m

KA'I

evay<ye\t6peQa YM?N,
dvaiwi}o~6tt>cnv
KOINOONI'AN
e)(HT6

Kal reKva vvv

I'NA KA'I

ol

86^5

Oeov, Kal ol

84'

aKorj^

rywdxTKOVTes

15

TOV Kupiov
alwvcov.

ijfAWV

MGTA rdSv dyicov aaprvpav, Kal Bi avrwv aerd 'Irjcrov Xj04<rro), (a r) B6a els TOVS aicovas TWV

II. 'Ey 7roA,64 ovp{3iTdva>v Tri atKpOTepa <Tvve\r}<f)6'r)crav veavio-Kot KdTri^Qv^evoi, 'PeovKaTO? Kal <>r)\iKr)TdTir) <rvi>Bov\oi, 10 Kal 2taTovpv2\o<> Kal 2e/co)i/So5 /uer' avTwv Be Kal

TiepTreTova, -^T45 r^v yevvijOeicra evyeva)*; Kal Tpa<peicra avTij el%ev iraTepa Kal fMTjTepa Kal Svo yafjwjQeia'd re e^o^&)5.
dBe\(f>oi)$,

T6KVOV, o

TJV (ao-avT&s KaT^ovpevo^' el^ev Be Kal T045 fj,a<r8ot<> 6T4 eOrfka^ev r)V Se 0.^x77 CTOOV eiKOcri, 25 7r/)o5 Bvo' rjTts Tfaa-av Trjv TCL^LV TOV uapTvplov evTevdev

&v

6 GTepof

005

Kal

TW

vol avTrjs Kal Ty fteipl crwyiypd^lracra KaTeXtTrev

III.

"Er4,

<f>r)o-iv,

ypoav TrapaTrjpovfAevfDV eTre^elpei 6 iraTrjp
/cara
Trjv

yois rreideiv pe
7

eavTOv eva-7r\ay^viav r^5 30
12
af/rij

perk

dyd-jri)*]

legebat dldilectione.

avTi\i}if'iv

19

27

Ka.reKei.TrQ>

21 BovKpirdvw 30 evffir\a.-xyla.v

8 ^ d/Je/JaiooT^s iov\ia Kal Trepirerotia. 23

els dvrieis

25

aUrf)

proximate date for the compilation of
the Martyrdom.
It is addressed to

L

Mr Harris's

note ad

loc.

some

who were eye-witnesses. For the change of person in the Greek, see above p. 4.
18 Eeuocatus, &c.] For the occurrence of the names in African Inscriptions see

21 matronaliter nupta] These words occur in- an African Inscription; C. I. L.
Afr. 870.

uexatam hominem

27 deicere] Cf. Tert. ad Scap. 4 modice et statim deiectum.

64
perseueraret
alio
:

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

urceolum sine aliud
quid
5

Pater, inquam, uides, uerbi gratia, uas hoc iacens, ? et ego dixi ei Numet dixit Video,
: :

nomine uocari

potest,

quam quod
nisi

est

?

et ait

:

Non.

quod sum, Christiana. tune pater motus hoc uerbo mittit se in me, ut oculos mihi erueret sed uexauit tantum, et profecto est uictus cum argumentis diaboli. tune paucis die bus quod caruissem patrem,
dicere
:

Sic et ego aliud

me

non possum,

Domino

gratias

egi,

et

refrigeraui

absentia
:

illius.

in

ipso

spatio paucorum 10 dictauit non aliud

dierum baptizati sumus et mihi Spiritus petendum ab aqua, nisi sufferentiam carnis.
:
!

post paucos dies recipimur in carcerem et expaui, quia numquam experta eram tales tenebras. o diem asperum aestus

15

ualidus turbarum beneficio, concussurae militum. nouissinie macerabar sollicitudine infantis ibi. tune Tertius et Pomponius, benedicti diaconi qui nobis ministrabant, constituerunt praemio
ut.

paucis horis emissi in meliorem locum carceris refrigeraremus.
sibi

tune exeuntes de carcere uniuersi
lactabani

uacabant
pro

:

iam inedia defectum.

sollicita

ego infantem eo adloquebar
tabes-

matreni et confortabam fratrem,
20

commendabam
:

filium.

cebam

ideo quod illos tabescere uideram mei beneficio. tales et usurpaui ut mecum sollicitudines multis diebus passa sum infans in carcere marieret ; et statim conualui et releuata sum a
1

inquit

A
5

uidens

B

3

quam quod
misit

est]

C

;

quam quid

est

B

;

om.

ait] dixit

B

motus] + in

B
8

B

6

euerteret

B
;

uexauero
refrigerauit

profecto] profectus
refrigerata

BC
9
et

deo

B

refrigeraui] conieci

A B A
;

sum BC
sufferentia

in

B
B

B
;

mihi] mihi autem B 12 tales experta eram

10

non] nihil

B

B

estus ualidus

A

;

ab] estos

13 concussureA; concussura B continuerunt premium B stituerunt praemium C 18 pro] de missi B 1. 13) refrigerernur B
ualidos

nouissimo
16
ut]

B
hii

15 con-

+

A

(cf. p.

62,

B
meo
Eonsch

19

fratrem]

matrem

B

;

fratri

C

.

20 om. ideo

B

illos] illo

A
:

benefitio
I.

cum

seqq.

B
f.

6

cum

argumentis diaboli]
vit.

Holsten

writers

cf.

und V. pp. 414

quotes 'Antonius in

cum signum
diabolus

crucis

Simeonis sty I. 6 fecisset, continuo
arguBiblioth.

8 refrigeraui] I have restored this from a comparison of 1. 16 'refrige-

nusquam comparuit, cam

raremus'; p. 74,

1.

16, p. 82,

1.

8.

One

mento suo euanuit: Anastas.
uicit ac

[Lib. Pontif.] in Benedicto III.

mundi principem

et

carmen omnia eius

corruption gave 'refrigerauit' (A), making 'absentia' the nominative ; another

argumenta nequissima.'
'carere' is

changed 'refrigeraui' into 'refrigerata sum' (BC). Comp. the change to the
passive in

7 caruissem patrem] The ace. after found in Plautus and in late

B

in

1.

16.
first

.

10 ab aqua] For the

prayer after

PASSIO
l

S.

PERPETVAE.

jrpoKeifJ>evr)<;
etyrjv,

6/J,o\oylas

eKTreaeiv
cr/eevos

Kayw

777309

6pa<;

yov %dpiv

/ceiuevov

rj

roiovrcov; Kaicelvos drceKpiOi}' 'Opw.

/cdyw'

avrov d\o "A\o o

TIdrep,
ri

rwv

ovSe Svvauai, el arj o el/Mi, rovrecrn defJ>i<> ; rore o rrarrjp fj,ov rapa^Oels rqjSe ro3 \oya> 67re###BOT_TEXT###cav crriavr/. rjOek^aev rou? o^Oak/jbov^ pov e%opv%at' eTreira pbvov /cpd^a<?, Tore rov Sia/36\ov /jirj-^avcor. el;r)ev VLtcrjOeis fjierd rwv
/j,rj

avro

5

real
'

dTroSijfMJaravTos avrov, iji/^apla'TTjaa ro5 tcvpifp, avrov' /cat ev avrals rats r)p,epai<s e/3a-

KOI

efj,e

i

diro

vTrrjtyopev&ev TO irvevpa TO ayiov rov vSaros rov jSarrricr^aro^ el

fJLrj^ev

a\o

10

ur/

crap/cos

ov
r)jj,epav Kavfjid

yap

TrwTrore roiovrov ecopfcetv cr/corof
/cat

re cr^>oSpov

yap dvOpmTrmv

77X17^05 TJV

e/cet
Srj
1

d\ws

re

/cat

arpariwrwv

<rvKo$avriai<s 'ifX.eiarrais'

aed^ a

frdvra KareTrovov^v Sid TO V^TTLOV reicvov.
lTo/A7roz>i05,

rore Te/JTto?

/cat

v\oyr)uevoi Sidfcovot

o'l

Strjtcovovv rjplv, Tt/ia? Sovres

eTroiqaav

rjf^a^ et?

qpepwrepov roirov rrjs
fie,

rore dva7rvorjs erv-^oaev, Kal Sr) efcao-rot, \aov eat/Tot?' /cat TO /S/je^>O9 i^ve^Or} Trpo'?

at eVeSt'Soui/ 20

avrw yd\a,

rfj n^rpl irpoa'e\d\ovv, rov TO vrj^riov TraperiOefiijv errjKOfirjv Se <m dSe\(f)ov TrpoerpeTrofirjv, edewpovv avrovs Si eae \V7rovuevovs' ovrws TreptXfTro? 7r\eicrrai<f
rjSr)

av^aq) uapavOev

Tj/jbepais

ovcra, f/rtjaa
tcd/ceivo

/cat

TO ySpe<^09 ev
/cat

rrj

(f)v\afcy aer'

euov
/cat 25

ueveiv
6
ii.bvi}v

dveXafiev

70; ercovfpicrO'rjv
c5

diro

dvias

12

eK\-f)dtiiJ,ev

13 ws]

coni. Gebh.

17

ira/jurbvios

24

Mr M. E. cf. Tert. rfe Ba^f. 20. James gives me the following quotation from the unpublished Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena opOpov ovv ra.~xii avcwTacra
Baptism,
:

of 'rough treatment,' though perhaps with a view to extortion; cf. 'constitu-

erunt praemio below. 14 ibi. tune] I have retained the

'

Xa^e TO ayiov
iraylSuv.

f3dirTi<r(J.a

Kai

ai.Vijo'at

ev

r

j3airTtff/j.aTi pv<r6riva.i (re

r&v TOV dpaKovros

punctuation of Cod. A. 22 conualui] 'conualuit'

has

been

13 concussurae mih'tum]

The Greek

suggested to correspond with the Greek. But in this case we should have to suppose
that the
't' was lost independently in both lines of the Latin text. Moreover

translation takes this in the technical

sense of unjust accusation for the sake of extortion: cf. Tert. ad Scap. 4 concussione eius intellecta ; and de Fuga 12

we should introduce a harsh change

of

miles concutit

(cf.

13 ad

init.).

But the

the subject, such as the Greek translation has endeavoured to modify by the addition of

context seems here to require the sense

R.

66

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.
:

labore et sollicitudine infantis

et factus est

mihi career subito

praetorium, ut ibi mallem essem quam alicubi. IV. Tune dixit mihi frater rneus Dornina soror, iam in es, tanta ut postules uisionem et ostendatur magna dignatione
:

5

tibi

an passio

sit

an commeatus.
cuius
:

et ego

quae

me

sciebam

fabulari

cum Domino,
ei,

fidenter repromisi
postulaui, et

dicens

experta eram, Crastina die tibi renuntiabo. et

beneficio

tanta

ostensum est mihi hoc.

uideo scalam aeream

10

mirae magnitudinis pertingentem usque ad caelum, et anet in gustam, per quam nonnisi singuli ascendere possent
:

lateribus

scalae

omne genus ferramentorum
:

infixum.

erant

hami, macherae ut, si quis neglegenter aut non sursurn adtendens ascenderet, laniaretur et carnes eius
ibi gladii, lanceae,

inhaererent ferramentis.
15

et erat

sub ipsa scala draco Cubans

mirae magnitudinis, qui ascendentibus insidias praestabat, et exterrebat ne ascenderent. ascendit autem Saturus prior, qui
postea se propter nos ultro tradiderat, quia ipse nos aedificaet uerat, et tune cum adducti sumus praesens non fuerat.
peruenit
in

caput

scalae,
:

et

conuertit

se

et

dixit

mihi

:

zo

sed uide ne te mordeat draco ille. et Perpetua, sustineo te dixi ego Non me nocebit in nomine lesu Christi. et desub
:

1 subito] quasi B nitate BC (Ruin.) ficia A ; benefitia B

C

(Ruin.)

8
ascendi

4 dig2 esse B 3 frater] pater B alibi BC 6 beneficio] C (Ruin.); benetanta] et tantese es B 7 fidens B repromissa ei B ; repromissionibus eius 10 om. 9 et] + ita B aeream] C auream B ; om.
;

A

B ami A + in B
per

;

om.

B
15

aedificauerat]

C

;

12 bami] 11 erat ibi gladium, lanceam, machere B 14 inbaererent] 13 aseendens adtenderet BC ( + et B) 17 ultra B quia ipse nos praestabat] parabat BC om. A 18 et (pr.)] ut BC qui ipse nos edificauerat B

A

;

adducti] adprebensi

BC

19

in]

ad

B
om.

conuertit]
ille

BC

;

euertit

A

se]

20 + admeBC nomine] + domini BC

om. te
et]

(sec.)

B
C

B

21

non me] nemo

B

+

draco

Tbe sentence gains a point when we think of the Martyrs as confined in the 'career' of the
2 praetorium]

new

mallem essem] I have restored 'essem' from Cod. A. Cf. Cic. ad Fam.
vn. 14 mallem... cognoscerem (so KLotz; earlier edd. read 'cognoscere'). For
other,

'praetorium'; see above, p. 5. The remains of the Proconsular palace on the

examples see Eoby

1608.

Byrsa are
649
fi.

still

to be traced: see Tissot
i.

5 commeatus]

A military term, mean-

Geogr. de VAfrique romaine vol.

pp.

ing 'leave to come and go'; here 'reThe Greek lease': see Holsten's note.

PASSIO
TTOVOV, teal IBov
/te efcei
ri

S.

PERPETVAE.
&5?

67

<f)v\aKr) ejioi

6e\ew IV. Tore

elvai,

yeyovev Trpatrwptov, KOI ovtc d\a%ov.
poi o aSeX^oV
roa-avTij

elirev

K.vpia

dBe###BOT_TEXT###lt;f>ij,

ev

[ie yd\a>

i

d(,c6/jt,aTi~

vTrapxets,

ovaa

w?

el

oTTTacrtas

oirracLav Xa/3oi9

av

els

TO

Bet%0f)vai

aoi

eiTrep 5

dva/3d\rjv e'^ets rj Kayw 777-15 rjBeiv jj,e 6pi\ovcrav 6eu>, ov rye 8r) rocraura? evepyea-ias el^ov, iriarea)^ TfKrjprjs ovtra,
e7rt]yysL\dfMijv avrq) elirovcra' A.vpiov crot
r

iraOelv //.eXXets.

dtrajyeXw.
10

Be,

real

eBei^7}
jj?

f^ot
p,rjicos
fjurj

TOVTO'
%/ot9

elBov

K\i^aKa %a\Kr)v

TO

Svva<T0ai el
iju,aKO<;

ovpavov' crrevrj Se rjv co? firjSeva S*' e etcarepav Be T&V fjLova^ov eva dvaflrjvat'
TTCLV

pepuiv

eZSo? r\v

e/j,7re7T'r)<yfj,evov

e/cel

^i^xSv,

Sopdrmv,

dryKia-rpcov, /J,a'%aip<v, 6fie\i<TK(ov'

a/aTra? 6 dvaftalvajv

r/v

a/^eXtS? fcal pr) dva/3\e7r(i)v TO49 aKOVTiQii Ta? adpicas (TTrapajfjdeiir]' Be VTT avry TT) KkipaKi Bpdfccav vTrepfj.e'yed'rjs, 05 Br) TOW? dva- 15
firj

/Salvovras ev^Bpevev, eK0ajm^cov OTTO)?
dvefir) Be 6

rd\fj,wa-i,v

dvaftatvew.
TrapeBwfcev

SaTfpo?'

05

Brj

varepov

Bt

^a?

efcobv

eavrov' avrov yap KOL ol/coBoftr) aTrrjv. c9 ovv Trpo? TO d/cpov TTJS
teal

ijfjLev'

aXX' oTe

avve

tj(f)Q'r)iJiev

rXt//.a/co5

irapeyevero,
fir)

e<TTpd<f)r),

eiTrev TiepTrerovajTreptnevw
/col elirov'

(re'

aXXa. jSXeTre

ae 6 BpaK&v 20

Ba/crj'

Ov

fiij fj,e fS\d'fy'r),

ev ovo^ari 'Ivjaov fyoftovpevos
fj,e

fcal

VTTOfcdrco
6

rrjs

/cXtytta/co?

coo-el

17x45] alreis

12

13
is

ca>a.pd\r)v

wrong, conveying only the

idea of deferred punishment. 6 cuius beneficio] Of. 'turbarum beneficio'

Pillet

'sealam erectam': the texts printed by have 'aeream' as well: Holsten

and 'mei

beneficio' just above:

and

for Perpetua's fondness for repeating a phrase see above, p. 45. This ' reading leaves experta eram the same
'

gives a somewhat abbreviated form from Petrus Galo, and this, as well as a yet briefer form which follows it in his The account in edition, has 'auream.'

sense

of

'

experiencing

hardship

'

as

the Basilian Menology (see above, p. 22) has ffKo\av %oX/c^. On the whole therefore the evidence is in favour of 'ae-

above, p. 64, 1. 12. 8 sealam aeream]

Our authorities vary between 'aeream' and 'auream.' The best of them (A) omits the epithet
altogether. 'aeream.'

ream.'

A friend has suggested to me 'aeriam': but either of the other epithets suits the context well enough.
13 earnes eius] Cp. Ep.
(Eus.
is

sent

B has 'auream'; C (with g) The Short Latin MSS. prethe same uncertainty. Aube, edit-

Fieri, et

Lugd.

H. E.

v. 1. 24)

where

TU>I> ffu/j.a.Twv

used of a single martyr.

ing from several Paris MSS., has simply

68
ipsa
scala,

PASSIO
quasi

S.

PEBPETVAE.
eiecit

timens me, lente

caput

:

et

quasi

primum gradum calcarem, calcaui illi caput. et ascendi, et uidi spatium immensum horti, et in medio sedentem hominem
5

et circanuin, in habitu pastoris, grandem, cues mulgentem cumstantes candidati milia multa. et leuauit caput et aspexit
:

me, et dixit mihi

:

Bene

uenisti, tegnon.

et clamauit

me, et de

iunctis manibus, et

caseo quod mulgebat dedit mihi quasi buccellam ; et ego accepi manducaui et uniuersi circumstantes dixe:

runt Amen,
10

ad sonum uocis experrecta sum, commanducans adhuc dulcis nescio quid, et retuli statim fratri meo, et intelleximus passionem esse futuram et coepimus nullam iam spem
et
:

in saeculo habere.

V. Post paucos dies rumor cucurrifc ut audiremur. superuenit autem et de ciuitate pater meus, consumptus taedio et
:

15

ascendit ad me, ut

me deiceret, dicens:
;

Miserere,
;

filia,

canis meis

;

miserere patri, si dignus sum a te pater uocari si his te manibus ad hunc florem aetatis prouexi si te praeposui omnibus fratribus tuis ne me dederis in dedecus hominum. aspice fratres
:

20

matrem tuam et materteram aspice filium tuum, non poterit. depone animos ne uniuersos nos extermines: nemo enim nostrum libere loquetur, si tu
tuos
:

aspice

:

qui post te uiuere

;

haec dicebat pater pro sua pietate, aliquid fueris passa. et lacrymis basians mihi manus, et se ad pedes meos iactans
:

1

om. ipsa

rem] calcassem

5 candidates canum] sanum A 6 oin. me (pr.) B uenies tegnum B BC 9 om. uocis A 10 adhuc duleis] (Ruin.) ; adhuc dulci B om. A om. et sum] + et B 11 nullam] nulla A om. et (sec.) B (pr.) B cepimus iam nullam B 13 ut] quod B 14 om. et 13, 14 superuenit autem et] et superuenit B 15 miserere filia canis meis] miserere filia patri C filia miserere A (sec.) 16 patri] patris A canis meis B 17 om. ad hunc B patri B a] ad B
illi] illius

B B

eiecit] eleuauit

BG
4

quasi

(sec.)]

cum BC

2

calca-

C

;

;

;

18 dedecus] opproprium B 18, 19 aspice fratres 20 potest B aspice ad fratres tuos, aspice ad filium B 20, 21 ne uniuersos nos extermines] et noli nos uniuersos exterminare BC 21 om.

proposui
filium]

B
;

A

22 feceris B enim B loquitur B me] iam lacrimans B etiam lacrimans C
2
calcaui

dicebat]

+

quasi

B

23 lacrymis

pavement of a
posed to

The mosaic which is supbe that mentioned by Victor
illi

caput]

woman
p. 805.

holding a palm and treading
;

Basilica,

upon a serpent
5 candidati]

cf.

Tissot ibid. vol. n.

Vitensis (see above, p. 22), represents a

This reading (A)

is

sup-

PASSIO
K6<f)a\r/v TrpocrrjveyKeV

S.

PERPETVAE.
rov Trpoorov
teal

69
/3adfj,ov r)Qk\t]cra

Kal

(09 et9

eTTiprjvai, rr^v Kecj>a\rjv

avrov

eirdrijcra.

elBov eicel KTJTTOV

ueyicrrov, Kal ev

fJ>eo-<a

rov

KIJTTOV avOpcoirov TTO\IOV

KaOe^opevov

TTOiuevos cr^rjaa e%ovra vTrepueyed'T}, 09 rjhuevye TO, Trpoftara' 7repteicrr'r}Ktcrav Be avrco TroXXat %i\idBe<> \v%6t/J,ovovvr(i}V'
i

5

eTrdpas Be rrjv Ke<fca\rjv eOedcraro pe Kal elirev' KaXco? e\r)\v Kal eicd\e<rev fte, Kal GK rov rvpov ov rj\pevyev e rercvov(acrei fjbot ^rw^lov' Kal e\a[3ov ^ev^acra ra9 %eipd<i uov Kal
(f>ajov'

Kal 7T|009 rov Kal eljrav Trdvres ol Trapearoores' 'AftT/y. eri rL irore iaa-a/mewr <VKV' Ka

10

ev6ea><; o't,r)<yr)<rdfj,'r)v d8eX^>o3 Kal evoijcrauev ori Beot Kal rjpi-diArjv eKTore urjSe/Liiav erlSa ev ro3 alwvi rovrq) e%eiv.

rw

V.
creaOai'

Mera

Se ripepas o\Lyas eyvcopev fteXXeiv r/ud$ a irapejevero Be Kal 6 irarrjp IK rrjs 770^X779
TT/JO?

aapaivouevos, Kal dveftij

Xeywv'
(rov, eiTrep

vyarep, e^irja-ov
dfyos
elai,

r9

ue TrporpeTropevos pe Karaf3a\elv, iro\id^ JJLOV' e\eijcrov rov Trarepa
fjLvrj<r6'r)riort,

15

ovofAaaQrjvat irartjp crov'

rat?

%p<rlv ravrais irpbs ro roiovrov avQo<$ r^9 ^Xi/c/a? avr/yayov ere' Kal Trpoet^ofjtijv ere virep rov? dBe~\,(J30v$ crov' opa rr)v arjv aqrepa Kal rrjv rrj$ arjrpo<j crov dBeXcfrijv, '{Be rov vlov crov 09 fiera 20
ere

%rjv

ov bvvarai,'

dirodov

rov<;

dvuovs Kal

///>}

rjpsas

Trdvras

^o\oOpevo~rj^' ouBels
CTOL
l

yap rj^wv fierd 7rappr)crias \a\r]creL, edv rL ravra e\eyev W9 Trarrjp Kara rrjv rwv <yovea>v evvoiav' crv/j,/3f]. Karecj)i\.ei aov r9 %et)oa9 Kal eavrov epptTrrev efjuirpocrOev r<av v fiov Kal eTTiBaKpvajv ovKen ue Bvyarepa d\d Kvplav 25
5
\evffX'rlfJi01' ovovt' TUV

H

ewo^trafiev

ported by the Greek version, whicli likewise makes a new sentence, instead of
giving another ace. case as EC. For similar instances where the verb is
omitted,
&c.,
fiala
cf.

Spectac. 25, with OeHer's note.

Milk

and honey were given immediately after Baptism, and sometimes with the first Communion (Oehler on Tert. de Coron.
3,

p. 72,

1.

13 et nulnus in facie
8 et super margine

note

h).

'lunctis manibus'

is

the

and

p. 74,

1.

aurea plena aqua. 8 dixerunt Amen] That the action

natural action to catch the dripping On the whole question of the morsel. Elements in the Eucharist see Harnack's

ristic is

at this point is at least partly Euchasuggested by this phrase: but I

Brodund Wasser
2,

(Texts und Unters.

vii.

do not know of any instance in which
the 'Amen' at the reception is said by any but the recipient. Cf. Tert. de

pp. 117 ff.). 15 ascendit] For the local allusion see
' '

note on praetoriutn

above, p. 66,

1.

2.

70

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.
et

me non

filiara

nominabat, sed dominam.

ego dolebam
:

causani patris mei, quod solus de passione mea gauisurus non esset de toto genere meo et confortaui eum, dicens Hoc fiet
;

in
5

ilia

catasta

quod Deus uoluerit

:

scito

enim nos non in nostra
et recessit

esse potestate constitutes, sed in Dei.
tristatus.

a

me

con-

VI.

Alio
:

die

cum pranderemus,

subito

rapti

sumus

tit

audiremur
10

peruenimus ad forum, rumor statim per uicinas ascenfori partes cucurrit, et factus est populus immensus. dimus in catastam. interrogati ceteri confessi sunt. uentum est et ad me. et apparuit pater ilico cum filio meo, et extraxit
et
et Hilarianus de gradu, supplicans: Miserere infanti. tune loco proconsulis Minuci Timiniani defuncti procurator, qui

me

15

ius gladii acceperat : Parce, inquit, canis patris tui fac sacrum pro salute Imperatorum. infantiae pueri.

:

parce
et ego
et

respondi

:

Non

facio.

Hilarianus, Christiana es

?

inquit.

ego respondi: Christiana sum. et cum staret pater ad me deiciendam, iussus est ab Hilariano deici, et uirga percussit. et doluit mihi casus patris mei, quasi ego fuissem percussa
20 sic dolui pro senecta eius misera.
tiat, et

:

damnat ad

bestias

:

tune nos uniuersos pronunet hilares descendimus ad carcerem.

tune quia consueuerat a me infans mammas accipere, et rnecum in carcere manere, statim mitto ad patrem Pomponium diaconum,
1 nominabat sed dominam] sed dominam me uocabat B dominam] 2 eausam] canos B 4 casta B om. et B domina A quod non in dei] in dei non in nostra potestate futures B 4, 5 deus] quodns B

5 me] + pater B dimus catastam B

8

om. et 10

B

9

partes fori

B
pater

9,

10

et ascen-

in catasta

A
meos

11

ilico] ibi

12 gradu] + et dixit B B 13 loco] in locum

infanti] canos

BC

(Ruin.)

pater B helarianus

BC defuncti proeonsulis minutii 14 dixit parce canos B 16 fatiam et helarianus, ergo Christiana 18 elariano B om. ad B 17 cum staret] contemptaret B 20 dolui] mihi doluit B B percussit] percussus est BC
;

teminiani
es ? et ego

B B

deici] proici

enim dolui C
23 porn-

misera] Miser

cum

seqq.

B
'

uniuersos nos

B

22

mammam B

pinianum
1 sed
p. 66,
1.

BC
.

dominam] Cf
3.

domina
of

soror,'

This

title

given to brothers and inscriptions: e.g. C. I. L. Afr. 333 DOMINO

respect is sons in funeral

4 quod Deus uoluerit] Cf. Ada Montani 12 (Euin. p. 234) credebat id fieri

quod Deus uellet. This confirms the reading 'Deus': for other phrases in
this

MEO
MEO.

FBAXEI,

and 2862 FILIO ET DOMINO

12 supplicans]

Martyrdom are borrowed from ours. The Greek translator

PASSIO
67Tfcdt'
ra5

S.

PERPETVAE.
TOV Trarpo? rj\yovv, OTI ev
TO)
e/i&5

71

eyw Be
e/jiG)

Trepl Trjs BiaOeffews
fjiovos

yevei,

OVK rjyaT^tdro ev
elirovo-a'

TrdOei.

Be
6K6LVO) [o]

avTov

Tovro

yevijo-eTai

ev

T&>

pa
air
efjuov

ej~ovcrLa,

edv 0e\r) 6 Kvpio<>' yvwdt yap OTI OVK ev TT} aA,V ev TTJ TOV 6eov eaofJueOa' /cal e-^copicrdri

5

dBij/Aovwv.

^
&pi<TTo ypTrdryrjpev Iva dfcovcrffcof^ev'
rr^v

VI.
ical

Kat

rr)

rjpepq ev
el<?

&<nrep

eyevrjOrjfJuev

dyopdv

(f>ijfj,r)

ev9v<? et?

rd

7171)9

pep?) Sirjev, Kal crvve^pa^iev TrXetcrro? 0^X09' to9 Se dve^^ev 649 TO /3r)fJ,a e^eraaOevTes 01 \oi7rol K>iJ,o'\.6<^r)crav' rffj,e\ov Be

10

icdyw e^erd^ecrdat,' Kal efydvrj
/cal /caTaryaryutv fte ?rpo9
/3pe<^>o9.

etcet

perd TOV T&KVOV

p,ov o TraTrjp'

eavTOV, elTrev'

^rriQvcrov eXerjcraa-a TO

/cal '\apiavos Ti9 eiriTpOTTo^, 09 Tore TOV dvOwiraTov dirodavovTos M.IVOVKIOV 'OTTTTtavov ej~ov<riav el\ij(f)ei /Jba^aipa^,
f&eicrat,

\eyei, pot'

TWV

TTO\I,WV TOV 7rarpo9 crov'
e

(freta-ai

T^

TOV

15

TraiSlov vqTTioT'rjTos' e'jriOvaov VTrep crwTripias TK>V avTo/cpaTopcov.

/cdyw

d'jrefcptdijv'

Ov

dvco.

Kal elirev KOI
9

el; /cal elvrov' ^pio~Tiavr]

elfjn,.

l\aplavo<$' ecnrovo'a^ev 6 TraTtjp
f

^9 6/no\oyia<f, /ceXevcraz/ro? l\apidvov eeBe Kal TTJ pa/3Sco TWV Sopv<f)6p(ov Tfc9 eTitTTTrjaev 20

avTov'

Kaym

cr(f)6Bpa
777309

rfXyqaa, eXerfcracra TO yfjpas avTov' rore Kal %alpovTes KaTiyfiev Oijpia KaTaKpLvei.

<^v\aKr)v.
'

Be VTT epov e0v)\deTo TO iraiBiov, Kal ^>v\aKy elcadet peveiv, Tre^Trcu 77^09 TOV iraTepa TLofjwrovtov SiaKovov, eurouo-a. TO ySpe^)09' 6 Be nraTrjp OVK
eTreiBrj
efJiov

ev

Tfj

25

4

om.

o

14

oTrta^oO

17

7/Aapiavos

probably read 'et clixit: sacrificans.' 13 Minuci Timiniani] On the vexed
question of the proconsul's name see Mr Harris's Introduction, p. 9. The practical concurrence of Codd. A and B
leaves no hope of further light from the reading of the Greek version.

the
still

name

Hilarianus. The contrast is more striking with the reading of B:

'Miser tune uniuersos nos pronuntiat'p but this reading (though the omission of

any epithet of -y%>as in the Gk is in its favour) makes tune the second word in
'
'

the sentence.
recorded.

18 et uirga pereussit] This reading is Either supported by the Gk eTinrrijiyev
.

A

The reading of C is not play upon words has occur-

red just before in 'deiciendam...deici'.

therefore a

word has

fallen out, or per-

haps Hilarian himself losing his temper struck Perpetua's father with the wand which he bore as judge.
21 hilares] Possibly this
is

descendimus ad carcerem] This is explained by 'ascendimus in catastam,' 1. 9. But they return to the proconsular prison on the Byrsa above the town ; see above, p. 66.

a play upon

72
postulans infantem.
uoluit,

PASSIO

S.

PEB.PETVAE.

sed pater dare noluit.

neque uorem fecerunt

ille
:

amplius ne sollicitudine infantis et dolore

mammas

quornodo Deus desiderat, Deque mini feret

mammaram

macerarer.
5

VII. Post dies paucos, dum uniuersi oranms, subito media et oratione profecta est mihi uox, et nominaui Dinocraten mihi in inentern uenisset nisi tune et obstipui quod numquam
: ;

dolui

commemorata

casus eius.

et cognoui

me

statini

dignam

esse, et
10

pro eo petere debere.
et ingemiscere est mihi hoc.

multum,
ostensum

et coepi de ipso orationem facere ad Dominum. continuo ipsa nocte uideo Dinocraten exeuntern de loco

tenebroso, ubi et complura loca erant tenebrosa, aestuantem valde et sitientem, sordido uultu et colore pallido ; et uulnus in
facie eius,
15

quod cum moreretur habuit. hie Dinocrates fuerat frater meus carnalis, annorum septem, qui per infirmitatem facie cancerata male obiit, ita ut mors eius odio fiierit omnibus
et inter me et pro hoc ergo orationem feceram ilium grande erat diastema, ita ut uterque ad inuicem accedere non possenius. erat deinde in ipso loco ubi Dinocrates erat

hominibus.

:

20 piscina

plena aqua, altiorem marginem habeiis quam erat statura pueri et extendebat se Dinocrates quasi bibiturus. ego dolebam quod et piscina ilia aquam habebat, et tamen propter altitudinem marginis bibiturus non esset. et experrecta sum, et cognoui fratrem meum laborare. sed fidebam me profuturam
:
:

25 labori eius

et orabani pro eo

uimus

in carcerem castrensem

:

omnibus diebus quousque transimunere enim castrensi eramus

2

dolorem
6

mammani B 4 B

desiderauit
raaceraret

B
5

3

effecerunt

B

et dolore] aut

A*B
oi. uox

subito ante

dum B

profecta] prolatum

B
mente

B

nomina. Yidicraten

A

;

oremus B nomina.

Vidinograte
pati

B

7

A
10
12

C

(Ruin.)

'oromateC;
brosa
ita

de] pro + in oratione B

B

8 memorato casu B multam B deum B
et

9 11

patere

B

;

complura loca] cum plures
abiit

B B

B

13 ualde post sitientem B 14 moraretur B 18 diadema A; idiantem 17 om. et (pr.) B
19

B AB

hoc] + in om. tene-

16 om.

B

;

dianten C (Ruin.)
erat dinogratis

om. ita

possunius

B

om. in ipso loco

A

B

20 aquae B 24 confidebam

B

;

habens marginem cousiderabam C
out.

22 haberet BC quam staturam pueri B me profuturam] profuturam orationem

meam BC
carcere.

25

omnibus diebus

A

26 carcerem castrensem

:

munere]

Munera B

PASSIO
eB&fcev'

S.

PERPETVAE.
ovre 6 7rat9 pao-Oovs errer

73

irXrjv 009 6 0eo9 wKovo/jLTjcrev

0vfj,r)o-ev eicrore,

ovre e^oi Tt9 Trpoayeyovev
(fipovriSi teal rfj

(f>\ey/j,ovrj'

'lo-as

iva

/cat rfj

rov TratStou

r&v

fj,ao-0wv dkyrjBovi,

VII.

Kat /ACT'
ev pea-qj
teal

oA-tiya? ^yu-epa?

wpocrev^ofAevaiv

rjjjbwv

drrdvrwv

5

rfj<$ 7rpoo-eup09 affitca (fxavrjv !K#a/A/3o5 eyevijdtjv, BLOTL ovBevrore et /i?) rdre avaiwt]<Jiv avrov ireTTOirjKeiV tfXyrjcra Be et? fMvrjjAijv e###BOT_TEXT###ovcra r^9

KOI

mvoaaaa

avrov

TeXevrrjs.

TT\r)V

ev0ea>s

eyvwv

eftavTrjV

d^iav

ovcrav
10

airi\(nv Troiija-aa-Oai irepl avrov, /cat ^p^d^-rjv Trpo?
trreva<yfj,(av

Kvptov per a
avrfi
rfj
etc

Trpoaev^ea-dai,
fjioi

ra ir\elara'

teal

evOeco?

vvtcrl

eSrjXwffn)

rowov

rovro. opoo Aetvo/cpctT^y e^ep'xop.evov OTTOV KOI aXXot TroXXol /cavpari^o/Lievot, (TKoreivov,

fcal

Sitywvres 'ija'av, e<r6rjra e%ovra pVTrapdv, w^pov rfj "Xpoa" teal TO rpavfjia ev ry otyei avrov re\evr<x>v orrep Trepiwv en el%ev.
ouTO? Se 6 AeivoKpaTf)?, 6
dSe###BOT_TEXT###lt;f)6<$ fj,ov

15

Kara

crdptca, eTrraer?)?

avrov yayypaivr) craTret? 069 rov Odvarov avrov arvyrjrov yevea-dai iraa-iv dvdpwiroL^. e0eoopovv ovv fjieja Std(rrr)aa dvd ftecrov avrov /cat ejAov, (9 /AT)
redvijKei acrOevrfcras /cat rrjv o^friv

8vvao'0at

?)//.a9

aA.\?7Xoi9 TrpocreX^eti/.

ei/

e/cetyw Se

ro3 TOTTW 20

pav Se el^ev
/cat
77

rrjv KptjTTtSa vrcep

TO TOU TraiStou

/i^/co9'

o Aeivofcpdrtjq

Sierewero

irieiv Trpoaipovfjievos'

eya

7rpo9 Se 17X701;^

r\v 7rX^p^9 v8aTO9, /cat TO jraiBlov OVK Sid rrjv v^friKorrjra rrjs /cp?77rt8o9 /cat e%v'jrvia0i)v. tf8vvaro /cat e<yvo)V fcdpvetv rov dSe\(f)6v aov' erceTroideiv Be Bvvaa~0ai avrdo @07)0r}crai ev Tat9 dvd peaov tjfLepavs, ev at9 fjue

Ko\V[tf3rj0pa

irteiv

'

25

t^v\aKr)v rr)v rov ^tXtap^of ov tfue\ofAev 0r)pio[jia)(eiv' <yeve0\iov
/

yap
from Plant.
vi.

3

oin.

IJ.T]

15

legebat

cum B moraretur
Eonsch
Asin, in.

16

8s ci5e\$>6s

brosa] Cf. Acta
rts irapeKafit
6'Xos,-^ S
fj.e

12 ubi et complura loca erant teneThomae c. 52 dvdpwn-os

quotes
3. 32.

'habiui'

dir^x^ ry

eideg., fj.e\as

15

carnalis]
(||

Cf.

Eph.
22).

TOVTOV ecrdys iravv pepvTrcafj.evr]' dir-^jaye de pe el's TWO. rbirov ev y TroXXa
Xacr/xara

carnalibus
et

Col.

iii.

5 dominis In Ep. Vien.
18)
rijs
<ra/>-

Lugd. (Eus. H. E.

v. 1.

For the connection between the Visions and the
{tirrjpxe,

/c.r.A.

/ciV^s deffirolvys

we may perhaps

trace the

Apoe. of Peter see above, pp. 37 ff. 14 habuit] The form 'abiit AB may be a vulgar Latin form of habuit.'
5 '

influence of a Latin Version (Kara crap/ca = carnalis =<Tapidi>r)s: see further in the

separate note on p. 97).

20 piscina] See above,

p. 29.

74
pugnaturi
:

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.
et feci pro illo oratio-

natale tune Getae Caesaris.
et lacrymans ut

5

mihi donaretur. gemens VIII. Die quo in neruo mansimus, ostensum est mihi hoc. uideo locum ilium quern retro uideram, et Dinocraten mundo corpore, bene uestitum, refrigerantem et ubi erat uulnus, uideo cicatricem: et piscinam illam quam retro uideram, summisso
die et nocte
;
:

nem

margine usque ad umbilicum pueri; et aquam de ea trahebat sine cessatione et et super margine fiala aurea plena aqua accessit Dinocrates, et de ea bibere coepit quae fiala non defi10 ciebat. et satiatus accessit de aqua ludere more mfantium
;
:

gaudens. et experrecta sum. esse de poena.

tune intellexi translatum

eum

IX.
tus
15

Deinde post dies paucos Pudens, miles optio praeposi-

qui nos magnificare coepit intellegens magnam uirtutem esse in nobis, multos ad nos admittebat, ut et nos
carceris,

et

illi

inuicem refrigeraremus.

ut autem

proximauit

dies

muneris, intrat ad

barbam
20

pater metis consumptus taedio, et coepit suarn euellere et in terram mittere, et prosternere se annis
suis,

me

in faciem, et inproperare

et

dicere tanta uerba
infelici

quae mouerent uniuersam creaturam.
senecta eius.

ego dolebam pro
in

^

X.
1

Pridie

quam pugnaremus, uideo
cum
3 preced.
die] 4-

horomate hoc uenisse

natali cesaris

B
autem
fiala]

2
8

om. gemens

A

B
p

Getae] cetae A; om. 4 om. retro B

BC

(Ruin.)

uideram]

+

tenebrosum esse lucidum
margine]
10

B marginem BC

6 retro]

B

6,

7

summissa marginum
9

+

erat

BC

quae] et quasi

B B A B B

saciatus accessit de aqua ludere ludere satiatus de aqua ; accessit 11 tune] et B deludere satiatus de ea aqua B infantum C

A

C

;

accessit

13

Pru-

dens
15

C

14

magnificare coepit intellegens]
nobis] om. autern B

uirtutem]

+ dei B

+ qui A
17

magnifiee coepit intelligere 16 ille multos] + fratres BC
;

BC

refrigeremus B 19 inproperare] inproperans se
1 Getae Caesaris]
n. 3.

intrauit

B

18

om. et

(sec.)

B

20

moueretur

A

22

hoc] hue

B

See above, p. 25,

3 die quo in neruo] This was an unusual severity but it is mentioned merely as a note of time (cf. p. 70, 1. 7
:

parture from the custom of allowing prisoners some relaxation in the daytime.

4 retro] = antea
'

'

;

cf .

EQnsch

I. u.
it.

V.

343.

Tertullian frequently so uses
'

alio die

cum

pranderemus).

The Greek

translator or his copyist (ecrirtpg. may be for THJ.pq) found a difficulty in this de-

If we accept the 14 magnificare] reading of A, magnifiee, coepit intelligere,' we must suppose that a verb like

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

\ev eirtTe\elo-6ai Kaicrapo?. elf a irpoaev^afjuevr] fjuerd crTeva<y(j,wv re /cat VVKTOS SwprjOfjvai o-<oSpe39 irepl TOV dSe###BOT_TEXT###lt;f)ov pov ripepa?

avTov
VIII.

r)%ia)cra.

Kal evOvs
TOVTO.

/J.QI
,

Ka0ap
'

ev vepQw epeivajLiev, rf) eairepa ev rj * TOTTCO * ev o5 ewpdfceiv TOV AeivoKpd6pa> crwfjiaTi ovra, KOI /eaXcw9 tj^iecr/jbevov Kal dvaev
'

5

Kal OTTOV TO TpavfAa

r/v

ovKrjv

6pm

teal

TJ

/co\vfji,{3i]dpas

Be

el;

ew? TOV o^a'X.LOv avTov' eppeev vScap' Kal enravw r^9 /cp^TTiSo? r/v
Kal irpoae(av o keLvoKpaTys rjp^aTO e OVK eve\eiirev. Kal epTrXijcrdels tfpt;aTO
10

%pvo-f)

TTiveiV

77

Be

w?
OTI fJieTeTedtj
e/c

TO.

vrjina' Kal e^v7rvio-0r]v.

Kal evorjaa

TWV

TifAfopLwv.

IX.

Kal

/ier' oA-tiya? rip-epas

IIoyST;? rt? a-TpaTtcor^? o Trjs
r-^9 crTrovS^? tfpgaTO

Trpoio-Ta/Jievos fjieTa -TroXKfjs

^a?
els

15

v Kal So^d^etv TOV deov, evvowv Bvva/j,i.v
'

peyaX^v

elvai Trepl

Sib Kal TroAAous elcre~k6elv TT/JO?

77/1,09

OVK eK(a\vev

TO

rjjjia-ev 7/ia9 Sid TWV e7ra\ij\cov 7rapapv0iwv Trapyyopela'dai. Be 77 yfiepa TWV (f)iXoTi/Aiu>v Kal etcrep^erat 7rpo9 ue 6 iraTrjp, Ty

LapavOek, Kal rjp^aTo TOV Trcoycava TOV iSiov e'/crtXXeti/ 20 T eVt 7779' Kal 77^77^7)9 KaraKeijAevos KaKo\ojeiv ra eavTov ITT; KaTrpyopwv Kal \e<ya>v TOiavTa pijuaTa 9 irdtrav

BvvaaOai
Trwpov

rrjv KT'ICTLV

(raXevaai' eyco Be eTrevBovv Sid TO ToKaiySXeTroj opa/jua TOIOV- 25

ryr/pas avTov.

X.
6

IIpo /^t9 ovv TOV OypiofAaxeiv
12
evv6r]ffa

tffjids,

Ka\tas

14

irovdys TicrpaTiuTys

20

eKre[\eiv

'contempserat' has fallen out after the
adverb.

The reading

of

have adopted in despair, correction, and may have been made at first in the margin, as the Greek /^era
TroXX^s r??s ffirovSijs points to the

BC, which I seems to be a

erat uestitus). Holsten edited 'magni faciebat' which is open to the first of

these objections. 22 in horomate]

adverb

For the form cf. Eonsch I. u. V. p. 254. hoc uenisse] 'Hoc' is for 'hue,' as in
Plautus &G.: see Facciolati
s.

'magnifice.' It is objectionable (1) as obscuring the gradual change in the attitude

verb, 'hie.'

of Pudens, who at
(cf.

note on
1.

1. 3),

first treated them badly and ended by believing
1.

(p. 86,

6

and

p. 92,

6)

:

(2)

as ex-

So on tombs, HOC MANSVM VENI, and ALIVS HOC INFEKETVB NEMO. Also in Cod. Bezae, Mt. xvii. 17 adferte mihi ilium hoc. The Greek translator misunderstood
Holsten,
its

pelling 'qui' (before 'multos'),
it

though
(cf.
1. 1.

meaning, as
colon after

also
it.

did

is

quite in Perpetua's style
fiala

9

who put a

quae

non

deficiebat

;

p. 76,

2 qui

76

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.
carceris, et pulsare

Pomponium diaconum ad ostium
ad eum, et aperui habens multiplices didam,
et exiui
ei
:

uehementer.

qui erat uestitus discinctam cangalliculas. et dixit mihi Perpetua,
:

te exspectamus: ueni.
5

et tenuit

mihi marram, et coepimus

ire

per aspera loca et flexuosa. uix tandem peruenimus anhelantes ad amphitheatrum, et induxit me in media arena, et dixit mihi:

Noli pauere

;

hie

sum tecum,

et conlaboro tecum.

et abiit.

et

adspicio populum ingentem adtonitum. et quia sciebam me ad bestias datam esse, mirabar quod non. mitterentur mihi bestiae.
10 et exiuit

quid am contra toribus suis pugnaturus

me

mecum. ueniunt

Aegyptius foedus specie cum adiuet ad me adolescentes
et expoliata sum, et facta

decori adiutores et fautores rnei.

sum

masculus.
solent in
15

et coeperunt me fautores mei oleo defrigere, quomodo agonem et ilium contra Aegyptium uideo in afa
:

et exiuit uir quidam mirae magnitudinis, ut etiam excederet fastigiurn amphitheatri, discinctatus purpuram inter duos clauos per medium pectus, habens galliculas multiformes

uolutantem.

ex auro et argento factas
20

:

efferens uirgain quasi lanista,

et

rarnum uiridem in quo erant mala aurea. et petiit silentium, et dixit Hie Aegyptius, si hanc uicerit, occidet illam gladio et, et recessit. et accessisi hunc uicerit, accipiet ramuni istum.
:

;

1 om. carceris

B

pulsasse

B

2

om.

et (pr.)

B

distinctam candidam

3 galliculas] C; callieulas AB ( + ex auro et argento A; discincta Candida BC uix B 5 peruenimus anelantes A ; ambulantes per4, 5 om. et coepimus B) 8 adtonito B 6 medio arenae B 7 pauere] expauescere B uenimus B mittedatum A donatam B (? lege damnatam) 9 bestiam B om. me B 12 fau11 et ad me ueniunt B 10 contra me quidam B bantur B 13 masculos B fauiom. et facta sum B tores] factores (om. mei et) B
;

sores
afa]
et

A

;

factores

B

defrigere] defrigare

B

;

defricare

C

14

in agone

BC

aqua

BG

15 etiam]

iam

BC

17 habens] + et

B

16 discinctatus] discinctam habens tunicam 18 efferens] callieulas AB galliculas] C (Ruin.)
;

B

et ferens

BG

piat

B

uirga istud A
Cf.
1.

A

19

petit

B

20

et]

haec

BC

21 acci-

3 galliculas]

17.

The word

is

used by the scholiast on Juv. Sat. in. 67 (Mayor ad loc.) in explaining trechedipna: uestimenta parasitica uel galliculas currentium ad cenam.
6 amphitheatrum] Descriptions of the amphitheatre at Carthage by ElBekri andEl-Edrisi are quoted by Tissot,

Geogr. de VAfr. romaine, vol.i. pp.645ff. in media arena] We might easily
1.

(cf. note on p. 60, But the confusion between the cases in expressing rest and motion is

read the ace. case
12).

regarded by Sittl as characteristically African (Lokal. Verschied. pp. 128 ff.).

Compare

'in medio,' p. 92,

1.

19.

PASSIO
TOV.
teal

S.

PERPETVAE.
6vpav
Kal
efyev Be
/cal

6 BiaKovos, ^(TLV, riev 7rpo9 TTJV

eKpovcrev <r(j)6Bpa'

efeX#ovo-a
/cal

rfv

evBeBvpevos ecrdrJTa \a/&7rpdv roBriiJiaTa Kal \eyei, uoi'

Trepie^acrfjLevos'
5)e
Trepifjueva),

e###BOT_TEXT###e.

ra? ^etpa?
TOTTWV'
/cal

Kal

elcrrj'Yayev
el^il

/u-e

Kal eTTopevOi^^ev Sid Tpa%e<ov Tfapeyevofteda et? TO df elf TO p,ecrov Kal \e<yei /i,ot' M?)
fj,ov,

/cal 5

/ioX-t?

evddSe

perd

crov, (rvy/cdfjivav croi'

Kal dirrj^Oev.

/cal

IBoi)

y Oewpia
elSov vrpbs Orjpia
e{3a\~kov
fjioi
fj,e

<r(f)6Spa'

/cdjoJ

KaraBitKacrOelcrav e0avfjia%ov 'on OVK 10

avrd.

TW cr^aari perd rwv inrovpyovvrav
TTTO&V,

ep^erai 7rpo9 /^e Kal %Tepoi
efjioL

//.e AtyyTTTto? Tt? d/juoptyos avra) ^a^ricro^evo^ uoi. KCLI veavuas Ti? ev/jLOpffxararo^ T&> /caXXet efacrrpa-

/cal rjev TT^O?

5

jLteT

auTOu veavlai wpalou, VTrriperai re cnrovSa15
1

aral
Kttl

/cal

e^eBvffijv /cal eyev^Brjv

ai/TtX^/u-TTTope? yu-ou

aVTLKpVS

jSX,67T(B

appyv' Kal rjp^avro ol eXat'ep /x-e d\ei<>iv, ft>9 e^o? eVTit ey dya>vi' TOV AlryVTTT IOV eKGWOV GV TO) KOVLOpTto KV\l6-

pevov.

e%rjX6ev Be Tt9 av?)p davpacrrov fjueyeOovs, iiTrepe^cov TOV

ecrOrJTa rjns el^ev ov aA,Xa /cat ar/a uea~ov em, 20 TTjv 7rop<f)vpav, povov TOV a"rir)6ov<$' el%ev Be Kal VTroBrjf^ara iroiKiKa e/c ^pvariov dpyvpioV efBd&Ta^ev Be Kal pdftBov 009 j3pa/3evTr/s r)

aKpov

TOV

d^tdedrpov,

Bte^wcr/Aevos

K TWV Bvo w/jLWv

fAovofjt,d')a)v'

et^epev Be /cal /c\dBov$ ^\a>pov^ Kal alrtjcra^ o-iyrjv ryevea-dat,, e(f>r)' OvT09 o %pvcrd' ev Tavryv ja-y dve\ei avrrjv fJLa^atpa' avrt] Be edv

y

25

avTov
9
iriffrbv
dieS-oa-fjievos

TOV K\dBov TOVTOV' Kal
9,

direa'TV),
17, 18

10

cb TJTIS e?5oi/]

Kal

eif

rts ifSef

19

22

irpoffTaruv

26

Xe/i/'erat

8 adtonitum] Of. Tert. de Spectae. 25 pudicitiam ediscet attonitus in mimes? de Fiifif. 1 eeclesia in attonito est: de
Idol.

ceromate nos haphe excepit (an athletic

metaphor for a journey first through mud and then through dust et luto et
puluere laborauimus) Arrian Epictet. in. 15. 4 TroXXrjy a.<f>i)v Karairieiv (see
:

24 tuta
is

si

cauta, secura

si

attonita.

The sense

'keenly attentive.' 13 defrigere] I have kept the reading of A, as it may well represent a doublet
of 'defricare': ef. 'defrictus.'

It has been Schweighauser's note). suggested that here 'afa' is for 1SN; and indeed Hilgenfeld supposes a Punic

14 afa]

This

is

doubtless the same

original for the writings of Perpetua

and

word as 'haphe': cf. Martial Epigr. vn. 67 Harpasto quoque subligata ludit, Et flauescit haphe (arf>fj): Senec. Ep. 51 a

Saturus:

but no satisfactory evidence

has been adduced for this view.
21 istum] 'istud' A.

For the con-

78

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

mus ad

inuicem, et coepimus mittere pugnos. ille niihi pedes adprehendere uolebat ego autem illi calcibus faciem caedebam.
:

et sublata

sum

non
5

calcans.

in aere, et coepi eum sic caedere quasi terrain at ubi uidi moram fieri, iunxi manus, ut digitos in

digitos mitterem. et adprehendi illi caput, et cecidit in faciem ; et calcaui illi caput. et coepit populus clamare, et fautores mei
psallere. et accessi ad lanistam, et accepi ramum. et osculatus est me, et dixit mini Filia, pax tecum. et coepi ire cum gloria
:

10

ad portam Sanauiuariam. et experrecta sum: et intellexi me non ad bestias, sed contra diabolum esse pugnaturam sed sciebam mihi esse uictoriam. hoc usque in pridie muneris egi
:

:

ipsius

autem muneris actum, si quis uoluerit, scribat. XI. Sed et Saturus benedictus hanc uisionem suam
Passi, inquit, eramus, et

edidit,

quam
15

ipse conscripsit. carne, et coepimus ferri a quattuor angelis in orientem,

exiuimus de

quorum

ibamus autem non supini sursum cliuum ascendentes. et liberato primo uersi, sed quasi mollem mundo uidimus lucem immensam et dixi Perpetuae erat enim haec in latere meo Hoc est quod nobis Dominus pro20 mittebat percepimus promissionem. et dum gestamur ab ipsis quattuor angelis, factum est nobis spatium grande, quod tale ruit quasi uiridarium, arbores habens rosae et omne genus flores. altitude arborum erat in modum cypressi, quarum folia canebant

manus nos non

tangebat.

:

:

:

:

2
terrain

uolebat

;

non

calcans]

ego autem] querebat et ego B BC terrain eonealcans
;

3

aere] re

B

3,

4
;

A
5,

4
6

iuncxi
0711.

A*B

quasi uinxi C

manus] + ita
6
fauisores

BC A
BC

4,

5

in digito
(tert.)

B
8 a bestia

et cecidit

7

om. et

B
;

cepit

B

9

caput B sanauiuaria A
11 am. muneris

;

saneuiuariam
uictoria

10

a bestiis

A

B

om. esse

B
14

esse

A

;

uictoriam inminere
scribat

BC

hoc] hos

A
A

B

12
15

om. ipsius

B

seribat] + visio SATVKI

quam] + etB
;

16 tangebant B 17 uersus cepimus fieri B 17, 18 liberato primo mundo] A liberati glebam B 18 dix perpetua B primum iam mundo B ; liberati primain iam C (Ruin. )
carne] carcere

BC

BC

molle

A

19 baee] quoniam a latere nostro erat B quoniam erat a latere nostro C 22 arboris habens 21 grande] magnum B dominus nobis B 2 23 altitude] + autem B floris A B flores] A* rosaB; rosam C (Ruin.)
18, 19
;

hoc
in]

A

;

ad

B

canebant] conieci

;

cadebant

AB

;

ardebant

C

fusion of the terminations see
I. u.

Ronsch

V. p. 276 ('istum' for 'istud,' and

'ipsud' for 'ipsum').

Perpetua elsewhere only uses the simple The text moreover is confirmed by Acta lacobi &c. (Ruin. p. 226) cuius
verb.

4 non calcans] 'eonealcans' A: but

pedes terram non calcabant.

It is,

how-

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

79

Be d\ij\ot,<i Kal rjpgdjAeOa TrayKpar id%eW cKelvos e/zov -701)9 TroSas Kpareiv ri(3ov\ero' eyco Be Xa/cr/cr pacriv rrjv otyiv avrov

* ervirrov' teal IBov
09
/-tr

eV^pa

7ro

depos* KOI

r/p^dfjir/v

avrov

rvirreiv

irarovcra rrjv yr)v.

lBova"a Be 609 ovBeTrw

avrov evt;qo-a ra? ^etpa? pov Kal BaKrv\ovs BaKrv\oi<s Xovcra T^? /ee<aX?;9 avroO eVeXa/Sd/XT;^ /cat epp^a avrov eV r Kal rjp^aro Tra? o 6%Xo? oi/rei /cat k rrdrif](ja rrjv /cetpa'X.rjv avrov.
ftoav' Kal 01 aTTOvSacrraL ftov eyavpiwv.
(Sevrf)
1

Kal ekafBov rov K\dSov' Kal ^p^dunjv ev0v<? TropevecrOaL EilpijV'r) perd crov, Ovjarep' Kal e^vrrvio-Qyv 0^779 7T/J09 'TrvXijv rrjv \eryouevrjv ^wriKtjv.

Kal 7rpoo-r]###BOT_TEXT###ov rw /3paKal ^crirdcraro ae Kal elirev'
fjuerd 10
'

Kal
TJ

evorjcra
eo~o/j,evr)

on

ov irpos d^pia /AOL d\d irpos rov 8id/3ov ecrriv ravra ete)9 ua^r]' Kal <rvvfJKa on viKrjcra) avrov.
'

6

r&v (f>L\orifjii(Sv eypatya Oekwv a-vyjpa-^fdrd}.

rd ev

rat

dpfyidedrpw
15

XL
avros
St'

'AAA,a Kal 6 iiaKapios 2arvpo9

TIJV

iSlav orcraaiav

eavrov a-vyypd^a^ e^avepwcrev roiavra elpijKQ}'?. "HSij, 609 TreTTOvOores Kal K 7779 aapKos e^\tj\vOeLfji6v, Kal
i

crrd^Ga-dai VTTO re&crdpo&v dyye\cov 7T/J09 dvaro\d s, Kal al %eipe9 rjfiwv ov% r/7rrovro' eTropevo/j^eda Be e/9 rd dvaorepa, 20 KOL ov% virnoL dC olov 009 BL 6/j,a\,7Js dvaftdcrea)*; ecpepoueOa.

Kal

ST;

e^e6vre^ rov irpwrov

KOO-/JLOV <^>co9

\a^ jrporarov

r

e'lBouev

'

Kal elirov Trpos rrjv Hepirerovav (TrKirjo-iov ydp /MOV r}v)' Tovro evriv oTrep 6 Kvpios rj^wv eTrrjyyefaaro' fj,erei\,ij(j)a/jLev rfjs eTray<ye\ta9.

alajpovftevcov Be rffA(5v Bid r&v re&crdpwv dyye\(ov eyevero 25 a-rdBiov aeya, OTrep wael Kr/iro^ rjv e%wv poBov BevBpa, Kal irav fyei/09 r&v dvOecav' TO Be #1^09 rwv BevBpcov ^v (acrel Kvirapicraov
5 5aK7i^Xous] daKTij\ois
ever, doubtful
'quasi.'

10 7]^fj.ev

25
eorpore.

whether we should retain
Of. infra,

eorum

9 ad
p. 90,

portam Sanauiuariam]
21.
'

For 'liberare' in the 17 liberate] sense of 'to pass' cf. Petron. Sat. 136

1.

This stands in contrast to

necdum liberaueram
animaduerto &e.

cellulae limen,

cum

the 'porta Libitinensis through which the dead bodies of gladiators were carried

Other examples are

on the

'libitina': cf.

16 galea eius bis

Lamprid. Commod. per portam Libitinenplural (BC) is
:

given in Pacciolati. 22 omne genus flores]

The

adjectival
'

sem

elata est.

use of 'omne genus' is frequently found in Lucretius and Varro: so too 'id genus

16 tangebat]

The

an
1.

and quod
'

genus.'

unnecessary correction

cf.

p. 88,
1.

8

23 canebant]

See above,

p. 38.

animani nostram, and

p. 92,

20 in

80
sine
cessatione.

PASSIO
ibi

S.

PERPETVAE.

alii quattuor angeli qui ubi uiderunt nos honorem nobis Ecce sunt, ecce sunt dederunt, et dixerant ceteris angelis cum admiratione. et expauescentes quattuor illi angeli, qui ges-

.autem in uiridario
:

fuerunt clariores ceteris

:

:

5

tabant nos, deposuerunt nos et pedibus nostris transiuimus stadium uiolatum ubi inuenimus locundum et Saturninum et
:

:

Artaxium, qui eadem persecutione uiui arserunt et Quintnm, qui et ipse martyr in carcere exierat et quaerebamus de illis ubi essent. ceteri angeli dixerunt nobis Venite prius, introite,
;
;
:

10 et salutate

Dominum.
;

XII.

Et uenimus prope locum, cuius

quasi de luce aedificati tuor stabant, qui introeuntes uestierunt stolas Candidas,
introiuimus, et audiuimus
15
:
:

loci parietes tales erant, et ante ostium loci illius angeli quat-

et

uocem unitam dicentem Agios, agios, sine cessatione. et uidimus in eodem loco sedentem quasi agios bominem canurn, niueos habentem capillos, et uultu iuuenili et in dextra et in sinistra seniores cuius pedes non uidimus.
;

quattuor et post illos ceteri seniores conplures stabant. et introeuntes cum admiratione stetimus ante thronum et quattuor
;
:

20

angeli subleuauerunt nos et osculati sumus ilium, et de manu sua traiecit nobis in faciem. et ceteri seniores dixerunt nobis
:

:

Stemus.
seniores
dixit
25 rior
:

et

stetimus, et

pacem

fecimus.
:

et

dixerunt nobis

Ite et ludite.
:

et dixi

Perpetuae
in

mibi

Deo

gratias, ut

quomodo

Habes quod uis. et came hilaris fui, hila-

sum

et hie niodo.

XIII. Et exiuimus, et uidimus ante fores Optatum episcopum 2 ubi] ibi G (Ruin.) fuerunt quattuor angeli alii B nos] + et om. eece sunt (sec.) BC (Ruin.) 3 dederunt] + nos A* 4 BC (Ruin.) cum admiratione. et expauescentes] expauescentes cum admiratione BC (Ruin.)
1,2
4, 5

conieci

6 uiolatum] pedimus A iucundum, satyrum, artaxium B 8 de] ab B 9 ubi 7 eadem persecutione] eandem persecutionem passi B
5
; ;

gestabant nos] stabant BC (Ruin.) uiolata A uia lata B ubi] ibi

B

essent ceteri.
12, 13

dixerunt autem nobis angeli B prius introite] primum intro B 13 qui introeuntes uestierunt erant angeli quatuor (om. stabant) B 14 introistolas Candidas, et] introeuntes et nos uestiti stolas Candidas B

uimus] + et uidimus lucem imnensam
14, 15 agius, agius, agius

B

unitam] mutatam

B

dicentium

B

15 eodem loco] medio loci illius BC 17 sinistra] 18 quattuor] uiginti quattuor BC om. seniores B -i-eius B 18, 19 et in20 om. 19 cum] + magna B admiratione] + et B troeuntes] introiuimus B 22 stetimus] stemus B 21 om. nobis (sec.) B 23 dixi Perpetuae] dixit pernosB

B

petua

B

24 dixit mihi] dixi

B

24, 25 hilariorem et hie (om.

modo)

B

26 obtatum A

PASSIO
fj,r)KO<;,

S.

PERPETVAE.

81

r]o-av Be

dKarairavcrra)^ Be Kare<f)epero rd SevBpa rd <f>vX\a avroov. fj,e0' tffJLwv ev avrto rco Krjirm ol re<r<rape<; dyye\ot, d\rf'

&v e^epofjueBa' Trroovpevovs Se rjp,a<; Kal * KOI * 6av{Jid%ovra<$ diredijKav, Kal dve\aj3ov Kal 6Bov Xa/3oz>re9 e/cei evpopev 'lot/Bir###BOT_TEXT###ofjiV TO trrdBiov rot9 riperepois TTOOTIV.
\a)v evBo^orepoi, v$>

5

KovvBov Kal ^drvpov Kal 'Aprdgiov, TOV? ev avrw TO) 8ia)jaS owTa<? Kpefj,aa0evTa<;' e'tSopev Se K.OIVTOV rov pdprvpa rbv ev

ry

(j}v\a/cfj

airoQavovra' e^rjrovpev Se Kal irepl T<OV XotTT&v irov

apa

elaiv' Kal CITTOV ol ayyeXot, TT^O?

^a?' Aevre

Trpcorov

eVw
10

iva dtfTrdcrijcrde rov Kvpiov.

rov TOTTOV eKeivov rov e^ovros rofyow; waavel eK 0tOT09 wKoSo^fjuevov^, Kal Trpo T^? Ovpas rov TOTTOV eKeivov el<re6vre<$ ol recra-apes dyye\oi eveSva-av q/jids Xev/ca? (TToXa9' Kal elafaOopev Kal riKovcra^ev (fravrjv tfvcofj,evi]v
rj###BOT_TEXT###ofj,ev TT\I)O-IOV
r/

XII.

Kat

\ey6vr(ov'
ev

Afyt09,

07^09,

ayios,

aKarairavo-rw^.

Kal eiSo/Aev

15

/^eo-ft) rov roirov eKeivov KaOe^o^evov cw9 avOpwirov 7ro\i6v' ov al T|0t%69 ofjiOLai XLOVO? Kal veapov TO irpbamrcov avrov'

Be
Sej;i<av

avrov OVK eOeaa-dfieda.
e

7T/oecr/3u repot

Kal recrarapes

evcovvfjuwv tfo~av

avrov'

Be reacrapes eK oViVw Be ro5v

recrcrdp<ov 7roX,Xot Trpecr/Svrepoi.

0)9 Be Qavftd^ovres el<re\ri\v6a- 10 Kal ecrryiiev evwiriov rov 6p6vov, ol Tecrcrapes d<y<ye\oi eTrrjpav Kal e^>t\Tj<Tapev avrov, Kal rf %etpt 7repie\a(3ev ol Be XoiTrot rrpecrfSvrepol elirov rrpbs ^f^d^'
,

Kal Trpocrev^wfJieOa.

Kal

elptjvoTroirjo'avre^

d7rea-rd\ rjfjuev
i

VTTO

r&v
f

irpecrftvrepcov,

\e<yovr(ov'

Tfopevecrffe

et-jrov'

HepTrerova,

6^et9 o eftovXov.

Kal ^alpea-ffe. Kal elrrev' Tc3 6e(p

Kal 25

(va, co 9 ev crapKl fjuerd

%apd$
f.;

eyevofAfjv, irKeiova

%apc3 vvv.
^

XIII.
6 uiolatum]
scattering of

*Eil;r)\Qo[Mev Be Kal etBo[J,ev irpb

rwv dvpwv

See above, pp. 39
violets

and
DIE

(t 576),

compare the rare word
PABENTALI MEG, ITEM

'uiolatio' for the

p.

182

:

quoted by Duchesne Culte Ghret. incipiente praesule ecclesia Aius

on graves
xi. KAL.

:

APB. DIE

dicens latinum com graeco. find both forms also in the Mozarabic
psallit,

We

VIOLATIONIS, ITEBI XII. KAL. IVNIAS DIE

EOSATIONIS, Inscr. ap. Bibl. Vallicell. 26,
p.

261 (quoted by White and Eiddell).
9 ceteri angeli]
Cf. 'ceteris angelis,'
3.

Liturgy. 15 sine cessatione] Of. 1. phrase occurs several times

1.

in

This the

1.

to the

The reading of BC meaning of 'ceteri.'

gives

no clue

Proper Prefaces of the Gothic Missal (Migne P. L. 72 pp. 231, 233, 277, 317). 21 traiecit nobis in faciem] For a
possible interpretation of this difficult

14 Agios] For the survival of the Greek form of the Ter Sanctus, cf. S. Germain
R.

phrase see above, p. 27.

6

82

PASSIO

S.

PEEPETVAE.

ad dexteram, et Aspasium presbyterum doctorem ad sinistram, et miserunt se ad pedes nobis, et dixeseparates et tristes.
runt
et
:

Componite inter
illis
:

diximus

Non

tu es

nos, quia existis, et sic nos reliquistis. papa noster, et tu presbyter ? ut

5"uos

ad pedes nobis mittatis ? et moti sumus et conplexi illos sumus. et coepit Perpetua graece cum illis loqui: et segregauiums eos in uiridarium sub arbore rosae. et dum loquimur cum eis, dixerunt illis angeli: Sinite illos refrigerent; et si quas
habetis inter uos dissensiones, dimittite uobis inuicem.
et con;

10

turbauerunt

quia sic bus certantes.

Optato Corrige plebem tuam ad te conueniunt quasi de circo redeuntes, et de factionieos.

et dixerunt

:

et sic nobis
illic

uisum

est quasi uellent claudere

multos fratres cognoscere, sed et marportas. uniuersi odore inenarrabili alebamur, qui nos satiabat. tyras.
et coepimus
15

tune gaudens experrectus sum.

XIV.

morum

uisiones insigniores ipsorum martyrum beatissiSaturi et Perpetuae, quas ipsi conscripserunt. Secundu-

Hae

lum uero Deus maturiore
euocauit,
20

exitu de saeculo adhuc in carcere non sine gratia, ut bestias lucraretur. gladium tamen etsi non anima certe caro eius agnouit. XY. Circa Felicitatem uero, et illi gratia Domini eius2 nobis et] nostros

B

2,

3 dixerunt] + nobis

B

4

illis]
;

+ optati B

;

+ opes
5,

tate

C C

non] nonne C
illos

ut] quid

eonpleximur
tato

papa noster] papa noster es B pater noster 5 nobis] nostros BC moti sumus] misimus nos B 6 om. graece A 7 uiridario B (om. sumus) B
es

C
6 8

sinite illos refrigerent] quiescite et refrigerate

BC
;

(Ruin.)

om.

si

B
;

10 ob-

A

;

obtate

B

11,
;

13, 14 martiras

A

martyres

12 factionibus] BC fatigationibus A 13 om. sed et B 14 uniuersi] ubi B saciabat A sanabit 16 hae] Hoist.; et

B B

15 gaudens] + etB sunt in signo B
et

experrecta A 19 reuocauit

AB

insigniores]

B

gladium] gaudium

B

20

etsi]

B

21 uero] + nam

B
of
of

1 presbyterum doctorem]
substantives in apposition
African.

The use
instead

attributes is regarded by Sittl as specially

19 ut bestias lucraretur] By his death in prison Saturus 'saved himself the beasts.' Cf. Cic. Verr. 11. 1. 12 lucretur
indicia ueteris infamiae
'

See the examples which he

(i.e.

I shall say

gives (Lok. Versch. p. 110), e.g. 'exhibitor magistratus' in Arnobius. So

nothing about them,' a present of them').
is

'I shall

make him

A

closer parallel

we have
'

above, p. 74,

1.

13 'miles optio

Ammian.

Marcell. xix. 4. 3 (speaking
:

praepositus carceris,' and below, p. 84, 1. 6 sociam quasi comitem,'

of the Trojan war)

hinc

cum

decennali

bello Graecia desudaret,

ne peregrinus

PASSIO
*

S.

PERPETVAE.
TrpecrftitTepov Trpbs

83 ra dpt-

TOV eiria-KOTTOV KOI

Kwrraaiov TOV

arepa f^eprj $iaKe%copia-fj,evov<; KOI irepih-inrovs. KOI irea-ovres 7rpo9 rov<i TroSas rjfimv efyaaav rjpA,v' AtaXXa^are ijfJias Trpo?
aXX7;Xou9
fjiev

on

7T/009

e^e\rj\v0aTe KOI OVTCOS ^//.a? dtptj/care. KOI e'iiraavTOVS' Oy^t av Trdiras rj^irepos el, /cal <rv irpeiva
r

5

o-ySyrepo?;
fcal

rt OUT&)? 7rpo<re7re<rare rot? ^ytierepot?
TrepieX-dftofAev
/^er'

TTOO-IV

;

cnr\a y')(yio'OevTs
(ZUTO49
6i?
TOZ/

TlepTrerova 'EXA-^z/ia^t
CTVV
'

KIJTTOV

avrovs fcal rjp^aTO avroov o/uXety, /cat d V7TO TO SevSpOV TOV f)6SoV.
ol
/cal

rj

\a\ovvTwv 'EaVare avTovs dvatyv^ai, s'
,

aryye\oi

7r/?09 10

el

rivas St'%o<TTaa'ia<?
OVTO>

d<f>Te vp,els aXX?7Xot9.

teal eireirKri^av CIVTOVS

teal eiTrav 'OTrrarft)'

^^iTravopdaxrai TO

7r\rj06<i crov'

yap
15

7rpo9

(re, tocret

a?ro tTTTroBpo/jLiwv eiravep^o^evoL Kai
evo^i^ofjuev

avTwv
d7roK\ei(rat,

ikoveiKovvTes.
/cat

Be

avTov^ W9 Oekeiv
TTO\OV<;

eicel

pTvpas' eTpe(f>6/j,eOa Se OVK e%6pTaev r^as' Kal

XIV. Avrat
ical

at bpdcreis e/AtfiavecrTaTai, TWV fJiapTvpwv l^aTvpov 20

9 avTol trvveypd^ravTO' TOV ydp TlepTrerovas eK TOV KOCTJJLOV //.ereTre/n/raTO [6 ^609]' ev ydp Tp

crvv

TO
p,r)

6 rjpiofJ(,a'xf)a-aL'
i

el
t'^>

fv

d\ovvye

TTJV crap/ca
25

avTov

Stef;rj###BOT_TEXT###ev TO

XY.
7
<rir

'AXXa

/cat

r
6crfj.rj]

TOU ^eou
us
fj.ri

legebat

non

satiabat

22 om.

6

poenas

dissoeiati
i.e.
'

regalis

inatrimonii

lucraretur,

should escape the penalty
Of. Acts xxvii. 21 Kep-

ii. 5, supposed by the Greek translator who introduces Sie-

ference to Lc.

of his outrage.'
brfffai

rjev

for

'

agnouit,'

is

not

certain.

re rty vfipiv radirr)v Kal TTJV ^tjfj.lav, lucrique facere hiiuriam hanc et iacturam

The meaning seems

to be 'he escaped
:

The parallel therefore with (Vulg.). Ignat. Rom. 3 6va.lft.iiv ruv dijp'uav falls to
the ground. 20 etsi non anima certe caro]
'caro' against all the
I

the beasts, but not the sword his body, ' though not his soul, knew the sword ;

and we may perhaps compare Matt.
28.

x.

have
re-

been umvilling to transpose 'anima' and

beheaded in the prison; or 'the sword' may be a figure of speech for the sufferings which caused
his death.

He may have been

MSS.

The

62

84

PASSIO
contigit.

S.

PEKPETVAE.

modi

iam mensium uentrem haberet, (nam praegnans fuerat adprehensa) instante spectaculi die, in magno erat luctu, ne propter uentrem differretur quia non licet praegocto
;
:

cum

nantes poenae repraesentari
5

et

ne inter

alios

postea sceleratos

sanctum et innocentem sanguinem funderet. sed et com martyres grauiter contristabantur, ne tarn bonam sociam quasi comitem solam in uia eiusdem spei relinquerent. coniuncto itaque unito gemitu ad Dominum orationem fuderunt ante tertium diem muneris. statim post orationem dolores inuaseet cum pro naturali difficultate octaui mensis in partu laborans doleret, ait illi quidam ex ministris cataractariorum Quae sic modo doles, quid facies obiecta bestiis, quas contempsisti
:

10 runt,

cum

sacrificare

noluisti

?

et

ilia

respondit

:

Modo ego

15

patior quod patior; illic autem alius erit in me qui patietur pro me, quia et ego pro illo passura sum. ita enixa est puellam,

quam

sibi

XVI.

quaedam soror in filiam educauit. Quoniam ergo permisit et permittendo
etsi

uoluit Spiritus

Sanctus ordinem ipsius muneris conscribi,

indigne ad suppleeius exequimur,

mentum

tantae gloriae

describendae, tamen quasi mandatum

20 sanctissimae

Perpetuae,

immo fideicommissum
ipsius

unum

adicientes

doeumentum de

constantia et animi

sublimitate.

admonitionibus

cum a tribune castigatius eo tractantur, quia ex hominum uanissimorum uerebatur, ne subtra;

herentur de carcere incantationibus aliquibus magicis

in faciem

1 mensium] mensuum non pregnatus erat B

A

;

meti suum

B
(Ruin.)

1,

2

nam

praegnans fuerat]
differeretur

n

2 instante spectaculi die in 3 luctae

magno] expectans expee-

A B 5, 6 cornmartyres] + eius B derelinquerent B fecerunt B 8 itaque] + et B 9 et statim B gemito ad deum B 11 catarectariorum A cata10 naturali] natura B dolores] + earn B faties cum abiecta fueris B ractareorum B 12, 13 om. sic A quia condicens ego modo B 13 noluisti ? et] uoluisti B 14 tempsisti et B 15 puella A 16 om. quaedam B pro me patietur B illic] ille B 18 etsi] ut si A edocauit AB filia A 17 promisit B indigne] B 19 describendae] describenti A illorum describende B 20 indigna A 21 continentiae et de anima B 22 traetanti A 22, 23 exequamur B cum quia] quia tribuno castiganti [-e C (Ruin.)] eos et male tractante, quoniam BC ammonitionibus A 23 uerberatur B
taculum diem.
possit deferri

Imago

B

C

uentre

A

;

B

3,

4 pregnantes penas presentari B om. in B 7 comitantem B

alios] aliquos

;

;

;

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

85

e860r). etceivr) yap <7fXX'?7<#ecra orcrw JJLTJVWV e^ovcra yacrrepa, rrdvv ooBvpero, Start OVK e^ecrrtv eyfcvjiova d-rjptofjia^elv r} rtpo)petcrOai, pr/7ra)<> vcrrepov perd aX\wv dvoaicov e/c^vdfj ro al/Jia,

avrfjs TO d0q)ov.

aXXa KOI

rjcrav a~<f>68pa ovrto KaXrjv crvvepyov teal cacrel

ol crv/jLfj,dprvpe$ avrrjs 7repi\v7rot avvoBonropov ev 68a>
irpo rpirrj^ ovv

5

avrrjs erl8o<f prj

OeXovres KaTa\ei7reiv.

rov TrdOovs

CLVTOOV /cotvq) crrevayfjbm evcodevres
real

irpoaev^v
%aAe-

TOV Kvpiov eiroLrjcravro'
es avrrjv crvve<T^ov,
fcal fjuerd

evdvs pera rrfv nrpocrev^rjv
pr)vo<$ fyvcriv
e<^rj

Kara

rrjv

rov oySoov
rj\yei.

rov ro/cerov

fca/jLovcra

Traparrjpovvrcov inrypercov'
f3\ rj0eicra TT/JO?
teal
i

Se ri$ avrf 10 Et vvv ovrws dXyeis, ri e^e*?
Kare<f>p6wrj(ras ore eTTiOvetv
Katceivij dTreKpiOr)'

Orjpia,

wv

eyon
efjiov'

Trda")(w

o

OVK ^eX^cra? Ovcrat; eKel Be aXXo? "Trdcr^Kt'
f

Nvi/

ecrrat ev epol tva

7rd0rj,

Trdo'^cov virep Start eyco Tracr^co virep avrov.
et9

e<rrlv

6

15

erefcev Se Kopdcriov, o fita

rwv aSeX^xwy crv\a/3ov(ra

Bvyarepa

dveOpetyev avry.

XVI.

'HjU-tv Se

dvaypdyjrat rrjv rdjftv
<racrav' 7r\rjv co?

dva^iois ovcriv iirerpetyev TO aytov Trvevfta rrjv eVt Tat? <^tXoTi/itat9 rrapaKO\ovdiji

vrd\fj,art rrjs fAarcaptas TlepTrerovas /iaXXoy 20

Be

cJ?

tce\evafjt,art inrvjperovvres dvaTr'X.'rjpov^ev
tJ<?

TO Trpocrra-^dev

r/p,lv.

airwv,

rj

Be TrXetof? r//J.epat Steytvovro ev rf} (fjvT^afcfj ovrcov fieya<ppwv KOI dvBpeta co? d\r)0&<s TlepTrerova, rov v aTT'rjvecrrepov avrots ?rpoo'<f)epo/j,evov, rivoov vrpo? avrov
r

&iaj3ef3a[G>crafi,evu>v
i

TO Belv
)

<f>o/3elcr8ai,

/i^Vw? 67rcp8at9

25

v 7re^ea>a'tv evwirtov aTrefcptdrj \eyovo~a'

11 cataractariorum] 'Cataracta' seems

otherwise agrees with

A in this passage:

In to be a portcullis in Liv. xxvii. 28. Jerem. xx. 2, 3 it is the LXX. word for
'the stocks.'

Quae

sic
?

modo

doles, quid facies obiecta

bestiis

meaning
doubt
official.

for

'

This suggests a possible cataractarius here no
' :

18 ordinem ipsius muneris] Of. supra, p. 78, 1. 12 ipsius muneris actum &c.

it is

a technical
is

name
'

for a prison

For a discussion

The phrase
'

cataractariorum

ministris

borrowed in Acta Montani
'

of the reading of the following sentences see the separate note on p. 100.

&c.

c.

17 (Bum. p. 236).

19

mandatum]

This

is

used of a last

12 Quae sic modo] { sic is supported by the abbreviated lection in the Breviary
of

injunction which can be legally enforced: cf. Cic. pro Eosc. Amer. c. 38 itaque
manclati constitution est indicium

Quimper

(see

above,

p.

21),

which

non

86
ei

PASSIO
respondit
:

S.

PERPETVAE.

nobilissimis,

Quid utique non permittis nobis refrigerare noxiis Caesaris scilicet, et natali eiusdem pugnaturis?
;

aut non tua gloria est, si pinguiores illo producamur ? horruit et erubuit tribunus et ita iussit illos humanius haberi, ut fratri5

bus eius et ceteris facultas
eis
;

fieret introeundi, et refrigerandi

cum

ro

iam et ipso optione carceris credente. XVII. Pridie quoque cum illam cenam ultiniam, quam liberam uocant, quantum in ipsis erat non cenam liberam sed agapen cenarent, eadem constantia ad populum uerba ista iactabant, comminantes iudicium Dei, contestantes passionis suae felicitatem, inridentes concurrentium curiositatem
;

dicente Saturo
uidetis

:

Crastinus
odistis?

satis

uobis

non

est,

quod

libenter

quod

hodie amici, eras inimici. notate tamen nobis facies nostras diligenter, ut recognoscatis nos in die illo. ita omnes
15

inde adtoniti discedebant: ex quibus multi crediderunt. XVIII. Inluxit dies uictoriae illorum, et processerunt de
carcere in amphitheatrum, quasi in caelum, hilares uultu decori si forte gaudio pauentes non timore. sequebatur Perpetua
;

lucido incessu, ut niatrona Christi, ut Dei delicata
1 ei] et

:

uigore ocu-

B

respondit]

+ perpetua

et dixit

B

nos

B

2 nobilissimi

BC

si licet et

natalis

A
B

;

scis

permittis nobis] dimisisti 2, 3 qua natale B

eius sumus pugnaturi (om. aut) B humanius habere BC mauibus hiberi
;

A
B

3 pinguior est illuc B 6 iam et] tamen A

4 om.
7
ilia

ita

B

cena
con-

ultima
stantes

A B
C

9 agapen] adipem passioni

B B

om. ista

10 domini

A

A

suae] sue et

11 inritantes
uobis satis

A

;

inredeantes

B
C

;

irridentes

12 crastinus] + dies

B

quod] quid

;

qui

B 13 uidistis B 14 illo] + iuditii B nobis] uobis BC (Ruin.) 15 discesserunt B + iudicii C omnes] multi BC (Ruin.) crediderunt] 18 si forte] quasi BC 17 in (pr.)] ad B + PASSIO VT SUPBAA hilares] + et B 19 lucido] placido uultu et pedum B om. ut (sec.) B timore] pauore B uigorem oculorum suorum deitiens ab omnium condelicata] dilecta BC
;

spectu

B
demned persons
' '

minus turpe quam furti. 'Fideicommissum' is rather an obligation of
honour: see above, p. 52.

(noxiis)

who
'

are

to

grace his festival by their death. Hence Caesaris scilicet ; where if nobilissimi'
'

The combined evi2 nobilissimis] dence of A and g shews that this is the
true reading.
'

Nobilissimus

'

is

a con-

stant epithet for a Caesar, and is applied to Geta in inscriptions. Here the epithet
of the Caesar is transferred to the con-

(BC) be read, the point is lost, and scilicet is out of place. 11 inridentes] Possibly 'inritantes' (A) should be retained in the sense of
'

'setting at nought,' 'frustrating,'
'inrito':
cf.

from

Eonsch

J. u.

V. p. 165.

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

87

Atart

fjfuv dva\a[A/3dveiv

OVK

eTTtrpeTret? ovo/JbacrTol^
pr}

Kalcrapos <yeve0\ioi<; dva\a>drja'opJ evoi<; ;
eo-Tiv,

<ydp ov^l

err)

efi oarov Trloves Trpoo-ep^opeda ; Trpos ravra etyp^ev fcal eSva-(07ni0r) o ^tTu'ap^o?, efcs\ev<rev re avTovs <j)L\avdpa)7r6repov
elo-e###BOT_TEXT###elv Kal dvakapJSdveiv

Bidyeiv, 009 teal TOV dSe\(j)ov avrijs Kal \onrovs Ttvas Seovvfjcr0at per ai/rcav. TOTS Kal auro? o r^5
(f)v\aKf}<; TTjOoecrTco? eTTLa-revcrev.

5

ore TO ea^arov eicelvo SeiTrvov, oTrep eXevOepov ovo/jud^ova'iv, ocrov Se e0' eaurot? OVK e\ev0epov
/cal TTpo /Aids

XVII.

'AXXa

BeiTrvov dC dyaTrrjv eVe/caX,otv rjj

avrwv

Trapprjaia' TT/OO? Se 10
e^i'irep.'n'ov

rbv

o%\oi>

TOV

e/cetcre

'jrapeo'TMTa

pij/^ara

//.era

Trapprjcrlas aurot? <z7ret\o)i/re9

Kplcrtv 0eov, dv0o/j,o\oTTJV
9

TOV
Trepiepyeiav
r^fjbepa
vfjblv

fj,aKapt,crfjLov

TOV 7rd0ovs eavTa>v, KaTaje###BOT_TEXT###lt;avTe<;

TOOV

OVK

o-vvTpe-^ovTcov, ^LaTvpov \eyovTos' eVap/cet; Tt 778^009 opare 01)9 /AKreire'
r

H

avptov

crrj^epov 15

<f)L\oi'

avpiov

e'%^/aot;

jr\r)v

7rio-r)jj,eia>o-ao-0e
<

ra
TT,

irpoffwira rjptov
r^fjbepa.
coi/

e7rtyu.eA.co9

Iva Kal eirtyvooTe r}/J<a< $ ev eKelvrj eKeldev e/CTrX^TTo/u-e^ot e^wpi^ovTo"

OVTO><$

e!;

7r\elo~Toi

XVIII.
0ov

8e ijpepa

avTwv
009 et9

KOI 7rpofj\- 20

K

Tr)<>

(pvaKrs
^>o/3ft>.

et9

TO

[A(pi6aTpov

ovpavov

i\apol
jj,dX\.ov

Kal (paiSpol
rj

TrpocrwTrw, inoovjievoi el TV^OL )jKo\ov06t Se 77 TiepTreTova Trpdws /3aSiovcra,
6(p0a\fjt,a>,

TW

co9 /jiaTpatva

Xpio-rov, eyprjiyopa)
14

Kal Ty
15
L'

TT/oocroT/ret

Ka-

irXeioves

19 ut matrona Christi] 'Matrona,' 'the
true
wife,'
is

such as C.

I.

L. Afr, 2861
D. M. s.

frequently

opposed
i.

to

meretrix'; e.g. Hor. Ep. matrona meretrici dispar
Discolor.

18.

3 ut

IVLIAE DELICATAE

erit atque This to some extent prepares the way for the startling use of deli'

HEBENTI
DIDIVS FRVCTVS Bf
LAlic
V. AN.

cata'

which follows. ut Dei delicata] A bold expression, altered in BC and omitted altogether in
'Delicata' is applied
to

XXXXIII

(ib. 10889) DELICATVS and SCHOLASTICVS are names

In another African Inscr.

the Greek.

of race-horses.
Christi Dei
(cf.
'

With the

restoration of

Perpetua below, p. 90, 1. 12; but there its sense is obvious and quite different.
Its

the true text the supposed reference in
'

to Ignat.
7),

meaning here,

'

favorite' or

'

darling,'

Qeov

Trail.

Smyrn. 10 X/uoroO always uncertain,

may

be illustrated from

Inscriptions,

disappears entirely.

88

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

lorum deiciens omnium conspectum. item Felicitas, saluam se peperisse gaudens ut ad bestias pugnaret, a sanguine ad sanguinem, ab obstetrice ad retiarium, lotura post partum baptismo secundo. et cum ducti essent in portam, et cogerentur habitum 5 induere, uiri quidem sacerdotum Saturni, feminae uero sacratarum Cereri generosa ilia in finem usque constantia repugna;

uit.

dicebat enim

:

nostra obduceretur

;

Ideo ad hoc sponte peruenimus, ne libertas ideo animam nostram addiximus, ne tale

ro iustitiani

aliquid facerenius: hoc uobiscum pacti sumus. agnouit iniustitia concessit tribunus, quomodo erant, simpliciter in:

Perpetua psallebat, caput iani Aegyptii calcans. Reuocatus et Saturninus et Saturus populo spectanti comminabantur de hoc.
et

ducerentur.

15

ut sub conspectu Hilariani peruenerint, gestu nutu coeperunt Hilariano dicere Tu nos, inquiunt, te autem Deus. ad hoc populus exasperatus, flagellis eos uexari pro
:

ordine uenatorum postulauit. et utique gratulati sunt, quod aliquid eL.de dominicis passionibus essent consecuti.

XIX. Sed qui

dixerat Petite

et accipietis

petentibus dederat

eum exitum
20 se

quern quisque desiderauerat. nam, si quando inter de martyrii sui uoto sermocinabantur, Saturninus quidem

omnibus bestiis uelle se obici profitebatur: ut scilicet gloriosiorem gestaret coronam. itaque in commissione spectaculi reuocatus leopardo expertus etiam super pulpitum ab urso erat 2 perisse B ad (pr.)] a AB om. ad sanguinem ABC 4 et delati in habitu A 5 7 saturnini feminarum uero sacrorum portam cum essent B 6 cererum A 7 dicegenerosa in finem. usque constantiam repugnabit B animas nostras BC 8 adduceretur B bant A ne] de B enim] ergo B 10 iustitiam] + et BC tribunus] + ut BC addiximus] C adduximus AB 11 om. Perpetua A 11, 12 reuocatus satyrus et saturninus populum expec13 de hoc] Dehinc BC tanti perminabantur. B ut] iam B perue14 inquiunt] iudicabit C om. B 15 ad] non ad B nerant B flagellas B 17 et de] ex B 16 et utique] utique illi B 15, 16 per ordinem BC 18 dix B dedit B 19 cum exitum que in quis desiderauerat accepit B 20 uoto] uocis B 21 ut scilicet] scilicet ut felicem et B sermocinabatur B 22 coronam] curam B 23 leospeetaculi] + ipse et BC itaque] + eum B pardum experti BC
;

;

5

saeerdotum

Saturni]

For

the

Harris's notes

(p.

62 and Introd. p.

5).

worship of the African Saturn cf. Berger and Cagnat, Un Sanctuaire de Saturne
a Am-Tounga, Paris, 1889. sacratarum Cereri] 5, 6

The omission of any reference to Perpetua's husband is strange; but his
ingenious suggestion
is

not altogether

See

Mr

convincing.

PASSIO
Ta/3d\ovcra
'Xaipovcra
ra<?

S.

PERPETVAE.
6uoia)<;
f

89
real
77

TrdvTcov opdcreis.

eirl rf}

TOV rofcerov vjeia iva

O^pio^a-^rja-'tj,

aVo

aJ/ta-

ro9 et9 alaa,

CLTro fjuaias TT/OO?

uovofjia^iav, yu-eXXoucra \ovcracrOai

fierd TOV TOKCTOV, ftaTrricrfjbq) BevTepw, rovrecm TO> IBio) CLL^LCLTL. ore Be fjry<yio~av irpo TOV d/jL<j)i0ed.Tpov, rfvayrcd^ovTo ev^varacrdai ol pev dppeve? lepecov Kpovov, al Be 0r)\eiai T^
, '

5

aXTi'

77

evyeveo-TaTT)

eem/

IlepTreTOua irapprjaia
efcovcricos

craro e&)9 TeA,oi9*
e\r)\v0a/Aev, iva
rj

eXeyey 7a/>'

Ata TOVTO
fjurj

et9

TOWTO
TTJV

e\ev6epia

tfjJbwv

TjTTyOf)'

Sid TOVTO

tyvxfiv

tffj,<av

TrapeBcofcapev,

'iva

ftrjBev

T&V

TOVTO (TvveTa^dfjieda fied' VJJLGOV. eire<yvw 77 wr)v' Kal /j,6Te7reiTa eVeT/je-^rez/ 6 ^tXi'ap^o9 iva OVTCOS elcra^Ow(9 tfo-av' teal rf HepTreTova etyaXhev, Trjv K(f>a\rjv TOV
vTTTiov
e

TOIOVTO&V Trpd^aj/jiev' 10 dBifcia TTJV BiKaioo-v-

77877

TraTovaa.

'Peov/caTos Be Kal 2aTov/cmA,09 KOI
ep/rrpo- 15

Sarw/309 TO) OecopovvTi
crOev
ere

6'%Xw 7rpo<ra)fAi\ovv Kal yevofievoi, l\apidvov, Kivij/jLacriv Kal vevfjiaaiv etya&av'
77/009

o ^eo9.

TavTa dypiwOels

6

0^X09

[tao-Ti'ywOfjvai

e/3o?7cr6V

aXXa

ot aytot ij<ya\ido-0'r)<rav OTI

VTrepeivdv TL Kal

TWV KvpiaK&v 7ra0a>v. XIX. 'AXX' 6 etTTcoz/
1

AireTcOe KAI AHVfecGe eBcoKev roi9 atTT^- 20

a-aaiv TavTijv Trjv S6%av oiav e/ca<7TO9

avTwv

eireOv^rjcrev.

eiTTOTe

yap

jjieff

eavTwv
fj,ev

os

Trepl r^9 ev^r)? TOV papTVpiov (rvve\d\,ovv, SaTracriv Tot9 0f)pioi<i ^\ r}0r)vat eavTov QeXeiv [eXejev]
<

'iva

evBo^oTepov crTetyavov d'jro\d^rj.

ev dp^rj

jovv

Trjs
-25

4 devrtpy] 5e

vffrfptp

ovv] forte legebat

concionabantur

11 crvveTafa/JLeda fj-edaffwerd^ecrdai 23 om.

fj.e&' V/J.&V

15

irpoffta-

8 animam nostram addiximus] A bold metaphor derived from the oath of the uoluntarii, who sold themselves to
'
'

BC

seems unnecessary to insert ut with though for its omission Catul. 114.
'
' :

a 'lanista.'

For another metaphorical
this

5 (concede sit diues) is the only passage that I can find quoted.
15,

application of

oath,

cf.

Petron.

Sat. 117 itaque ut duraret inter

omnes

Tert.

ad Mart.

16 pro ordine uenatorum] 5, ad Natt. I. 18.

Cf.

tutum mendacium, in uerba Eumolpi sacramentum iuravimus, uri, uinciri,
uerberari, ferroque neeari, et quidquid

18 Petite et accipietis] See above, p. 49. 22 in commissione] Cf. Cic. Ep. ad A tt. xv. 26 iam ab ipsa commissione ;
Suet. Aug. 43 commissione ludorum quibus theatrum Marcellinum dedicabat.
22, 23 reuocatus] This has been taken as a proper name and so the whole

aliud

Eumolpus

iussisset,

tamquam
corpora
It

legitimi

gladiatores

domino

animasque addicimus.
10,

11

concessit...inducerentur]

90
uexatus.

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

Saturus autem nihil magis

quam ursum abomina-

sed uno morsu leopardi confici se iam praesumebat. cum apro subministraretur, uenator potius qui ilium apro itaque subligauerat, subfossus ab eadem bestia, post dies muneris obiit.

batur:

5

Saturus solummodo tractus

est.

et

cum ad ursum

substrictus

esset in ponte, ursus de cauea prodire noluit.

itaque secundo

Saturus inlaesus reuocatur.

autem ferocissimam uaccam, ideoque praeter consuetudinem comparatam, diabolus praeparauit sexui earum
Puellis
:

XX.

10

etiam de bestia aemulatus. itaque dispoliatae et reticulis indutae producebantur. horruit populus, alteram respiciens puel-

lam delicatam, alteram a partu recentem
ita reuocatae et discinctis indutae.

stillantibus

mammis.

concidit in lumbos.
15

prior Perpetua iactata est, et et ubi sedit tunicam a latere discissam

ad uelamentum femoris reduxit, pudoris potius memor quam doloris. dehinc requisita, et disperses capillos infibulauit. non
eniui decebat

martyram

plangere uideretur. uidisset accessit, et
20

ita surrexit,

sparsis capillis pati, ne in sua gloria et elisam Felicitatem cum
ei tradidit et suscitauit illam.

manum

et

ambae
in

portam Sanauiuariam.

pariter steterunt, et populi duritia deuicta reuocatae sunt illic Perpetua a quodam tune cateei adhaerebat, suscepta, et quasi a in Spiritu et in extasi fuerat) circumspi-

chumino, Rustico nomine, qui

somno expergita (adeo
25

cere coepit, et instupentibus

omnibus

ait

:

Quando,

inquit, pro-

ducimur ad uaccam illam,
1 uexati sunt

nescio.

et

cum
B
;

audisset

quod iam
\

BC
3

2 sed] et

B

leopardisse

conficisse

AB

con-

sumebat

B B

4 suffossos

3, 4 aprum subministrauerat BC cum] + iam BC aper C 5 substrictus] subreptus B subrectus C diem BC 6 exire B

B) de industria efferatorum (effratorum B) adfirmasset portas putris carnibus magis ne mitteretur (mittetur B) efficit (effigit B) BC (Ruin.) 8 om. ideoque B 9 consuetudinenem paratam B itaque] ita BC om. et reticulis indutae BC 11 pro10, 11 spoliate B sexuigearum B

noluit] + Pudens miles (milis

mouebantnr
incidit

BC

discinctis indutae] discinguntur.

alteram respiciens] aspitiens Inducitur B

B

12

dilectam

B B

13

et

iactata est et] iacta

14

B B

lumbis

B

conscisam

porta

17 ne in] non B B sane uiuariani

tonicam A ubi sedit] ut conspexit BC a lateribus 16 requisita et] a quo recurrit B 15 femorum adduxit B 21 19 accessisset ei manum etradidit et subleuauit B

A

;

om.

B

a]

ad

A

22 qui

ei]

quia tune

cepta] suscepit

B

22, 23 de

somno

NamB

24 stupentibus

B

expergefacta B 25 nescio] + quam

fuerat] fuerit

B A
;

susfuerat.

BC

(Ruin.)

et]

sed

B

PASSIO
vcrrepov eirl ovSev d\o
rrj<s

S.

PERPETVAE.

91

ye<pvpa<; VTTO dp/cpv BiecrTrapd^r}.

^drvpos Be

rj aptcov direcrrpefyero' Kal evl B^y^art, 7rapBd\ea><; re\eiova-0at, avrov e rre rrr69ei' ware Kal rw crm BiafcovovfAevos
r

ecri/pi)

[iovov, a"xpivi(p 7rpoa-Be0ei<;' 6 Be Bi^parrj^ 6

rw avi avrov

7rpoo-/3a\o)v V7TO
(pL\OTifj,imv

rov

0i)po<i

airoOavelv.

Karerpwdr) ovrcos 009 //,e0' rjfiepav afO^a Kal TT/OO? apicov SiaBeOels
avTrfS
r)

Biepeivev' IK

jap rov ^coypiov

ap/co? OVK ede\v)(rev

fAa/capiais Se vedvicriv a<ypL(f>rdrr)v Sd/j,a\iv rj o Sta/3oXo9, TO 6r{\v avroav 7rapa^r)\oav Bid rov Oijpiov' 10 fj,a(rev Kal yv/Avcodeia-ai yovv Trpoo-ijyovro' o6ev d7re<rrpd<f)'r] 6 0^X05,
(jiiav pJev

XX. Tai?

rpvfapdv Koprjv
co?

/37T(ov, rrjv Be

aX\i]v

fj,acr0oi<>

a~rd-

fyvcrav

<yd\a,

7rpocr<f)drco<;

Kvrjo-acrav'

Kal

dva\i)(p06iorai

Trd\LV, Kal BiKrvois Trepif3\r)6elcrai, evBiBva-KOvrai, vrco^facf^aaiv'

odev ei(7###BOT_TEXT###ovo'(nv avrcov, 77 TlepTrerova Trpwrrj Kepanadelda Tre<rev eV oV^uo?' KOI dvaKadicracra rov %t,rva eK T^? 7r\evpa<;
avrrjs (rvvayayovfra, eo-Keiraaev rov eavrr)<s pypov, atBov? fjid\ov TTOVWV' alBovfievr), /JbijBa/Acios fypovrioacra r<3v rj

i-,

fj,vi)fj,ovevcraaa

aXyrjBovwv' Kal eVt^r^o-acra (3e\,6vr)v rd eairapayfJieva crweov yap ewpe- 20 cr(f)i<yi;V, Kal rds rpfyas T^? K<j>a\rj$ TrepieBijcrev'
Trev

IBia

ry /judprvpi dpt^lv airapa-xOeiaais opaadai' iva firj ev rfj [/cat KepariaOeicrav IBovaa rrjv <>r)\iK7)rt/mfj BOK-TJ irevOelv.

rdrrjv, 7rpocrf}###BOT_TEXT###v

avrrjv.
Kr)0ei(r'r)<?

avry\ Kal Kparrja-acra rrj? ^etpo? avrrs tfryeipev Kal ecrrrjcrav afia' rrjs Be aK\T)p6rijro<f rov o%Xov CKVLdve\rj(j)6'r)a'av

et?

rrjv

TrvKrfv

rr/v

fariKijv'

CKCI

77

25

TlepTrerova viro
peto-rriKei

nvos Kar^ovfJievov

6v6fj,an 'Povo-rLKov, 09 ira-

avrfj, <B<? e^ VTTVOV eyepOelaa (ouro)9 ev Trvevjjuari, eKo-raaiv TraOovo-d), Kal TrepL^Ke^a^evr] dapfBovvrayv yeyovev dirdvraiv e<j>f)' YLore ^a\6jji0a Trpo? rrjv Bdfia\i,v f)v \eyova-iv; Kal aKovcraa-a on rf&j; e%e\ r)\v0i Trpo? avrijv, ov rrporepov eiri- 30
i

6 Sib
pa.-xdi]ffa.v

Sedfjs

7 di^eivov
22, 23
'

15
[ ]

KpaTijOr/ffa (sic)

17 aldov

21

trrra-

cod.

om.

transiliens a KOI Kepcma-deiffav

ad

/cat

Harris

29

passage has been changed in EC.
cf.

But

infra,

11.

7, 13.

super pulpitum] See a woodcut given by Le Blant of a man bound to a post on a slightly raised platform, and a
lion springing to get at him (Rev. Archeol. 1889, vol. xni. p. 155).

6 in ponte] The 'pons' may be a ' ' bridge crossing the fossa which sometimes surrounded the arena.
noluit]

I have treated the curious

addition in

EC
or g.

as a gloss, as

it is

not

found in

A

92

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

euenerat, non prius credidit, nisi quasdam notas uexationis in corpore et habitu suo recognouisset. exinde accersitum fratrem

siram

et

ilium catechuminum adlocuta
diligite
;

est,

dicens;

In

fide

state, et
5

inuicem onmes

et passionibus nostris

ne scanexor-

dalizemini.

XXI.

Item Saturus
:

in alia porta

Pudentem militem

tabatur, dicens

10

praesumpsi et nullam usque adhuc bestiam sensi. et nunc de toto praedixi, corde credas. ecce prodeo illo, et ab uno niorsu leopardi consumor. et statini in fine spectaculi, leopardo eieeto, de uno morsu tanto perfusus est sanguine, ut populus reuertenti illi
inquit, certe, sicut
:

Ad summam.

secundi baptismatis testimonium reclamauerit Saluum lotum, saluum lotum. plane utique saluus erat, qui hoc modo lauerat.

15

tune Pudenti militi inquit et Vale, inquit, memor fidei meae haec te non conturbent, sed confirment. simulque ansulam de digito eius petiit, et uulneri suo mersam reddidit ei heredita:

;

tem, pignus relinquens

illi

et

memoriam

sanguinis.

exinde

20

iam exanimis prosternitur cum ceteris ad iugulationem solito loco, et cum populus illos in medio postularet, ut gladio penetranti in eorum corpore oculos suos comites homicidii adiungerent, ultro surrexerunt, et se quo uolebat populus transtuleante iam osculati inuicem, ut martyrium per solemnia runt
:

quidem inmobiles, et cum silentio 2 et] C et in B om. A recogno3 est] + eos B et exinde accersito B uisset] -fEt ilium 6 om. Pudentem A 7 3, 4 ut in fide starent et inuieem se deligerent B dicens Ad summam inquit certe] A dicens. Adsum certe BO praesumpsi] om. et praedixi, nullam usque adhuc bestiam sensi BC 7, 8 promisi C 8 et nunc] et nunc ut C nuntiet B 9 ecce producer illuc C et cum producar 10 leopardi obiectus B leopardus obiectus ab uno] et nune BC illuc B reuertenti illi] reuertendi B 11 morsu] + eius B C 12, 13 baptismi B 13 qui hoc modo lauerat] declarauerat dicens. Saluum locum plane. Vtique B 14 om. inquit (pr. B inom. B qui hoc spectaculo claruerat (? C) Euin. 15 meae] Hoist. mei AB niernor] meffito B quit] inquit et (?) A ait B uersam B annulum C 16 petit B om. ei B confortent simul qui B beataxn hereditatem relinquens ei pignus (illi pugnos 17 pignus] pinguens A 18 iu17, 18 deinde iam animis B B) et memoriam tanti sanguinis BC in medium BC in solito B 19 et] sed B postolaret A gulatione A 20 corpore eorum B 19, 20 penetrante B ut] + etB postulasset B 21 ultro] uulso B uoluerat B committentes homicidia B quo] quod A 23 consumarent A + et B 22 osculati] + in (supra tin.) A martyrem B et cum silentio] consilio B
pacis consummarent.
1 uenerat

ceteri

B

AB cathecuminum A
uexationes

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

)

;

;

;

;

PASSIO
(7revo~ev Trplv
?)

S.

PERPETVAE.
/3Xa/3?7<>

93
ev

o~r)/j,td

nva

T7?9

rw

ISim

Kokea-adra rov iBwv dBe###BOT_TEXT###lt;f>ov KOI ewpdfcei' avrov rov Kartj^ovfjievov TrapeKd\ei iva ev Trio-ret, Biajteivuifftv Kal aXX^Xov? dyaTTtacriv, Kal rot? rs-aQ-r] paa-iv e/ceo/oi? fir) o~Kav-

dvaBe^OevroiV Be

Ba\io-0<ao-i,v roiovrois ovcrtv.

5

XXI. Kat
irpocrfop,i\eL,
eo?

ev erepa Trv\y 6 lidrvpos TOJ (rrpancory TlovSevri

/ca66\ov \eycov on Kara r-tjv 7rp6\e%iv rrjv e^v, Kal irpoelTTov, ovSe ev O'rjpLwv rf-^aro /ULOV ew? dpri' IBov Be

vvv,

wa

e%

oA/ty?

KapSias

Sia'irLa'revo-rjs, Trpoo-ep^o/Ltai, /cal ev evl

TrapSaXeco? reXeiovftai' Kal evdvs ev re\ei T^? Oewplas 10 avrm eft\tjdf], Kal ev evl Brfryftari rov at/iaro? rov dyiov eveTrX^o-O'T}' roo-ovrov alpa eppvif], aj? \ojLo-0fjvat Sevrepov /jLaprvpiov' /ca^co? Kal eTretyatvei 6 0^X09 fiotnv Kal

KaX&5?

e\ovo-(o,

/caX&J? e\ovo-(o.

Kal

/n,rjv

vyirjs rp>

o
1

roLOvrw rpOTrp XeXov/ie^o?.
o~repewo~drco
o~e

arparLwrr) TlovSevrt efjji)' Kal fivrj^oveve irio-reo)^ Kal e/^oO' Kal ra roiavra Kal "Tryiaive
ray

rore

pa\ov
d(f>els

r)

Trap avrov Kal evdels avrb

rapa^drco. Kal Sa/cryXioz/ raj IBiw a'ijjuari, eScoKev avrw

piav K\r)povo^Lav,
rov.
fjt,erd

ravra \OLTTOV

pv^prjv Kal evOrjKrjv at/iaro? rr)\iKove/jL7rvea)v en dTrrj^dri /j,erd Kal rwv 20
et? o-(j)a<yr)v 8e o

a\Q)v r& avvtjdei TOTTW'
6fc9

o%Xo?

i'rrjo'ev

avrovs

fjio~ov jbLera^O^vat, OTTW? Sid ra>v dylav o-copdrcov ekavvo-

TO

^t</)09

6edo-(ovraL'

Kal ol ftaKaptoi jj,dprvpe$ eKovres

jo-av'

yo-^yvovro yap 6\i<yovs udprvpas e^eiv eirl roS p.adavdrw avr<Sv. Kal 8?) e6vrwv avr&v OTTOV o ovXo9

25

e/SovXero, Trp&rov KarefyiKyo-av o&XrfKovs Iva TO fj,vo~r'qptov Std rwv OLKeiwv T^9 Trlcrrews reXeiwo-coaiv' Kal fJiereTretra aoyieva>9

rrv Bid rov

%i<j>ov<;

nfMwpiav'

TroXXw Be fj,d\ov 6

12

Setitepov

15

9 consumor] The Greek translator but the took this for eonsummor word as it stands is more natural. 12 Saluum lotum] See above, p. 8,
' '

;

22

19 in medio] See note on p. 76, 1. 6. ante iam oseolati] The kiss of
is

peace

amphitheatre,

and Mr Harris's note ad
14
'

loc. (p. 68).

fidei

meae]

'fidei

mei' AB.

Possi-

not given in the midst of the as the Greek version implies, and as the writer of the Thuburbitan Acts (see above, p. 25) makes
his martyrs give
it.

bly, following the
fidei et mei,'

Greek, we should read

94

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

derat, prior reddidit spiritum

ferrum receperunt: multo magis Saturus, qui et prior ascennain et Perpetuam sustinebat.
;

5

Perpetua autem, ut aliquid doloris gustaret, inter ossa conpuneta exululauit; et errantem dexteram tirunculi gladiatoris ipsa in iugulum suum transtulit. fortasse tanta femina aliter non potuisset occidi, quae ab inmimdo spiritu timebatur, nisi
ipsa uoluisset.
fortissimi ac beatissimi martyres
!

o uere uocati et electi

in gloriam Domini nostri lesu Christi ; quam qui magnificat et 10 honorificat et adorat, utique et haec non minora ueteribus exT

15

empla in aedificationem Ecclesiae legere debet, ut nouae quoque uirtutes unum et eundem semper Spiritum Sanctum usque adhuc operari testificentur, [et] omnipotentem Deum Patrem et Filium eius lesum Christum Dominum nostrum, cui est clariamen. tas et inmensa potestas in saecula saeculorum.
1 prior]

+ scalam BC

2 reddendo

BC

Perpetuam] perpetua
3 ut] + ipsaB

A

;

perpe-

tuum B
quostas

sustinebat] exspectabat

BC

B conpuncta] eonpune (sic) A ; puncta B 5 transtulit] posuit B 6 quae] fortasse] + enim B aliter] alibi B 9 quam] A ; quoniam C ; om. B 8 uere] uiri B 9, 10 que B ; qui A 10 adorat] honorat sanctos BC om. et honorificat C utique] + habebit (-bat
B
B) uitam aeternam
aedificatione

gustasset inter 4 gladiatoris trunculi

BC

non minora] nomina

A

;

minora

BC
ut]

11 am. in

B

A

legere] lege

B

debet] deberaus

BC
;

B

;

et

13 testificentur, et] Hoist. testificemur noua quoque uirtutis B 13, 14 ad hoc credamus operari, ut testificetur omnipotentis Dei et filii eius lesu Christi

A A

11, 12

Domini

nostri gloria

BC

cuius claritas in saecula saeculorum.AMEN.

B
O-UK

8 uocati et

electi]

See above, p. 50.

should be noted that the MS.has

taw,
'

10 non minora] The evidence of the MSS. seems to point to this rather than to 'non minus' which Holsten edited.

which

may have come from minora
'

(BC). 13 testificentur, et]
'

I

have inserted

The

has the support of the Greek as amended by Mr Harris but it
latter reading
:

et'

is

but the whole passage very corrupt in the MSS.

with Holsten

:

PASSIO
,

S.

PERPETVAE.
Keiwr}V dvaftds, 05 /cal Se TLepTrerova, iva /cal

95

o

ST)

7T/ooT6j009

Trjv

K\ijjuaKa
77

7rei(rev rrjv

HepTrerovav dva/Salveiv.

avrrj yevo-Tjrai,

rwv

TTOVQJV, Trepl

rd ocrrea vvyeicra rj\d\a%ev, KOI
iVw?
rrjv

jre7r\avr)iji.v'r]v Trjv

Beidv

aTrelpov fJ^ovof^d^ov Kparrjaacra irpo<r'

rfyayev

rf)

Kara/cXeiSi, eavrfjs

Toaavr^v yvvaifca rov
<j)oi>ev0fjvat,
/jur]

5

dicaOdpTov Trvev /iaro?
pevov.

(j)o/3ovjj,evov

KOI

ySouXo-

'fl dvSpiwrarot /cal fjuaKapiooTaroi fj,dprvp<> /cal crrpartcoTai K\KTol, 6t9 S6$;aV KfptOU 'l7/(7o{) XpMTTOV KK\rjfieVOl, TTCO?

fj>eya\vvcofj,ev

vfjias
r

rj

/jLaKapicrco/iiev,

fyevvaiorarot arpartwrai

;

10

ricraov

T&V rra\aiwv
r)

ypa(j)cov,
i

a
5 /

&.X.V.IVP.'c. * * ot cay oo^av
ftovoyevGL

rravdpro<; iro\iTeia r<Sv

trarpl

TWV alwvwv,

a/j,a

TW

avrov
oS 77

vlq>

rw

/cvpiy

rjf

Xpi<rTQ) Toi)9 attorn? TWV

cri)y

a^tw

Trvevpan'

Sd^a

/cal

TO /cparo? et?

15

2

%<j>T)<rev

4

ireTr\avrifji.4j>'rj

5 roO]

ujri

11 ofe

J'trov

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
A and B

1.

Variants of

not included in the apparatus criticus.

A 10 queque A 7 present! A 11 saecundum A A 15 9 estimet A 62,8 Ibeccillitas A disperatio A 18 cathecumini A 22 aequae A martiribus A cathecuminum A; 22 uberam B caticuminum B 26 inquid B 27 patrum B afectione A michi A 11 recipimus B 9 spacio A 12 die B 64,4 michi A 13 benefitio B 5 que B 9 mire AB 66,4 postule A premio A 10 possim B 11 scale B 14 inhererent AB celum B 15 mire B 3 orti immensum A (sed cum 19 scale B 16 satyrus B 68,1 lentae A 5 adspexit B 4 habito B 6 michi B notis transpositionis) 9 11 seculum B cummanducans B 14 tedio AB 17 etatis expta sum AB 3 confor|fortaui A B 7 pranderemur A 70,2 gauissus B 16 helarius A 15 infantie B 21 dampnat B 9 inmensus B 72,7 8 commemerata A 9 cepi B 11 dignigratem B miehi B 12 14 fatie B facie A 15 per infirmitate B estuantem A dinogratis B liodio (cor? in hodie) A ominibus 16 facie carcerata A cancerata fatie B 20 alcorem B 21 dinogratis B 23 exporrecta A 17 facerem B 26 crastensem A 4 dino74,3 man mansimus A A; expta B 9 dinogratis B 7 umbiculum B cepit AB 9,10 defigratem B 12 pena A 13 mills B 11 exporecta A expta B obtio A tiebat B 19 fatiem B 20 que B 14 cepit B 17 tedio AB cepit B 6 amphiteatrum A amfiteatrum B 7 cumlaborabo B 76,2 apperui B fedus spetiae B 13 ceperunt B 14 egyptium 10 egiptius A 8 aspitio B mire B 16 anpitheatri A anfiteatri B AB 15 uoluntatem A fatiem B cedebam AB 20 egiptius A egyptius B 78,1 cepimus B 6 cepit AB cedere B 5 apprehendi A 8 gloriam B 3 cepi B 14 inquid B 15 cepimus B 13 satyrus B 18 9 exjata AB 23 cipressi A 21 spacium grande A 20 iestamur B inmensam B 12 edificati A edificate B 12,13 quatuor B 80,8 querebamus AB 21 fatiem B 20 suleuauerunt A 17 dextera B 82,6 cepit B grece A 15 exgtus B 16 martirum A 13 cepimus B 9 discensiones B 7 rose B 12 que B 17 permijtendo A 6 sotiam AB 84,5,6 cornmartires A 24 fatiem B 21 aditientes B 86,2 cassaris A 18,19 ad sublimdu.tante B 6 obtione A 5 frerit A credentem A tribunes B 3 orruit A 11 dicentes adtyro B 13 hodistis AB 10 iuditium B 9 constantiam B 16 illuxit A uictorie AB 17 amphitea15 antoniti B faties B
60,5 aequae

14

tilieque

;

1

;

,

;

;

j

;

;

ADDITIOJSTAL NOTES.
trum

97
reciarium

AB

celum

B

88,3 obsetriee

A
B

A

loturam

11 egyptii A 22 expectaculi

B
9

14 ceperunt B 23 pulpetuin B
4 bestiam

20 martini
90,1

A satyrus B
7 satyrus

21 uellere obici

B B

nichilA

2 preinlesus

sumebat A 8 baecam A

A

13

ite

B

A preparauit AB reuocate AB
21,

5 satyrus

B

AB

10 emulatus

AB
(?)

19 helisam

A

;

dispoliate elisan B

A
20

11 orruit

ambe AB

B 24 cepit B cuminum B 9 morsi B
reuocate

22 cathecumino

A

;

caticumina

B

22

adherebat

AB
cati-

inquid
6

B satyrus B

A aliam portam A
25 baecam

92,3

cathecuminum

A

;

7 presumpsi

AB

8 predixi

A

15 hec B 10 in finem expectaculi B 14 pudendi B 23 immobiles B 22 solempnia B 18 examines A 16, 17 ereditatem A 11 10 hec B 5 gugullum B 6 immundo B 94,1 satyrus B
edificationem

B

2.

Note on Retranslations from a Latin Version of the Vienn. et Lugd. apud Euseb. H. E. v. 1.

jV.

T.

in Ep.

The direct quotations in this letter give us but little guidance as to the character of the text of the N.T. used at this time in the Churches of Gaul :
but the language of the writer is everywhere interwoven with Scriptural reminiscences, and in these he seems to betray a greater familiarity with a Latin Version than with the original Greek. In the following investigation T
shall take the passages which suggest this phenomenon in their order, giving references to the sections in Heinichen's edition.
1.

fievas Kokacreis (frofBovp.evoii
ftedioTes.

12 p,eyd\a>s eVrojj^/iei/ 8ia TO a8ij\ov TTJS 6p,o\oyias, ov Tag eirtfpepoaXXa TO reXoy d<popvTes Kal TO aTTOTrecreiv TIVO.

This

may

contain a retranslation of 'intuentes exitum'
xiii. 7.

(

= dva0ea>-

povvres T^V ex/Saatv) Heb.

2. 17 Si' rjs eVeSei^ev 6 xpioros on ra Trap' dvdpcoirois evreXij Kal deidrj Kal evKO.Ta(f)p6v7)Ta (paivopeva p,eyd\tjs KaTa^iovTCti Trapd dea> dotjrjs- Several passages seem partially interwoven here, but we may perhaps find a reference

especially to 1 Cor. i. 28 TO. dyevr) TOV KOO-(J.OV KCU TO. eovdevr)neva e^eXe^aro o debs K.T.X. ; and in this case we have a retranslation based upon 'ignobilia

mundi

et contemptibilia eligit Deus.
da-devrjs

3

Cf. infra

42

77

fiiKpa

KO.\

do-Qevi]s Kal

fvKaTa<pp6vT)Tos, where
S. Paul.
3.

takes us back to the same context in

17 dia

TTJV TTpos

avTov

dyaTrrjVj TTJV ev 8vvdp.fi bfiKvvp.vr)v Kal

p.rj

ev e'idei

19 yvuo-opai ov TOV yov Toav ire<pv(ricopevtav aXXa TTJV 8vvap.iv, together with 2 Cor. V. 12 Trpbs TOVS eV 7rpo<r<07r(p Here ev Trpoo-coTra) reappears as ev e'idei through Kavxa>p.evovs Kal p.r/ ev Kapdia.
Kav%oi>iJ.evT)v.

This recalls

1 Cor. iv.

the

medium
4.

of the Latin 'qui in facie gloriantur.'
TJJS

18

have to thank
instance called
'

Mr

my

See note on p. 73 above. I a-apKivrjs dfo-iroivrjs avTTjs. P. M. Barnard of Christ's College for having in the first attention to the fact that this was a retranslation of

carnalis,'

and

also for help in the further investigation of the subject.

E.

7

98
5.

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
18
fjLTjO'ev

e\ovTes iiyneTi o ironjcrovcriv

avrfj.

Cf.

21

firjKeTi

4 the Vtllg. translation of Kal TO.VTO. fj.T) exovT<av -irepuro-oTtpov n iroirjo-ai is 'et post haec non habent amplius quid faciant.' Cod. Bez. has 'nequa habentium amplius quid facere'; Cod.
eiXov o Tronjtrovo-iv avra.
xii.

In Luc.

have replaced

facere.' MrjKen appears to through the medium of 'amplius.' 6. 22 VTTO TTJS ovpavtov irrjy^s TOV vdaros TTJS <af)S TOV e^iovTos en TTJS This is based on VT)o~vos TOV xpia-Tov 8po(n^6[j.evos Kal ev8vvafji.ovfj.evos. Apoc. XXI. 6 eyes r<5 di^mvri 8&>cra> eK TTJS Trrj-yfjs TOV vdaTOs TTJS a>f]S dapeav, and Jll. vii. 37, 38 eav TIS 8i^fj ep^eV^o) irpos p.e Kal mveTto. 6 -rruTTevcov els ep,f,

Palat.

(e),

'et postea

non habet amplius aliquid

irepio-o-oTepov

Kadats eiTrev

rf

ypa(pij }

iroTaftol

CK TTJS KoiXias OVTOV pevo-ovo~iv vdaTos

^avros.

The

interpretation of this latter passage has been disputed, partly owing to the difficulty of connecting the words as they are ordinarily punctuated with any 'Scripture'" of the 0. T. This difficulty is somewhat lessened if we to refer the words en

and so leave it open This interpretation, whatever be its merits or defects, was undoubtedly the one familiar to our writer who represents 'de uentre eius of the Latin Version by eK TT)S vrfSvos
connect o
iriorevcov els efie
TTJS
Trti/e'rco,

with the previous word

Koikias avTov to Christ Himself.

'

TOV xpioroO. And the same interpretation the Old Latin. Cod. Bez. reads

is

suggested by the colometry of

dicens

si

quis

sitit

ueniant

et bibat qui credit in me sicut dixit scriptura. flumina dentre

eius fluent

aquae uiuae.

Cod. Palat.

(e)

reads likewise
si quis sitit ueniat et bibat

qui credit in me.
Sicut scriptum est flumina de

uentre eius
fluent aquae

Vibae.

Thus the use

of this passage

by our writer has a threefold

interest.

It

suggests that he was more familiar with a Latin Version than with the original Greek of S. John's Gospel, so that in retranslating 'de uentre' he it indicates that the misses eVc TTJS Koi\ias and substitutes eK TTJS vrjbvos
:

Version he used was that which we speak of as the Old Latin
very early authority for

it gives discarded generally Mr F. C. Burkitt of Trinity points out to me that this (see Westcott ad loc.\ interpretation is suggested by the quotation of the passage in the Speculum (Corp. Script. Eccl. Lat. xn. p. 700) after Jerem. ii. 13 ff., the section being
:

and

an interpretation which

is

now

entitled

'

Quod Dominus

foils

uitae nuncupetur.'

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
7.

99

27 erepas

fj.r)%avas

6 Std/SoXos eTrevoei.

8slas TOV Sta/3oXou) the Vulg.

In Eph. vi. 11 (irpos TOS fiedohas 'aduersus insidias cliaboli': but Tertullian
loo.

adv. Marc. v. 18 has 'ad naachinationes diaboli,'

true restoration of Arnbrosiaster in

afterwards in his

comment

and this must point to the 'aduersus nation es,' especially as he speaks of 'omnia machinamenta diaboli.' 'Machi-

nationes' would naturally reproduce itself as fj.Tjxa.vds. 30 os VTTO T>V CTTpaTitoTaiv em TO J3r)(j,a KOfiHr5et?...eVtj8o7j(T6is Ttavroias 8.

as O.VTOV OVTOS TOV XpioroO, direo'io'ov TT\V KaXrjv papTvpiav. The writer clearly has 1 Tim. vi. 13 in his mind, XpioroO 'irjo-ov TOV papTvprja-avros eVi Uovriov IleiXarou TTJV KaXf/v 6fio\oylav. The people cry out against Pothinus
7Toiovp.eva>v,

as though he were himself the Christ he is Christ-like at least in 'witnessing the good confession' before his judge. The Yulgate here has 'Christo Jesu
:

qui testimonium reddidit sub Pontio Pilato bonam confessionem.' (De Praescr. 25) and Ambrosiaster (ad loc.} give testatus est
'

Tertullian
'

(Tert. v.

1.

but the Vulgate rendering has a flavour of antiquity about it. 40 O.VTOI deafia yiv6[j.evoi (v.l. yevofievoi) r<a 007*0). Cf. 1 Cor. iv. 9 OTI 9. Here dea/j.a represents the Latin spectaculum.' Qearpov eyevrjQripev TW Koo-jua. 48 /j.T]8e a'io~drj(Tiv evdvpaTos vvpfptKOv. Cf. Mt. xxii. 12 OVK ev8e8v10.
'testificatus')
:

'

(levov evdvfjta ydpov.

The word
(see

vvp.<piK.os

to the

commentators

Heinichen ad

loc. vol.

in this place has caused much trouble 7 in. pp. 183 fi .). It is however
'

a retranslation of the Latin, which reads ' uon uestitum ueste nuptiali (uestimentum nuptiale e). Cf. infra 55 s els wfKpiifbv bemvov KeK\rjfj.evr}, with Apoc. six. 9 els TO beiirvov TOV ydpov TOV dpviov (cenam nuptiarum).
11. 58 6 avop.os dvofj,7)o-aTa> <=TI, Koi 6 dlxaois 8iK<ua>dqT(a eTi. Hei'e we have a direct qxiotation of Apoc. xxii. 11, introduced by the words Iva ypa<prj The original Greek text is 6 ddiKmv aSiKJjo-cirw ert, KOI o pvnapbs
r\

en, KOI 6 8i<aios diKcuo<rvvrjv
'

Troirjo-aTfo

en.

Our writer

therefore

quotes from memory, and his recollection seems here again to be of the Latin Version. The Vulgate has qui nocet noceat adhuc, et qui in sordibus est sordescat adhuc, et qui iustus est iustificetur adhuc.' But Tichonius ad loc. f (Horn. 19) gives qui iniustus est iniusta faciat adhuc.' And Primasius ad loc.
qui iniustus est, ait, iniuste faciat ad/mc. ' "Avopos then seems to be a retranslation of iniustus,' and possibly SiKauodJTa> which however there is some slight Greek evidence) rnay have come from (for
:

also says

'nam

et alia translatio

J

'

iustificetur.'

5 e\vov airavras, e8eo~[J.evov 8e ovdeva' KCU virep r>v TO. 8eivd We have here a clear reference to the power of ' binding and loosing' spoken of in Mt. xvi. 19, xviii. 18; but 8e<a is the word in either case, and not Secr/zeiJo), which may be explained as a retranslation of the Latin
12.
c.

2

8ta.Ti6evTO)v TJVXOVTO.

'ligare.'

The second

clause

may

refer to Luc.
is
'

vi.

28

Trpoo-eu^eo-^e Trepl T<OV
'

f7TT]pfa6vTa>v vp.as.

Here the Latin

orate pro calumniantibus uos

(orate

qui uobis iniuria faciunt e). By adhering to the order of the narrative I have necessarily placed some of the less convincing examples first but I think that a fair case is made out on the whole for believing that the Gallican Churches were familiar with a

pro

eis

;

72

100
Latin Version of the

ADDITIONAL NOTES.

New Testament and
:

examples

(6), (7)

and

(11) connect

that Version with what

is

commonly known

as the African Old Latin.

3.

Note on

the

reading of the text in

c.

xvi. (p. 84,

II.

18 ff.).

Holsten edited in this passage
This

and
'

ad supplementum tantae gloriae describendum.' unsatisfactory, not only because it twice deserts his own MS. the other two, but also because it does not yield the required sense.
'

etsi indigni
is

Gloria refers to the

;

martyrs and their

visions.

awkward
is

collocation.

itself and not to the imprisonment of the So that 'supplementum tantae gloriae' is an What is left unfinished and needs completion is not the

martyrdom

martyrdom but
the aid of

its record.

'

To complete the
I
'

description of this great glory
'

'

the task before the writer.

have therefore restored
J

describendae
' '

'

by

B
'

;

and

this is not far
:

may

perhaps be right
'

from describenti of A. the Greek seems to confirm it.

A

Indigni (Hoist.) reads ' indigna,'
'

B

indigne ; and this latter gives a fair sense ' scribi or with exequimur.'
'

when taken

either with

con-

In the next sentence (1. 22) I have retained the reading of A, merely changing 'tractanti' into 'tractantur' (Hoist, 'tractarentur'). But the coincidence of BCg in the participial form makes me somewhat uncertain whether we have yet recovered the true reading of this passage.
Shorter Latin Acts of the Passion of S. Perpetua.

4.

jP/te

I reprint for the sake of reference these

dans V empire romain, 2nd

ed. pp.

521 f),

who

Acts from Aube (Les Chretiens edits them from Biblioth. Nat.

fonds latin 5269, 5279, 5297, 5311, 5318, 5349. They are given somewhat differently by Fillet (Hist, de S. Perpetue) from fonds latin 14650, and from Bruxelles 207 8 (printed in Anal. Bolland.). The MSS. of them are legion.

Facta persecutione sub Valeriano et Gallieno consulibus, comprehensi iuuenes Satyrus et Saturuinus, duo fratres, Keuocatus et Felicitas soror eius et Perpetua quae erat de nobili genere et habebat patrem anuorum enim erat ilia et niatrem et duos fratres et filium ad mamillam duorum et uiginti. apud Africam in ciuitate Tuburbitanorum. Inuictissimi principes Valerianus et Minutius proconsul dixit ad eos
stint xienerabiles uiri
:

:

GaUienus iusserunt ut
facturi, Christiani

sacrificetis.

enim sumus.

Hoc non sunaus Satyrus respondit proconsul iussit eos recludi in carcerem ;
:

siquidem hora erat prope tertia. Audiens uero pater Perpetuae earn esse comprehensam cucurrit ad carcerem, et uidens earn dixit Quid hoc fecisti, filia? dehonestasti enim genera:

tionem tuam. nunquam enim de genere nostro aliquis missus est in carcerem. Perpetua uero dixit ad eum Pater, ecce, uerbi gratia, uides uas iacens aut
:

fictile

aut cuiuslibet generis

?

et

ille

respoudit

:

Video, quid ad haec

?

Per-

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
petua dixit
respondit
:
:

101

Numquid
Non.

quam quod sum

aliud nomen potest habere quam quod est ? at ille Nee ego aliud nomen accipere possum Perpetua dixit Christiana, tune pater eius audito uerbo irruit super earn,
: ;

et exclamans, confusus, egressus est foras, Orantes uero et sine cessatione preces ad Dettm effundentes, cum essent multis diebus in carcere, quadam nocte uidens uisum sancta Perpetua alia die
retulit

nolens oculos eius eruere

commartyribus suis

ita dicens

:

Vidi in uisu hac nocte scalam ei'ectam [aeream ali{] mirabili altitudine usque ad caelum, et ita erat angusta ut nonnisi unus per earn ascendere dextra uero laeuaque inerant fixi cultri et gladii ferrei, ut nullus posset,
circa se nisi

ad caelum respicere posset,

sub ea uero iacebat latens draco

teterrimus ingenti forma, ut prae metu eius quiuis ascendere formidaret. uidi etiam ascendentem per earn Satyrum usque ad sursum, et respicientem

ad nos

et

dicentem
;

:

Ne

uereamini hunc draconem qui iacet

;

confortamini in

ascendite et nolite timere, ut mecum partem habere possitis. gratia Christi uidi etiam iuxta scalam hortum ingentem, copiosissimum et amoenum ; et in
niedio horto sedentem

senem in habitu

pastoral! et
:

mulgentem

ones, et in

gyro eius stantem multitudinem candidatorum ad se et dedit nobis omnibus de fructu lactis.

et aspiciens ad nos uocauit et cum gustassemus, turba

candidatorum responderunt Amen,
facta.

et sic prae clamore xiocum

sum

experge-

At

uero

illi

cum haec

audissent gratias agentes insufficienter

Domino

cognouerunt se ex reuelatione beatissimae Perpetuae ad martyrii coronam
dignos esse effectos. Post haec uero procedens Minutius proconsul et sedens pro tribunal! eos Sacrificate diis ; sic enim iusserunt exhiberi praecepit dixitque ad eos
:
:

Satyrus respondit Deo magis oportet sacrificare quam dixit Pro te respondes, aut pro omnibus ? Satyrus dixit idolis. proconsul Pro omnibus, una enim est in nobis uoluntas. proconsul ad Saturninurn, Keuocatum, Felicitatem et Perpetuam dixit Vos quid dicitis ? at illi responperpetui principes.
: :

:

:

derunt

gerimus uoluntatern. Proconsul iussit uiros a mulieribus separari et ad
:

Verum

est

:

unam

:

Satyrum dixit

:

Sacrifica,
:

ixuienis, et

ne te meliorem
iudico

quam

principes indices esse.

Satyrus respondit

Meliorem

me

apud uerum principem
:

et praesentis et futuri saeculi, si

colluctando pati meruero.
:

proconsul dixit Suade tibi, et sacrifica, iuuenis. Satyrus respondit Hoc ego non sum facturus. Proconsul ad Saturm'num dixit Sacrifica xxel tu, iuuenis, ut ualeas uiuere. Saturninus respondit Christianus sum, et hoc mihi facere non licet.
:
: :

Proconsul ad Keuocatum dixit Forte et tu sequeris uoluntatem illorum. Reuocatus respondit Eorum plane propter Deum sequor desideria. proconReuocatus respondit Deum orasul dixit Sacrificate ne uos interficiam. rnus ut hoc mereamur. Proconsul eos remoueri praecepit, et Felicitatem et Perpetuam sib! iussit
: :
:

offerri.

dixit

autem ad Felicitatem
:

:

Quae

cliceris
:

?

respondit

:

Felicitas.

proconsul dixit

Virum habes ?

Felicitas respondit

Habeo quern nunc

con-

102
temno.
dixit
:

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
proconsul dixit
:

Vbi

est

?

Felicitas dixit
:

:

Non

est hie.

proconsul
:

Quo genere
?

Parentes habes

Felicitas respondit Felicitas dixit Non habeo
?
:

est

:

proconsul dixit Eeuocatus uero congerinanus
Plebeius.

meus
dixit
:

est.

uerumtamen

his maiores parentes habere

non

Miserere

tui, puella, et sacrifica

ut uiuas
:

;

maxime quia

potero. proconsul te infantem in
et haec
:

utero habere uideo.

Felicitas respondit

Ego Christiana sum,
:

omnia
per-

mihi propter
tibi,

Deum

contemnere praecepta sunt.
Felicitas respondit

doleo enim de

te.

Fac

proconsul dixit quod uis ; mihi
?

Consule

enim
?

suadere non poteris. Proconsul ad Perpetuam dixit
perpetua.

:

Quid

dicis,

Perpetua

sacrificas

Per-

petua, Christiana, inquit, sum, et nominis mei sequor auctoritatem, ut sim

proconsul dixit Parentes habes ? Perpetua respondit Habeo. Audientes uero parentes eius pater, mater, fratres, et maritus simulque cum paruulo eius qui erat ad lac, uenerunt, cum essent de nobili genere. et uidens earn pater eius stantem ante proconsulis tribunal, cadens in faciem
:
:

suam

dixit

ad earn

:

Filia.,

iam non

filia
;

sed domina, miserere aetati

meae

miserere et matris tuae, quae te ad patris talem florem aetatis perduxit, miserere et fratribus tuis, et huic infelicissimo uiro tuo, certe uel paruulo huic qui post te uiuere non poterit. depone hanc
tui, si

tamen mereor

dici pater

cogitationem tuam.

nemo enim nostrum
:

post te uiuere poterit, quia hoc

generi meo nunquam contigit. Perpetua uero stabat immobilis, et respiciens in caelum dixit ad patrem suum Pater, noli uereri Perpetuam enim filiam
:

tuam,

si

non

obstiteris,
:

Proconsul dixit

perpetuam Moueant te et

filiam

possidebis. excitent ad dolorem lacrymae
:

tuam

parentum

tuorum, praeterea uoces paruuli tui. Perpetua dixit Mouebunt me lacrymae eorum, si a conspectu Domini et a consortio horum sanctorum, cum quibus secundum uisionem meam fratribus bonis sum copulata, fuero aliena inuenta. Pater uero iactans infantem in collum eius et ipse cum rnatre et marito
tenentes
et

manus
dixit:

eius et flentes osculabantur dicentes at ilia prospiciens \u.
I.

:

uiue nobiscum.

proiciens]

Miserere nostri, filia, infantem eosque

repellens

Recedite

a

me

operarii

iniquitatis,

quia non noui uos.
qui

non enim potero maiores

et meliores uos facere
est.

quam Deiim

me ad

hanc

gloriam perducere dignatus Videns uero proconsul eorum perseuerantiam, data sententia Satyrum, Saturninum et Eeuocatum flagellis caesos, et Perpetuam et Felicitatem
exalapatas, in carcerem recipi praecepit, ut in Caesaris natale bestiis mitterentur. et cum essent in carcere iterum uidit uisionem Perpetua Aegyptium
:

quemdam horridum
eorum;

et nigrum, iacentem et uolutantem se sub pedibus sanctis fratribus et commartyribus suis. at illi intelliretulitque

gentes gratias egerunt Domino, qui, prostrate inimico generis humani, eos laude martyrii dignos habuerit. Contristantibus uero iis de Felicitate quod esset praegnans in mensibus
octo, statuerunt

unanimiter pro ea precem ad

Dominum

fundere.

et

dum
:

orarent, subito enixa est uiuum. quidam uero de custodibus dixit ad earn factura es cum ueneris in amphitheatrum, quae talibus detineris Quid

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
tormentis?
patietur.
Felicitas respondit:

103
ibi

Hie ego orucior;

uero pro rneDominus

Facto itaque die natali Caesaris, concursus ingens fiebat populi in amphitheatrum ad spectaculum eorum. procedente uero proconsule, eos ad

amphitheatrum perduci praecepit. euntibus uero eis sequebatur Felicitas, quae ex sanguine carnis ad salutem sanguinis [u.l. salutis sanguinem] ducebatur, et de obstetrice ad gladium, et de lauatione post partum balnei
sanguinis eSusione meruit delauari [u.l. relauari]. adclamante uero turba, positi sunt in medio amphitheatri nudi, ligatis post tergum manibus; et dimissis bestiis diuersis, Satyrus et Perpetua a leonibus sunt deuorati.

Saturninus uero ab ursis erutus gladio est percussus. Felicitas a leopardis gloriosum agonem impleuerunt.

Reuocatus uero et

Horum
in ciuitate

fratres, qui passi

ergo famosissimorum et beatissimortim Martyrum, sanctissimi sunt sub Valeriano et Gallieno imperatoribus apud African!

Tuburbitanorum sub Minutio proconsule die nonarum Martiarum, memoriis communicantes actus eorum in ecclesia ad edificationem legite, precantes Dei misericordiam ut orationibus eoruin et omnium sanctorum nostri misereatur, atque participes eorum efficere dignetur, in gloriam et laudem nominis sui, quod est benedictum in saecula saeculorum. amen.
fideliter

APPENDIX
THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS
THE ORIGINAL LATIN TEXT
TOGETHER WITH

THE GREEK VERSION AND THE LATER LATIN
RECENSIONS

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
THE
Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs were printed by Baronius under the year 202, apparently from two or three MSS., some of the

readings of which he records. They were reprinted by Ruinart who added a somewhat different recension from a Colbertine MS.,

and also a fragment of about ten lines of yet another recension which Mabillon had found at Reichenau (Mab. Vet. Anal. IV. 155). The recension of Baronius mentioned Severus and Antoninus as the reigning Emperors, and the Colbertine recen(i.e. Caracalla) sion also spoke of more than one Emperor, though no names were This being so, it seemed that the Martyrdom could not be given. referred to an earlier date than the year 198, in which Caracalla received the title of Augustus. On the other hand Mabillon's of one Emperor only, but did not mention his fragment spoke name. The three recensions agreed in naming Saturninus as the proconsul; and, as Tertullian tells us (Ad Scap. 3) that he was the first to draw the sword on the Christians in Africa, it was
difficult to place

the Martyrdom later than 200.

of the Consuls only introduced fresh confusion, as were given in so corrupt a form that it seemed hopeless to they
try

The names

and identify them.

Mabillon gave

:

Praesidente bis Claudiano

consule.

Claudio

Baronius: Esdstente (alias praestante; alias praesente) The Colbertine recension (alias Claudiano) consule.

omitted them altogether. M. Leon Renier suspected that the word bis pointed to a Consul's name underlying the preceding word, and wished to refer the Martyrdom to 180, Praesens II. and This earlier date harmonised much better with Condianus. Tertullian 's notice of Saturninus, but it was only possible to

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLTTAN MARTYRS.
accept
it if

107

Mabillon's fragment were regarded as representing the

more original form of the Martyrdom. The ingenious conjecture of M. Renier has been completely In 1881 Usener justified with the accession of fresh documents. the Martyrdom in a Greek form from a MS., dated 890, published
This opened with the in the Bibliotheque National e at Paris names of two Consuls, though still in a corrupt form (e-Trt Tiepcravro9 TO Sevrepov Kctl KXavSmi/ov rSv inrdrwv}, and spoke through.

1

out the piece of the Emperor in the singular number. Moreover it represented a shorter recension than either that of Baronius or

the Colbertine, and
originality.

it

bore throughout an impress of greater

All difficulty as to the date was thus at an end; but a new controversy was raised as to the origin of the Greek form of the

Martyrdom. Usener at once declared it to be a translation from a lost Latin original. In this he was followed by Hilgenfeld, who added that it bore a closer relation to the fragment of Mabillon than to the other recensions. Duchesne made a like observation, but gave no opinion on the question of a Greek or Latin original.

On the other hand, Aube contended that the original document was written in Greek, as he had himself suspected before Usener's 2 Bonnet and Sittl pronounced the discovery was made known 3 same judgment
.

.

After examining Aube's arguments

I

felt

convinced

that

Usener's decision was the correct one; and I believed moreover that if we had the whole of the document represented by Mabillon's fragment we should probably be in possession of the source
of all the three recensions hitherto published. I have been confirmed in this view by the discovery of the very document which I

have at

find and I now publish it in the belief that we the original Latin form of the Martyrdom. On the of August, 1890, 1 found in the British Museum a codex (No. 30th

had desired to
last

;

11,880) assigned to the ninth century, containing the Scillitan Martyrdom in a form agreeing exactly with Mabillon's fragment, as far as that fragment goes. The remainder of the piece, for
1

2 3

Index Scholarum, &c. Bonn, 1881. Etude sur un nouveau texte des Actes des Martyrs Sittl, Local peculiarities of Latin, p. 112.

Scillitains, Paris, 1881,

108
here

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

we have it in its entirety, will be read with the greatest interest, not only as a fresh contribution to our knowledge of

popular African Latin of the second century, but also as a simple and inspiring narrative of the brave endurance of the early African
Christians.

understand that
difficult

It is brief, almost to obscurity; and we can readily it would need to be paraphrased and enlarged for

Church purposes,
contents
it is,

so as to provide a

lection for the

somewhat longer and less commemoration of the Martyrs. In its

might be expected, in closest correspondence with the Greek form and we may pronounce over it at once the same eulogy with which Aube greeted the appearance of the Greek itself: 'c'est infmiment plus simple, plus grave, plus impersonnel
as
:

et plus court

que

les autres textes.'

my first discovery I found in the State Library at ^Ivreux a 13th century MS. (No. 37, f. 55), and in the HofBibliothek at Vienna (No. 377) an llth century MS., of the same
Shortly after
Passion.

Both

of these offer texts

which correspond very

closely

Museum. Their modifications consist almost entirely of additions; and they help to restore a few passages where the earlier MS. is at fault. I have recorded
to that of the

MS.

in the British

their variants in the critical notes, but I have adopted none of them into the text, unless they were justified by the other recensions.

I have collated afresh the Paris Codex of the Greek version, and have printed it without modification as it stands in the MS. I have also reprinted for the sake of reference the Latin recension given by Baronius, and that from the MS. of the Abbey of Silos in

Spain (Bibliotheque Na,t.,fonds latin n. a. 2179) as given in Aube's edition. This MS. gives an earlier form of the Colbertine recension, which comes from/ends latin 5306 ('olim Colbertinus'). In the
critical notes
cent.),

A = Brit.

Vienna 377 (llth

and

C = Evreux

Mus. 11,880 (9th cent), no. 37 (13th cent.).

B=

compare the newly found Latin text with the Greek, we note that it does not, like that and one of the Latin recensions, prefix the title of Saint' to each of the Martyrs whose words are recorded. It does not describe the exultation of Speratus when judgment is pronounced, but simply records his words
'

When we

:

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
'

109

gratias agimus.' Similarly it does not give the full thanksof all the Martyrs, but simply repeats Deo gratias.' It giving
' :

Deo

says nothing about 'sending up the Amen,' which is a commonThe close of the piece, moreover, has place of Martyrologists. been altered and expanded in the Greek, in which the locality of

the Martyrs is named, and the exquisite phrase 'regnant cum Patre et Filio et Spiritu Sancto' has been rejected, as it has been also in both the recensions of the Latin. All these points may be

regarded as evidence of the superior antiquity of the newly found Latin form.

two Latin recensions hitherto as printed below, where their and modifications will be found in italic type. But interpolations it is worth while to note that almost every word of the ancient form is preserved in one or other of these recensions, which have
regards
its

As

relation to the
to refer to

known,

it is sufficient

them

modified their original in different directions. Although it is scarcely probable that the theory of a Greek original will be revived after the publication of the present Latin
text, it

may be

well to examine

some of the arguments by which

the theory has been supported. Aube's main argument is founded on the brevity of the Greek form as compared with the two Latin recensions. But

our new Latin document is shorter still: so that the argument from brevity changes hands, and henceforth tends to shew that the Greek is itself a translation and to some extent an amplification. The two texts printed side by side below will speak for
themselves in this matter
:

but we

may

select a

few conspicuous

examples. In the opening sentence, and again near the close, we have the additional date oirep ea-rlv 'Iov\ia) t^', to explain to Greek
readers
'

xvi Kalendas Augustas.'

In the following sentence /ea^eS? Se%0eWe9, which Aube rightly disliked and which he wished to replace by /ca/ccw? Xe^#ez>Te<? or
a/cc3?

a

literal

SuoxQevres, explains itself quite well when we regard it as The same remark will translation of 'male accepti.'
ryakirjviQMTas as
110

apply to

a translation of

'

tranquillas.'
rjfjLerepwv

There can be

doubt that in the phrase Kara rwv

iepewv, either the translator or a copyist (as

Aube

supposes) has

110

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

blundered in putting iepe&v for iepwv. We now see that the Latin before him was de sacris (not sacrificiis ') nostris.'
'

'

The word inQavorT]^ need no longer cause us we regard it as a poor equivalent of persuasio.'
'

trouble,

when

We

have good instances of paraphrase or amplification in the
:

following

Nolite huius deruentiae esse participes.

Miy ^ovXrjdrjre

rfjs

roiavrr^s
rj

pavias

KOI Trapa(f)po(ruvT]s yevea-Qat

In re tarn iusta
ratio.

uiilla est clelibe-

'Ev irpaypaTi ovrcas e-ynpiTta ovSefiia Ka$urrarcu jSouA?) r) Siao-Ke^ts.
'OTroZai

Quae sunt

res in capsa uestra

?

Trpay^aTetat

TOIS

i5/ierepois

referred to,

modification of the close of the piece has already been and deserves particular attention. It is impossible to believe that there, any more than in the passages just quoted, the

The

Latin text could have been produced by an abbreviation of the Greek.
curious phrase iniquitati nullam operam praebuimus' has no counterpart at all in the Greek but any one who attempts to find a rendering for it will pardon the Greek translator, if he
:

The

'

used the licence of a paraphrast and purposely omitted

it.

If

this explanation of its absence be admitted, the flourish of amplification, of which Aube justly complained at this point in the later

Latin recensions, can no longer be alleged in favour of the originality of the Greek.

The main body

therefore of Aube's

argument
is

is

seen to have

the argument from disappeared altogether. the names of the Consuls, and the argument from the proclamation of the herald after sentence had been pronounced.
All that remains

With regard to the first of these we now read by the aid of the Vienna MS., 'Praesente bis et Claudiano consulibus'; so that here we have a form obviously more correct than that in the
Greek, which has hitherto been the nearest to the truth. The explanation of the mistake in the various Latin texts is not far to
seek
ciple
itself
;

'

Praesente
it

and so

was taken, at a very early period, as a partithrew the whole sentence out of gear. It was
' '

'

transformed into

praesidente/

praestante,'

and existente

'

'
:

THE ACTS OP THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
it

Ill

soon cast out the 'bis'; and, when only one proper name was consule took the place of consulibus,' and so the error was left, complete. In the Greek the corruption was of a different cha'
'
'

racter,

As
I

and only affected the spelling of the first Consul's name. to the second Consul, all our witnesses give Claudiano,' and
'

have accordingly printed this, and not Condiano,' in the text. With reference to the order given to the herald, the Colbertine

'

recension reads
reading.

The

per praeconem duci iussit,' a quite impossible Greek gives Sea rov Krjpvicos ra ra>v dyicov fjuiprvpcw
it is

'

ovofjbara fcrjpv-^drjvat Trpocrera^ev.

sense
'

:

but we now see that

This no doubt gave the true a somewhat clumsy paraphrase

of per praeconem

did

iussit.'

Among the names thus proclaimed by the herald we find in the Greek }Lai\e<TTlvov (cod. KeXeo-rtvoy), which answers to
texts. Aube supposes, at the sug' of Renan, that Laetantium arose from a division of the gestion Greek KaiXea-rivov into KOI and \eartvov, the copula being then dropped because the other names in the list were without it.

'Laetantium' in the Latin

'

This
it

is

ingenious.

The new Latin

text leaves the matter where

was: but I cannot think that so precarious an argument can have any force, when it stands absolutely alone.

112

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYKS.

PASSIO SANCTOEVM SCILITANORVM.
Praesente bis et Claudiano consulibus, xvi Kalendas Augusin secretario inpositis Sperato, Nartzalo et tas, Kartagine
Potestis indulgentiam domni ad boiiam mentem redeatis.
Cittino, Donata, Secunda. Vestia, Saturniuus proconsul dixit nostri irnperatoris promereri, si
:

5

Speratus dixit

:

Numquam
;

operam praebuimus
Saturninus
10

numquam

malefecimus, iniquitati nullam malediximus, sed male accepti

gratias egimus; propter
est

simplex
tri

quod imperatorem nostrum obseruamus. Et nos religiosi sumus, et proconsul dixit et iuramus per genium domni nosreligio nostra,
:

imperatoris, et pro salute eius supplicamus, quoque facere debetis.

quod

et uos

Speratus dixit

:

Si tranquillas praebueris aures tuas, dico
Initianti tibi

mysterium
15

simplicitatis.
:

Saturninus dixit

non praebebo
toris.

;

seel

potius iura per

mala de sacris nostris aures genium domni nostri impera;

Speratus dixit Ego imperium huius seculi non cognosce sed magis illi Deo seruio, quern nemo hominum uidit nee uidere furtum non feci sed siquid emero teloneum 20 his oculis potest.
:

;

reddo

:

quia cognosce

domnum meum, regem regum

et impera-

torem omnium gentium.
PASSIO SCILLITANOBVM. C; INCIPIT PASSIO SANCTOEVM
ID EST SPEHATI, NAZARI, CITTONI, DONATAE, BISTEAE. B
1

MAKTYKVM SCYLLITANOEVM,
presidente bis

Praesente bis et Claudiano consulibus] B; In diebus

illis

2 Cartigine B; aput Claudiano consule A; Presente Claudiano consule C Nartzalo et Cittino] A; et Naharo, Cittono B; Narcallo Kartaginem C 4 domini 3 Bistea B et Bestia C Saturinus B semper Cithino C
;

B

7 prebemus A; prohibuimus B 8 obseruamus] + et timemus et adoramus et ipsi cotidie sacrificium nostrae laudis 10 nostra religio B offerimus BC genium] C ingenium A regnum B

5 C quam] numquid B
;

dnl

redeatis]

+ et

sacrificetis diis

omnipotentibus

BC

6

num-

nullam] ullam

C

.

;

;

domini, om. nostri 13 dicit A

B

11 eius salute
15 initianti]

A

om. quod
;

B B
;

A super rasuram
C

initiant

12 om. quoque BC iniciasti, om. tibi C

mala] male

C

ingenium

A

aures] + nieas om, domni nostri

BC

16 sed potius iura] A; potius iurate BC 18 agnosco A 19 deo seruio] A ;

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

113

MAPTYPION TOY AHOY

KAI

KAAAINIKOY

MAPTYPOZ

ITTEPATOY.
'E?rt Tlepcravros TO Sevrepov teal

K\avSiavov rwv
i%,

VTrdrcov,

irpb

is"

Ka\avS(av avyovo-rcov OTrep earlv 'lovXtco

ev

rm Kara

KapOayevva fiovXevrrjptq) rj^Oija-av irapaa-rdo-ifioi ^Treparos Napr^aXo? Kal Kirrtz/o? Aovara "ZefcovvBa Kal 'Ecrrta, 7rpo9
ovs ^arovpvivos 6 dvOvTraros (frrjaiV
'ESi/vacr^e Trapd rov
r]fM(av 5

avTo/cpcvropos a'vy^foprja-ewf d^noOrjvai, edv apa (roippova XoytcrfMov avaica\icrr)cr6e.

'O Be
ryrfo-a[j,ev,

ayto<$

^Treparo^ aTreKpivaro

XeyaW

OuSeTrore etcaKovp/cal fca/coos

ovSeTrore /carripaa-dpeda,
6
'

d\d i*,r\v

Se^OevTes
10

ev^apio-Tov/j,ev, eVeiS?) ra> 0ea>

rj^v KCLI /SacrtXei 8ov\evo/jiev. dvdvTraros efyr) 'AX\a Kal TqjAeis dpr)<rKvofj,ev,
rov $eo~7r6rov rjp&v fiacniKerevo^ev'
o

Kara

-7-179

avfjiTrefyvKvias evBaipovias
rfjs

A,a>9 Kal VTrep
C

avrov

a-(orr)pia<f

Kal

i5/u,a9

/o^ iroiew.

15

O

Se

ay LOS ^Treparos
TO
6

etTrev'

'Eai/ <ya\r)Vi(0cras

/JLOI

r9

dvQviraro^

e(f)t]'

'^vap^af^evov (rov Trovvjpd
20

\e<yeiv

Kaid rwv

C

6fj,6<rar

ov TrpoaOrjcra)' 77 [ierepwv iepewv rds dicod^ pov Kara 7-779 evSaifiovias rov Bea-Trorov tf[j,(3v jj,d\ov

avroKpdropos,

'O ayios 27re/oaT09 \eyei' '700 rrjv jBacri\el,av rov vvv al ov rywwo-Ko}' alvw Be Kal \arpeixo rqj epm 9ew, ov ovSels r&v dvOpfoirwv reOearai' ouSe yap olovre rovrois rots alffQ^rol^ KKoirrfv ov ire'jroi'rjKa' aXX,' el' rt, Kal Trpd(ro~(o, TO TeXo9 o/j,[ji,aa-i.
dirorivvpi,, 'on
/3a<ri,\ea)v

25

eTTiyivaxTKO) rov Kvpiov

r/fjioov

Kal fiacri\ea rwv

Kal SeffTrorfiv irdvrwv r&v edv&v.

soli seruio

deo

B

;

seruio

C

20 oculis] + carnalibus

BC

potest] + nisi oculis

cordis: si fidem

naq
21

B

;

habuerimus uidebimns (uidemus C) lumen uerum nunquam C siquid emero] AC quide mei noro B

BC

non] A; theloneum BC

domnum] + deum B
et uersione

regem regum

et

Baroniano

graeca; et imperatorem regum

imperatorem] sic restitui ex cod. A super rasuram; imperatorem

regum

et

BC
8

B.

114

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
Saturninus proconsul dixit ceteris
:

Desinite huius esse per-

suasionis.

5

Speratus dixit Mala est persuasio homicidium facere, falsum testimonium dicere. Saturninus proconsul dixit: Nolite huius dementiae esse
:

participes.

Cittinus dixit
nisi

:

Nos non habemus alium queni timeamus,
qui est in
caelis.
;

domnum Deum nostrum
dixit
:

jo

Donata autem Deo.
Secunda

Honorera Caesari quasi Caesari
Christiana sum.
:

timorem

Vestia dixit

:

Quod sum, ipsud uolo esse. Saturninus proconsul Sperato dixit Perseueras Christianas ?
dixit
:

Speratus dixit
15

:

Christianus

sum
:

:

et

cum

eo

omnes con-

senserunt.

Saturninus

proconsul
?
:

dixit

Numquid ad deliberandum
nulla est deliberatio.
res in capsa uestra
iusti.
?

spatium uultis

In re tarn Speratus dixit Saturninus proconsul dixit
20

itista
:

Quae sunt
:

Speratus dixit
recordemini.

:

Libri et epistulae Pauli uiri

Saturninus proconsul dixit
Speratus iterum dixit
consenserunt.
35
1
:

Moram XXX dierum
sum
:

habete et
eo omnes

Christianus

et

cum

B
esse

Saturninus proconsul decretum ex tabella recitauit Speradixit: ceteris desiniteA; dixit: desiniteB; dixit: desine C huius] + modi 3 respondit B 1, 2 persuasionis esse C dixit] + siquidem BC
:

facere]

A;

BC 7 mus] + cotidie B

perpetrare BG Cithinus

5 huius] furoris huius et

BC

5,

6 participes

C

dicit

A

;

nostrum] + lesum Christum A caelis] + ipsum solum timemus (timere studemus C) ex toto corde nostro et ex tota anima nostra (+ Saturninus dixit C) tu quid dicis, Donata BC 10 deo] + Caesari quasi] Caesaris do C 9 respondit Donata BC 11 Bestia Saturninus dixit tuquid dicis, Bestia (Bistea B tit semper) BC respondit BC sum] + nee aliud (aliam C) me esse profiteer. Saturuinus
om. alium
:

A

respondit BC 8 om. deurn A

om. nos

A

habe-

dixit: quid tu dicis,

Seeunda

BC

uolo

C

unanimiter

BC

13 christianus] + esse BC 16 proconsul dixit]

17 uultis spatium

A
BC

bona non

est deliberatio

ipsum esse omnes] + A ; respondit BC numquid] nisi C 18 respondit C iusta uulla est commutatio A ; (Cf. Acta S. Oypriani Buin. p. 217 in re tarn iusta

12 respondit Secunda BC 14 respondit BC

nulla est consultatio)

19 om. proconsul

B

capsa]

B; causa A; ca C

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MART YES.
'

115

6 dvOvTTCtTos

efpT) 737)05 TOI)?

\ot7rou5'

OTTO T?;5

'O 07405 S7re/9oTO5
,

e^rj'

'Ei/ceivrj

earlv
rj

7ria-<j)a\r)S

iriQavo-

TO

dvBpo<j)oviav

KaTepydear0ai

tyevBofjiapTVpLav KO,TCL5

o dvOviraro^ elirev' M.rj /3ov\r)0fjTe

r^

ids ical 7rapa(j)pocrvvr)<f yevevdai

r)

Sei%0rjvcu
tcvptov rov 6eov yfj,<ov TOV
10

erepov ov

(j)o/3'rjd(o/j,ev,

el prj

ev rot? ovpavois /caroLKovvra. C 8e a7ta Aoz/ara e'<?7'

H

T^y

yitey

njjurjv

TO>

Kaicrapi,

co?

,

TOV

<])6{3ov
f

Se

TW

^e&5 ^f

'H

3e ayta Eo-Tta \e<yei'
Be
rf

ay LO, ^eKovvBa
6

e(j>r]'

"Ojrep

et/u,

/cat

Btafieivai
1

5

ToVe ^arovpvlvo^

dvOuTraros TO> a7tw ^irepdrtp

elirev'

'O ay LOS ^TrepaTO? elirev' XptcrTtai/o? inrdp^w. KOL ol \ot7Tol Troz/Te? 07404 eiirav.
6

TO avTO Be

dvBvirciTos

efirj'

M^

apa

vrpo?

Bida/ce-^nv 20

'O 07405

^irepaTO*;
j3ov\ri

ecf)f)'
rj

'Ev irpdy/j,aTL OVTQ)$ eyKpiTW ovSe'

Bida-/ee^n<?.
efir)
;

6 dvOvTraTO?
diroiceiVTai crxeveo'iv

'Qirolai TrpayfjiaTelat,

TOt5
25

'O 07405

2v7re/DOTO5

elirev'

At

/ca^'

^//-05

(3i{3\oi KOI al

irpoaeiTiTOVTOt^ eiriaTO\al IlayXou TOU ocriov dvBpos.
~2<aTovpvlvos 6 dvOvTraTOs
e(f)ij'

Tipodecrfiia Tpid/covTa y/j,pwv

vfuv

ecrTfo et 7ra)5 aax^pov^cr'rjTe.

'O 07405

2,7repdTo<z Trap'

avTa dweicpivaTo'
teal

Ta06TO<* Tvy%dv(0.

TOVTO Be

Xpt(7Ttai'05 oytie- 30 ol \ovrrol 6/j,o0VfjiaBov crvva'jre-

ToTe
20
21,

2<a>TOvpvivo<}

6

dv0V7raTO<f

Trjv

irepl

avTwv
Pauli] + apostoli

libri]

A; uenerandi (-da B) libri 22 habe tenere condenemini B
fecit

legis divinae

BC
C

BC

23 om. iterum

sum] + et indesinenter

dominum deum meum
B) qui

caelum

et terrain,

consul] + dixit

C

colo et adoro (et trinitatem deuni credo et adoro et colo 25 promare et omnia quae in eis sunt BC om. decretuin B recitaui C

82

116
turn,

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
Nartzalum, Cittinum, Donatam, Vestiam, Secundam et

ceteros ritu Christiano se uiuere confesses,
facultate ad

quoniam oblata

sibi

Romanorum morem
:

redeundi obstinanter perseue-

rauerant, gladio animaduerti placet.
5

Speratus dixit Nartzalus dixit
gratias.

Deo
:

gratias agimus.
in
caelis

Hodie martyres

sumus
:

:

Deo

10

Saturninus proconsul per praeconem dici iussit Speratum, Nartzalum, Cittinum, Veturium, Felicem, Aquilinum, Laetantiurn, lanuariam, Generosam, Vestiam, Donatam, Secun-

dam

duci

iussi.
:

Vniuersi dixerunt

Deo

gratias.

Et
15

ita

Patre et

omnes simul martyrio coronati sunt, et regnant cum Filio et Spiritu Sancto per omnia secula seculorum.

amen.
1

Nartadum B

;

Nartallum C
facultate]

Cithinum C B; uiuere

Bestiam C

2 Christiano

ritu
2,

BC

se uiuere] C; seruire

3

oblata sibi

B

;

quoniam] et quod post (om. post A) oblatam sibi facultatem
5 deo]

A

BC AC

B)

4 animaduerti] animas percuti B BC 6 Nartadus B ; Nartallus
;

+ omnipotent!

insufficienter (-tes

C

sumus] esse meruimus

BC
;

8 om.

dici iussit] A iussit duci ( + sanctos ut decollarentur C) BC per praeconem B 9 Nartadum, Cittonum B ; Narcallum, Cithinum C Beturium AC Biturium B 10 Laetacium B; Laecatium C lanuarium B om. Generosam

A

ore

11 om. duci iussi BC Bestiam C C gratias] + et laudes qui nos pro suo sam passionem perducere dignatus est BC decollati sunt pro nomine Christi ( + Amen C) BC

12 uniuersi] + uero
(

B + uno
;

+ sancto
13

B) nomine ad glorio15 et ita amen] et statim

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS,
ovr<a Trepie^ovaav'

117
/cat

rov ^/Trepdrov,

Ndpr^aXkov
7*01)9

Kr)rr?vov,
oo~oi
T<

Aovdrov re
%pio~rtavitc<j)

'Ecrrtaz/
0o~/jbq)

KOI ^/eKovvBav, KOI

d(f>dvrovs,

reveo~0ai, eVel /cat %apio-rt,Kfj<;

eavrovs Kare7rr)<y<yei\avro TTO\Iavrols Trpofleoyua? rov TT/DO? rrjv
d/cXivei?
rrjv

roov

opojf^evcov

7rav###BOT_TEXT###eiv
6 d6\o<f>6pos

TrapdBocrtv,

yvwpijv

5

SiejJLewav, %L<f)ei

TOVTOV? dvaipeOijvai SeSotcrai

rrrap" r)(uv.

Tore roivvv

rov %picnov ^Treparos
"TrpocrKeKhiyKori

7ra\6/j,evo<;

Oew r/fiwv rw ev^apicrriav avrov Odvarov dveTrefJt'frev. virep
ra>

auroi)? et? rov

'O Se ayto? Napr^aXA,o9 ^aipwv

elirev'

^rjfjbepov

dXrjOws

10

fidprvpes ev ovpavois rv<y%dvo[i,v vdpe<rroi rS 0ew. Tore roivvv "Sarovpvivos 6 dv0vTraro<? Bid rov KrjpvKOs
roov d<yiwv fj,aprvp(&v

rd

ovopara

Krfpv^Orjvai, Trpoo-erajfev, rovreo-ri
K.tjrrivov,

rov

Qverovpiov, <&L\.r)Ka, Fevepwaav, ^crriav, Aomrav fcal ^efcovvSav. Trjvifcavra ovv irdvre^ ol aryioi rov 6eo~v o"o%o\o<yovvr<> 6fj,o<f)(ava)<; e<j>acrKOV' ^ol v%apio~rov[Ji.GV, rpicrd<yi6
^ireparov,
'Afeoviivov, K.e\eo~rivov, 'lavovpiav,
/cvpie,

Ndpra\ov,

15

KOL

tre fjLe<yd\vvofjt,ev,

art rov dytuva r^9 oftoTioyias t\e&)9
77

ere\iw(ra<;, fcal Siafjuevei (rov
alcbvoav,
dfjbrjv.

/3ao-tXeta et9 rov9 alwvas

rwv
20

Kal

dvaTrefi-^rdvrwv
rjcrav

avr&v TO
ovv
Se

dft/rjv ere\,ei(60r}(rav rc5
ot'
1

i<f)ei,

op/ico//-ez/ot

nyioi

drro

rfjs

Nof^8ta9, Kardtceivrai
e/Maprvprjo-av Se evrl
ical

7r6\e&)9'

K.ap0a<yevvr)<i prjrpoIIepo-ayTO9 KOI K.\avBiavov roov
7r\ir)criov
J

VTrdrcov

Sarovpvlvov dv0V7rdrov, Ka0
"\II](TQV

rjpas

Be /3ao~t\ev- 25

OVT09 rov /cvpiov r)^wv
ij

Xpta-rov'

w
KOI

irpeTreL 7rd<ra Soga,
^OJOTTOIGO TrvevfJiart

teat Trpoa/cvvijcns o~vv

T&> Travayla)

vvv

teal ael

Kal et9 rovs aiu>va<$ roov alwvmv.
<ruv 0eq> TO fAaprvptov

rwv

dryicov

^Trepdrov,
30

,

K^TTiVou, Overovpiov KOI r<av

crvv avrot<$.

118

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

ACTA PROCONSVLARIA MARTYRVM SCILLITANORVM.
Ex
.Z^CTstente

Annalibus Ecelesiastieis Baronii,

Ad annum

202.

Claudio consuls

XIV kalendas Augustas

Oarthagine metropott,

statuto forensi

magistratus adstare sibi Speratwm, Narzalem, Cittinwm, Donatam, Secundam, et Vestiwom. Et adstantibus eis Saturninus proconsul dixit Potestis ueniam a domim's nostris imperatori&ws
conuentu, prceceperunt
:

Seuero

Antono promereri, si bono animo conuersi fueritis ad deos nostros. Speratus dixit Nos minime aliquando m&lum fecimus, neque iniquitatem
et
:

sequentes in peccatis egimus operafo'owem, nee aliquando

cuiquam malediximus,

sed male swscepti a uobis, gratias egimus semper. et regem acforamus.

Quamobrem dominum uerum

Saturninus proconsul dixit
nostra
;

et

Et nos electi sumus, et mitissima est elegantia iuramus per genium domini nostri imperatoris, et pro salute
:

illius intercedimus,

quod
:

et uos facere debwi'stis.

Speratus dixit
mansuetudinis.

Si tranquillas adkibeas mihi aures tuas,
te

dicam mysterium
:

Dicenie Saturninus proconsul dixit tantum iura per genium regis nostri.
: :

de mysterio non inferam mala

Ego imperatoris mundi genium nescio, sed ccelesti Deo Speratus dixit meo seruio quern nulhis hominum uidit, nee uidere potest. Ego enim nee farads sum aliquando ; sed quodcumque emam tributum do quomam cognosco

eum dominum oneum; gentium Dominum.
et

sed adoro

Dominum meum Regem regum
De
csetero

et

omnium
quiescite,

Saturninus proconsul dixit
accedentes sacrificate diis.

:

a tumultu garrulitatum

Speratus respondit : Ula est mala concitatio, quce f&cit homicidium et falsam accusationem aduersus aliquem. Nolite furoris huius inSaturninus proconsul ad alios conuersus dixit
:

sipieniise participes fieri,
eius.

sed timete potius regem nostrum, obedientes prceceptis
nisi

Cittinus dicit

:

Nos non habemus alium quern timeamus
est in
cffilis.

Dominum

Deum

nostrum qui

Saturninus proconsul dixit : Detrudantur in carcerem, ponantur in ligno, in

diem crastinum.
Sequenti die Saturninus proconsttl, sedens pro tribimali, eijjji^cesentari
iubet.

Qui cum

adstitissent dicit

adfceminas

:

Honorate regem TffPKm
Csesari,

et sacri-

ficate diis.

Tune Donata
nostro

dixit

:

Honorem quidem Caesari tanquam

Deo autem

honorem

et

orationem qferimus.

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

119

BibliothSque Nationale (fonds Latin.

Nouvelles Acquisitions, No. 2179).

SANCTI ET BEATISSIMI SPERATI ET COMITVM EIVS QVI PASSI SVNT CARTHAGINE IN CIVITATE, SVB SATVRNINO PROCONSVLE, DIE XIIII KAL. AVGVST.

In diebus

illis

Speratwm, Potestw indulgentiam a dominis nostris impehis omnibus generaliter dixit si ad bonam mentem redeatis et Deorum ccerimonias ratori&ws promereri
:

IsTarzal-zm,

adductos in secretario Cartjiagims ab apparitorum officio Donatam, Secundam et Vesti#z'a?n, Saturnimis proconsxil

obseruetis.

Sanctus Speratus dixit

:

Numquam

male
"Nulli

egisse conscii

sumus, iniquitati
;

opem atque

adsensutil
etc

non prsebuimus.
lacessiti

unquam

maledixisse recolinms
si

sed male tractati

semper Deo gratias egimus,

Pro qita re eis orauimus qiios iniuste patiebamur infestos. nostrum adtendimus a quo nobis hcec uiuendi norma concessa est. Et nos religiosi sumus et simplex est nostra Saturninus proconsul dixit religio et iuramus per genium domhwrum nostrorum, pro salute eorum suppli:

quidem et pro et imperatorem

camus, quod et xios facere debeatis. Sanctus Speratus dixit Si tranquillas prtebueris aures tuas dicam myste:

rium
tris

christiance simplicitatis. Saturninus proconsul dixit

:

Intipienii tibi dicere

mal^m de

sacri/?ci?'s

nos-

aures non prsebebo. Sed potius iurafe per genium dominor?M?i nostrw^wjz irnperatorawi ut istiiis mundi laititia perfruamini nobisciim.

Sanctus Speratus dixit
illijide spe cfeseruio

magis Facinus quod legibus Si quid autem in publicum emero [et] de exactoribus publicis eiienit, uectigalia reddo. Imperatorem omnium gentium Deum et Dominum meum agnosco. fyierelas nulli intuli, sustinere non debeo. Saturninus proconsul ad cseteros ora comiertit et socios Sperati sic adorsus est dieens: Desinite huius esse persuasionis cidtores qiia Speratus irilectiis est,

Ego imperium huius seculi non cognosco sed Deo quem nemo hominum uidit, nee uidere potest. piiblicis et diuinis comperitur esse damnauile non feci.
:

quoniam

si uos eius habuerit professio socios, nihilomimis habebit et pcena. Mala est persuasio falsum testimonium dicere, Sanctus Speratus dixit
:

si

mala

utique prouatur concessio si contra diuinis legibus agitis et publicis qiiibus Persuasio iiero diuince eidturce sectanda est uitce humance ordo disponitur.

potius

quam

deserenda.

Saturninus proconsul dixit: In prceteritis iam ego admonui ut huius dementise non annuatis esse participes.
Sanct^ls Cittinus dixit
:

Non a

et quce sociiis noster Speratits

confessits est.

nobis aliud oportet audire, o proconsul, nisi Scito enim quod non habemus
et

alium
ccelo.

quem timeamus
similiter
et

nisi

umim Deum

Dominum nostrum

qui est in
*"

Sancta

Donata

adiecit:

Honorem

Csesari quasi Caesari reddimus,

timorem autem

cultum Christo Domino prcestam^ls.

120

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
:

Et ego Christiana sum. Secunda similiter dixit Et ego credo in Deo meo autem tuis non seruimus, neque adoramus.
: :

Stans Vestma dixit

et

uolo in ipso esse

;

diis

Saturninus proconsul auditis his prcecepit eas seruari. Aduocatis uiris dixit Sperato Perseueras ut christianus sis ? Etiam perseuero et omnes audite quia christianus sum. Speratus dixit
:

illius dicentes:

Audientes omnes qui cum iLlo retenti fuerant, consenserunt confessioni Sumus et nos pariter christiani.
:

Saturninus proconsul dixit Nee liber&twnem,, nee remissionem uultis? In certamme iusto nulla est remissio. Fac quod Speratus respondit Nos enim pro Christo gaudentes morimur.
: :

uis.

Saturninus proconsul dixit Qm' sunt libri quos adoratis legentes? Speratus respondit: Quatuor Euangelia Domini nostri lesu Christi et
Epistolas sancti Pauli apostoli
et omnem diuinitus inspiratam Scripturam. Saturninus proconsul dixit: Spatium trium dierum tribuo uobis ut

resi-

piscatis.

Speratus dixit
nostri lesu Christi

:

Christianus

non discedimus.

sum et omnes qui mecum sunt Fac quod uis.

et

a fide Domini

Proconsul uidens etiam ipsorum mentis stabilitatem et fidei firmitatem dedit in eos sententiam per exceptorem, dicews sic: Speratum, Narzalem, Cittinum, Veturium, Felicem, Acyflinuni, Lsetantium, lanuariam, Generosam, Vestiwam,

Secundam christianos se esse confitentes et imperatori honorem et dare recusantes, capite truncari prcecipio. dignitatem Hcec cum essent ex tabella recitato, Speratus et qid cum eo erant omnes dixerunt Deo gratias conferimus qiii dignatur nos hodie martyres accipere in
Donatam,
et
:

coslis

pro confessione sua. His dictis ducti sunt, etflexis genibus unanimiter, cum iterum gratias

Christo

agerent, truncata sunt singulorum capita. Consummate sunt Christi martyres mense lulio, die septimo decimo, et intercedunt pro nobis ad Dominum nostrum lesum Christum cui honor et gloria

cum
1

Patre et Spiritu Saucto in secula seculorum.

Amen 1

.

I have reprinted these two recensions from Auhe Etude &e. pp. 30 ff., italicising those portions of them which are not found in the original text of the Martyrdom. We have thus an interesting study of the way in which Martyrdoms were modified and expanded for Church use.

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MAKTYRS.
Vestigia uero uenerabilis seqimta
est

121
meditabitur cor
esse uolo et

dicens:

Hoc semper

meum

et

labia

mea pronuntidbunt quia

Christiana sum.

Sancta uero Secunda similiter ait : Quod sum Christiana, ipsa a meorum sociorum professione nutto obstante recedo.
Saturninus
christiamis.

proconsul

Sperato sancto

dixit

:

Perseueras

ut uideo esse

Sanctus Speratus dixit : Hanc perseuerantiam non meis uiribus sed diuini muneris me habere confido. Proinde si uis fixam cordis mei habere sententiam quia christianus sum, quidquid mihi et suppliciis inferre uoliteris libenter pro

nomine Domini Dei mei lesu Christi suscipiens sustineam. In hac ergo confessions exerceri Dei martyres consenserunt. Satiirninus proconsul dixit: Forsitan ad deliberandum spatium uultis
accipere
't

Sanctus Speratus dixit: In rem tarn bonam qua erit secunda deliberatio? Tune enim deliberauimiis nos cidturam Christi non deserere, quando baptismi
gratia renouati
et

diabolo abrenunti<mrim.us
:

et Christi

Saturninus proconsul dixit cawsa et religione uestra ?
Sanctus Speratus dixit simi apostoli.
huius
mini.
:

Quaa

stuit,

dicite

uestigia secuti sumus. mihi, res doctrinarum in

Libri Eiiangeliorum et epistolse Pauli uiri sanctis-

Saturninus proconsul dixit Accipite morarn triginta dierum ut retractetis Forsitan ad deorum sac?-a[s] ccerimonia\s\ reuertisectce confessionem.
: :

Sanctus Speratus dixit

JVos triginta

ipsi erimus post triginta dies qui et hodie sumus.

dierum spatium non petimus. Nam Nee in triginta dierum moras

poterit professionem nostram in aliquo
\te~\

permutari ; sed potius obtarem et hoc spatium deliberandi accipere ut de tarn turpi cultura ydolorum christiance Cceterum si non es dignus accipere, suspende moram, religionis amator existeres. sententiam recita <[w]am. Nam quotes nos hodie cernis tales post hanc induciam

futuros esse non dubites. Cernens Saturninus proconsul sanctorum perseuerantiam decretum ex tabella

Speratum, Narzalum, Cittinum, Donatam, Vesti(/iam et omnes ritxi uiuere se confessi sunt et quotqiiot oblatam sibi facultatem redeundi ad deorum cidturam obstinanter non receperunt gladio animaduertere
recitauit
:

qui christiano

placet.

Sanctus Speratus dixit Narzalus sanctus dixit

:

Gratias

Deo agimus.
coalo

:

Hodie martyres in

sumus.

Deo

gratias.

Saturninus proconsul per prseconem sanctos iubet additci id est Speratum, Narzalum, Citinum, Ve?ierium, Felicem, Aquilinum, Lsetantium, Ianuaria[m], Generosa[m], Donatam, Vesti^iam atque Secondam et illi uenientes ad locum
martyrii beatas Deo animas tradiderunt. Dominus uero lesus Christus suscepit martyres suos in pace cui est honor et gloria cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto ^ma et cocequalis essentia in secula
seculorum.

Amen.

INDEX OF LATIN WOKDS IN THE PASSION OF
S.

PERPETUA.

The references in darker figures are to the portions written by the Martyrs themselves.

absentia 64, 8
accersitus 92, 2
addicere,

auditus 62, 15
88, 8

animam
66, 18

adducor

baptisma secundum 92, 12 baptisrrras secundus 88, 3
baptizor 64, 9

adiutores 76, 10, 12

adloquor 64, 18 ; 92, 3 administro 62, 5
admiratione,

barbam

euellere 74, 18

cum
;

80, 4, 19

basio 68, 23 benedictus 64, 15
benefieio
c.

;

78, 13

admonitiones 84, 23
adtonitus 76, 8 86, 15 aedifieatio 60, 2 94, 11
;

gen. 64, 13, 20; 66, 6

beneficitim 62, 12

buccella 68, 7
88, 11

aedifico 66, 17

;

80, 12
;

Aegyptius 76, aestimo 62, 9
aetates

10, 14, 20

Caesar

74, 1

;

86, 2
;

temporum

60, 9

calco 68, 2 calx 78, 2

Us

78, 4, 6

;

88, 11

afa 76, 14
affectio, 62, 27

cancerata facies 72, 16
candidati 68, 5 careo c. ace. 64, 7
carnalis 72, 15

agape 86, 9
Agios, agios, agios 80, 14

agon

76,

14
68, 9

alicubi 66, 2

carnes 66, 13 caseus 68, 7
castigatius 84, 22 castrensis 72, 26 Us

amen, dicere

anhelo 76, 5 ansula 92, 15
antiquitas 60, 8 aper 90, 3 Us

cataractariorum ministri 84, 11 catasta 70, 4, 10

catechuminus
cauea 90, 6
64, 6

62, 18, 22; 90, 21

;

92, 3

ardere uiuus 80, 7

argumenta diaboli Artaxium 80, 7
Aspasius
82, 1

celebro 62, 7

Ceres 88, 6
cessatione, sine 74, 8; 80, 1, 15

auctoritas 60, 7

Christiana 64, 4
cicatrix 74, 6

;

70, 16, 17

audior 68, 13; 70, 8

124
circiter 62,

INDEX.
23
4,

diastema
8

72,

18

circumstantes 68,
circus 82, 11

dicto 64, 10
differor 84, 3

clamo

68, 6

;

78, 6

digero60,

3, 5;

62, 7

claritas 62, 16; 94, 14

clauus 76, 17

commanduco
eommartyres

68, 9

dignatio 62, 10; 66,4 Dinocrates 72, 6, 11, 14, 19, 21 discincta 76, 2; 90, 13
discingor 76, 16
dispoliatus 90, 10 distribuo 62, 6
diuinitas 62, 9

;

74, 4, 9

84, 5

commeatus 66, 5 commemoror 72, 8

commendo 64, 19 comminor 88, 12
commissio spectaculi componere 82, 3
concussura
64, 13

documentum
88, 22

60, 4; 84, 21
;

domina

66, 3

70, 1

dominicae passiones 88, 17 donatiua 62, 5
draco 66, 14, 20
;

conficior 90, 2

eonforto 60, 4; 64, 19

70, 3

conlaboro

76, 7

ecclesia 62, 4; 94, 11

conpuncta 94, 3 eonserua 62, 19
constantia 84, 21; 86, 9; 88, 6 constituo praernio 64, 15

educo 84, 16
effero 76, 18

eicio 68, 1

eniti

puellam 84, 15

consuetudinem, praeter 90, 9 consummo 92, 23

episcopus 80, 26 erubeseo 86, 4

consumer

92, 9

consumptus taedio 68, 14; 74, 17 contestor 86, 10
5,- 84, 6 conturbo 82, 9; 92, 15 conualesco 64, 22

eruo 64, 6 euerto 62, 27

exanimo

92, 18

eontristo 70,

exemplum

60, 1

;

94, 10
82, 3

exeo (=morior) 78, 14; 80, 8; exequor 84, 20
exinde 92,
88, 22
2,

conuersor 62, 9

17

coronam, gloriosiorem
crastina dies 66, 7

exitus 82, 18 ; 88, 19 exortor 92, 6

crastinus 86, 12
creatura, uniuersa 74, 20
curiositas 86, 11

expauesco

64, 11

;

80,

4

cypressus 78, 23

experior c. ace. 64, 12 ; 66, 6 ; c. abl. 88, 23 experrectus 68, 9 ; 72, 23 78, 9 ; 82, 15 ; expergita 90, 23
;

dedecus

hominum

68, 18

expolior 76, 12 extasis 90, 23

defectus 64, 18 defrigere 76, 13
deicere 62, 27
delieata,
;

extermino
68, 15
70, 18 bis 88, 1

68, 21

exululo 94, 4
;
;

exuperatio 60, 11
fabulor 66, 6
faetiones (circi) 82, 11 fastigium 76, 16

Dei 86, 19; puella
68,

d. 90,

12

depono animos
deputor 60, 7

20

desperatio fidei 62, 8 desub 66, 21

fautores 76, 12, 13; 78, 6
Felicitas 62, 19; 82, 21; 88, 1; 90, 18

diacomis

64, 15; 70,

23; 76, 1

INDEX.
femus
90, 15
(v. 1. inritantes) 86, 11 insidias praesto 66, 15

125

inridentes

ferramenta 66, 11, 14 feruorem facere 72, 2
fiala 74, 8, 9

instrumentum

62, 4

fideicommissum
fidenter 66, 7
filioli

84, 20

instupeo 90, 24 interrogor 70, 10

62, 13

intersum 62, 13 inuicem 74, 16; 82,
72, 18; 78, 1

9; 92, 4,

22; ad inu.

flagellum 88, 15
galliculae 76, 3, 17

locundum
gesto78, 20; 80, 4; 88, 22 gestu et nutu 88, 13

80, 6

iudico 60, 9
iugulatio 92, 18
94, 5

iugulum

Geta

74, 1

ius gladii 70, 14
lacto 64, 18

gladiator 94, 4
gloria 78, 8; 84, 19; 86, 3; 90, 17
gloria gloria

Dei

62, 7 62, 14; 94, 9

lancea 66, 12
lanior, 66, 13

Domini

graece loqui 82, 6 gratulor 88, 16
gustare, aliquid doloris 94, 3

lanista 76, 18; 78, 7
lectio 60, 3
;

62, 7

lente 68, 1

habitus

68, 4; 66, 12

88,

4; 92, 2

leopardus 88, 23; 90, 2; 92, leuo 68, 5
libera,

9,

10

hamus

cena 86, 8
(

hereditas 92, 16

Hilarianus 70, 12, 16, 18; 88, 13, 14 hoc ( = huc) 74, 22
homieidii, comites 92, 20 honorifico 94, 10

= transeo) 78, 17 locus tenebrosus 72, 11, 12
libero

lucror 82, 19

lumbi

ludo 74, 10 ; 80, 23 90, 14
72,

honoro 60, 4;

62, 3

horoma

74, 22
;

horreo 86, 3 hortus 68, 3

90, 11

maceror 64, 14; machera 66, 12
4

4

magnifieare 74, 14; 94, 9
86,

humanius haberi
ilico 70,
illo 92,

magnitudinis, mirae 66, 9, 15; mammae 72, 2, 3; 90, 12

76,

15

11 9

mandatum 84, manduco 68, 8
spiritus 94, 6

19

imbecillitas 62, 8

immundus

incantationes magicae 84, 24 induce 76, 6 88, 10
;

masculas, fieri 76, 13 matertera 68, 19 matrona Christi 86, 19
matronaliter nupta 62, 21 memoria sanguinis 92, 17

inedia 64, 18 inenarrabilis 82, 14
infibulo 90, 16

ministro 64, 15 Minueius 70, 13
mittere se 64, 5; 82, 2, 5; rnittere pugnos

ingemisco 72, 10
iniustitia 88, 9, 10

inlaesus 90, 7

78,1 morsu, uno 90, 2; 92,

9,

11

inluceo 86, 16

mulgeo

68, 4, 7

inpropero 74, 19

multiformis 76, 17

126
multiplex 76, 3

INDEX.
posteri 60, 6
78, 17

mundus, primus

postulo 66,

4,

praegnans 84,
natale74, 1; 86, 2 necessario 62, 6
necessarius 60, 6 neglegenter 66, 12

8; 72, 1; 88, 16; 92, 19 2, 3

praepositus carceris 74, 13 praesens tempus 60, 7

praesumo
prandeo

60, 8; 90, 2; 92, 7
66, 2

praetorium

neruus
noceo

74, 3

70, 7
;

nobiltssiinus 86, 2
c.

ace. 66, 21

presbyter doctor 82, 1 presbyter 82, 4 proconsulis, loco 70, 13

nouissirne 64, 13

procurator 70, 13

nouissimior 60, 11 nouitior 60, 10

producer 90, 11, 24
profecto 64, 6 proinde 60, 6

obducor 88, 8
obicior 84, 12; 88, 21

pronuntio

70, 20

prophetiae 62, 2
prosecutores 62, 26

obstetrix 88, 3

obstipui 72, 7

prout 62, 6

omne genus

flores 78, 22

proximo

74,

16
;

operor 60,2; 62, 10; 94, 13 Optatus 80, 26 ; 82, 10
optio 74, 13
;

psallere 78, 7

88, 11
92, 6,

Pudens
1;
o.

74, 13

;

14

86, 6
72,
9,

pulpitus 88, 23
17;
74,

orationem facere fundere 84, 8
pro
o.

quandoque
;

60, 6

ordo martyrii 62, 23

o.

muneris 84, 18

;

Quintus

80, 7

uenatorum

88, 16

oriens 78, 15

reclame 92, 12
relrigero 64, 8, 16; 74, 5, 16; 82, 8; 86,
74, 3

osculor 78, 7; 80, 20; 92, 22

ostendor 66,

4, 8; 72, 11;
;

1,5
releuor 64, 22

ostium

76, 1

80,

12

rememoror
papa
82,

62, 14

4

renuntio 66, 7
repraesentari, poenae 84, 4

paries 80, 11 passio 66, 5; 68, 11; 70, 2; 86, 10

passiones 92, 4;

p.,

pax (osculum)
80,

80,

dominicae 88, 17 22 92, 23
;

repromitto 62, reputo 60, 10
retiarius 88, 3
reticulis

repraesentatio 60, 3 3, 11

;

66, 7

Perpetua 62, 20;
23; 82, 13, 21 ; 94,
6,

66, 20; 76, 3; 78, 18;

requisita 90, 16

17; 84, 20; 88, 11; 90, 2, 3

indutae 90, 10

persecutio 80, 7 perseuero 64, 1

retro 74, 4, 6

reuelationes 62, 10

pertingo 66, 9 pignus 92, 17
piscina 72, 20, 22; 74, 6 plebem tuam 82, 10

Eeuocatus 62, 18;

88, 12

reuocor 88, 22; 90, 7, 13, 20 rosae, arbor 78, 22 82, 7 rumor cucurrit 68, 13 ; 70, 8
; ;

Pomponius
pons
90, 6

64,

14 ; 70, 23
70, 9

76, 1

Eusticus 90, 22
sacerdotes Saturni 88, 5

populus immensus

;

p.

ingens 76, 8

INDEX.
sacratae Cereri 88, 5

127
uersi 78, 16

sursum
10

sacrum, faeio 70, 15
salutare

suscito 90, 19

Dominum

80,

sustineo 66, 20; 94, 2

saluum lotum

92, 12, 13

Sanauiuaria, porta 78, 9; 90, 21 Saturninus 62, 19; 80, 6; 88, 12, 20 Saturnus 88, 5

tabesco 64, 19, 20

tegnon

68, 6

Tertius 64, 14
testificor 60, 1; 94,

Saturus 66, 16; 78, 13; 82, 17; 86,11; 88,12; 90,1,5,7; 92,6; 94, 1
scala 66, 8, 11, 14, 19; 68, 1

13
;

testimonium 62, 11 Timinianus 70, 13
tirunculus 94, 4

92, 12

scandalizor 92, 4

Seeundulus

62, 19; 82, 17

traicere in faciem 80, 21

segrego 82, 6 seniores 80, 17, 18, 21, 23
sensu, suo 62, 25

tribunus 84, 22; 86, 4; 88, 10
tunica 90, 14

sermocinor 88, 20
simpliciter 88, 10

uaeca 90,
66, 1
72, 3

8,

25

solemnia pacis 92, 22
sollicitudo 64, 14, 21
sollicitus 64,
;
;

uaco 64, 17 ubera 62, 22

18

uelamentum
8,

90,

15

spatia, saeculi 60, 11

statim 64, 22; 68, 10; 70,
84, 9; 92, 10

23; 72, 8;

uenatores 88, 16 ueneratio 60, 8

uentrem habere
uexatio 92, 1
90, 12

84, 1

;

uenter 84, 3

statura 72, 20
stillantibus

mammis

uexo

64, 6; 88, 15; 90, 1

stolae candidae 80, 13

subfossus 90, 4 subito 66, 1 ; 70, 7

Vibia Perpetua 62, 20 uiderint 60, 8
uiolatum, stadium 80, 6 uiridarium 78, 22; 80, 1; 82, 7
uirtus 60, 9; 62, 4; 74, 15; 94, 12
uisio 62, 2; 66, 4; 78, 13; 82, 16

;

72, 5

subleuo 80, 20 subligo 90, 4
sublimitas 84, 22 subministror 90, 3
substrictus 90, 5
sufferentia carnis 64, 10

umbilicus 74, 7 uolutare 76, 15

uotum, martyrii

88, 20

summam, ad
supinus

92, 7

superaenio 68, 13 78, 16

urceolus 64, 2 ursus 88, 23 ; 90, usurpo 64, 21

1, 5,

6

supplementum

84, 18

utique 86, 1; 88, 16; 92, 13; 94, 10

INDEX OF GREEK WORDS IN THE GREEK VERSION OF THE PASSION OF S. PERPETUA.

d/3e/3cuos 63,

8

eiravop6ovv 83, 13 87, 16

67, 13
eiv

71, 6

71, 13
61, 2
J''

81, 1, 15
a\yt)6u>v 73, 3
di/d/3a<ns 6/MiXij 79,

a 63, 30

21
91, 7
rj

dpa/3oX?j 67,
ij

6
83, 18
87, 12

65, 19

TriJXij

79, 11

;

91, 25

61, 15
e

av6inra.Tos 71,

13

69, 4, 7 71, 23

77, 16
63, 12

dfw 63, 25
2
89, 2

;

63, 11

;

67, 4

o^a'xeiv 73,
;

29

;

75, 25

;

83, 24

;

85,

atiroKpAropes 71, 16

65, 21
iinroSpofJ.tai

83, 14

91, 19
r7js

77, 22

;

79, 8

ws eXoi^ffw 93, 14
KardStKOi 87, 1
KO.Ta<j)4peff6a.i

y&yypaiva, 73, 17
'yaupiai' 79,

8
;

81, 1

yev46\iov 73, 29
93, 17
91, 9,
diaffTr]/jia

87, 2

^os 63, 20,
85, 21
/cepartfw 91, 15,
.

24

;

91,

26

;

93, 3

22
24
;

29

73, 21,

75, 8

73, 19

79,

27

i-Xo<rTa<rlai

83, 11

71,

20

Xa/cnV/xara 79, 2 eiv 69, 5
87, 13
65, 21
[j.a<ra<r9ai
;

eypyyopos 87, 24
elpT)voiroieu> 81,

24

73, 7 91, 14 63, 23
bs 67,

69, 15

69, 10

11

INDEX.
^s 95, 14
ia.

129
22

7rpo(TTaT7?s /jLovo/j.dxuv 77,

89, 3 77, 23
93, 26
o-dpices
;

/j,ovo/j.ax.os

95, 4

poSou Sej/Spov 79, 26
67, 14

;

83, 9

veppov 75, 4
vovai. 61, 1,

(rvKOfpavriai. 65,

15

5

av\a.[j.f3cu>e<.v

63, 19

91, 19

67, 13
3,
6fj,(pa\iov
oi)X?7

8

61, 1

75, 8 vylaive 93, 16

75, 7

vTrayopevu 65, 10
79, 1
iiTrofwoyta 91,

14

iravaperos TroXtret'a 95, 12
jraparripeiv 63,

virovpyeiv 77, 12

29
;

;

85, 11
;

irapSaXts 89, 25
7ra/3e/x/3oX??

91, 2

93, 10, 11

(pi\oTi/j.iai
<t)\ey[i.ovfi

79, 14 73, 2

;

85, 19

;

91, 6

73, 29

Trepiepyeia 87,

14
22
;

jrepi\a/jipca>6iv 81,

;

83, 7

73, 28

;

85, 24

;

87, 4

65,

23

83, 2
69, 8

67, 1

9

INDEX OF SUBJECT-MATTER.

Abraham, Testament

of,

39

Africanism, 46, 60, 76, 82

Greek version of Perpetua, 61 ff. ; relation to Latin covery of, 1 f
.

dis-

;

text,

Amphitheatre at Carthage, 76
Anulinus, as a persecutor, 25 Augustine view as to Dinocrates, 29
;

2ff.

Greek words used by Perpetua, 43

Hennas, Shepherd

of;
;

relation of the

Barlaam and Josaphat;

relation

to

Visions
of,

Apocalypse of Peter, 37 1, 41 Baruch, Best of Words of, 39 Basilica of Perpetua, 22, 68
Bezae, Codex, 48, 75, 98
Breviaries,
in,

35

;

early Latin Version Tertullian's view of, 36
to,

28

ff .

Ignatius, supposed references to Epistles
of,

83, 87

Commemoration

of Perpetua

Legal

20 f., 85

phraseology in Perpetua, 52 f., 85
;

Martyrdom

of

Lyons
Calendar, Carthaginian 15, 24 rian, 23
;

see

Vienne

Buche66

Carthage

;

proconsular palace,

5,

Manuscripts of Passion of S. Perpetua, 10 ff mutual relations of, 12ff. ; addi.

;

;

basilica of Perpetua, 22, 68;

amphidate
of,

tional variants from, 96

f.

theatre, 76

Menaeum, 21
of Perpetua
f.,
;

Commemoration
17
;

in Breviaries, 20

85

Menology of Basil, 21 Methodius Symposium, 42
;

f
f.

.

Montanistic allusions,

6,

51

Date of martyrdom of Perpetua, 24
Esdras, Apocalypse Eucharist, elements
Furseus, vision

Moses, Apocalypse

of, 38,

41

Old Latin Version of N.T.;
of,

used in

40
69

Gaul, 97

ff .

in,

of,

41

Palatinus, Codex Paradise, Visions

(e),

98 37

f.
ff.

of,
of,

Paul, Apocalypse

40

f.

Gebhart,
Geta, 86

Von
;

;

conjectural emendations
erased, 25

Peace, kiss

of,

25, 93

by, 5, 61

his

name

Perpetua, S. ; use of Greek words by, 43; her style, 44 ff.; her basilica at
Carthage, 22, 68 martyrdom, 47 ff.
;

Gladiators, oath of, 89 Glory, of martyrdom, 50

compiler of her

INDEX.
Polyxena
;

131
47
ff. ;

see

Xanthippe

Proconsular palace at Carthage, 5, 66 Punic original of martyrdom of Perpetua,
supposed, 77
Saturn, the African, 88 Saturus ; his style, 46
Scillitan Martyrs, Acts of, 106
ff .
;

of Perpetua, Patientia quoted, 57 f. Thomas, Acts of, 43, 73

Martyrdom

De

Thuburbo
of,

;

various forms

of,

17

;

locality
ff .

Perpetua not from, 22 Thuburbitan Martyrs, 25 f.
26
;

Trees of Paradise, 38 f
origi-

.

nal Latin found, 107 version of, 112 ff.

;

texts

and Greek
text of,

Victor Vitensis, 22, 68
"Vienne

Short Latin Acts of Perpetua 100 ff.; origin of, 15 ff.; use

;

and Lyons, Letter from, 8, 66 ; Old Latin Version traced in, 73, 97 ff.
.

of,

20 ff.

Speculum, quoted, 98
Syriac Martyrology, 23

Visions of Perpetua and Saturus; indebted to Canonical Scriptures, 26 ff
;

and and

to to

Shepherd of Hermas, 28 ff.;
Apocalypse of Peter, 37
ff.

ff .

;

Ter Sanctus,
Tertullian
;

39, 81

their authorship, 43

his view of the Shepherd of
;

Hernias, 36

probably compiled the

Xanthippe, unpublished Acts

of,

65

CAMBRIDGE

:

FEINTED BY

C.

J.

CLAY,

3I.A.

AND SONS, AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

BX k?00
..PU2A3R6

PERPETUA, St. LEGEND Passion of. ... ("Robinson) 189916

?';'

v,i"^- ^-'i.-

:

.'

:

-.Si5|ifc-5t ti

i

.-ica-,^

..PL2A3R6 PER.FKTMA, st. LEGEND

Passion of,.., (Robinson) 189916

Related Interests

tj(f)Q'r)iJiev

rXt//.a/co5

irapeyevero,
fir)

e<TTpd<f)r),

eiTrev TiepTrerovajTreptnevw
/col elirov'

(re'

aXXa. jSXeTre

ae 6 BpaK&v 20

Ba/crj'

Ov

fiij fj,e fS\d'fy'r),

ev ovo^ari 'Ivjaov fyoftovpevos
fj,e

fcal

VTTOfcdrco
6

rrjs

/cXtytta/co?

coo-el

17x45] alreis

12

13
is

ca>a.pd\r)v

wrong, conveying only the

idea of deferred punishment. 6 cuius beneficio] Of. 'turbarum beneficio'

Pillet

'sealam erectam': the texts printed by have 'aeream' as well: Holsten

and 'mei

beneficio' just above:

and

for Perpetua's fondness for repeating a phrase see above, p. 45. This ' reading leaves experta eram the same
'

gives a somewhat abbreviated form from Petrus Galo, and this, as well as a yet briefer form which follows it in his The account in edition, has 'auream.'

sense

of

'

experiencing

hardship

'

as

the Basilian Menology (see above, p. 22) has ffKo\av %oX/c^. On the whole therefore the evidence is in favour of 'ae-

above, p. 64, 1. 12. 8 sealam aeream]

Our authorities vary between 'aeream' and 'auream.' The best of them (A) omits the epithet
altogether. 'aeream.'

ream.'

A friend has suggested to me 'aeriam': but either of the other epithets suits the context well enough.
13 earnes eius] Cp. Ep.
(Eus.
is

sent

B has 'auream'; C (with g) The Short Latin MSS. prethe same uncertainty. Aube, edit-

Fieri, et

Lugd.

H. E.

v. 1. 24)

where

TU>I> ffu/j.a.Twv

used of a single martyr.

ing from several Paris MSS., has simply

68
ipsa
scala,

PASSIO
quasi

S.

PEBPETVAE.
eiecit

timens me, lente

caput

:

et

quasi

primum gradum calcarem, calcaui illi caput. et ascendi, et uidi spatium immensum horti, et in medio sedentem hominem
5

et circanuin, in habitu pastoris, grandem, cues mulgentem cumstantes candidati milia multa. et leuauit caput et aspexit
:

me, et dixit mihi

:

Bene

uenisti, tegnon.

et clamauit

me, et de

iunctis manibus, et

caseo quod mulgebat dedit mihi quasi buccellam ; et ego accepi manducaui et uniuersi circumstantes dixe:

runt Amen,
10

ad sonum uocis experrecta sum, commanducans adhuc dulcis nescio quid, et retuli statim fratri meo, et intelleximus passionem esse futuram et coepimus nullam iam spem
et
:

in saeculo habere.

V. Post paucos dies rumor cucurrifc ut audiremur. superuenit autem et de ciuitate pater meus, consumptus taedio et
:

15

ascendit ad me, ut

me deiceret, dicens:
;

Miserere,
;

filia,

canis meis

;

miserere patri, si dignus sum a te pater uocari si his te manibus ad hunc florem aetatis prouexi si te praeposui omnibus fratribus tuis ne me dederis in dedecus hominum. aspice fratres
:

20

matrem tuam et materteram aspice filium tuum, non poterit. depone animos ne uniuersos nos extermines: nemo enim nostrum libere loquetur, si tu
tuos
:

aspice

:

qui post te uiuere

;

haec dicebat pater pro sua pietate, aliquid fueris passa. et lacrymis basians mihi manus, et se ad pedes meos iactans
:

1

om. ipsa

rem] calcassem

5 candidates canum] sanum A 6 oin. me (pr.) B uenies tegnum B BC 9 om. uocis A 10 adhuc duleis] (Ruin.) ; adhuc dulci B om. A om. et sum] + et B 11 nullam] nulla A om. et (sec.) B (pr.) B cepimus iam nullam B 13 ut] quod B 14 om. et 13, 14 superuenit autem et] et superuenit B 15 miserere filia canis meis] miserere filia patri C filia miserere A (sec.) 16 patri] patris A canis meis B 17 om. ad hunc B patri B a] ad B
illi] illius

B B

eiecit] eleuauit

BG
4

quasi

(sec.)]

cum BC

2

calca-

C

;

;

;

18 dedecus] opproprium B 18, 19 aspice fratres 20 potest B aspice ad fratres tuos, aspice ad filium B 20, 21 ne uniuersos nos extermines] et noli nos uniuersos exterminare BC 21 om.

proposui
filium]

B
;

A

22 feceris B enim B loquitur B me] iam lacrimans B etiam lacrimans C
2
calcaui

dicebat]

+

quasi

B

23 lacrymis

pavement of a
posed to

The mosaic which is supbe that mentioned by Victor
illi

caput]

woman
p. 805.

holding a palm and treading
;

Basilica,

upon a serpent
5 candidati]

cf.

Tissot ibid. vol. n.

Vitensis (see above, p. 22), represents a

This reading (A)

is

sup-

PASSIO
K6<f)a\r/v TrpocrrjveyKeV

S.

PERPETVAE.
rov Trpoorov
teal

69
/3adfj,ov r)Qk\t]cra

Kal

(09 et9

eTTiprjvai, rr^v Kecj>a\rjv

avrov

eirdrijcra.

elBov eicel KTJTTOV

ueyicrrov, Kal ev

fJ>eo-<a

rov

KIJTTOV avOpcoirov TTO\IOV

KaOe^opevov

TTOiuevos cr^rjaa e%ovra vTrepueyed'T}, 09 rjhuevye TO, Trpoftara' 7repteicrr'r}Ktcrav Be avrco TroXXat %i\idBe<> \v%6t/J,ovovvr(i}V'
i

5

eTrdpas Be rrjv Ke<fca\rjv eOedcraro pe Kal elirev' KaXco? e\r)\v Kal eicd\e<rev fte, Kal GK rov rvpov ov rj\pevyev e rercvov(acrei fjbot ^rw^lov' Kal e\a[3ov ^ev^acra ra9 %eipd<i uov Kal
(f>ajov'

Kal 7T|009 rov Kal eljrav Trdvres ol Trapearoores' 'AftT/y. eri rL irore iaa-a/mewr <VKV' Ka

10

ev6ea><; o't,r)<yr)<rdfj,'r)v d8eX^>o3 Kal evoijcrauev ori Beot Kal rjpi-diArjv eKTore urjSe/Liiav erlSa ev ro3 alwvi rovrq) e%eiv.

rw

V.
creaOai'

Mera

Se ripepas o\Lyas eyvcopev fteXXeiv r/ud$ a irapejevero Be Kal 6 irarrjp IK rrjs 770^X779
TT/JO?

aapaivouevos, Kal dveftij

Xeywv'
(rov, eiTrep

vyarep, e^irja-ov
dfyos
elai,

r9

ue TrporpeTropevos pe Karaf3a\elv, iro\id^ JJLOV' e\eijcrov rov Trarepa
fjLvrj<r6'r)riort,

15

ovofAaaQrjvat irartjp crov'

rat?

%p<rlv ravrais irpbs ro roiovrov avQo<$ r^9 ^Xi/c/a? avr/yayov ere' Kal Trpoet^ofjtijv ere virep rov? dBe~\,(J30v$ crov' opa rr)v arjv aqrepa Kal rrjv rrj$ arjrpo<j crov dBeXcfrijv, '{Be rov vlov crov 09 fiera 20
ere

%rjv

ov bvvarai,'

dirodov

rov<;

dvuovs Kal

///>}

rjpsas

Trdvras

^o\oOpevo~rj^' ouBels
CTOL
l

yap rj^wv fierd 7rappr)crias \a\r]creL, edv rL ravra e\eyev W9 Trarrjp Kara rrjv rwv <yovea>v evvoiav' crv/j,/3f]. Karecj)i\.ei aov r9 %et)oa9 Kal eavrov epptTrrev efjuirpocrOev r<av v fiov Kal eTTiBaKpvajv ovKen ue Bvyarepa d\d Kvplav 25
5
\evffX'rlfJi01' ovovt' TUV

H

ewo^trafiev

ported by the Greek version, whicli likewise makes a new sentence, instead of
giving another ace. case as EC. For similar instances where the verb is
omitted,
&c.,
fiala
cf.

Spectac. 25, with OeHer's note.

Milk

and honey were given immediately after Baptism, and sometimes with the first Communion (Oehler on Tert. de Coron.
3,

p. 72,

1.

13 et nulnus in facie
8 et super margine

note

h).

'lunctis manibus'

is

the

and

p. 74,

1.

aurea plena aqua. 8 dixerunt Amen] That the action

natural action to catch the dripping On the whole question of the morsel. Elements in the Eucharist see Harnack's

ristic is

at this point is at least partly Euchasuggested by this phrase: but I

Brodund Wasser
2,

(Texts und Unters.

vii.

do not know of any instance in which
the 'Amen' at the reception is said by any but the recipient. Cf. Tert. de

pp. 117 ff.). 15 ascendit] For the local allusion see
' '

note on praetoriutn

above, p. 66,

1.

2.

70

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.
et

me non

filiara

nominabat, sed dominam.

ego dolebam
:

causani patris mei, quod solus de passione mea gauisurus non esset de toto genere meo et confortaui eum, dicens Hoc fiet
;

in
5

ilia

catasta

quod Deus uoluerit

:

scito

enim nos non in nostra
et recessit

esse potestate constitutes, sed in Dei.
tristatus.

a

me

con-

VI.

Alio
:

die

cum pranderemus,

subito

rapti

sumus

tit

audiremur
10

peruenimus ad forum, rumor statim per uicinas ascenfori partes cucurrit, et factus est populus immensus. dimus in catastam. interrogati ceteri confessi sunt. uentum est et ad me. et apparuit pater ilico cum filio meo, et extraxit
et
et Hilarianus de gradu, supplicans: Miserere infanti. tune loco proconsulis Minuci Timiniani defuncti procurator, qui

me

15

ius gladii acceperat : Parce, inquit, canis patris tui fac sacrum pro salute Imperatorum. infantiae pueri.

:

parce
et ego
et

respondi

:

Non

facio.

Hilarianus, Christiana es

?

inquit.

ego respondi: Christiana sum. et cum staret pater ad me deiciendam, iussus est ab Hilariano deici, et uirga percussit. et doluit mihi casus patris mei, quasi ego fuissem percussa
20 sic dolui pro senecta eius misera.
tiat, et

:

damnat ad

bestias

:

tune nos uniuersos pronunet hilares descendimus ad carcerem.

tune quia consueuerat a me infans mammas accipere, et rnecum in carcere manere, statim mitto ad patrem Pomponium diaconum,
1 nominabat sed dominam] sed dominam me uocabat B dominam] 2 eausam] canos B 4 casta B om. et B domina A quod non in dei] in dei non in nostra potestate futures B 4, 5 deus] quodns B

5 me] + pater B dimus catastam B

8

om. et 10

B

9

partes fori

B
pater

9,

10

et ascen-

in catasta

A
meos

11

ilico] ibi

12 gradu] + et dixit B B 13 loco] in locum

infanti] canos

BC

(Ruin.)

pater B helarianus

BC defuncti proeonsulis minutii 14 dixit parce canos B 16 fatiam et helarianus, ergo Christiana 18 elariano B om. ad B 17 cum staret] contemptaret B 20 dolui] mihi doluit B B percussit] percussus est BC
;

teminiani
es ? et ego

B B

deici] proici

enim dolui C
23 porn-

misera] Miser

cum

seqq.

B
'

uniuersos nos

B

22

mammam B

pinianum
1 sed
p. 66,
1.

BC
.

dominam] Cf
3.

domina
of

soror,'

This

title

given to brothers and inscriptions: e.g. C. I. L. Afr. 333 DOMINO

respect is sons in funeral

4 quod Deus uoluerit] Cf. Ada Montani 12 (Euin. p. 234) credebat id fieri

quod Deus uellet. This confirms the reading 'Deus': for other phrases in
this

MEO
MEO.

FBAXEI,

and 2862 FILIO ET DOMINO

12 supplicans]

Martyrdom are borrowed from ours. The Greek translator

PASSIO
67Tfcdt'
ra5

S.

PERPETVAE.
TOV Trarpo? rj\yovv, OTI ev
TO)
e/i&5

71

eyw Be
e/jiG)

Trepl Trjs BiaOeffews
fjiovos

yevei,

OVK rjyaT^tdro ev
elirovo-a'

TrdOei.

Be
6K6LVO) [o]

avTov

Tovro

yevijo-eTai

ev

T&>

pa
air
efjuov

ej~ovcrLa,

edv 0e\r) 6 Kvpio<>' yvwdt yap OTI OVK ev TT} aA,V ev TTJ TOV 6eov eaofJueOa' /cal e-^copicrdri

5

dBij/Aovwv.

^
&pi<TTo ypTrdryrjpev Iva dfcovcrffcof^ev'
rr^v

VI.
ical

Kat

rr)

rjpepq ev
el<?

&<nrep

eyevrjOrjfJuev

dyopdv

(f>ijfj,r)

ev9v<? et?

rd

7171)9

pep?) Sirjev, Kal crvve^pa^iev TrXetcrro? 0^X09' to9 Se dve^^ev 649 TO /3r)fJ,a e^eraaOevTes 01 \oi7rol K>iJ,o'\.6<^r)crav' rffj,e\ov Be

10

icdyw e^erd^ecrdat,' Kal efydvrj
/cal /caTaryaryutv fte ?rpo9
/3pe<^>o9.

etcet

perd TOV T&KVOV

p,ov o TraTrjp'

eavTOV, elTrev'

^rriQvcrov eXerjcraa-a TO

/cal '\apiavos Ti9 eiriTpOTTo^, 09 Tore TOV dvOwiraTov dirodavovTos M.IVOVKIOV 'OTTTTtavov ej~ov<riav el\ij(f)ei /Jba^aipa^,
f&eicrat,

\eyei, pot'

TWV

TTO\I,WV TOV 7rarpo9 crov'
e

(freta-ai

T^

TOV

15

TraiSlov vqTTioT'rjTos' e'jriOvaov VTrep crwTripias TK>V avTo/cpaTopcov.

/cdyw

d'jrefcptdijv'

Ov

dvco.

Kal elirev KOI
9

el; /cal elvrov' ^pio~Tiavr]

elfjn,.

l\aplavo<$' ecnrovo'a^ev 6 TraTtjp
f

^9 6/no\oyia<f, /ceXevcraz/ro? l\apidvov eeBe Kal TTJ pa/3Sco TWV Sopv<f)6p(ov Tfc9 eTitTTTrjaev 20

avTov'

Kaym

cr(f)6Bpa
777309

rfXyqaa, eXerfcracra TO yfjpas avTov' rore Kal %alpovTes KaTiyfiev Oijpia KaTaKpLvei.

<^v\aKr)v.
'

Be VTT epov e0v)\deTo TO iraiBiov, Kal ^>v\aKy elcadet peveiv, Tre^Trcu 77^09 TOV iraTepa TLofjwrovtov SiaKovov, eurouo-a. TO ySpe^)09' 6 Be nraTrjp OVK
eTreiBrj
efJiov

ev

Tfj

25

4

om.

o

14

oTrta^oO

17

7/Aapiavos

probably read 'et clixit: sacrificans.' 13 Minuci Timiniani] On the vexed
question of the proconsul's name see Mr Harris's Introduction, p. 9. The practical concurrence of Codd. A and B
leaves no hope of further light from the reading of the Greek version.

the
still

name

Hilarianus. The contrast is more striking with the reading of B:

'Miser tune uniuersos nos pronuntiat'p but this reading (though the omission of

any epithet of -y%>as in the Gk is in its favour) makes tune the second word in
'
'

the sentence.
recorded.

18 et uirga pereussit] This reading is Either supported by the Gk eTinrrijiyev
.

A

The reading of C is not play upon words has occur-

red just before in 'deiciendam...deici'.

therefore a

word has

fallen out, or per-

haps Hilarian himself losing his temper struck Perpetua's father with the wand which he bore as judge.
21 hilares] Possibly this
is

descendimus ad carcerem] This is explained by 'ascendimus in catastam,' 1. 9. But they return to the proconsular prison on the Byrsa above the town ; see above, p. 66.

a play upon

72
postulans infantem.
uoluit,

PASSIO

S.

PEB.PETVAE.

sed pater dare noluit.

neque uorem fecerunt

ille
:

amplius ne sollicitudine infantis et dolore

mammas

quornodo Deus desiderat, Deque mini feret

mammaram

macerarer.
5

VII. Post dies paucos, dum uniuersi oranms, subito media et oratione profecta est mihi uox, et nominaui Dinocraten mihi in inentern uenisset nisi tune et obstipui quod numquam
: ;

dolui

commemorata

casus eius.

et cognoui

me

statini

dignam

esse, et
10

pro eo petere debere.
et ingemiscere est mihi hoc.

multum,
ostensum

et coepi de ipso orationem facere ad Dominum. continuo ipsa nocte uideo Dinocraten exeuntern de loco

tenebroso, ubi et complura loca erant tenebrosa, aestuantem valde et sitientem, sordido uultu et colore pallido ; et uulnus in
facie eius,
15

quod cum moreretur habuit. hie Dinocrates fuerat frater meus carnalis, annorum septem, qui per infirmitatem facie cancerata male obiit, ita ut mors eius odio fiierit omnibus
et inter me et pro hoc ergo orationem feceram ilium grande erat diastema, ita ut uterque ad inuicem accedere non possenius. erat deinde in ipso loco ubi Dinocrates erat

hominibus.

:

20 piscina

plena aqua, altiorem marginem habeiis quam erat statura pueri et extendebat se Dinocrates quasi bibiturus. ego dolebam quod et piscina ilia aquam habebat, et tamen propter altitudinem marginis bibiturus non esset. et experrecta sum, et cognoui fratrem meum laborare. sed fidebam me profuturam
:
:

25 labori eius

et orabani pro eo

uimus

in carcerem castrensem

:

omnibus diebus quousque transimunere enim castrensi eramus

2

dolorem
6

mammani B 4 B

desiderauit
raaceraret

B
5

3

effecerunt

B

et dolore] aut

A*B
oi. uox

subito ante

dum B

profecta] prolatum

B
mente

B

nomina. Yidicraten

A

;

oremus B nomina.

Vidinograte
pati

B

7

A
10
12

C

(Ruin.)

'oromateC;
brosa
ita

de] pro + in oratione B

B

8 memorato casu B multam B deum B
et

9 11

patere

B

;

complura loca] cum plures
abiit

B B

B

13 ualde post sitientem B 14 moraretur B 18 diadema A; idiantem 17 om. et (pr.) B
19

B AB

hoc] + in om. tene-

16 om.

B

;

dianten C (Ruin.)
erat dinogratis

om. ita

possunius

B

om. in ipso loco

A

B

20 aquae B 24 confidebam

B

;

habens marginem cousiderabam C
out.

22 haberet BC quam staturam pueri B me profuturam] profuturam orationem

meam BC
carcere.

25

omnibus diebus

A

26 carcerem castrensem

:

munere]

Munera B

PASSIO
eB&fcev'

S.

PERPETVAE.
ovre 6 7rat9 pao-Oovs errer

73

irXrjv 009 6 0eo9 wKovo/jLTjcrev

0vfj,r)o-ev eicrore,

ovre e^oi Tt9 Trpoayeyovev
(fipovriSi teal rfj

(f>\ey/j,ovrj'

'lo-as

iva

/cat rfj

rov TratStou

r&v

fj,ao-0wv dkyrjBovi,

VII.

Kat /ACT'
ev pea-qj
teal

oA-tiya? ^yu-epa?

wpocrev^ofAevaiv

rjjjbwv

drrdvrwv

5

rfj<$ 7rpoo-eup09 affitca (fxavrjv !K#a/A/3o5 eyevijdtjv, BLOTL ovBevrore et /i?) rdre avaiwt]<Jiv avrov ireTTOirjKeiV tfXyrjcra Be et? fMvrjjAijv e###BOT_TEXT###ovcra r^9

KOI

mvoaaaa

avrov

TeXevrrjs.

TT\r)V

ev0ea>s

eyvwv

eftavTrjV

d^iav

ovcrav
10

airi\(nv Troiija-aa-Oai irepl avrov, /cat ^p^d^-rjv Trpo?
trreva<yfj,(av

Kvptov per a
avrfi
rfj
etc

Trpoaev^ea-dai,
fjioi

ra ir\elara'

teal

evOeco?

vvtcrl

eSrjXwffn)

rowov

rovro. opoo Aetvo/cpctT^y e^ep'xop.evov OTTOV KOI aXXot TroXXol /cavpari^o/Lievot, (TKoreivov,

fcal

Sitywvres 'ija'av, e<r6rjra e%ovra pVTrapdv, w^pov rfj "Xpoa" teal TO rpavfjia ev ry otyei avrov re\evr<x>v orrep Trepiwv en el%ev.
ouTO? Se 6 AeivoKpaTf)?, 6
dSe###BOT_TEXT###lt;f)6<$ fj,ov

15

Kara

crdptca, eTrraer?)?

avrov yayypaivr) craTret? 069 rov Odvarov avrov arvyrjrov yevea-dai iraa-iv dvdpwiroL^. e0eoopovv ovv fjieja Std(rrr)aa dvd ftecrov avrov /cat ejAov, (9 /AT)
redvijKei acrOevrfcras /cat rrjv o^friv

8vvao'0at

?)//.a9

aA.\?7Xoi9 TrpocreX^eti/.

ei/

e/cetyw Se

ro3 TOTTW 20

pav Se el^ev
/cat
77

rrjv KptjTTtSa vrcep

TO TOU TraiStou

/i^/co9'

o Aeivofcpdrtjq

Sierewero

irieiv Trpoaipovfjievos'

eya

7rpo9 Se 17X701;^

r\v 7rX^p^9 v8aTO9, /cat TO jraiBlov OVK Sid rrjv v^friKorrjra rrjs /cp?77rt8o9 /cat e%v'jrvia0i)v. tf8vvaro /cat e<yvo)V fcdpvetv rov dSe\(f)6v aov' erceTroideiv Be Bvvaa~0ai avrdo @07)0r}crai ev Tat9 dvd peaov tjfLepavs, ev at9 fjue

Ko\V[tf3rj0pa

irteiv

'

25

t^v\aKr)v rr)v rov ^tXtap^of ov tfue\ofAev 0r)pio[jia)(eiv' <yeve0\iov
/

yap
from Plant.
vi.

3

oin.

IJ.T]

15

legebat

cum B moraretur
Eonsch
Asin, in.

16

8s ci5e\$>6s

brosa] Cf. Acta
rts irapeKafit
6'Xos,-^ S
fj.e

12 ubi et complura loca erant teneThomae c. 52 dvdpwn-os

quotes
3. 32.

'habiui'

dir^x^ ry

eideg., fj.e\as

15

carnalis]
(||

Cf.

Eph.
22).

TOVTOV ecrdys iravv pepvTrcafj.evr]' dir-^jaye de pe el's TWO. rbirov ev y TroXXa
Xacr/xara

carnalibus
et

Col.

iii.

5 dominis In Ep. Vien.
18)
rijs
<ra/>-

Lugd. (Eus. H. E.

v. 1.

For the connection between the Visions and the
{tirrjpxe,

/c.r.A.

/ciV^s deffirolvys

we may perhaps

trace the

Apoe. of Peter see above, pp. 37 ff. 14 habuit] The form 'abiit AB may be a vulgar Latin form of habuit.'
5 '

influence of a Latin Version (Kara crap/ca = carnalis =<Tapidi>r)s: see further in the

separate note on p. 97).

20 piscina] See above,

p. 29.

74
pugnaturi
:

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.
et feci pro illo oratio-

natale tune Getae Caesaris.
et lacrymans ut

5

mihi donaretur. gemens VIII. Die quo in neruo mansimus, ostensum est mihi hoc. uideo locum ilium quern retro uideram, et Dinocraten mundo corpore, bene uestitum, refrigerantem et ubi erat uulnus, uideo cicatricem: et piscinam illam quam retro uideram, summisso
die et nocte
;
:

nem

margine usque ad umbilicum pueri; et aquam de ea trahebat sine cessatione et et super margine fiala aurea plena aqua accessit Dinocrates, et de ea bibere coepit quae fiala non defi10 ciebat. et satiatus accessit de aqua ludere more mfantium
;
:

gaudens. et experrecta sum. esse de poena.

tune intellexi translatum

eum

IX.
tus
15

Deinde post dies paucos Pudens, miles optio praeposi-

qui nos magnificare coepit intellegens magnam uirtutem esse in nobis, multos ad nos admittebat, ut et nos
carceris,

et

illi

inuicem refrigeraremus.

ut autem

proximauit

dies

muneris, intrat ad

barbam
20

pater metis consumptus taedio, et coepit suarn euellere et in terram mittere, et prosternere se annis
suis,

me

in faciem, et inproperare

et

dicere tanta uerba
infelici

quae mouerent uniuersam creaturam.
senecta eius.

ego dolebam pro
in

^

X.
1

Pridie

quam pugnaremus, uideo
cum
3 preced.
die] 4-

horomate hoc uenisse

natali cesaris

B
autem
fiala]

2
8

om. gemens

A

B
p

Getae] cetae A; om. 4 om. retro B

BC

(Ruin.)

uideram]

+

tenebrosum esse lucidum
margine]
10

B marginem BC

6 retro]

B

6,

7

summissa marginum
9

+

erat

BC

quae] et quasi

B B A B B

saciatus accessit de aqua ludere ludere satiatus de aqua ; accessit 11 tune] et B deludere satiatus de ea aqua B infantum C

A

C

;

accessit

13

Pru-

dens
15

C

14

magnificare coepit intellegens]
nobis] om. autern B

uirtutem]

+ dei B

+ qui A
17

magnifiee coepit intelligere 16 ille multos] + fratres BC
;

BC

refrigeremus B 19 inproperare] inproperans se
1 Getae Caesaris]
n. 3.

intrauit

B

18

om. et

(sec.)

B

20

moueretur

A

22

hoc] hue

B

See above, p. 25,

3 die quo in neruo] This was an unusual severity but it is mentioned merely as a note of time (cf. p. 70, 1. 7
:

parture from the custom of allowing prisoners some relaxation in the daytime.

4 retro] = antea
'

'

;

cf .

EQnsch

I. u.
it.

V.

343.

Tertullian frequently so uses
'

alio die

cum

pranderemus).

The Greek

translator or his copyist (ecrirtpg. may be for THJ.pq) found a difficulty in this de-

If we accept the 14 magnificare] reading of A, magnifiee, coepit intelligere,' we must suppose that a verb like

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

\ev eirtTe\elo-6ai Kaicrapo?. elf a irpoaev^afjuevr] fjuerd crTeva<y(j,wv re /cat VVKTOS SwprjOfjvai o-<oSpe39 irepl TOV dSe###BOT_TEXT###lt;f)ov pov ripepa?

avTov
VIII.

r)%ia)cra.

Kal evOvs
TOVTO.

/J.QI
,

Ka0ap
'

ev vepQw epeivajLiev, rf) eairepa ev rj * TOTTCO * ev o5 ewpdfceiv TOV AeivoKpd6pa> crwfjiaTi ovra, KOI /eaXcw9 tj^iecr/jbevov Kal dvaev
'

5

Kal OTTOV TO TpavfAa

r/v

ovKrjv

6pm

teal

TJ

/co\vfji,{3i]dpas

Be

el;

ew? TOV o^a'X.LOv avTov' eppeev vScap' Kal enravw r^9 /cp^TTiSo? r/v
Kal irpoae(av o keLvoKpaTys rjp^aTO e OVK eve\eiirev. Kal epTrXijcrdels tfpt;aTO
10

%pvo-f)

TTiveiV

77

Be

w?
OTI fJieTeTedtj
e/c

TO.

vrjina' Kal e^v7rvio-0r]v.

Kal evorjaa

TWV

TifAfopLwv.

IX.

Kal

/ier' oA-tiya? rip-epas

IIoyST;? rt? a-TpaTtcor^? o Trjs
r-^9 crTrovS^? tfpgaTO

Trpoio-Ta/Jievos fjieTa -TroXKfjs

^a?
els

15

v Kal So^d^etv TOV deov, evvowv Bvva/j,i.v
'

peyaX^v

elvai Trepl

Sib Kal TroAAous elcre~k6elv TT/JO?

77/1,09

OVK eK(a\vev

TO

rjjjia-ev 7/ia9 Sid TWV e7ra\ij\cov 7rapapv0iwv Trapyyopela'dai. Be 77 yfiepa TWV (f)iXoTi/Aiu>v Kal etcrep^erat 7rpo9 ue 6 iraTrjp, Ty

LapavOek, Kal rjp^aTo TOV Trcoycava TOV iSiov e'/crtXXeti/ 20 T eVt 7779' Kal 77^77^7)9 KaraKeijAevos KaKo\ojeiv ra eavTov ITT; KaTrpyopwv Kal \e<ya>v TOiavTa pijuaTa 9 irdtrav

BvvaaOai
Trwpov

rrjv KT'ICTLV

(raXevaai' eyco Be eTrevBovv Sid TO ToKaiySXeTroj opa/jua TOIOV- 25

ryr/pas avTov.

X.
6

IIpo /^t9 ovv TOV OypiofAaxeiv
12
evv6r]ffa

tffjids,

Ka\tas

14

irovdys TicrpaTiuTys

20

eKre[\eiv

'contempserat' has fallen out after the
adverb.

The reading

of

have adopted in despair, correction, and may have been made at first in the margin, as the Greek /^era
TroXX^s r??s ffirovSijs points to the

BC, which I seems to be a

erat uestitus). Holsten edited 'magni faciebat' which is open to the first of

these objections. 22 in horomate]

adverb

For the form cf. Eonsch I. u. V. p. 254. hoc uenisse] 'Hoc' is for 'hue,' as in
Plautus &G.: see Facciolati
s.

'magnifice.' It is objectionable (1) as obscuring the gradual change in the attitude

verb, 'hie.'

of Pudens, who at
(cf.

note on
1.

1. 3),

first treated them badly and ended by believing
1.

(p. 86,

6

and

p. 92,

6)

:

(2)

as ex-

So on tombs, HOC MANSVM VENI, and ALIVS HOC INFEKETVB NEMO. Also in Cod. Bezae, Mt. xvii. 17 adferte mihi ilium hoc. The Greek translator misunderstood
Holsten,
its

pelling 'qui' (before 'multos'),
it

though
(cf.
1. 1.

meaning, as
colon after

also
it.

did

is

quite in Perpetua's style
fiala

9

who put a

quae

non

deficiebat

;

p. 76,

2 qui

76

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.
carceris, et pulsare

Pomponium diaconum ad ostium
ad eum, et aperui habens multiplices didam,
et exiui
ei
:

uehementer.

qui erat uestitus discinctam cangalliculas. et dixit mihi Perpetua,
:

te exspectamus: ueni.
5

et tenuit

mihi marram, et coepimus

ire

per aspera loca et flexuosa. uix tandem peruenimus anhelantes ad amphitheatrum, et induxit me in media arena, et dixit mihi:

Noli pauere

;

hie

sum tecum,

et conlaboro tecum.

et abiit.

et

adspicio populum ingentem adtonitum. et quia sciebam me ad bestias datam esse, mirabar quod non. mitterentur mihi bestiae.
10 et exiuit

quid am contra toribus suis pugnaturus

me

mecum. ueniunt

Aegyptius foedus specie cum adiuet ad me adolescentes
et expoliata sum, et facta

decori adiutores et fautores rnei.

sum

masculus.
solent in
15

et coeperunt me fautores mei oleo defrigere, quomodo agonem et ilium contra Aegyptium uideo in afa
:

et exiuit uir quidam mirae magnitudinis, ut etiam excederet fastigiurn amphitheatri, discinctatus purpuram inter duos clauos per medium pectus, habens galliculas multiformes

uolutantem.

ex auro et argento factas
20

:

efferens uirgain quasi lanista,

et

rarnum uiridem in quo erant mala aurea. et petiit silentium, et dixit Hie Aegyptius, si hanc uicerit, occidet illam gladio et, et recessit. et accessisi hunc uicerit, accipiet ramuni istum.
:

;

1 om. carceris

B

pulsasse

B

2

om.

et (pr.)

B

distinctam candidam

3 galliculas] C; callieulas AB ( + ex auro et argento A; discincta Candida BC uix B 5 peruenimus anelantes A ; ambulantes per4, 5 om. et coepimus B) 8 adtonito B 6 medio arenae B 7 pauere] expauescere B uenimus B mittedatum A donatam B (? lege damnatam) 9 bestiam B om. me B 12 fau11 et ad me ueniunt B 10 contra me quidam B bantur B 13 masculos B fauiom. et facta sum B tores] factores (om. mei et) B
;

sores
afa]
et

A

;

factores

B

defrigere] defrigare

B

;

defricare

C

14

in agone

BC

aqua

BG

15 etiam]

iam

BC

17 habens] + et

B

16 discinctatus] discinctam habens tunicam 18 efferens] callieulas AB galliculas] C (Ruin.)
;

B

et ferens

BG

piat

B

uirga istud A
Cf.
1.

A

19

petit

B

20

et]

haec

BC

21 acci-

3 galliculas]

17.

The word

is

used by the scholiast on Juv. Sat. in. 67 (Mayor ad loc.) in explaining trechedipna: uestimenta parasitica uel galliculas currentium ad cenam.
6 amphitheatrum] Descriptions of the amphitheatre at Carthage by ElBekri andEl-Edrisi are quoted by Tissot,

Geogr. de VAfr. romaine, vol.i. pp.645ff. in media arena] We might easily
1.

(cf. note on p. 60, But the confusion between the cases in expressing rest and motion is

read the ace. case
12).

regarded by Sittl as characteristically African (Lokal. Verschied. pp. 128 ff.).

Compare

'in medio,' p. 92,

1.

19.

PASSIO
TOV.
teal

S.

PERPETVAE.
6vpav
Kal
efyev Be
/cal

6 BiaKovos, ^(TLV, riev 7rpo9 TTJV

eKpovcrev <r(j)6Bpa'

efeX#ovo-a
/cal

rfv

evBeBvpevos ecrdrJTa \a/&7rpdv roBriiJiaTa Kal \eyei, uoi'

Trepie^acrfjLevos'
5)e
Trepifjueva),

e###BOT_TEXT###e.

ra? ^etpa?
TOTTWV'
/cal

Kal

elcrrj'Yayev
el^il

/u-e

Kal eTTopevOi^^ev Sid Tpa%e<ov Tfapeyevofteda et? TO df elf TO p,ecrov Kal \e<yei /i,ot' M?)
fj,ov,

/cal 5

/ioX-t?

evddSe

perd

crov, (rvy/cdfjivav croi'

Kal dirrj^Oev.

/cal

IBoi)

y Oewpia
elSov vrpbs Orjpia
e{3a\~kov
fjioi
fj,e

<r(f)6Spa'

/cdjoJ

KaraBitKacrOelcrav e0avfjia%ov 'on OVK 10

avrd.

TW cr^aari perd rwv inrovpyovvrav
TTTO&V,

ep^erai 7rpo9 /^e Kal %Tepoi
efjioL

//.e AtyyTTTto? Tt? d/juoptyos avra) ^a^ricro^evo^ uoi. KCLI veavuas Ti? ev/jLOpffxararo^ T&> /caXXet efacrrpa-

/cal rjev TT^O?

5

jLteT

auTOu veavlai wpalou, VTrriperai re cnrovSa15
1

aral
Kttl

/cal

e^eBvffijv /cal eyev^Brjv

ai/TtX^/u-TTTope? yu-ou

aVTLKpVS

jSX,67T(B

appyv' Kal rjp^avro ol eXat'ep /x-e d\ei<>iv, ft>9 e^o? eVTit ey dya>vi' TOV AlryVTTT IOV eKGWOV GV TO) KOVLOpTto KV\l6-

pevov.

e%rjX6ev Be Tt9 av?)p davpacrrov fjueyeOovs, iiTrepe^cov TOV

ecrOrJTa rjns el^ev ov aA,Xa /cat ar/a uea~ov em, 20 TTjv 7rop<f)vpav, povov TOV a"rir)6ov<$' el%ev Be Kal VTroBrjf^ara iroiKiKa e/c ^pvariov dpyvpioV efBd&Ta^ev Be Kal pdftBov 009 j3pa/3evTr/s r)

aKpov

TOV

d^tdedrpov,

Bte^wcr/Aevos

K TWV Bvo w/jLWv

fAovofjt,d')a)v'

et^epev Be /cal /c\dBov$ ^\a>pov^ Kal alrtjcra^ o-iyrjv ryevea-dat,, e(f>r)' OvT09 o %pvcrd' ev Tavryv ja-y dve\ei avrrjv fJLa^atpa' avrt] Be edv

y

25

avTov
9
iriffrbv
dieS-oa-fjievos

TOV K\dBov TOVTOV' Kal
9,

direa'TV),
17, 18

10

cb TJTIS e?5oi/]

Kal

eif

rts ifSef

19

22

irpoffTaruv

26

Xe/i/'erat

8 adtonitum] Of. Tert. de Spectae. 25 pudicitiam ediscet attonitus in mimes? de Fiifif. 1 eeclesia in attonito est: de
Idol.

ceromate nos haphe excepit (an athletic

metaphor for a journey first through mud and then through dust et luto et
puluere laborauimus) Arrian Epictet. in. 15. 4 TroXXrjy a.<f>i)v Karairieiv (see
:

24 tuta
is

si

cauta, secura

si

attonita.

The sense

'keenly attentive.' 13 defrigere] I have kept the reading of A, as it may well represent a doublet
of 'defricare': ef. 'defrictus.'

It has been Schweighauser's note). suggested that here 'afa' is for 1SN; and indeed Hilgenfeld supposes a Punic

14 afa]

This

is

doubtless the same

original for the writings of Perpetua

and

word as 'haphe': cf. Martial Epigr. vn. 67 Harpasto quoque subligata ludit, Et flauescit haphe (arf>fj): Senec. Ep. 51 a

Saturus:

but no satisfactory evidence

has been adduced for this view.
21 istum] 'istud' A.

For the con-

78

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

mus ad

inuicem, et coepimus mittere pugnos. ille niihi pedes adprehendere uolebat ego autem illi calcibus faciem caedebam.
:

et sublata

sum

non
5

calcans.

in aere, et coepi eum sic caedere quasi terrain at ubi uidi moram fieri, iunxi manus, ut digitos in

digitos mitterem. et adprehendi illi caput, et cecidit in faciem ; et calcaui illi caput. et coepit populus clamare, et fautores mei
psallere. et accessi ad lanistam, et accepi ramum. et osculatus est me, et dixit mini Filia, pax tecum. et coepi ire cum gloria
:

10

ad portam Sanauiuariam. et experrecta sum: et intellexi me non ad bestias, sed contra diabolum esse pugnaturam sed sciebam mihi esse uictoriam. hoc usque in pridie muneris egi
:

:

ipsius

autem muneris actum, si quis uoluerit, scribat. XI. Sed et Saturus benedictus hanc uisionem suam
Passi, inquit, eramus, et

edidit,

quam
15

ipse conscripsit. carne, et coepimus ferri a quattuor angelis in orientem,

exiuimus de

quorum

ibamus autem non supini sursum cliuum ascendentes. et liberato primo uersi, sed quasi mollem mundo uidimus lucem immensam et dixi Perpetuae erat enim haec in latere meo Hoc est quod nobis Dominus pro20 mittebat percepimus promissionem. et dum gestamur ab ipsis quattuor angelis, factum est nobis spatium grande, quod tale ruit quasi uiridarium, arbores habens rosae et omne genus flores. altitude arborum erat in modum cypressi, quarum folia canebant

manus nos non

tangebat.

:

:

:

:

2
terrain

uolebat

;

non

calcans]

ego autem] querebat et ego B BC terrain eonealcans
;

3

aere] re

B

3,

4
;

A
5,

4
6

iuncxi
0711.

A*B

quasi uinxi C

manus] + ita
6
fauisores

BC A
BC

4,

5

in digito
(tert.)

B
8 a bestia

et cecidit

7

om. et

B
;

cepit

B

9

caput B sanauiuaria A
11 am. muneris

;

saneuiuariam
uictoria

10

a bestiis

A

B

om. esse

B
14

esse

A

;

uictoriam inminere
scribat

BC

hoc] hos

A
A

B

12
15

om. ipsius

B

seribat] + visio SATVKI

quam] + etB
;

16 tangebant B 17 uersus cepimus fieri B 17, 18 liberato primo mundo] A liberati glebam B 18 dix perpetua B primum iam mundo B ; liberati primain iam C (Ruin. )
carne] carcere

BC

BC

molle

A

19 baee] quoniam a latere nostro erat B quoniam erat a latere nostro C 22 arboris habens 21 grande] magnum B dominus nobis B 2 23 altitude] + autem B floris A B flores] A* rosaB; rosam C (Ruin.)
18, 19
;

hoc
in]

A

;

ad

B

canebant] conieci

;

cadebant

AB

;

ardebant

C

fusion of the terminations see
I. u.

Ronsch

V. p. 276 ('istum' for 'istud,' and

'ipsud' for 'ipsum').

Perpetua elsewhere only uses the simple The text moreover is confirmed by Acta lacobi &c. (Ruin. p. 226) cuius
verb.

4 non calcans] 'eonealcans' A: but

pedes terram non calcabant.

It is,

how-

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

79

Be d\ij\ot,<i Kal rjpgdjAeOa TrayKpar id%eW cKelvos e/zov -701)9 TroSas Kpareiv ri(3ov\ero' eyco Be Xa/cr/cr pacriv rrjv otyiv avrov

* ervirrov' teal IBov
09
/-tr

eV^pa

7ro

depos* KOI

r/p^dfjir/v

avrov

rvirreiv

irarovcra rrjv yr)v.

lBova"a Be 609 ovBeTrw

avrov evt;qo-a ra? ^etpa? pov Kal BaKrv\ovs BaKrv\oi<s Xovcra T^? /ee<aX?;9 avroO eVeXa/Sd/XT;^ /cat epp^a avrov eV r Kal rjp^aro Tra? o 6%Xo? oi/rei /cat k rrdrif](ja rrjv /cetpa'X.rjv avrov.
ftoav' Kal 01 aTTOvSacrraL ftov eyavpiwv.
(Sevrf)
1

Kal ekafBov rov K\dSov' Kal ^p^dunjv ev0v<? TropevecrOaL EilpijV'r) perd crov, Ovjarep' Kal e^vrrvio-Qyv 0^779 7T/J09 'TrvXijv rrjv \eryouevrjv ^wriKtjv.

Kal 7rpoo-r]###BOT_TEXT###ov rw /3paKal ^crirdcraro ae Kal elirev'
fjuerd 10
'

Kal
TJ

evorjcra
eo~o/j,evr)

on

ov irpos d^pia /AOL d\d irpos rov 8id/3ov ecrriv ravra ete)9 ua^r]' Kal <rvvfJKa on viKrjcra) avrov.
'

6

r&v (f>L\orifjii(Sv eypatya Oekwv a-vyjpa-^fdrd}.

rd ev

rat

dpfyidedrpw
15

XL
avros
St'

'AAA,a Kal 6 iiaKapios 2arvpo9

TIJV

iSlav orcraaiav

eavrov a-vyypd^a^ e^avepwcrev roiavra elpijKQ}'?. "HSij, 609 TreTTOvOores Kal K 7779 aapKos e^\tj\vOeLfji6v, Kal
i

crrd^Ga-dai VTTO re&crdpo&v dyye\cov 7T/J09 dvaro\d s, Kal al %eipe9 rjfiwv ov% r/7rrovro' eTropevo/j^eda Be e/9 rd dvaorepa, 20 KOL ov% virnoL dC olov 009 BL 6/j,a\,7Js dvaftdcrea)*; ecpepoueOa.

Kal

ST;

e^e6vre^ rov irpwrov

KOO-/JLOV <^>co9

\a^ jrporarov

r

e'lBouev

'

Kal elirov Trpos rrjv Hepirerovav (TrKirjo-iov ydp /MOV r}v)' Tovro evriv oTrep 6 Kvpios rj^wv eTrrjyyefaaro' fj,erei\,ij(j)a/jLev rfjs eTray<ye\ta9.

alajpovftevcov Be rffA(5v Bid r&v re&crdpwv dyye\(ov eyevero 25 a-rdBiov aeya, OTrep wael Kr/iro^ rjv e%wv poBov BevBpa, Kal irav fyei/09 r&v dvOecav' TO Be #1^09 rwv BevBpcov ^v (acrel Kvirapicraov
5 5aK7i^Xous] daKTij\ois
ever, doubtful
'quasi.'

10 7]^fj.ev

25
eorpore.

whether we should retain
Of. infra,

eorum

9 ad
p. 90,

portam Sanauiuariam]
21.
'

For 'liberare' in the 17 liberate] sense of 'to pass' cf. Petron. Sat. 136

1.

This stands in contrast to

necdum liberaueram
animaduerto &e.

cellulae limen,

cum

the 'porta Libitinensis through which the dead bodies of gladiators were carried

Other examples are

on the

'libitina': cf.

16 galea eius bis

Lamprid. Commod. per portam Libitinenplural (BC) is
:

given in Pacciolati. 22 omne genus flores]

The

adjectival
'

sem

elata est.

use of 'omne genus' is frequently found in Lucretius and Varro: so too 'id genus

16 tangebat]

The

an
1.

and quod
'

genus.'

unnecessary correction

cf.

p. 88,
1.

8

23 canebant]

See above,

p. 38.

animani nostram, and

p. 92,

20 in

80
sine
cessatione.

PASSIO
ibi

S.

PERPETVAE.

alii quattuor angeli qui ubi uiderunt nos honorem nobis Ecce sunt, ecce sunt dederunt, et dixerant ceteris angelis cum admiratione. et expauescentes quattuor illi angeli, qui ges-

.autem in uiridario
:

fuerunt clariores ceteris

:

:

5

tabant nos, deposuerunt nos et pedibus nostris transiuimus stadium uiolatum ubi inuenimus locundum et Saturninum et
:

:

Artaxium, qui eadem persecutione uiui arserunt et Quintnm, qui et ipse martyr in carcere exierat et quaerebamus de illis ubi essent. ceteri angeli dixerunt nobis Venite prius, introite,
;
;
:

10 et salutate

Dominum.
;

XII.

Et uenimus prope locum, cuius

quasi de luce aedificati tuor stabant, qui introeuntes uestierunt stolas Candidas,
introiuimus, et audiuimus
15
:
:

loci parietes tales erant, et ante ostium loci illius angeli quat-

et

uocem unitam dicentem Agios, agios, sine cessatione. et uidimus in eodem loco sedentem quasi agios bominem canurn, niueos habentem capillos, et uultu iuuenili et in dextra et in sinistra seniores cuius pedes non uidimus.
;

quattuor et post illos ceteri seniores conplures stabant. et introeuntes cum admiratione stetimus ante thronum et quattuor
;
:

20

angeli subleuauerunt nos et osculati sumus ilium, et de manu sua traiecit nobis in faciem. et ceteri seniores dixerunt nobis
:

:

Stemus.
seniores
dixit
25 rior
:

et

stetimus, et

pacem

fecimus.
:

et

dixerunt nobis

Ite et ludite.
:

et dixi

Perpetuae
in

mibi

Deo

gratias, ut

quomodo

Habes quod uis. et came hilaris fui, hila-

sum

et hie niodo.

XIII. Et exiuimus, et uidimus ante fores Optatum episcopum 2 ubi] ibi G (Ruin.) fuerunt quattuor angeli alii B nos] + et om. eece sunt (sec.) BC (Ruin.) 3 dederunt] + nos A* 4 BC (Ruin.) cum admiratione. et expauescentes] expauescentes cum admiratione BC (Ruin.)
1,2
4, 5

conieci

6 uiolatum] pedimus A iucundum, satyrum, artaxium B 8 de] ab B 9 ubi 7 eadem persecutione] eandem persecutionem passi B
5
; ;

gestabant nos] stabant BC (Ruin.) uiolata A uia lata B ubi] ibi

B

essent ceteri.
12, 13

dixerunt autem nobis angeli B prius introite] primum intro B 13 qui introeuntes uestierunt erant angeli quatuor (om. stabant) B 14 introistolas Candidas, et] introeuntes et nos uestiti stolas Candidas B

uimus] + et uidimus lucem imnensam
14, 15 agius, agius, agius

B

unitam] mutatam

B

dicentium

B

15 eodem loco] medio loci illius BC 17 sinistra] 18 quattuor] uiginti quattuor BC om. seniores B -i-eius B 18, 19 et in20 om. 19 cum] + magna B admiratione] + et B troeuntes] introiuimus B 22 stetimus] stemus B 21 om. nobis (sec.) B 23 dixi Perpetuae] dixit pernosB

B

petua

B

24 dixit mihi] dixi

B

24, 25 hilariorem et hie (om.

modo)

B

26 obtatum A

PASSIO
fj,r)KO<;,

S.

PERPETVAE.

81

r]o-av Be

dKarairavcrra)^ Be Kare<f)epero rd SevBpa rd <f>vX\a avroov. fj,e0' tffJLwv ev avrto rco Krjirm ol re<r<rape<; dyye\ot, d\rf'

&v e^epofjueBa' Trroovpevovs Se rjp,a<; Kal * KOI * 6av{Jid%ovra<$ diredijKav, Kal dve\aj3ov Kal 6Bov Xa/3oz>re9 e/cei evpopev 'lot/Bir###BOT_TEXT###ofjiV TO trrdBiov rot9 riperepois TTOOTIV.
\a)v evBo^orepoi, v$>

5

KovvBov Kal ^drvpov Kal 'Aprdgiov, TOV? ev avrw TO) 8ia)jaS owTa<? Kpefj,aa0evTa<;' e'tSopev Se K.OIVTOV rov pdprvpa rbv ev

ry

(j}v\a/cfj

airoQavovra' e^rjrovpev Se Kal irepl T<OV XotTT&v irov

apa

elaiv' Kal CITTOV ol ayyeXot, TT^O?

^a?' Aevre

Trpcorov

eVw
10

iva dtfTrdcrijcrde rov Kvpiov.

rov TOTTOV eKeivov rov e^ovros rofyow; waavel eK 0tOT09 wKoSo^fjuevov^, Kal Trpo T^? Ovpas rov TOTTOV eKeivov el<re6vre<$ ol recra-apes dyye\oi eveSva-av q/jids Xev/ca? (TToXa9' Kal elafaOopev Kal riKovcra^ev (fravrjv tfvcofj,evi]v
rj###BOT_TEXT###ofj,ev TT\I)O-IOV
r/

XII.

Kat

\ey6vr(ov'
ev

Afyt09,

07^09,

ayios,

aKarairavo-rw^.

Kal eiSo/Aev

15

/^eo-ft) rov roirov eKeivov KaOe^o^evov cw9 avOpwirov 7ro\i6v' ov al T|0t%69 ofjiOLai XLOVO? Kal veapov TO irpbamrcov avrov'

Be
Sej;i<av

avrov OVK eOeaa-dfieda.
e

7T/oecr/3u repot

Kal recrarapes

evcovvfjuwv tfo~av

avrov'

Be reacrapes eK oViVw Be ro5v

recrcrdp<ov 7roX,Xot Trpecr/Svrepoi.

0)9 Be Qavftd^ovres el<re\ri\v6a- 10 Kal ecrryiiev evwiriov rov 6p6vov, ol Tecrcrapes d<y<ye\oi eTrrjpav Kal e^>t\Tj<Tapev avrov, Kal rf %etpt 7repie\a(3ev ol Be XoiTrot rrpecrfSvrepol elirov rrpbs ^f^d^'
,

Kal Trpocrev^wfJieOa.

Kal

elptjvoTroirjo'avre^

d7rea-rd\ rjfjuev
i

VTTO

r&v
f

irpecrftvrepcov,

\e<yovr(ov'

Tfopevecrffe

et-jrov'

HepTrerova,

6^et9 o eftovXov.

Kal ^alpea-ffe. Kal elrrev' Tc3 6e(p

Kal 25

(va, co 9 ev crapKl fjuerd

%apd$
f.;

eyevofAfjv, irKeiova

%apc3 vvv.
^

XIII.
6 uiolatum]
scattering of

*Eil;r)\Qo[Mev Be Kal etBo[J,ev irpb

rwv dvpwv

See above, pp. 39
violets

and
DIE

(t 576),

compare the rare word
PABENTALI MEG, ITEM

'uiolatio' for the

p.

182

:

quoted by Duchesne Culte Ghret. incipiente praesule ecclesia Aius

on graves
xi. KAL.

:

APB. DIE

dicens latinum com graeco. find both forms also in the Mozarabic
psallit,

We

VIOLATIONIS, ITEBI XII. KAL. IVNIAS DIE

EOSATIONIS, Inscr. ap. Bibl. Vallicell. 26,
p.

261 (quoted by White and Eiddell).
9 ceteri angeli]
Cf. 'ceteris angelis,'
3.

Liturgy. 15 sine cessatione] Of. 1. phrase occurs several times

1.

in

This the

1.

to the

The reading of BC meaning of 'ceteri.'

gives

no clue

Proper Prefaces of the Gothic Missal (Migne P. L. 72 pp. 231, 233, 277, 317). 21 traiecit nobis in faciem] For a
possible interpretation of this difficult

14 Agios] For the survival of the Greek form of the Ter Sanctus, cf. S. Germain
R.

phrase see above, p. 27.

6

82

PASSIO

S.

PEEPETVAE.

ad dexteram, et Aspasium presbyterum doctorem ad sinistram, et miserunt se ad pedes nobis, et dixeseparates et tristes.
runt
et
:

Componite inter
illis
:

diximus

Non

tu es

nos, quia existis, et sic nos reliquistis. papa noster, et tu presbyter ? ut

5"uos

ad pedes nobis mittatis ? et moti sumus et conplexi illos sumus. et coepit Perpetua graece cum illis loqui: et segregauiums eos in uiridarium sub arbore rosae. et dum loquimur cum eis, dixerunt illis angeli: Sinite illos refrigerent; et si quas
habetis inter uos dissensiones, dimittite uobis inuicem.
et con;

10

turbauerunt

quia sic bus certantes.

Optato Corrige plebem tuam ad te conueniunt quasi de circo redeuntes, et de factionieos.

et dixerunt

:

et sic nobis
illic

uisum

est quasi uellent claudere

multos fratres cognoscere, sed et marportas. uniuersi odore inenarrabili alebamur, qui nos satiabat. tyras.
et coepimus
15

tune gaudens experrectus sum.

XIV.

morum

uisiones insigniores ipsorum martyrum beatissiSaturi et Perpetuae, quas ipsi conscripserunt. Secundu-

Hae

lum uero Deus maturiore
euocauit,
20

exitu de saeculo adhuc in carcere non sine gratia, ut bestias lucraretur. gladium tamen etsi non anima certe caro eius agnouit. XY. Circa Felicitatem uero, et illi gratia Domini eius2 nobis et] nostros

B

2,

3 dixerunt] + nobis

B

4

illis]
;

+ optati B

;

+ opes
5,

tate

C C

non] nonne C
illos

ut] quid

eonpleximur
tato

papa noster] papa noster es B pater noster 5 nobis] nostros BC moti sumus] misimus nos B 6 om. graece A 7 uiridario B (om. sumus) B
es

C
6 8

sinite illos refrigerent] quiescite et refrigerate

BC
;

(Ruin.)

om.

si

B
;

10 ob-

A

;

obtate

B

11,
;

13, 14 martiras

A

martyres

12 factionibus] BC fatigationibus A 13 om. sed et B 14 uniuersi] ubi B saciabat A sanabit 16 hae] Hoist.; et

B B

15 gaudens] + etB sunt in signo B
et

experrecta A 19 reuocauit

AB

insigniores]

B

gladium] gaudium

B

20

etsi]

B

21 uero] + nam

B
of
of

1 presbyterum doctorem]
substantives in apposition
African.

The use
instead

attributes is regarded by Sittl as specially

19 ut bestias lucraretur] By his death in prison Saturus 'saved himself the beasts.' Cf. Cic. Verr. 11. 1. 12 lucretur
indicia ueteris infamiae
'

See the examples which he

(i.e.

I shall say

gives (Lok. Versch. p. 110), e.g. 'exhibitor magistratus' in Arnobius. So

nothing about them,' a present of them').
is

'I shall

make him

A

closer parallel

we have
'

above, p. 74,

1.

13 'miles optio

Ammian.

Marcell. xix. 4. 3 (speaking
:

praepositus carceris,' and below, p. 84, 1. 6 sociam quasi comitem,'

of the Trojan war)

hinc

cum

decennali

bello Graecia desudaret,

ne peregrinus

PASSIO
*

S.

PERPETVAE.
TrpecrftitTepov Trpbs

83 ra dpt-

TOV eiria-KOTTOV KOI

Kwrraaiov TOV

arepa f^eprj $iaKe%copia-fj,evov<; KOI irepih-inrovs. KOI irea-ovres 7rpo9 rov<i TroSas rjfimv efyaaav rjpA,v' AtaXXa^are ijfJias Trpo?
aXX7;Xou9
fjiev

on

7T/009

e^e\rj\v0aTe KOI OVTCOS ^//.a? dtptj/care. KOI e'iiraavTOVS' Oy^t av Trdiras rj^irepos el, /cal <rv irpeiva
r

5

o-ySyrepo?;
fcal

rt OUT&)? 7rpo<re7re<rare rot? ^ytierepot?
TrepieX-dftofAev
/^er'

TTOO-IV

;

cnr\a y')(yio'OevTs
(ZUTO49
6i?
TOZ/

TlepTrerova 'EXA-^z/ia^t
CTVV
'

KIJTTOV

avrovs fcal rjp^aTO avroov o/uXety, /cat d V7TO TO SevSpOV TOV f)6SoV.
ol
/cal

rj

\a\ovvTwv 'EaVare avTovs dvatyv^ai, s'
,

aryye\oi

7r/?09 10

el

rivas St'%o<TTaa'ia<?
OVTO>

d<f>Te vp,els aXX?7Xot9.

teal eireirKri^av CIVTOVS

teal eiTrav 'OTrrarft)'

^^iTravopdaxrai TO

7r\rj06<i crov'

yap
15

7rpo9

(re, tocret

a?ro tTTTroBpo/jLiwv eiravep^o^evoL Kai
evo^i^ofjuev

avTwv
d7roK\ei(rat,

ikoveiKovvTes.
/cat

Be

avTov^ W9 Oekeiv
TTO\OV<;

eicel

pTvpas' eTpe(f>6/j,eOa Se OVK e%6pTaev r^as' Kal

XIV. Avrat
ical

at bpdcreis e/AtfiavecrTaTai, TWV fJiapTvpwv l^aTvpov 20

9 avTol trvveypd^ravTO' TOV ydp TlepTrerovas eK TOV KOCTJJLOV //.ereTre/n/raTO [6 ^609]' ev ydp Tp

crvv

TO
p,r)

6 rjpiofJ(,a'xf)a-aL'
i

el
t'^>

fv

d\ovvye

TTJV crap/ca
25

avTov

Stef;rj###BOT_TEXT###ev TO

XY.
7
<rir

'AXXa

/cat

r
6crfj.rj]

TOU ^eou
us
fj.ri

legebat

non

satiabat

22 om.

6

poenas

dissoeiati
i.e.
'

regalis

inatrimonii

lucraretur,

should escape the penalty
Of. Acts xxvii. 21 Kep-

ii. 5, supposed by the Greek translator who introduces Sie-

ference to Lc.

of his outrage.'
brfffai

rjev

for

'

agnouit,'

is

not

certain.

re rty vfipiv radirr)v Kal TTJV ^tjfj.lav, lucrique facere hiiuriam hanc et iacturam

The meaning seems

to be 'he escaped
:

The parallel therefore with (Vulg.). Ignat. Rom. 3 6va.lft.iiv ruv dijp'uav falls to
the ground. 20 etsi non anima certe caro]
'caro' against all the
I

the beasts, but not the sword his body, ' though not his soul, knew the sword ;

and we may perhaps compare Matt.
28.

x.

have
re-

been umvilling to transpose 'anima' and

beheaded in the prison; or 'the sword' may be a figure of speech for the sufferings which caused
his death.

He may have been

MSS.

The

62

84

PASSIO
contigit.

S.

PEKPETVAE.

modi

iam mensium uentrem haberet, (nam praegnans fuerat adprehensa) instante spectaculi die, in magno erat luctu, ne propter uentrem differretur quia non licet praegocto
;
:

cum

nantes poenae repraesentari
5

et

ne inter

alios

postea sceleratos

sanctum et innocentem sanguinem funderet. sed et com martyres grauiter contristabantur, ne tarn bonam sociam quasi comitem solam in uia eiusdem spei relinquerent. coniuncto itaque unito gemitu ad Dominum orationem fuderunt ante tertium diem muneris. statim post orationem dolores inuaseet cum pro naturali difficultate octaui mensis in partu laborans doleret, ait illi quidam ex ministris cataractariorum Quae sic modo doles, quid facies obiecta bestiis, quas contempsisti
:

10 runt,

cum

sacrificare

noluisti

?

et

ilia

respondit

:

Modo ego

15

patior quod patior; illic autem alius erit in me qui patietur pro me, quia et ego pro illo passura sum. ita enixa est puellam,

quam

sibi

XVI.

quaedam soror in filiam educauit. Quoniam ergo permisit et permittendo
etsi

uoluit Spiritus

Sanctus ordinem ipsius muneris conscribi,

indigne ad suppleeius exequimur,

mentum

tantae gloriae

describendae, tamen quasi mandatum

20 sanctissimae

Perpetuae,

immo fideicommissum
ipsius

unum

adicientes

doeumentum de

constantia et animi

sublimitate.

admonitionibus

cum a tribune castigatius eo tractantur, quia ex hominum uanissimorum uerebatur, ne subtra;

herentur de carcere incantationibus aliquibus magicis

in faciem

1 mensium] mensuum non pregnatus erat B

A

;

meti suum

B
(Ruin.)

1,

2

nam

praegnans fuerat]
differeretur

n

2 instante spectaculi die in 3 luctae

magno] expectans expee-

A B 5, 6 cornmartyres] + eius B derelinquerent B fecerunt B 8 itaque] + et B 9 et statim B gemito ad deum B 11 catarectariorum A cata10 naturali] natura B dolores] + earn B faties cum abiecta fueris B ractareorum B 12, 13 om. sic A quia condicens ego modo B 13 noluisti ? et] uoluisti B 14 tempsisti et B 15 puella A 16 om. quaedam B pro me patietur B illic] ille B 18 etsi] ut si A edocauit AB filia A 17 promisit B indigne] B 19 describendae] describenti A illorum describende B 20 indigna A 21 continentiae et de anima B 22 traetanti A 22, 23 exequamur B cum quia] quia tribuno castiganti [-e C (Ruin.)] eos et male tractante, quoniam BC ammonitionibus A 23 uerberatur B
taculum diem.
possit deferri

Imago

B

C

uentre

A

;

B

3,

4 pregnantes penas presentari B om. in B 7 comitantem B

alios] aliquos

;

;

;

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

85

e860r). etceivr) yap <7fXX'?7<#ecra orcrw JJLTJVWV e^ovcra yacrrepa, rrdvv ooBvpero, Start OVK e^ecrrtv eyfcvjiova d-rjptofjia^elv r} rtpo)petcrOai, pr/7ra)<> vcrrepov perd aX\wv dvoaicov e/c^vdfj ro al/Jia,

avrfjs TO d0q)ov.

aXXa KOI

rjcrav a~<f>68pa ovrto KaXrjv crvvepyov teal cacrel

ol crv/jLfj,dprvpe$ avrrjs 7repi\v7rot avvoBonropov ev 68a>
irpo rpirrj^ ovv

5

avrrjs erl8o<f prj

OeXovres KaTa\ei7reiv.

rov TrdOovs

CLVTOOV /cotvq) crrevayfjbm evcodevres
real

irpoaev^v
%aAe-

TOV Kvpiov eiroLrjcravro'
es avrrjv crvve<T^ov,
fcal fjuerd

evdvs pera rrfv nrpocrev^rjv
pr)vo<$ fyvcriv
e<^rj

Kara

rrjv

rov oySoov
rj\yei.

rov ro/cerov

fca/jLovcra

Traparrjpovvrcov inrypercov'
f3\ rj0eicra TT/JO?
teal
i

Se ri$ avrf 10 Et vvv ovrws dXyeis, ri e^e*?
Kare<f>p6wrj(ras ore eTTiOvetv
Katceivij dTreKpiOr)'

Orjpia,

wv

eyon
efjiov'

Trda")(w

o

OVK ^eX^cra? Ovcrat; eKel Be aXXo? "Trdcr^Kt'
f

Nvi/

ecrrat ev epol tva

7rd0rj,

Trdo'^cov virep Start eyco Tracr^co virep avrov.
et9

e<rrlv

6

15

erefcev Se Kopdcriov, o fita

rwv aSeX^xwy crv\a/3ov(ra

Bvyarepa

dveOpetyev avry.

XVI.

'HjU-tv Se

dvaypdyjrat rrjv rdjftv
<racrav' 7r\rjv co?

dva^iois ovcriv iirerpetyev TO aytov Trvevfta rrjv eVt Tat? <^tXoTi/itat9 rrapaKO\ovdiji

vrd\fj,art rrjs fAarcaptas TlepTrerovas /iaXXoy 20

Be

cJ?

tce\evafjt,art inrvjperovvres dvaTr'X.'rjpov^ev
tJ<?

TO Trpocrra-^dev

r/p,lv.

airwv,

rj

Be TrXetof? r//J.epat Steytvovro ev rf} (fjvT^afcfj ovrcov fieya<ppwv KOI dvBpeta co? d\r)0&<s TlepTrerova, rov v aTT'rjvecrrepov avrots ?rpoo'<f)epo/j,evov, rivoov vrpo? avrov
r

&iaj3ef3a[G>crafi,evu>v
i

TO Belv
)

<f>o/3elcr8ai,

/i^Vw? 67rcp8at9

25

v 7re^ea>a'tv evwirtov aTrefcptdrj \eyovo~a'

11 cataractariorum] 'Cataracta' seems

otherwise agrees with

A in this passage:

In to be a portcullis in Liv. xxvii. 28. Jerem. xx. 2, 3 it is the LXX. word for
'the stocks.'

Quae

sic
?

modo

doles, quid facies obiecta

bestiis

meaning
doubt
official.

for

'

This suggests a possible cataractarius here no
' :

18 ordinem ipsius muneris] Of. supra, p. 78, 1. 12 ipsius muneris actum &c.

it is

a technical
is

name
'

for a prison

For a discussion

The phrase
'

cataractariorum

ministris

borrowed in Acta Montani
'

of the reading of the following sentences see the separate note on p. 100.

&c.

c.

17 (Bum. p. 236).

19

mandatum]

This

is

used of a last

12 Quae sic modo] { sic is supported by the abbreviated lection in the Breviary
of

injunction which can be legally enforced: cf. Cic. pro Eosc. Amer. c. 38 itaque
manclati constitution est indicium

Quimper

(see

above,

p.

21),

which

non

86
ei

PASSIO
respondit
:

S.

PERPETVAE.

nobilissimis,

Quid utique non permittis nobis refrigerare noxiis Caesaris scilicet, et natali eiusdem pugnaturis?
;

aut non tua gloria est, si pinguiores illo producamur ? horruit et erubuit tribunus et ita iussit illos humanius haberi, ut fratri5

bus eius et ceteris facultas
eis
;

fieret introeundi, et refrigerandi

cum

ro

iam et ipso optione carceris credente. XVII. Pridie quoque cum illam cenam ultiniam, quam liberam uocant, quantum in ipsis erat non cenam liberam sed agapen cenarent, eadem constantia ad populum uerba ista iactabant, comminantes iudicium Dei, contestantes passionis suae felicitatem, inridentes concurrentium curiositatem
;

dicente Saturo
uidetis

:

Crastinus
odistis?

satis

uobis

non

est,

quod

libenter

quod

hodie amici, eras inimici. notate tamen nobis facies nostras diligenter, ut recognoscatis nos in die illo. ita omnes
15

inde adtoniti discedebant: ex quibus multi crediderunt. XVIII. Inluxit dies uictoriae illorum, et processerunt de
carcere in amphitheatrum, quasi in caelum, hilares uultu decori si forte gaudio pauentes non timore. sequebatur Perpetua
;

lucido incessu, ut niatrona Christi, ut Dei delicata
1 ei] et

:

uigore ocu-

B

respondit]

+ perpetua

et dixit

B

nos

B

2 nobilissimi

BC

si licet et

natalis

A
B

;

scis

permittis nobis] dimisisti 2, 3 qua natale B

eius sumus pugnaturi (om. aut) B humanius habere BC mauibus hiberi
;

A
B

3 pinguior est illuc B 6 iam et] tamen A

4 om.
7
ilia

ita

B

cena
con-

ultima
stantes

A B
C

9 agapen] adipem passioni

B B

om. ista

10 domini

A

A

suae] sue et

11 inritantes
uobis satis

A

;

inredeantes

B
C

;

irridentes

12 crastinus] + dies

B

quod] quid

;

qui

B 13 uidistis B 14 illo] + iuditii B nobis] uobis BC (Ruin.) 15 discesserunt B + iudicii C omnes] multi BC (Ruin.) crediderunt] 18 si forte] quasi BC 17 in (pr.)] ad B + PASSIO VT SUPBAA hilares] + et B 19 lucido] placido uultu et pedum B om. ut (sec.) B timore] pauore B uigorem oculorum suorum deitiens ab omnium condelicata] dilecta BC
;

spectu

B
demned persons
' '

minus turpe quam furti. 'Fideicommissum' is rather an obligation of
honour: see above, p. 52.

(noxiis)

who
'

are

to

grace his festival by their death. Hence Caesaris scilicet ; where if nobilissimi'
'

The combined evi2 nobilissimis] dence of A and g shews that this is the
true reading.
'

Nobilissimus

'

is

a con-

stant epithet for a Caesar, and is applied to Geta in inscriptions. Here the epithet
of the Caesar is transferred to the con-

(BC) be read, the point is lost, and scilicet is out of place. 11 inridentes] Possibly 'inritantes' (A) should be retained in the sense of
'

'setting at nought,' 'frustrating,'
'inrito':
cf.

from

Eonsch

J. u.

V. p. 165.

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

87

Atart

fjfuv dva\a[A/3dveiv

OVK

eTTtrpeTret? ovo/JbacrTol^
pr}

Kalcrapos <yeve0\ioi<; dva\a>drja'opJ evoi<; ;
eo-Tiv,

<ydp ov^l

err)

efi oarov Trloves Trpoo-ep^opeda ; Trpos ravra etyp^ev fcal eSva-(07ni0r) o ^tTu'ap^o?, efcs\ev<rev re avTovs <j)L\avdpa)7r6repov
elo-e###BOT_TEXT###elv Kal dvakapJSdveiv

Bidyeiv, 009 teal TOV dSe\(j)ov avrijs Kal \onrovs Ttvas Seovvfjcr0at per ai/rcav. TOTS Kal auro? o r^5
(f)v\aKf}<; TTjOoecrTco? eTTLa-revcrev.

5

ore TO ea^arov eicelvo SeiTrvov, oTrep eXevOepov ovo/jud^ova'iv, ocrov Se e0' eaurot? OVK e\ev0epov
/cal TTpo /Aids

XVII.

'AXXa

BeiTrvov dC dyaTrrjv eVe/caX,otv rjj

avrwv

Trapprjaia' TT/OO? Se 10
e^i'irep.'n'ov

rbv

o%\oi>

TOV

e/cetcre

'jrapeo'TMTa

pij/^ara

//.era

Trapprjcrlas aurot? <z7ret\o)i/re9

Kplcrtv 0eov, dv0o/j,o\oTTJV
9

TOV
Trepiepyeiav
r^fjbepa
vfjblv

fj,aKapt,crfjLov

TOV 7rd0ovs eavTa>v, KaTaje###BOT_TEXT###lt;avTe<;

TOOV

OVK

o-vvTpe-^ovTcov, ^LaTvpov \eyovTos' eVap/cet; Tt 778^009 opare 01)9 /AKreire'
r

H

avptov

crrj^epov 15

<f)L\oi'

avpiov

e'%^/aot;

jr\r)v

7rio-r)jj,eia>o-ao-0e
<

ra
TT,

irpoffwira rjptov
r^fjbepa.
coi/

e7rtyu.eA.co9

Iva Kal eirtyvooTe r}/J<a< $ ev eKelvrj eKeldev e/CTrX^TTo/u-e^ot e^wpi^ovTo"

OVTO><$

e!;

7r\elo~Toi

XVIII.
0ov

8e ijpepa

avTwv
009 et9

KOI 7rpofj\- 20

K

Tr)<>

(pvaKrs
^>o/3ft>.

et9

TO

[A(pi6aTpov

ovpavov

i\apol
jj,dX\.ov

Kal (paiSpol
rj

TrpocrwTrw, inoovjievoi el TV^OL )jKo\ov06t Se 77 TiepTreTova Trpdws /3aSiovcra,
6(p0a\fjt,a>,

TW

co9 /jiaTpatva

Xpio-rov, eyprjiyopa)
14

Kal Ty
15
L'

TT/oocroT/ret

Ka-

irXeioves

19 ut matrona Christi] 'Matrona,' 'the
true
wife,'
is

such as C.

I.

L. Afr, 2861
D. M. s.

frequently

opposed
i.

to

meretrix'; e.g. Hor. Ep. matrona meretrici dispar
Discolor.

18.

3 ut

IVLIAE DELICATAE

erit atque This to some extent prepares the way for the startling use of deli'

HEBENTI
DIDIVS FRVCTVS Bf
LAlic
V. AN.

cata'

which follows. ut Dei delicata] A bold expression, altered in BC and omitted altogether in
'Delicata' is applied
to

XXXXIII

(ib. 10889) DELICATVS and SCHOLASTICVS are names

In another African Inscr.

the Greek.

of race-horses.
Christi Dei
(cf.
'

With the

restoration of

Perpetua below, p. 90, 1. 12; but there its sense is obvious and quite different.
Its

the true text the supposed reference in
'

to Ignat.
7),

meaning here,

'

favorite' or

'

darling,'

Qeov

Trail.

Smyrn. 10 X/uoroO always uncertain,

may

be illustrated from

Inscriptions,

disappears entirely.

88

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

lorum deiciens omnium conspectum. item Felicitas, saluam se peperisse gaudens ut ad bestias pugnaret, a sanguine ad sanguinem, ab obstetrice ad retiarium, lotura post partum baptismo secundo. et cum ducti essent in portam, et cogerentur habitum 5 induere, uiri quidem sacerdotum Saturni, feminae uero sacratarum Cereri generosa ilia in finem usque constantia repugna;

uit.

dicebat enim

:

nostra obduceretur

;

Ideo ad hoc sponte peruenimus, ne libertas ideo animam nostram addiximus, ne tale

ro iustitiani

aliquid facerenius: hoc uobiscum pacti sumus. agnouit iniustitia concessit tribunus, quomodo erant, simpliciter in:

Perpetua psallebat, caput iani Aegyptii calcans. Reuocatus et Saturninus et Saturus populo spectanti comminabantur de hoc.
et

ducerentur.

15

ut sub conspectu Hilariani peruenerint, gestu nutu coeperunt Hilariano dicere Tu nos, inquiunt, te autem Deus. ad hoc populus exasperatus, flagellis eos uexari pro
:

ordine uenatorum postulauit. et utique gratulati sunt, quod aliquid eL.de dominicis passionibus essent consecuti.

XIX. Sed qui

dixerat Petite

et accipietis

petentibus dederat

eum exitum
20 se

quern quisque desiderauerat. nam, si quando inter de martyrii sui uoto sermocinabantur, Saturninus quidem

omnibus bestiis uelle se obici profitebatur: ut scilicet gloriosiorem gestaret coronam. itaque in commissione spectaculi reuocatus leopardo expertus etiam super pulpitum ab urso erat 2 perisse B ad (pr.)] a AB om. ad sanguinem ABC 4 et delati in habitu A 5 7 saturnini feminarum uero sacrorum portam cum essent B 6 cererum A 7 dicegenerosa in finem. usque constantiam repugnabit B animas nostras BC 8 adduceretur B bant A ne] de B enim] ergo B 10 iustitiam] + et BC tribunus] + ut BC addiximus] C adduximus AB 11 om. Perpetua A 11, 12 reuocatus satyrus et saturninus populum expec13 de hoc] Dehinc BC tanti perminabantur. B ut] iam B perue14 inquiunt] iudicabit C om. B 15 ad] non ad B nerant B flagellas B 17 et de] ex B 16 et utique] utique illi B 15, 16 per ordinem BC 18 dix B dedit B 19 cum exitum que in quis desiderauerat accepit B 20 uoto] uocis B 21 ut scilicet] scilicet ut felicem et B sermocinabatur B 22 coronam] curam B 23 leospeetaculi] + ipse et BC itaque] + eum B pardum experti BC
;

;

5

saeerdotum

Saturni]

For

the

Harris's notes

(p.

62 and Introd. p.

5).

worship of the African Saturn cf. Berger and Cagnat, Un Sanctuaire de Saturne
a Am-Tounga, Paris, 1889. sacratarum Cereri] 5, 6

The omission of any reference to Perpetua's husband is strange; but his
ingenious suggestion
is

not altogether

See

Mr

convincing.

PASSIO
Ta/3d\ovcra
'Xaipovcra
ra<?

S.

PERPETVAE.
6uoia)<;
f

89
real
77

TrdvTcov opdcreis.

eirl rf}

TOV rofcerov vjeia iva

O^pio^a-^rja-'tj,

aVo

aJ/ta-

ro9 et9 alaa,

CLTro fjuaias TT/OO?

uovofjia^iav, yu-eXXoucra \ovcracrOai

fierd TOV TOKCTOV, ftaTrricrfjbq) BevTepw, rovrecm TO> IBio) CLL^LCLTL. ore Be fjry<yio~av irpo TOV d/jL<j)i0ed.Tpov, rfvayrcd^ovTo ev^varacrdai ol pev dppeve? lepecov Kpovov, al Be 0r)\eiai T^
, '

5

aXTi'

77

evyeveo-TaTT)

eem/

IlepTreTOua irapprjaia
efcovcricos

craro e&)9 TeA,oi9*
e\r)\v0a/Aev, iva
rj

eXeyey 7a/>'

Ata TOVTO
fjurj

et9

TOWTO
TTJV

e\ev6epia

tfjJbwv

TjTTyOf)'

Sid TOVTO

tyvxfiv

tffj,<av

TrapeBcofcapev,

'iva

ftrjBev

T&V

TOVTO (TvveTa^dfjieda fied' VJJLGOV. eire<yvw 77 wr)v' Kal /j,6Te7reiTa eVeT/je-^rez/ 6 ^tXi'ap^o9 iva OVTCOS elcra^Ow(9 tfo-av' teal rf HepTreTova etyaXhev, Trjv K(f>a\rjv TOV
vTTTiov
e

TOIOVTO&V Trpd^aj/jiev' 10 dBifcia TTJV BiKaioo-v-

77877

TraTovaa.

'Peov/caTos Be Kal 2aTov/cmA,09 KOI
ep/rrpo- 15

Sarw/309 TO) OecopovvTi
crOev
ere

6'%Xw 7rpo<ra)fAi\ovv Kal yevofievoi, l\apidvov, Kivij/jLacriv Kal vevfjiaaiv etya&av'
77/009

o ^eo9.

TavTa dypiwOels

6

0^X09

[tao-Ti'ywOfjvai

e/3o?7cr6V

aXXa

ot aytot ij<ya\ido-0'r)<rav OTI

VTrepeivdv TL Kal

TWV KvpiaK&v 7ra0a>v. XIX. 'AXX' 6 etTTcoz/
1

AireTcOe KAI AHVfecGe eBcoKev roi9 atTT^- 20

a-aaiv TavTijv Trjv S6%av oiav e/ca<7TO9

avTwv

eireOv^rjcrev.

eiTTOTe

yap

jjieff

eavTwv
fj,ev

os

Trepl r^9 ev^r)? TOV papTVpiov (rvve\d\,ovv, SaTracriv Tot9 0f)pioi<i ^\ r}0r)vat eavTov QeXeiv [eXejev]
<

'iva

evBo^oTepov crTetyavov d'jro\d^rj.

ev dp^rj

jovv

Trjs
-25

4 devrtpy] 5e

vffrfptp

ovv] forte legebat

concionabantur

11 crvveTafa/JLeda fj-edaffwerd^ecrdai 23 om.

fj.e&' V/J.&V

15

irpoffta-

8 animam nostram addiximus] A bold metaphor derived from the oath of the uoluntarii, who sold themselves to
'
'

BC

seems unnecessary to insert ut with though for its omission Catul. 114.
'
' :

a 'lanista.'

For another metaphorical
this

5 (concede sit diues) is the only passage that I can find quoted.
15,

application of

oath,

cf.

Petron.

Sat. 117 itaque ut duraret inter

omnes

Tert.

ad Mart.

16 pro ordine uenatorum] 5, ad Natt. I. 18.

Cf.

tutum mendacium, in uerba Eumolpi sacramentum iuravimus, uri, uinciri,
uerberari, ferroque neeari, et quidquid

18 Petite et accipietis] See above, p. 49. 22 in commissione] Cf. Cic. Ep. ad A tt. xv. 26 iam ab ipsa commissione ;
Suet. Aug. 43 commissione ludorum quibus theatrum Marcellinum dedicabat.
22, 23 reuocatus] This has been taken as a proper name and so the whole

aliud

Eumolpus

iussisset,

tamquam
corpora
It

legitimi

gladiatores

domino

animasque addicimus.
10,

11

concessit...inducerentur]

90
uexatus.

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

Saturus autem nihil magis

quam ursum abomina-

sed uno morsu leopardi confici se iam praesumebat. cum apro subministraretur, uenator potius qui ilium apro itaque subligauerat, subfossus ab eadem bestia, post dies muneris obiit.

batur:

5

Saturus solummodo tractus

est.

et

cum ad ursum

substrictus

esset in ponte, ursus de cauea prodire noluit.

itaque secundo

Saturus inlaesus reuocatur.

autem ferocissimam uaccam, ideoque praeter consuetudinem comparatam, diabolus praeparauit sexui earum
Puellis
:

XX.

10

etiam de bestia aemulatus. itaque dispoliatae et reticulis indutae producebantur. horruit populus, alteram respiciens puel-

lam delicatam, alteram a partu recentem
ita reuocatae et discinctis indutae.

stillantibus

mammis.

concidit in lumbos.
15

prior Perpetua iactata est, et et ubi sedit tunicam a latere discissam

ad uelamentum femoris reduxit, pudoris potius memor quam doloris. dehinc requisita, et disperses capillos infibulauit. non
eniui decebat

martyram

plangere uideretur. uidisset accessit, et
20

ita surrexit,

sparsis capillis pati, ne in sua gloria et elisam Felicitatem cum
ei tradidit et suscitauit illam.

manum

et

ambae
in

portam Sanauiuariam.

pariter steterunt, et populi duritia deuicta reuocatae sunt illic Perpetua a quodam tune cateei adhaerebat, suscepta, et quasi a in Spiritu et in extasi fuerat) circumspi-

chumino, Rustico nomine, qui

somno expergita (adeo
25

cere coepit, et instupentibus

omnibus

ait

:

Quando,

inquit, pro-

ducimur ad uaccam illam,
1 uexati sunt

nescio.

et

cum
B
;

audisset

quod iam
\

BC
3

2 sed] et

B

leopardisse

conficisse

AB

con-

sumebat

B B

4 suffossos

3, 4 aprum subministrauerat BC cum] + iam BC aper C 5 substrictus] subreptus B subrectus C diem BC 6 exire B

B) de industria efferatorum (effratorum B) adfirmasset portas putris carnibus magis ne mitteretur (mittetur B) efficit (effigit B) BC (Ruin.) 8 om. ideoque B 9 consuetudinenem paratam B itaque] ita BC om. et reticulis indutae BC 11 pro10, 11 spoliate B sexuigearum B

noluit] + Pudens miles (milis

mouebantnr
incidit

BC

discinctis indutae] discinguntur.

alteram respiciens] aspitiens Inducitur B

B

12

dilectam

B B

13

et

iactata est et] iacta

14

B B

lumbis

B

conscisam

porta

17 ne in] non B B sane uiuariani

tonicam A ubi sedit] ut conspexit BC a lateribus 16 requisita et] a quo recurrit B 15 femorum adduxit B 21 19 accessisset ei manum etradidit et subleuauit B

A

;

om.

B

a]

ad

A

22 qui

ei]

quia tune

cepta] suscepit

B

22, 23 de

somno

NamB

24 stupentibus

B

expergefacta B 25 nescio] + quam

fuerat] fuerit

B A
;

susfuerat.

BC

(Ruin.)

et]

sed

B

PASSIO
vcrrepov eirl ovSev d\o
rrj<s

S.

PERPETVAE.

91

ye<pvpa<; VTTO dp/cpv BiecrTrapd^r}.

^drvpos Be

rj aptcov direcrrpefyero' Kal evl B^y^art, 7rapBd\ea><; re\eiova-0at, avrov e rre rrr69ei' ware Kal rw crm BiafcovovfAevos
r

ecri/pi)

[iovov, a"xpivi(p 7rpoa-Be0ei<;' 6 Be Bi^parrj^ 6

rw avi avrov

7rpoo-/3a\o)v V7TO
(pL\OTifj,imv

rov

0i)po<i

airoOavelv.

Karerpwdr) ovrcos 009 //,e0' rjfiepav afO^a Kal TT/OO? apicov SiaBeOels
avTrfS
r)

Biepeivev' IK

jap rov ^coypiov

ap/co? OVK ede\v)(rev

fAa/capiais Se vedvicriv a<ypL(f>rdrr)v Sd/j,a\iv rj o Sta/3oXo9, TO 6r{\v avroav 7rapa^r)\oav Bid rov Oijpiov' 10 fj,a(rev Kal yv/Avcodeia-ai yovv Trpoo-ijyovro' o6ev d7re<rrpd<f)'r] 6 0^X05,
(jiiav pJev

XX. Tai?

rpvfapdv Koprjv
co?

/37T(ov, rrjv Be

aX\i]v

fj,acr0oi<>

a~rd-

fyvcrav

<yd\a,

7rpocr<f)drco<;

Kvrjo-acrav'

Kal

dva\i)(p06iorai

Trd\LV, Kal BiKrvois Trepif3\r)6elcrai, evBiBva-KOvrai, vrco^facf^aaiv'

odev ei(7###BOT_TEXT###ovo'(nv avrcov, 77 TlepTrerova Trpwrrj Kepanadelda Tre<rev eV oV^uo?' KOI dvaKadicracra rov %t,rva eK T^? 7r\evpa<;
avrrjs (rvvayayovfra, eo-Keiraaev rov eavrr)<s pypov, atBov? fjid\ov TTOVWV' alBovfievr), /JbijBa/Acios fypovrioacra r<3v rj

i-,

fj,vi)fj,ovevcraaa

aXyrjBovwv' Kal eVt^r^o-acra (3e\,6vr)v rd eairapayfJieva crweov yap ewpe- 20 cr(f)i<yi;V, Kal rds rpfyas T^? K<j>a\rj$ TrepieBijcrev'
Trev

IBia

ry /judprvpi dpt^lv airapa-xOeiaais opaadai' iva firj ev rfj [/cat KepariaOeicrav IBovaa rrjv <>r)\iK7)rt/mfj BOK-TJ irevOelv.

rdrrjv, 7rpocrf}###BOT_TEXT###v

avrrjv.
Kr)0ei(r'r)<?

avry\ Kal Kparrja-acra rrj? ^etpo? avrrs tfryeipev Kal ecrrrjcrav afia' rrjs Be aK\T)p6rijro<f rov o%Xov CKVLdve\rj(j)6'r)a'av

et?

rrjv

TrvKrfv

rr/v

fariKijv'

CKCI

77

25

TlepTrerova viro
peto-rriKei

nvos Kar^ovfJievov

6v6fj,an 'Povo-rLKov, 09 ira-

avrfj, <B<? e^ VTTVOV eyepOelaa (ouro)9 ev Trvevjjuari, eKo-raaiv TraOovo-d), Kal TrepL^Ke^a^evr] dapfBovvrayv yeyovev dirdvraiv e<j>f)' YLore ^a\6jji0a Trpo? rrjv Bdfia\i,v f)v \eyova-iv; Kal aKovcraa-a on rf&j; e%e\ r)\v0i Trpo? avrijv, ov rrporepov eiri- 30
i

6 Sib
pa.-xdi]ffa.v

Sedfjs

7 di^eivov
22, 23
'

15
[ ]

KpaTijOr/ffa (sic)

17 aldov

21

trrra-

cod.

om.

transiliens a KOI Kepcma-deiffav

ad

/cat

Harris

29

passage has been changed in EC.
cf.

But

infra,

11.

7, 13.

super pulpitum] See a woodcut given by Le Blant of a man bound to a post on a slightly raised platform, and a
lion springing to get at him (Rev. Archeol. 1889, vol. xni. p. 155).

6 in ponte] The 'pons' may be a ' ' bridge crossing the fossa which sometimes surrounded the arena.
noluit]

I have treated the curious

addition in

EC
or g.

as a gloss, as

it is

not

found in

A

92

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

euenerat, non prius credidit, nisi quasdam notas uexationis in corpore et habitu suo recognouisset. exinde accersitum fratrem

siram

et

ilium catechuminum adlocuta
diligite
;

est,

dicens;

In

fide

state, et
5

inuicem onmes

et passionibus nostris

ne scanexor-

dalizemini.

XXI.

Item Saturus
:

in alia porta

Pudentem militem

tabatur, dicens

10

praesumpsi et nullam usque adhuc bestiam sensi. et nunc de toto praedixi, corde credas. ecce prodeo illo, et ab uno niorsu leopardi consumor. et statini in fine spectaculi, leopardo eieeto, de uno morsu tanto perfusus est sanguine, ut populus reuertenti illi
inquit, certe, sicut
:

Ad summam.

secundi baptismatis testimonium reclamauerit Saluum lotum, saluum lotum. plane utique saluus erat, qui hoc modo lauerat.

15

tune Pudenti militi inquit et Vale, inquit, memor fidei meae haec te non conturbent, sed confirment. simulque ansulam de digito eius petiit, et uulneri suo mersam reddidit ei heredita:

;

tem, pignus relinquens

illi

et

memoriam

sanguinis.

exinde

20

iam exanimis prosternitur cum ceteris ad iugulationem solito loco, et cum populus illos in medio postularet, ut gladio penetranti in eorum corpore oculos suos comites homicidii adiungerent, ultro surrexerunt, et se quo uolebat populus transtuleante iam osculati inuicem, ut martyrium per solemnia runt
:

quidem inmobiles, et cum silentio 2 et] C et in B om. A recogno3 est] + eos B et exinde accersito B uisset] -fEt ilium 6 om. Pudentem A 7 3, 4 ut in fide starent et inuieem se deligerent B dicens Ad summam inquit certe] A dicens. Adsum certe BO praesumpsi] om. et praedixi, nullam usque adhuc bestiam sensi BC 7, 8 promisi C 8 et nunc] et nunc ut C nuntiet B 9 ecce producer illuc C et cum producar 10 leopardi obiectus B leopardus obiectus ab uno] et nune BC illuc B reuertenti illi] reuertendi B 11 morsu] + eius B C 12, 13 baptismi B 13 qui hoc modo lauerat] declarauerat dicens. Saluum locum plane. Vtique B 14 om. inquit (pr. B inom. B qui hoc spectaculo claruerat (? C) Euin. 15 meae] Hoist. mei AB niernor] meffito B quit] inquit et (?) A ait B uersam B annulum C 16 petit B om. ei B confortent simul qui B beataxn hereditatem relinquens ei pignus (illi pugnos 17 pignus] pinguens A 18 iu17, 18 deinde iam animis B B) et memoriam tanti sanguinis BC in medium BC in solito B 19 et] sed B postolaret A gulatione A 20 corpore eorum B 19, 20 penetrante B ut] + etB postulasset B 21 ultro] uulso B uoluerat B committentes homicidia B quo] quod A 23 consumarent A + et B 22 osculati] + in (supra tin.) A martyrem B et cum silentio] consilio B
pacis consummarent.
1 uenerat

ceteri

B

AB cathecuminum A
uexationes

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

)

;

;

;

;

PASSIO
(7revo~ev Trplv
?)

S.

PERPETVAE.
/3Xa/3?7<>

93
ev

o~r)/j,td

nva

T7?9

rw

ISim

Kokea-adra rov iBwv dBe###BOT_TEXT###lt;f>ov KOI ewpdfcei' avrov rov Kartj^ovfjievov TrapeKd\ei iva ev Trio-ret, Biajteivuifftv Kal aXX^Xov? dyaTTtacriv, Kal rot? rs-aQ-r] paa-iv e/ceo/oi? fir) o~Kav-

dvaBe^OevroiV Be

Ba\io-0<ao-i,v roiovrois ovcrtv.

5

XXI. Kat
irpocrfop,i\eL,
eo?

ev erepa Trv\y 6 lidrvpos TOJ (rrpancory TlovSevri

/ca66\ov \eycov on Kara r-tjv 7rp6\e%iv rrjv e^v, Kal irpoelTTov, ovSe ev O'rjpLwv rf-^aro /ULOV ew? dpri' IBov Be

vvv,

wa

e%

oA/ty?

KapSias

Sia'irLa'revo-rjs, Trpoo-ep^o/Ltai, /cal ev evl

TrapSaXeco? reXeiovftai' Kal evdvs ev re\ei T^? Oewplas 10 avrm eft\tjdf], Kal ev evl Brfryftari rov at/iaro? rov dyiov eveTrX^o-O'T}' roo-ovrov alpa eppvif], aj? \ojLo-0fjvat Sevrepov /jLaprvpiov' /ca^co? Kal eTretyatvei 6 0^X09 fiotnv Kal

KaX&5?

e\ovo-(o,

/caX&J? e\ovo-(o.

Kal

/n,rjv

vyirjs rp>

o
1

roLOvrw rpOTrp XeXov/ie^o?.
o~repewo~drco
o~e

arparLwrr) TlovSevrt efjji)' Kal fivrj^oveve irio-reo)^ Kal e/^oO' Kal ra roiavra Kal "Tryiaive
ray

rore

pa\ov
d(f>els

r)

Trap avrov Kal evdels avrb

rapa^drco. Kal Sa/cryXioz/ raj IBiw a'ijjuari, eScoKev avrw

piav K\r)povo^Lav,
rov.
fjt,erd

ravra \OLTTOV

pv^prjv Kal evOrjKrjv at/iaro? rr)\iKove/jL7rvea)v en dTrrj^dri /j,erd Kal rwv 20
et? o-(j)a<yr)v 8e o

a\Q)v r& avvtjdei TOTTW'
6fc9

o%Xo?

i'rrjo'ev

avrovs

fjio~ov jbLera^O^vat, OTTW? Sid ra>v dylav o-copdrcov ekavvo-

TO

^t</)09

6edo-(ovraL'

Kal ol ftaKaptoi jj,dprvpe$ eKovres

jo-av'

yo-^yvovro yap 6\i<yovs udprvpas e^eiv eirl roS p.adavdrw avr<Sv. Kal 8?) e6vrwv avr&v OTTOV o ovXo9

25

e/SovXero, Trp&rov KarefyiKyo-av o&XrfKovs Iva TO fj,vo~r'qptov Std rwv OLKeiwv T^9 Trlcrrews reXeiwo-coaiv' Kal fJiereTretra aoyieva>9

rrv Bid rov

%i<j>ov<;

nfMwpiav'

TroXXw Be fj,d\ov 6

12

Setitepov

15

9 consumor] The Greek translator but the took this for eonsummor word as it stands is more natural. 12 Saluum lotum] See above, p. 8,
' '

;

22

19 in medio] See note on p. 76, 1. 6. ante iam oseolati] The kiss of
is

peace

amphitheatre,

and Mr Harris's note ad
14
'

loc. (p. 68).

fidei

meae]

'fidei

mei' AB.

Possi-

not given in the midst of the as the Greek version implies, and as the writer of the Thuburbitan Acts (see above, p. 25) makes
his martyrs give
it.

bly, following the
fidei et mei,'

Greek, we should read

94

PASSIO

S.

PERPETVAE.

derat, prior reddidit spiritum

ferrum receperunt: multo magis Saturus, qui et prior ascennain et Perpetuam sustinebat.
;

5

Perpetua autem, ut aliquid doloris gustaret, inter ossa conpuneta exululauit; et errantem dexteram tirunculi gladiatoris ipsa in iugulum suum transtulit. fortasse tanta femina aliter non potuisset occidi, quae ab inmimdo spiritu timebatur, nisi
ipsa uoluisset.
fortissimi ac beatissimi martyres
!

o uere uocati et electi

in gloriam Domini nostri lesu Christi ; quam qui magnificat et 10 honorificat et adorat, utique et haec non minora ueteribus exT

15

empla in aedificationem Ecclesiae legere debet, ut nouae quoque uirtutes unum et eundem semper Spiritum Sanctum usque adhuc operari testificentur, [et] omnipotentem Deum Patrem et Filium eius lesum Christum Dominum nostrum, cui est clariamen. tas et inmensa potestas in saecula saeculorum.
1 prior]

+ scalam BC

2 reddendo

BC

Perpetuam] perpetua
3 ut] + ipsaB

A

;

perpe-

tuum B
quostas

sustinebat] exspectabat

BC

B conpuncta] eonpune (sic) A ; puncta B 5 transtulit] posuit B 6 quae] fortasse] + enim B aliter] alibi B 9 quam] A ; quoniam C ; om. B 8 uere] uiri B 9, 10 que B ; qui A 10 adorat] honorat sanctos BC om. et honorificat C utique] + habebit (-bat
B
B) uitam aeternam
aedificatione

gustasset inter 4 gladiatoris trunculi

BC

non minora] nomina

A

;

minora

BC
ut]

11 am. in

B

A

legere] lege

B

debet] deberaus

BC
;

B

;

et

13 testificentur, et] Hoist. testificemur noua quoque uirtutis B 13, 14 ad hoc credamus operari, ut testificetur omnipotentis Dei et filii eius lesu Christi

A A

11, 12

Domini

nostri gloria

BC

cuius claritas in saecula saeculorum.AMEN.

B
O-UK

8 uocati et

electi]

See above, p. 50.

should be noted that the MS.has

taw,
'

10 non minora] The evidence of the MSS. seems to point to this rather than to 'non minus' which Holsten edited.

which

may have come from minora
'

(BC). 13 testificentur, et]
'

I

have inserted

The

has the support of the Greek as amended by Mr Harris but it
latter reading
:

et'

is

but the whole passage very corrupt in the MSS.

with Holsten

:

PASSIO
,

S.

PERPETVAE.
Keiwr}V dvaftds, 05 /cal Se TLepTrerova, iva /cal

95

o

ST)

7T/ooT6j009

Trjv

K\ijjuaKa
77

7rei(rev rrjv

HepTrerovav dva/Salveiv.

avrrj yevo-Tjrai,

rwv

TTOVQJV, Trepl

rd ocrrea vvyeicra rj\d\a%ev, KOI
iVw?
rrjv

jre7r\avr)iji.v'r]v Trjv

Beidv

aTrelpov fJ^ovof^d^ov Kparrjaacra irpo<r'

rfyayev

rf)

Kara/cXeiSi, eavrfjs

Toaavr^v yvvaifca rov
<j)oi>ev0fjvat,
/jur]

5

dicaOdpTov Trvev /iaro?
pevov.

(j)o/3ovjj,evov

KOI

ySouXo-

'fl dvSpiwrarot /cal fjuaKapiooTaroi fj,dprvp<> /cal crrpartcoTai K\KTol, 6t9 S6$;aV KfptOU 'l7/(7o{) XpMTTOV KK\rjfieVOl, TTCO?

fj>eya\vvcofj,ev

vfjias
r

rj

/jLaKapicrco/iiev,

fyevvaiorarot arpartwrai

;

10

ricraov

T&V rra\aiwv
r)

ypa(j)cov,
i

a
5 /

&.X.V.IVP.'c. * * ot cay oo^av
ftovoyevGL

rravdpro<; iro\iTeia r<Sv

trarpl

TWV alwvwv,

a/j,a

TW

avrov
oS 77

vlq>

rw

/cvpiy

rjf

Xpi<rTQ) Toi)9 attorn? TWV

cri)y

a^tw

Trvevpan'

Sd^a

/cal

TO /cparo? et?

15

2

%<j>T)<rev

4

ireTr\avrifji.4j>'rj

5 roO]

ujri

11 ofe

J'trov

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
A and B

1.

Variants of

not included in the apparatus criticus.

A 10 queque A 7 present! A 11 saecundum A A 15 9 estimet A 62,8 Ibeccillitas A disperatio A 18 cathecumini A 22 aequae A martiribus A cathecuminum A; 22 uberam B caticuminum B 26 inquid B 27 patrum B afectione A michi A 11 recipimus B 9 spacio A 12 die B 64,4 michi A 13 benefitio B 5 que B 9 mire AB 66,4 postule A premio A 10 possim B 11 scale B 14 inhererent AB celum B 15 mire B 3 orti immensum A (sed cum 19 scale B 16 satyrus B 68,1 lentae A 5 adspexit B 4 habito B 6 michi B notis transpositionis) 9 11 seculum B cummanducans B 14 tedio AB 17 etatis expta sum AB 3 confor|fortaui A B 7 pranderemur A 70,2 gauissus B 16 helarius A 15 infantie B 21 dampnat B 9 inmensus B 72,7 8 commemerata A 9 cepi B 11 dignigratem B miehi B 12 14 fatie B facie A 15 per infirmitate B estuantem A dinogratis B liodio (cor? in hodie) A ominibus 16 facie carcerata A cancerata fatie B 20 alcorem B 21 dinogratis B 23 exporrecta A 17 facerem B 26 crastensem A 4 dino74,3 man mansimus A A; expta B 9 dinogratis B 7 umbiculum B cepit AB 9,10 defigratem B 12 pena A 13 mills B 11 exporecta A expta B obtio A tiebat B 19 fatiem B 20 que B 14 cepit B 17 tedio AB cepit B 6 amphiteatrum A amfiteatrum B 7 cumlaborabo B 76,2 apperui B fedus spetiae B 13 ceperunt B 14 egyptium 10 egiptius A 8 aspitio B mire B 16 anpitheatri A anfiteatri B AB 15 uoluntatem A fatiem B cedebam AB 20 egiptius A egyptius B 78,1 cepimus B 6 cepit AB cedere B 5 apprehendi A 8 gloriam B 3 cepi B 14 inquid B 15 cepimus B 13 satyrus B 18 9 exjata AB 23 cipressi A 21 spacium grande A 20 iestamur B inmensam B 12 edificati A edificate B 12,13 quatuor B 80,8 querebamus AB 21 fatiem B 20 suleuauerunt A 17 dextera B 82,6 cepit B grece A 15 exgtus B 16 martirum A 13 cepimus B 9 discensiones B 7 rose B 12 que B 17 permijtendo A 6 sotiam AB 84,5,6 cornmartires A 24 fatiem B 21 aditientes B 86,2 cassaris A 18,19 ad sublimdu.tante B 6 obtione A 5 frerit A credentem A tribunes B 3 orruit A 11 dicentes adtyro B 13 hodistis AB 10 iuditium B 9 constantiam B 16 illuxit A uictorie AB 17 amphitea15 antoniti B faties B
60,5 aequae

14

tilieque

;

1

;

,

;

;

j

;

;

ADDITIOJSTAL NOTES.
trum

97
reciarium

AB

celum

B

88,3 obsetriee

A
B

A

loturam

11 egyptii A 22 expectaculi

B
9

14 ceperunt B 23 pulpetuin B
4 bestiam

20 martini
90,1

A satyrus B
7 satyrus

21 uellere obici

B B

nichilA

2 preinlesus

sumebat A 8 baecam A

A

13

ite

B

A preparauit AB reuocate AB
21,

5 satyrus

B

AB

10 emulatus

AB
(?)

19 helisam

A

;

dispoliate elisan B

A
20

11 orruit

ambe AB

B 24 cepit B cuminum B 9 morsi B
reuocate

22 cathecumino

A

;

caticumina

B

22

adherebat

AB
cati-

inquid
6

B satyrus B

A aliam portam A
25 baecam

92,3

cathecuminum

A

;

7 presumpsi

AB

8 predixi

A

15 hec B 10 in finem expectaculi B 14 pudendi B 23 immobiles B 22 solempnia B 18 examines A 16, 17 ereditatem A 11 10 hec B 5 gugullum B 6 immundo B 94,1 satyrus B
edificationem

B

2.

Note on Retranslations from a Latin Version of the Vienn. et Lugd. apud Euseb. H. E. v. 1.

jV.

T.

in Ep.

The direct quotations in this letter give us but little guidance as to the character of the text of the N.T. used at this time in the Churches of Gaul :
but the language of the writer is everywhere interwoven with Scriptural reminiscences, and in these he seems to betray a greater familiarity with a Latin Version than with the original Greek. In the following investigation T
shall take the passages which suggest this phenomenon in their order, giving references to the sections in Heinichen's edition.
1.

fievas Kokacreis (frofBovp.evoii
ftedioTes.

12 p,eyd\a>s eVrojj^/iei/ 8ia TO a8ij\ov TTJS 6p,o\oyias, ov Tag eirtfpepoaXXa TO reXoy d<popvTes Kal TO aTTOTrecreiv TIVO.

This

may

contain a retranslation of 'intuentes exitum'
xiii. 7.

(

= dva0ea>-

povvres T^V ex/Saatv) Heb.

2. 17 Si' rjs eVeSei^ev 6 xpioros on ra Trap' dvdpcoirois evreXij Kal deidrj Kal evKO.Ta(f)p6v7)Ta (paivopeva p,eyd\tjs KaTa^iovTCti Trapd dea> dotjrjs- Several passages seem partially interwoven here, but we may perhaps find a reference

especially to 1 Cor. i. 28 TO. dyevr) TOV KOO-(J.OV KCU TO. eovdevr)neva e^eXe^aro o debs K.T.X. ; and in this case we have a retranslation based upon 'ignobilia

mundi

et contemptibilia eligit Deus.
da-devrjs

3

Cf. infra

42

77

fiiKpa

KO.\

do-Qevi]s Kal

fvKaTa<pp6vT)Tos, where
S. Paul.
3.

takes us back to the same context in

17 dia

TTJV TTpos

avTov

dyaTrrjVj TTJV ev 8vvdp.fi bfiKvvp.vr)v Kal

p.rj

ev e'idei

19 yvuo-opai ov TOV yov Toav ire<pv(ricopevtav aXXa TTJV 8vvap.iv, together with 2 Cor. V. 12 Trpbs TOVS eV 7rpo<r<07r(p Here ev Trpoo-coTra) reappears as ev e'idei through Kavxa>p.evovs Kal p.r/ ev Kapdia.
Kav%oi>iJ.evT)v.

This recalls

1 Cor. iv.

the

medium
4.

of the Latin 'qui in facie gloriantur.'
TJJS

18

have to thank
instance called
'

Mr

my

See note on p. 73 above. I a-apKivrjs dfo-iroivrjs avTTjs. P. M. Barnard of Christ's College for having in the first attention to the fact that this was a retranslation of

carnalis,'

and

also for help in the further investigation of the subject.

E.

7

98
5.

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
18
fjLTjO'ev

e\ovTes iiyneTi o ironjcrovcriv

avrfj.

Cf.

21

firjKeTi

4 the Vtllg. translation of Kal TO.VTO. fj.T) exovT<av -irepuro-oTtpov n iroirjo-ai is 'et post haec non habent amplius quid faciant.' Cod. Bez. has 'nequa habentium amplius quid facere'; Cod.
eiXov o Tronjtrovo-iv avra.
xii.

In Luc.

have replaced

facere.' MrjKen appears to through the medium of 'amplius.' 6. 22 VTTO TTJS ovpavtov irrjy^s TOV vdaros TTJS <af)S TOV e^iovTos en TTJS This is based on VT)o~vos TOV xpia-Tov 8po(n^6[j.evos Kal ev8vvafji.ovfj.evos. Apoc. XXI. 6 eyes r<5 di^mvri 8&>cra> eK TTJS Trrj-yfjs TOV vdaTOs TTJS a>f]S dapeav, and Jll. vii. 37, 38 eav TIS 8i^fj ep^eV^o) irpos p.e Kal mveTto. 6 -rruTTevcov els ep,f,

Palat.

(e),

'et postea

non habet amplius aliquid

irepio-o-oTepov

Kadats eiTrev

rf

ypa(pij }

iroTaftol

CK TTJS KoiXias OVTOV pevo-ovo~iv vdaTos

^avros.

The

interpretation of this latter passage has been disputed, partly owing to the difficulty of connecting the words as they are ordinarily punctuated with any 'Scripture'" of the 0. T. This difficulty is somewhat lessened if we to refer the words en

and so leave it open This interpretation, whatever be its merits or defects, was undoubtedly the one familiar to our writer who represents 'de uentre eius of the Latin Version by eK TT)S vrfSvos
connect o
iriorevcov els efie
TTJS
Trti/e'rco,

with the previous word

Koikias avTov to Christ Himself.

'

TOV xpioroO. And the same interpretation the Old Latin. Cod. Bez. reads

is

suggested by the colometry of

dicens

si

quis

sitit

ueniant

et bibat qui credit in me sicut dixit scriptura. flumina dentre

eius fluent

aquae uiuae.

Cod. Palat.

(e)

reads likewise
si quis sitit ueniat et bibat

qui credit in me.
Sicut scriptum est flumina de

uentre eius
fluent aquae

Vibae.

Thus the use

of this passage

by our writer has a threefold

interest.

It

suggests that he was more familiar with a Latin Version than with the original Greek of S. John's Gospel, so that in retranslating 'de uentre' he it indicates that the misses eVc TTJS Koi\ias and substitutes eK TTJS vrjbvos
:

Version he used was that which we speak of as the Old Latin
very early authority for

it gives discarded generally Mr F. C. Burkitt of Trinity points out to me that this (see Westcott ad loc.\ interpretation is suggested by the quotation of the passage in the Speculum (Corp. Script. Eccl. Lat. xn. p. 700) after Jerem. ii. 13 ff., the section being
:

and

an interpretation which

is

now

entitled

'

Quod Dominus

foils

uitae nuncupetur.'

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
7.

99

27 erepas

fj.r)%avas

6 Std/SoXos eTrevoei.

8slas TOV Sta/3oXou) the Vulg.

In Eph. vi. 11 (irpos TOS fiedohas 'aduersus insidias cliaboli': but Tertullian
loo.

adv. Marc. v. 18 has 'ad naachinationes diaboli,'

true restoration of Arnbrosiaster in

afterwards in his

comment

and this must point to the 'aduersus nation es,' especially as he speaks of 'omnia machinamenta diaboli.' 'Machi-

nationes' would naturally reproduce itself as fj.Tjxa.vds. 30 os VTTO T>V CTTpaTitoTaiv em TO J3r)(j,a KOfiHr5et?...eVtj8o7j(T6is Ttavroias 8.

as O.VTOV OVTOS TOV XpioroO, direo'io'ov TT\V KaXrjv papTvpiav. The writer clearly has 1 Tim. vi. 13 in his mind, XpioroO 'irjo-ov TOV papTvprja-avros eVi Uovriov IleiXarou TTJV KaXf/v 6fio\oylav. The people cry out against Pothinus
7Toiovp.eva>v,

as though he were himself the Christ he is Christ-like at least in 'witnessing the good confession' before his judge. The Yulgate here has 'Christo Jesu
:

qui testimonium reddidit sub Pontio Pilato bonam confessionem.' (De Praescr. 25) and Ambrosiaster (ad loc.} give testatus est
'

Tertullian
'

(Tert. v.

1.

but the Vulgate rendering has a flavour of antiquity about it. 40 O.VTOI deafia yiv6[j.evoi (v.l. yevofievoi) r<a 007*0). Cf. 1 Cor. iv. 9 OTI 9. Here dea/j.a represents the Latin spectaculum.' Qearpov eyevrjQripev TW Koo-jua. 48 /j.T]8e a'io~drj(Tiv evdvpaTos vvpfptKOv. Cf. Mt. xxii. 12 OVK ev8e8v10.
'testificatus')
:

'

(levov evdvfjta ydpov.

The word
(see

vvp.<piK.os

to the

commentators

Heinichen ad

loc. vol.

in this place has caused much trouble 7 in. pp. 183 fi .). It is however
'

a retranslation of the Latin, which reads ' uon uestitum ueste nuptiali (uestimentum nuptiale e). Cf. infra 55 s els wfKpiifbv bemvov KeK\rjfj.evr}, with Apoc. six. 9 els TO beiirvov TOV ydpov TOV dpviov (cenam nuptiarum).
11. 58 6 avop.os dvofj,7)o-aTa> <=TI, Koi 6 dlxaois 8iK<ua>dqT(a eTi. Hei'e we have a direct qxiotation of Apoc. xxii. 11, introduced by the words Iva ypa<prj The original Greek text is 6 ddiKmv aSiKJjo-cirw ert, KOI o pvnapbs
r\

en, KOI 6 8i<aios diKcuo<rvvrjv
'

Troirjo-aTfo

en.

Our writer

therefore

quotes from memory, and his recollection seems here again to be of the Latin Version. The Vulgate has qui nocet noceat adhuc, et qui in sordibus est sordescat adhuc, et qui iustus est iustificetur adhuc.' But Tichonius ad loc. f (Horn. 19) gives qui iniustus est iniusta faciat adhuc.' And Primasius ad loc.
qui iniustus est, ait, iniuste faciat ad/mc. ' "Avopos then seems to be a retranslation of iniustus,' and possibly SiKauodJTa> which however there is some slight Greek evidence) rnay have come from (for
:

also says

'nam

et alia translatio

J

'

iustificetur.'

5 e\vov airavras, e8eo~[J.evov 8e ovdeva' KCU virep r>v TO. 8eivd We have here a clear reference to the power of ' binding and loosing' spoken of in Mt. xvi. 19, xviii. 18; but 8e<a is the word in either case, and not Secr/zeiJo), which may be explained as a retranslation of the Latin
12.
c.

2

8ta.Ti6evTO)v TJVXOVTO.

'ligare.'

The second

clause

may

refer to Luc.
is
'

vi.

28

Trpoo-eu^eo-^e Trepl T<OV
'

f7TT]pfa6vTa>v vp.as.

Here the Latin

orate pro calumniantibus uos

(orate

qui uobis iniuria faciunt e). By adhering to the order of the narrative I have necessarily placed some of the less convincing examples first but I think that a fair case is made out on the whole for believing that the Gallican Churches were familiar with a

pro

eis

;

72

100
Latin Version of the

ADDITIONAL NOTES.

New Testament and
:

examples

(6), (7)

and

(11) connect

that Version with what

is

commonly known

as the African Old Latin.

3.

Note on

the

reading of the text in

c.

xvi. (p. 84,

II.

18 ff.).

Holsten edited in this passage
This

and
'

ad supplementum tantae gloriae describendum.' unsatisfactory, not only because it twice deserts his own MS. the other two, but also because it does not yield the required sense.
'

etsi indigni
is

Gloria refers to the

;

martyrs and their

visions.

awkward
is

collocation.

itself and not to the imprisonment of the So that 'supplementum tantae gloriae' is an What is left unfinished and needs completion is not the

martyrdom

martyrdom but
the aid of

its record.

'

To complete the
I
'

description of this great glory
'

'

the task before the writer.

have therefore restored
J

describendae
' '

'

by

B
'

;

and

this is not far
:

may

perhaps be right
'

from describenti of A. the Greek seems to confirm it.

A

Indigni (Hoist.) reads ' indigna,'
'

B

indigne ; and this latter gives a fair sense ' scribi or with exequimur.'
'

when taken

either with

con-

In the next sentence (1. 22) I have retained the reading of A, merely changing 'tractanti' into 'tractantur' (Hoist, 'tractarentur'). But the coincidence of BCg in the participial form makes me somewhat uncertain whether we have yet recovered the true reading of this passage.
Shorter Latin Acts of the Passion of S. Perpetua.

4.

jP/te

I reprint for the sake of reference these

dans V empire romain, 2nd

ed. pp.

521 f),

who

Acts from Aube (Les Chretiens edits them from Biblioth. Nat.

fonds latin 5269, 5279, 5297, 5311, 5318, 5349. They are given somewhat differently by Fillet (Hist, de S. Perpetue) from fonds latin 14650, and from Bruxelles 207 8 (printed in Anal. Bolland.). The MSS. of them are legion.

Facta persecutione sub Valeriano et Gallieno consulibus, comprehensi iuuenes Satyrus et Saturuinus, duo fratres, Keuocatus et Felicitas soror eius et Perpetua quae erat de nobili genere et habebat patrem anuorum enim erat ilia et niatrem et duos fratres et filium ad mamillam duorum et uiginti. apud Africam in ciuitate Tuburbitanorum. Inuictissimi principes Valerianus et Minutius proconsul dixit ad eos
stint xienerabiles uiri
:

:

GaUienus iusserunt ut
facturi, Christiani

sacrificetis.

enim sumus.

Hoc non sunaus Satyrus respondit proconsul iussit eos recludi in carcerem ;
:

siquidem hora erat prope tertia. Audiens uero pater Perpetuae earn esse comprehensam cucurrit ad carcerem, et uidens earn dixit Quid hoc fecisti, filia? dehonestasti enim genera:

tionem tuam. nunquam enim de genere nostro aliquis missus est in carcerem. Perpetua uero dixit ad eum Pater, ecce, uerbi gratia, uides uas iacens aut
:

fictile

aut cuiuslibet generis

?

et

ille

respoudit

:

Video, quid ad haec

?

Per-

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
petua dixit
respondit
:
:

101

Numquid
Non.

quam quod sum

aliud nomen potest habere quam quod est ? at ille Nee ego aliud nomen accipere possum Perpetua dixit Christiana, tune pater eius audito uerbo irruit super earn,
: ;

et exclamans, confusus, egressus est foras, Orantes uero et sine cessatione preces ad Dettm effundentes, cum essent multis diebus in carcere, quadam nocte uidens uisum sancta Perpetua alia die
retulit

nolens oculos eius eruere

commartyribus suis

ita dicens

:

Vidi in uisu hac nocte scalam ei'ectam [aeream ali{] mirabili altitudine usque ad caelum, et ita erat angusta ut nonnisi unus per earn ascendere dextra uero laeuaque inerant fixi cultri et gladii ferrei, ut nullus posset,
circa se nisi

ad caelum respicere posset,

sub ea uero iacebat latens draco

teterrimus ingenti forma, ut prae metu eius quiuis ascendere formidaret. uidi etiam ascendentem per earn Satyrum usque ad sursum, et respicientem

ad nos

et

dicentem
;

:

Ne

uereamini hunc draconem qui iacet

;

confortamini in

ascendite et nolite timere, ut mecum partem habere possitis. gratia Christi uidi etiam iuxta scalam hortum ingentem, copiosissimum et amoenum ; et in
niedio horto sedentem

senem in habitu

pastoral! et
:

mulgentem

ones, et in

gyro eius stantem multitudinem candidatorum ad se et dedit nobis omnibus de fructu lactis.

et aspiciens ad nos uocauit et cum gustassemus, turba

candidatorum responderunt Amen,
facta.

et sic prae clamore xiocum

sum

experge-

At

uero

illi

cum haec

audissent gratias agentes insufficienter

Domino

cognouerunt se ex reuelatione beatissimae Perpetuae ad martyrii coronam
dignos esse effectos. Post haec uero procedens Minutius proconsul et sedens pro tribunal! eos Sacrificate diis ; sic enim iusserunt exhiberi praecepit dixitque ad eos
:
:

Satyrus respondit Deo magis oportet sacrificare quam dixit Pro te respondes, aut pro omnibus ? Satyrus dixit idolis. proconsul Pro omnibus, una enim est in nobis uoluntas. proconsul ad Saturninurn, Keuocatum, Felicitatem et Perpetuam dixit Vos quid dicitis ? at illi responperpetui principes.
: :

:

:

derunt

gerimus uoluntatern. Proconsul iussit uiros a mulieribus separari et ad
:

Verum

est

:

unam

:

Satyrum dixit

:

Sacrifica,
:

ixuienis, et

ne te meliorem
iudico

quam

principes indices esse.

Satyrus respondit

Meliorem

me

apud uerum principem
:

et praesentis et futuri saeculi, si

colluctando pati meruero.
:

proconsul dixit Suade tibi, et sacrifica, iuuenis. Satyrus respondit Hoc ego non sum facturus. Proconsul ad Saturm'num dixit Sacrifica xxel tu, iuuenis, ut ualeas uiuere. Saturninus respondit Christianus sum, et hoc mihi facere non licet.
:
: :

Proconsul ad Keuocatum dixit Forte et tu sequeris uoluntatem illorum. Reuocatus respondit Eorum plane propter Deum sequor desideria. proconReuocatus respondit Deum orasul dixit Sacrificate ne uos interficiam. rnus ut hoc mereamur. Proconsul eos remoueri praecepit, et Felicitatem et Perpetuam sib! iussit
: :
:

offerri.

dixit

autem ad Felicitatem
:

:

Quae

cliceris
:

?

respondit

:

Felicitas.

proconsul dixit

Virum habes ?

Felicitas respondit

Habeo quern nunc

con-

102
temno.
dixit
:

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
proconsul dixit
:

Vbi

est

?

Felicitas dixit
:

:

Non

est hie.

proconsul
:

Quo genere
?

Parentes habes

Felicitas respondit Felicitas dixit Non habeo
?
:

est

:

proconsul dixit Eeuocatus uero congerinanus
Plebeius.

meus
dixit
:

est.

uerumtamen

his maiores parentes habere

non

Miserere

tui, puella, et sacrifica

ut uiuas
:

;

maxime quia

potero. proconsul te infantem in
et haec
:

utero habere uideo.

Felicitas respondit

Ego Christiana sum,
:

omnia
per-

mihi propter
tibi,

Deum

contemnere praecepta sunt.
Felicitas respondit

doleo enim de

te.

Fac

proconsul dixit quod uis ; mihi
?

Consule

enim
?

suadere non poteris. Proconsul ad Perpetuam dixit
perpetua.

:

Quid

dicis,

Perpetua

sacrificas

Per-

petua, Christiana, inquit, sum, et nominis mei sequor auctoritatem, ut sim

proconsul dixit Parentes habes ? Perpetua respondit Habeo. Audientes uero parentes eius pater, mater, fratres, et maritus simulque cum paruulo eius qui erat ad lac, uenerunt, cum essent de nobili genere. et uidens earn pater eius stantem ante proconsulis tribunal, cadens in faciem
:
:

suam

dixit

ad earn

:

Filia.,

iam non

filia
;

sed domina, miserere aetati

meae

miserere et matris tuae, quae te ad patris talem florem aetatis perduxit, miserere et fratribus tuis, et huic infelicissimo uiro tuo, certe uel paruulo huic qui post te uiuere non poterit. depone hanc
tui, si

tamen mereor

dici pater

cogitationem tuam.

nemo enim nostrum
:

post te uiuere poterit, quia hoc

generi meo nunquam contigit. Perpetua uero stabat immobilis, et respiciens in caelum dixit ad patrem suum Pater, noli uereri Perpetuam enim filiam
:

tuam,

si

non

obstiteris,
:

Proconsul dixit

perpetuam Moueant te et

filiam

possidebis. excitent ad dolorem lacrymae
:

tuam

parentum

tuorum, praeterea uoces paruuli tui. Perpetua dixit Mouebunt me lacrymae eorum, si a conspectu Domini et a consortio horum sanctorum, cum quibus secundum uisionem meam fratribus bonis sum copulata, fuero aliena inuenta. Pater uero iactans infantem in collum eius et ipse cum rnatre et marito
tenentes
et

manus
dixit:

eius et flentes osculabantur dicentes at ilia prospiciens \u.
I.

:

uiue nobiscum.

proiciens]

Miserere nostri, filia, infantem eosque

repellens

Recedite

a

me

operarii

iniquitatis,

quia non noui uos.
qui

non enim potero maiores

et meliores uos facere
est.

quam Deiim

me ad

hanc

gloriam perducere dignatus Videns uero proconsul eorum perseuerantiam, data sententia Satyrum, Saturninum et Eeuocatum flagellis caesos, et Perpetuam et Felicitatem
exalapatas, in carcerem recipi praecepit, ut in Caesaris natale bestiis mitterentur. et cum essent in carcere iterum uidit uisionem Perpetua Aegyptium
:

quemdam horridum
eorum;

et nigrum, iacentem et uolutantem se sub pedibus sanctis fratribus et commartyribus suis. at illi intelliretulitque

gentes gratias egerunt Domino, qui, prostrate inimico generis humani, eos laude martyrii dignos habuerit. Contristantibus uero iis de Felicitate quod esset praegnans in mensibus
octo, statuerunt

unanimiter pro ea precem ad

Dominum

fundere.

et

dum
:

orarent, subito enixa est uiuum. quidam uero de custodibus dixit ad earn factura es cum ueneris in amphitheatrum, quae talibus detineris Quid

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
tormentis?
patietur.
Felicitas respondit:

103
ibi

Hie ego orucior;

uero pro rneDominus

Facto itaque die natali Caesaris, concursus ingens fiebat populi in amphitheatrum ad spectaculum eorum. procedente uero proconsule, eos ad

amphitheatrum perduci praecepit. euntibus uero eis sequebatur Felicitas, quae ex sanguine carnis ad salutem sanguinis [u.l. salutis sanguinem] ducebatur, et de obstetrice ad gladium, et de lauatione post partum balnei
sanguinis eSusione meruit delauari [u.l. relauari]. adclamante uero turba, positi sunt in medio amphitheatri nudi, ligatis post tergum manibus; et dimissis bestiis diuersis, Satyrus et Perpetua a leonibus sunt deuorati.

Saturninus uero ab ursis erutus gladio est percussus. Felicitas a leopardis gloriosum agonem impleuerunt.

Reuocatus uero et

Horum
in ciuitate

fratres, qui passi

ergo famosissimorum et beatissimortim Martyrum, sanctissimi sunt sub Valeriano et Gallieno imperatoribus apud African!

Tuburbitanorum sub Minutio proconsule die nonarum Martiarum, memoriis communicantes actus eorum in ecclesia ad edificationem legite, precantes Dei misericordiam ut orationibus eoruin et omnium sanctorum nostri misereatur, atque participes eorum efficere dignetur, in gloriam et laudem nominis sui, quod est benedictum in saecula saeculorum. amen.
fideliter

APPENDIX
THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS
THE ORIGINAL LATIN TEXT
TOGETHER WITH

THE GREEK VERSION AND THE LATER LATIN
RECENSIONS

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
THE
Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs were printed by Baronius under the year 202, apparently from two or three MSS., some of the

readings of which he records. They were reprinted by Ruinart who added a somewhat different recension from a Colbertine MS.,

and also a fragment of about ten lines of yet another recension which Mabillon had found at Reichenau (Mab. Vet. Anal. IV. 155). The recension of Baronius mentioned Severus and Antoninus as the reigning Emperors, and the Colbertine recen(i.e. Caracalla) sion also spoke of more than one Emperor, though no names were This being so, it seemed that the Martyrdom could not be given. referred to an earlier date than the year 198, in which Caracalla received the title of Augustus. On the other hand Mabillon's of one Emperor only, but did not mention his fragment spoke name. The three recensions agreed in naming Saturninus as the proconsul; and, as Tertullian tells us (Ad Scap. 3) that he was the first to draw the sword on the Christians in Africa, it was
difficult to place

the Martyrdom later than 200.

of the Consuls only introduced fresh confusion, as were given in so corrupt a form that it seemed hopeless to they
try

The names

and identify them.

Mabillon gave

:

Praesidente bis Claudiano

consule.

Claudio

Baronius: Esdstente (alias praestante; alias praesente) The Colbertine recension (alias Claudiano) consule.

omitted them altogether. M. Leon Renier suspected that the word bis pointed to a Consul's name underlying the preceding word, and wished to refer the Martyrdom to 180, Praesens II. and This earlier date harmonised much better with Condianus. Tertullian 's notice of Saturninus, but it was only possible to

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLTTAN MARTYRS.
accept
it if

107

Mabillon's fragment were regarded as representing the

more original form of the Martyrdom. The ingenious conjecture of M. Renier has been completely In 1881 Usener justified with the accession of fresh documents. the Martyrdom in a Greek form from a MS., dated 890, published
This opened with the in the Bibliotheque National e at Paris names of two Consuls, though still in a corrupt form (e-Trt Tiepcravro9 TO Sevrepov Kctl KXavSmi/ov rSv inrdrwv}, and spoke through.

1

out the piece of the Emperor in the singular number. Moreover it represented a shorter recension than either that of Baronius or

the Colbertine, and
originality.

it

bore throughout an impress of greater

All difficulty as to the date was thus at an end; but a new controversy was raised as to the origin of the Greek form of the

Martyrdom. Usener at once declared it to be a translation from a lost Latin original. In this he was followed by Hilgenfeld, who added that it bore a closer relation to the fragment of Mabillon than to the other recensions. Duchesne made a like observation, but gave no opinion on the question of a Greek or Latin original.

On the other hand, Aube contended that the original document was written in Greek, as he had himself suspected before Usener's 2 Bonnet and Sittl pronounced the discovery was made known 3 same judgment
.

.

After examining Aube's arguments

I

felt

convinced

that

Usener's decision was the correct one; and I believed moreover that if we had the whole of the document represented by Mabillon's fragment we should probably be in possession of the source
of all the three recensions hitherto published. I have been confirmed in this view by the discovery of the very document which I

have at

find and I now publish it in the belief that we the original Latin form of the Martyrdom. On the of August, 1890, 1 found in the British Museum a codex (No. 30th

had desired to
last

;

11,880) assigned to the ninth century, containing the Scillitan Martyrdom in a form agreeing exactly with Mabillon's fragment, as far as that fragment goes. The remainder of the piece, for
1

2 3

Index Scholarum, &c. Bonn, 1881. Etude sur un nouveau texte des Actes des Martyrs Sittl, Local peculiarities of Latin, p. 112.

Scillitains, Paris, 1881,

108
here

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

we have it in its entirety, will be read with the greatest interest, not only as a fresh contribution to our knowledge of

popular African Latin of the second century, but also as a simple and inspiring narrative of the brave endurance of the early African
Christians.

understand that
difficult

It is brief, almost to obscurity; and we can readily it would need to be paraphrased and enlarged for

Church purposes,
contents
it is,

so as to provide a

lection for the

somewhat longer and less commemoration of the Martyrs. In its

might be expected, in closest correspondence with the Greek form and we may pronounce over it at once the same eulogy with which Aube greeted the appearance of the Greek itself: 'c'est infmiment plus simple, plus grave, plus impersonnel
as
:

et plus court

que

les autres textes.'

my first discovery I found in the State Library at ^Ivreux a 13th century MS. (No. 37, f. 55), and in the HofBibliothek at Vienna (No. 377) an llth century MS., of the same
Shortly after
Passion.

Both

of these offer texts

which correspond very

closely

Museum. Their modifications consist almost entirely of additions; and they help to restore a few passages where the earlier MS. is at fault. I have recorded
to that of the

MS.

in the British

their variants in the critical notes, but I have adopted none of them into the text, unless they were justified by the other recensions.

I have collated afresh the Paris Codex of the Greek version, and have printed it without modification as it stands in the MS. I have also reprinted for the sake of reference the Latin recension given by Baronius, and that from the MS. of the Abbey of Silos in

Spain (Bibliotheque Na,t.,fonds latin n. a. 2179) as given in Aube's edition. This MS. gives an earlier form of the Colbertine recension, which comes from/ends latin 5306 ('olim Colbertinus'). In the
critical notes
cent.),

A = Brit.

Vienna 377 (llth

and

C = Evreux

Mus. 11,880 (9th cent), no. 37 (13th cent.).

B=

compare the newly found Latin text with the Greek, we note that it does not, like that and one of the Latin recensions, prefix the title of Saint' to each of the Martyrs whose words are recorded. It does not describe the exultation of Speratus when judgment is pronounced, but simply records his words
'

When we

:

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
'

109

gratias agimus.' Similarly it does not give the full thanksof all the Martyrs, but simply repeats Deo gratias.' It giving
' :

Deo

says nothing about 'sending up the Amen,' which is a commonThe close of the piece, moreover, has place of Martyrologists. been altered and expanded in the Greek, in which the locality of

the Martyrs is named, and the exquisite phrase 'regnant cum Patre et Filio et Spiritu Sancto' has been rejected, as it has been also in both the recensions of the Latin. All these points may be

regarded as evidence of the superior antiquity of the newly found Latin form.

two Latin recensions hitherto as printed below, where their and modifications will be found in italic type. But interpolations it is worth while to note that almost every word of the ancient form is preserved in one or other of these recensions, which have
regards
its

As

relation to the
to refer to

known,

it is sufficient

them

modified their original in different directions. Although it is scarcely probable that the theory of a Greek original will be revived after the publication of the present Latin
text, it

may be

well to examine

some of the arguments by which

the theory has been supported. Aube's main argument is founded on the brevity of the Greek form as compared with the two Latin recensions. But

our new Latin document is shorter still: so that the argument from brevity changes hands, and henceforth tends to shew that the Greek is itself a translation and to some extent an amplification. The two texts printed side by side below will speak for
themselves in this matter
:

but we

may

select a

few conspicuous

examples. In the opening sentence, and again near the close, we have the additional date oirep ea-rlv 'Iov\ia) t^', to explain to Greek
readers
'

xvi Kalendas Augustas.'

In the following sentence /ea^eS? Se%0eWe9, which Aube rightly disliked and which he wished to replace by /ca/ccw? Xe^#ez>Te<? or
a/cc3?

a

literal

SuoxQevres, explains itself quite well when we regard it as The same remark will translation of 'male accepti.'
ryakirjviQMTas as
110

apply to

a translation of

'

tranquillas.'
rjfjLerepwv

There can be

doubt that in the phrase Kara rwv

iepewv, either the translator or a copyist (as

Aube

supposes) has

110

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

blundered in putting iepe&v for iepwv. We now see that the Latin before him was de sacris (not sacrificiis ') nostris.'
'

'

The word inQavorT]^ need no longer cause us we regard it as a poor equivalent of persuasio.'
'

trouble,

when

We

have good instances of paraphrase or amplification in the
:

following

Nolite huius deruentiae esse participes.

Miy ^ovXrjdrjre

rfjs

roiavrr^s
rj

pavias

KOI Trapa(f)po(ruvT]s yevea-Qat

In re tarn iusta
ratio.

uiilla est clelibe-

'Ev irpaypaTi ovrcas e-ynpiTta ovSefiia Ka$urrarcu jSouA?) r) Siao-Ke^ts.
'OTroZai

Quae sunt

res in capsa uestra

?

Trpay^aTetat

TOIS

i5/ierepois

referred to,

modification of the close of the piece has already been and deserves particular attention. It is impossible to believe that there, any more than in the passages just quoted, the

The

Latin text could have been produced by an abbreviation of the Greek.
curious phrase iniquitati nullam operam praebuimus' has no counterpart at all in the Greek but any one who attempts to find a rendering for it will pardon the Greek translator, if he
:

The

'

used the licence of a paraphrast and purposely omitted

it.

If

this explanation of its absence be admitted, the flourish of amplification, of which Aube justly complained at this point in the later

Latin recensions, can no longer be alleged in favour of the originality of the Greek.

The main body

therefore of Aube's

argument
is

is

seen to have

the argument from disappeared altogether. the names of the Consuls, and the argument from the proclamation of the herald after sentence had been pronounced.
All that remains

With regard to the first of these we now read by the aid of the Vienna MS., 'Praesente bis et Claudiano consulibus'; so that here we have a form obviously more correct than that in the
Greek, which has hitherto been the nearest to the truth. The explanation of the mistake in the various Latin texts is not far to
seek
ciple
itself
;

'

Praesente
it

and so

was taken, at a very early period, as a partithrew the whole sentence out of gear. It was
' '

'

transformed into

praesidente/

praestante,'

and existente

'

'
:

THE ACTS OP THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
it

Ill

soon cast out the 'bis'; and, when only one proper name was consule took the place of consulibus,' and so the error was left, complete. In the Greek the corruption was of a different cha'
'
'

racter,

As
I

and only affected the spelling of the first Consul's name. to the second Consul, all our witnesses give Claudiano,' and
'

have accordingly printed this, and not Condiano,' in the text. With reference to the order given to the herald, the Colbertine

'

recension reads
reading.

The

per praeconem duci iussit,' a quite impossible Greek gives Sea rov Krjpvicos ra ra>v dyicov fjuiprvpcw
it is

'

ovofjbara fcrjpv-^drjvat Trpocrera^ev.

sense
'

:

but we now see that

This no doubt gave the true a somewhat clumsy paraphrase

of per praeconem

did

iussit.'

Among the names thus proclaimed by the herald we find in the Greek }Lai\e<TTlvov (cod. KeXeo-rtvoy), which answers to
texts. Aube supposes, at the sug' of Renan, that Laetantium arose from a division of the gestion Greek KaiXea-rivov into KOI and \eartvov, the copula being then dropped because the other names in the list were without it.

'Laetantium' in the Latin

'

This
it

is

ingenious.

The new Latin

text leaves the matter where

was: but I cannot think that so precarious an argument can have any force, when it stands absolutely alone.

112

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYKS.

PASSIO SANCTOEVM SCILITANORVM.
Praesente bis et Claudiano consulibus, xvi Kalendas Augusin secretario inpositis Sperato, Nartzalo et tas, Kartagine
Potestis indulgentiam domni ad boiiam mentem redeatis.
Cittino, Donata, Secunda. Vestia, Saturniuus proconsul dixit nostri irnperatoris promereri, si
:

5

Speratus dixit

:

Numquam
;

operam praebuimus
Saturninus
10

numquam

malefecimus, iniquitati nullam malediximus, sed male accepti

gratias egimus; propter
est

simplex
tri

quod imperatorem nostrum obseruamus. Et nos religiosi sumus, et proconsul dixit et iuramus per genium domni nosreligio nostra,
:

imperatoris, et pro salute eius supplicamus, quoque facere debetis.

quod

et uos

Speratus dixit

:

Si tranquillas praebueris aures tuas, dico
Initianti tibi

mysterium
15

simplicitatis.
:

Saturninus dixit

non praebebo
toris.

;

seel

potius iura per

mala de sacris nostris aures genium domni nostri impera;

Speratus dixit Ego imperium huius seculi non cognosce sed magis illi Deo seruio, quern nemo hominum uidit nee uidere furtum non feci sed siquid emero teloneum 20 his oculis potest.
:

;

reddo

:

quia cognosce

domnum meum, regem regum

et impera-

torem omnium gentium.
PASSIO SCILLITANOBVM. C; INCIPIT PASSIO SANCTOEVM
ID EST SPEHATI, NAZARI, CITTONI, DONATAE, BISTEAE. B
1

MAKTYKVM SCYLLITANOEVM,
presidente bis

Praesente bis et Claudiano consulibus] B; In diebus

illis

2 Cartigine B; aput Claudiano consule A; Presente Claudiano consule C Nartzalo et Cittino] A; et Naharo, Cittono B; Narcallo Kartaginem C 4 domini 3 Bistea B et Bestia C Saturinus B semper Cithino C
;

B

7 prebemus A; prohibuimus B 8 obseruamus] + et timemus et adoramus et ipsi cotidie sacrificium nostrae laudis 10 nostra religio B offerimus BC genium] C ingenium A regnum B

5 C quam] numquid B
;

dnl

redeatis]

+ et

sacrificetis diis

omnipotentibus

BC

6

num-

nullam] ullam

C

.

;

;

domini, om. nostri 13 dicit A

B

11 eius salute
15 initianti]

A

om. quod
;

B B
;

A super rasuram
C

initiant

12 om. quoque BC iniciasti, om. tibi C

mala] male

C

ingenium

A

aures] + nieas om, domni nostri

BC

16 sed potius iura] A; potius iurate BC 18 agnosco A 19 deo seruio] A ;

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

113

MAPTYPION TOY AHOY

KAI

KAAAINIKOY

MAPTYPOZ

ITTEPATOY.
'E?rt Tlepcravros TO Sevrepov teal

K\avSiavov rwv
i%,

VTrdrcov,

irpb

is"

Ka\avS(av avyovo-rcov OTrep earlv 'lovXtco

ev

rm Kara

KapOayevva fiovXevrrjptq) rj^Oija-av irapaa-rdo-ifioi ^Treparos Napr^aXo? Kal Kirrtz/o? Aovara "ZefcovvBa Kal 'Ecrrta, 7rpo9
ovs ^arovpvivos 6 dvOvTraros (frrjaiV
'ESi/vacr^e Trapd rov
r]fM(av 5

avTo/cpcvropos a'vy^foprja-ewf d^noOrjvai, edv apa (roippova XoytcrfMov avaica\icrr)cr6e.

'O Be
ryrfo-a[j,ev,

ayto<$

^Treparo^ aTreKpivaro

XeyaW

OuSeTrore etcaKovp/cal fca/coos

ovSeTrore /carripaa-dpeda,
6
'

d\d i*,r\v

Se^OevTes
10

ev^apio-Tov/j,ev, eVeiS?) ra> 0ea>

rj^v KCLI /SacrtXei 8ov\evo/jiev. dvdvTraros efyr) 'AX\a Kal TqjAeis dpr)<rKvofj,ev,
rov $eo~7r6rov rjp&v fiacniKerevo^ev'
o

Kara

-7-179

avfjiTrefyvKvias evBaipovias
rfjs

A,a>9 Kal VTrep
C

avrov

a-(orr)pia<f

Kal

i5/u,a9

/o^ iroiew.

15

O

Se

ay LOS ^Treparos
TO
6

etTrev'

'Eai/ <ya\r)Vi(0cras

/JLOI

r9

dvQviraro^

e(f)t]'

'^vap^af^evov (rov Trovvjpd
20

\e<yeiv

Kaid rwv

C

6fj,6<rar

ov TrpoaOrjcra)' 77 [ierepwv iepewv rds dicod^ pov Kara 7-779 evSaifiovias rov Bea-Trorov tf[j,(3v jj,d\ov

avroKpdropos,

'O ayios 27re/oaT09 \eyei' '700 rrjv jBacri\el,av rov vvv al ov rywwo-Ko}' alvw Be Kal \arpeixo rqj epm 9ew, ov ovSels r&v dvOpfoirwv reOearai' ouSe yap olovre rovrois rots alffQ^rol^ KKoirrfv ov ire'jroi'rjKa' aXX,' el' rt, Kal Trpd(ro~(o, TO TeXo9 o/j,[ji,aa-i.
dirorivvpi,, 'on
/3a<ri,\ea)v

25

eTTiyivaxTKO) rov Kvpiov

r/fjioov

Kal fiacri\ea rwv

Kal SeffTrorfiv irdvrwv r&v edv&v.

soli seruio

deo

B

;

seruio

C

20 oculis] + carnalibus

BC

potest] + nisi oculis

cordis: si fidem

naq
21

B

;

habuerimus uidebimns (uidemus C) lumen uerum nunquam C siquid emero] AC quide mei noro B

BC

non] A; theloneum BC

domnum] + deum B
et uersione

regem regum

et

Baroniano

graeca; et imperatorem regum

imperatorem] sic restitui ex cod. A super rasuram; imperatorem

regum

et

BC
8

B.

114

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
Saturninus proconsul dixit ceteris
:

Desinite huius esse per-

suasionis.

5

Speratus dixit Mala est persuasio homicidium facere, falsum testimonium dicere. Saturninus proconsul dixit: Nolite huius dementiae esse
:

participes.

Cittinus dixit
nisi

:

Nos non habemus alium queni timeamus,
qui est in
caelis.
;

domnum Deum nostrum
dixit
:

jo

Donata autem Deo.
Secunda

Honorera Caesari quasi Caesari
Christiana sum.
:

timorem

Vestia dixit

:

Quod sum, ipsud uolo esse. Saturninus proconsul Sperato dixit Perseueras Christianas ?
dixit
:

Speratus dixit
15

:

Christianus

sum
:

:

et

cum

eo

omnes con-

senserunt.

Saturninus

proconsul
?
:

dixit

Numquid ad deliberandum
nulla est deliberatio.
res in capsa uestra
iusti.
?

spatium uultis

In re tarn Speratus dixit Saturninus proconsul dixit
20

itista
:

Quae sunt
:

Speratus dixit
recordemini.

:

Libri et epistulae Pauli uiri

Saturninus proconsul dixit
Speratus iterum dixit
consenserunt.
35
1
:

Moram XXX dierum
sum
:

habete et
eo omnes

Christianus

et

cum

B
esse

Saturninus proconsul decretum ex tabella recitauit Speradixit: ceteris desiniteA; dixit: desiniteB; dixit: desine C huius] + modi 3 respondit B 1, 2 persuasionis esse C dixit] + siquidem BC
:

facere]

A;

BC 7 mus] + cotidie B

perpetrare BG Cithinus

5 huius] furoris huius et

BC

5,

6 participes

C

dicit

A

;

nostrum] + lesum Christum A caelis] + ipsum solum timemus (timere studemus C) ex toto corde nostro et ex tota anima nostra (+ Saturninus dixit C) tu quid dicis, Donata BC 10 deo] + Caesari quasi] Caesaris do C 9 respondit Donata BC 11 Bestia Saturninus dixit tuquid dicis, Bestia (Bistea B tit semper) BC respondit BC sum] + nee aliud (aliam C) me esse profiteer. Saturuinus
om. alium
:

A

respondit BC 8 om. deurn A

om. nos

A

habe-

dixit: quid tu dicis,

Seeunda

BC

uolo

C

unanimiter

BC

13 christianus] + esse BC 16 proconsul dixit]

17 uultis spatium

A
BC

bona non

est deliberatio

ipsum esse omnes] + A ; respondit BC numquid] nisi C 18 respondit C iusta uulla est commutatio A ; (Cf. Acta S. Oypriani Buin. p. 217 in re tarn iusta

12 respondit Secunda BC 14 respondit BC

nulla est consultatio)

19 om. proconsul

B

capsa]

B; causa A; ca C

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MART YES.
'

115

6 dvOvTTCtTos

efpT) 737)05 TOI)?

\ot7rou5'

OTTO T?;5

'O 07405 S7re/9oTO5
,

e^rj'

'Ei/ceivrj

earlv
rj

7ria-<j)a\r)S

iriQavo-

TO

dvBpo<j)oviav

KaTepydear0ai

tyevBofjiapTVpLav KO,TCL5

o dvOviraro^ elirev' M.rj /3ov\r)0fjTe

r^

ids ical 7rapa(j)pocrvvr)<f yevevdai

r)

Sei%0rjvcu
tcvptov rov 6eov yfj,<ov TOV
10

erepov ov

(j)o/3'rjd(o/j,ev,

el prj

ev rot? ovpavois /caroLKovvra. C 8e a7ta Aoz/ara e'<?7'

H

T^y

yitey

njjurjv

TO>

Kaicrapi,

co?

,

TOV

<])6{3ov
f

Se

TW

^e&5 ^f

'H

3e ayta Eo-Tta \e<yei'
Be
rf

ay LO, ^eKovvBa
6

e(j>r]'

"Ojrep

et/u,

/cat

Btafieivai
1

5

ToVe ^arovpvlvo^

dvOuTraros TO> a7tw ^irepdrtp

elirev'

'O ay LOS ^TrepaTO? elirev' XptcrTtai/o? inrdp^w. KOL ol \ot7Tol Troz/Te? 07404 eiirav.
6

TO avTO Be

dvBvirciTos

efirj'

M^

apa

vrpo?

Bida/ce-^nv 20

'O 07405

^irepaTO*;
j3ov\ri

ecf)f)'
rj

'Ev irpdy/j,aTL OVTQ)$ eyKpiTW ovSe'

Bida-/ee^n<?.
efir)
;

6 dvOvTraTO?
diroiceiVTai crxeveo'iv

'Qirolai TrpayfjiaTelat,

TOt5
25

'O 07405

2v7re/DOTO5

elirev'

At

/ca^'

^//-05

(3i{3\oi KOI al

irpoaeiTiTOVTOt^ eiriaTO\al IlayXou TOU ocriov dvBpos.
~2<aTovpvlvos 6 dvOvTraTOs
e(f)ij'

Tipodecrfiia Tpid/covTa y/j,pwv

vfuv

ecrTfo et 7ra)5 aax^pov^cr'rjTe.

'O 07405

2,7repdTo<z Trap'

avTa dweicpivaTo'
teal

Ta06TO<* Tvy%dv(0.

TOVTO Be

Xpt(7Ttai'05 oytie- 30 ol \ovrrol 6/j,o0VfjiaBov crvva'jre-

ToTe
20
21,

2<a>TOvpvivo<}

6

dv0V7raTO<f

Trjv

irepl

avTwv
Pauli] + apostoli

libri]

A; uenerandi (-da B) libri 22 habe tenere condenemini B
fecit

legis divinae

BC
C

BC

23 om. iterum

sum] + et indesinenter

dominum deum meum
B) qui

caelum

et terrain,

consul] + dixit

C

colo et adoro (et trinitatem deuni credo et adoro et colo 25 promare et omnia quae in eis sunt BC om. decretuin B recitaui C

82

116
turn,

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
Nartzalum, Cittinum, Donatam, Vestiam, Secundam et

ceteros ritu Christiano se uiuere confesses,
facultate ad

quoniam oblata

sibi

Romanorum morem
:

redeundi obstinanter perseue-

rauerant, gladio animaduerti placet.
5

Speratus dixit Nartzalus dixit
gratias.

Deo
:

gratias agimus.
in
caelis

Hodie martyres

sumus
:

:

Deo

10

Saturninus proconsul per praeconem dici iussit Speratum, Nartzalum, Cittinum, Veturium, Felicem, Aquilinum, Laetantiurn, lanuariam, Generosam, Vestiam, Donatam, Secun-

dam

duci

iussi.
:

Vniuersi dixerunt

Deo

gratias.

Et
15

ita

Patre et

omnes simul martyrio coronati sunt, et regnant cum Filio et Spiritu Sancto per omnia secula seculorum.

amen.
1

Nartadum B

;

Nartallum C
facultate]

Cithinum C B; uiuere

Bestiam C

2 Christiano

ritu
2,

BC

se uiuere] C; seruire

3

oblata sibi

B

;

quoniam] et quod post (om. post A) oblatam sibi facultatem
5 deo]

A

BC AC

B)

4 animaduerti] animas percuti B BC 6 Nartadus B ; Nartallus
;

+ omnipotent!

insufficienter (-tes

C

sumus] esse meruimus

BC
;

8 om.

dici iussit] A iussit duci ( + sanctos ut decollarentur C) BC per praeconem B 9 Nartadum, Cittonum B ; Narcallum, Cithinum C Beturium AC Biturium B 10 Laetacium B; Laecatium C lanuarium B om. Generosam

A

ore

11 om. duci iussi BC Bestiam C C gratias] + et laudes qui nos pro suo sam passionem perducere dignatus est BC decollati sunt pro nomine Christi ( + Amen C) BC

12 uniuersi] + uero
(

B + uno
;

+ sancto
13

B) nomine ad glorio15 et ita amen] et statim

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS,
ovr<a Trepie^ovaav'

117
/cat

rov ^/Trepdrov,

Ndpr^aXkov
7*01)9

Kr)rr?vov,
oo~oi
T<

Aovdrov re
%pio~rtavitc<j)

'Ecrrtaz/
0o~/jbq)

KOI ^/eKovvBav, KOI

d(f>dvrovs,

reveo~0ai, eVel /cat %apio-rt,Kfj<;

eavrovs Kare7rr)<y<yei\avro TTO\Iavrols Trpofleoyua? rov TT/DO? rrjv
d/cXivei?
rrjv

roov

opojf^evcov

7rav###BOT_TEXT###eiv
6 d6\o<f>6pos

TrapdBocrtv,

yvwpijv

5

SiejJLewav, %L<f)ei

TOVTOV? dvaipeOijvai SeSotcrai

rrrap" r)(uv.

Tore roivvv

rov %picnov ^Treparos
"TrpocrKeKhiyKori

7ra\6/j,evo<;

Oew r/fiwv rw ev^apicrriav avrov Odvarov dveTrefJt'frev. virep
ra>

auroi)? et? rov

'O Se ayto? Napr^aXA,o9 ^aipwv

elirev'

^rjfjbepov

dXrjOws

10

fidprvpes ev ovpavois rv<y%dvo[i,v vdpe<rroi rS 0ew. Tore roivvv "Sarovpvivos 6 dv0vTraro<? Bid rov KrjpvKOs
roov d<yiwv fj,aprvp(&v

rd

ovopara

Krfpv^Orjvai, Trpoo-erajfev, rovreo-ri
K.tjrrivov,

rov

Qverovpiov, <&L\.r)Ka, Fevepwaav, ^crriav, Aomrav fcal ^efcovvSav. Trjvifcavra ovv irdvre^ ol aryioi rov 6eo~v o"o%o\o<yovvr<> 6fj,o<f)(ava)<; e<j>acrKOV' ^ol v%apio~rov[Ji.GV, rpicrd<yi6
^ireparov,
'Afeoviivov, K.e\eo~rivov, 'lavovpiav,
/cvpie,

Ndpra\ov,

15

KOL

tre fjLe<yd\vvofjt,ev,

art rov dytuva r^9 oftoTioyias t\e&)9
77

ere\iw(ra<;, fcal Siafjuevei (rov
alcbvoav,
dfjbrjv.

/3ao-tXeta et9 rov9 alwvas

rwv
20

Kal

dvaTrefi-^rdvrwv
rjcrav

avr&v TO
ovv
Se

dft/rjv ere\,ei(60r}(rav rc5
ot'
1

i<f)ei,

op/ico//-ez/ot

nyioi

drro

rfjs

Nof^8ta9, Kardtceivrai
e/Maprvprjo-av Se evrl
ical

7r6\e&)9'

K.ap0a<yevvr)<i prjrpoIIepo-ayTO9 KOI K.\avBiavov roov
7r\ir)criov
J

VTrdrcov

Sarovpvlvov dv0V7rdrov, Ka0
"\II](TQV

rjpas

Be /3ao~t\ev- 25

OVT09 rov /cvpiov r)^wv
ij

Xpta-rov'

w
KOI

irpeTreL 7rd<ra Soga,
^OJOTTOIGO TrvevfJiart

teat Trpoa/cvvijcns o~vv

T&> Travayla)

vvv

teal ael

Kal et9 rovs aiu>va<$ roov alwvmv.
<ruv 0eq> TO fAaprvptov

rwv

dryicov

^Trepdrov,
30

,

K^TTiVou, Overovpiov KOI r<av

crvv avrot<$.

118

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

ACTA PROCONSVLARIA MARTYRVM SCILLITANORVM.
Ex
.Z^CTstente

Annalibus Ecelesiastieis Baronii,

Ad annum

202.

Claudio consuls

XIV kalendas Augustas

Oarthagine metropott,

statuto forensi

magistratus adstare sibi Speratwm, Narzalem, Cittinwm, Donatam, Secundam, et Vestiwom. Et adstantibus eis Saturninus proconsul dixit Potestis ueniam a domim's nostris imperatori&ws
conuentu, prceceperunt
:

Seuero

Antono promereri, si bono animo conuersi fueritis ad deos nostros. Speratus dixit Nos minime aliquando m&lum fecimus, neque iniquitatem
et
:

sequentes in peccatis egimus operafo'owem, nee aliquando

cuiquam malediximus,

sed male swscepti a uobis, gratias egimus semper. et regem acforamus.

Quamobrem dominum uerum

Saturninus proconsul dixit
nostra
;

et

Et nos electi sumus, et mitissima est elegantia iuramus per genium domini nostri imperatoris, et pro salute
:

illius intercedimus,

quod
:

et uos facere debwi'stis.

Speratus dixit
mansuetudinis.

Si tranquillas adkibeas mihi aures tuas,
te

dicam mysterium
:

Dicenie Saturninus proconsul dixit tantum iura per genium regis nostri.
: :

de mysterio non inferam mala

Ego imperatoris mundi genium nescio, sed ccelesti Deo Speratus dixit meo seruio quern nulhis hominum uidit, nee uidere potest. Ego enim nee farads sum aliquando ; sed quodcumque emam tributum do quomam cognosco

eum dominum oneum; gentium Dominum.
et

sed adoro

Dominum meum Regem regum
De
csetero

et

omnium
quiescite,

Saturninus proconsul dixit
accedentes sacrificate diis.

:

a tumultu garrulitatum

Speratus respondit : Ula est mala concitatio, quce f&cit homicidium et falsam accusationem aduersus aliquem. Nolite furoris huius inSaturninus proconsul ad alios conuersus dixit
:

sipieniise participes fieri,
eius.

sed timete potius regem nostrum, obedientes prceceptis
nisi

Cittinus dicit

:

Nos non habemus alium quern timeamus
est in
cffilis.

Dominum

Deum

nostrum qui

Saturninus proconsul dixit : Detrudantur in carcerem, ponantur in ligno, in

diem crastinum.
Sequenti die Saturninus proconsttl, sedens pro tribimali, eijjji^cesentari
iubet.

Qui cum

adstitissent dicit

adfceminas

:

Honorate regem TffPKm
Csesari,

et sacri-

ficate diis.

Tune Donata
nostro

dixit

:

Honorem quidem Caesari tanquam

Deo autem

honorem

et

orationem qferimus.

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.

119

BibliothSque Nationale (fonds Latin.

Nouvelles Acquisitions, No. 2179).

SANCTI ET BEATISSIMI SPERATI ET COMITVM EIVS QVI PASSI SVNT CARTHAGINE IN CIVITATE, SVB SATVRNINO PROCONSVLE, DIE XIIII KAL. AVGVST.

In diebus

illis

Speratwm, Potestw indulgentiam a dominis nostris impehis omnibus generaliter dixit si ad bonam mentem redeatis et Deorum ccerimonias ratori&ws promereri
:

IsTarzal-zm,

adductos in secretario Cartjiagims ab apparitorum officio Donatam, Secundam et Vesti#z'a?n, Saturnimis proconsxil

obseruetis.

Sanctus Speratus dixit

:

Numquam

male
"Nulli

egisse conscii

sumus, iniquitati
;

opem atque

adsensutil
etc

non prsebuimus.
lacessiti

unquam

maledixisse recolinms
si

sed male tractati

semper Deo gratias egimus,

Pro qita re eis orauimus qiios iniuste patiebamur infestos. nostrum adtendimus a quo nobis hcec uiuendi norma concessa est. Et nos religiosi sumus et simplex est nostra Saturninus proconsul dixit religio et iuramus per genium domhwrum nostrorum, pro salute eorum suppli:

quidem et pro et imperatorem

camus, quod et xios facere debeatis. Sanctus Speratus dixit Si tranquillas prtebueris aures tuas dicam myste:

rium
tris

christiance simplicitatis. Saturninus proconsul dixit

:

Intipienii tibi dicere

mal^m de

sacri/?ci?'s

nos-

aures non prsebebo. Sed potius iurafe per genium dominor?M?i nostrw^wjz irnperatorawi ut istiiis mundi laititia perfruamini nobisciim.

Sanctus Speratus dixit
illijide spe cfeseruio

magis Facinus quod legibus Si quid autem in publicum emero [et] de exactoribus publicis eiienit, uectigalia reddo. Imperatorem omnium gentium Deum et Dominum meum agnosco. fyierelas nulli intuli, sustinere non debeo. Saturninus proconsul ad cseteros ora comiertit et socios Sperati sic adorsus est dieens: Desinite huius esse persuasionis cidtores qiia Speratus irilectiis est,

Ego imperium huius seculi non cognosco sed Deo quem nemo hominum uidit, nee uidere potest. piiblicis et diuinis comperitur esse damnauile non feci.
:

quoniam

si uos eius habuerit professio socios, nihilomimis habebit et pcena. Mala est persuasio falsum testimonium dicere, Sanctus Speratus dixit
:

si

mala

utique prouatur concessio si contra diuinis legibus agitis et publicis qiiibus Persuasio iiero diuince eidturce sectanda est uitce humance ordo disponitur.

potius

quam

deserenda.

Saturninus proconsul dixit: In prceteritis iam ego admonui ut huius dementise non annuatis esse participes.
Sanct^ls Cittinus dixit
:

Non a

et quce sociiis noster Speratits

confessits est.

nobis aliud oportet audire, o proconsul, nisi Scito enim quod non habemus
et

alium
ccelo.

quem timeamus
similiter
et

nisi

umim Deum

Dominum nostrum

qui est in
*"

Sancta

Donata

adiecit:

Honorem

Csesari quasi Caesari reddimus,

timorem autem

cultum Christo Domino prcestam^ls.

120

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MARTYRS.
:

Et ego Christiana sum. Secunda similiter dixit Et ego credo in Deo meo autem tuis non seruimus, neque adoramus.
: :

Stans Vestma dixit

et

uolo in ipso esse

;

diis

Saturninus proconsul auditis his prcecepit eas seruari. Aduocatis uiris dixit Sperato Perseueras ut christianus sis ? Etiam perseuero et omnes audite quia christianus sum. Speratus dixit
:

illius dicentes:

Audientes omnes qui cum iLlo retenti fuerant, consenserunt confessioni Sumus et nos pariter christiani.
:

Saturninus proconsul dixit Nee liber&twnem,, nee remissionem uultis? In certamme iusto nulla est remissio. Fac quod Speratus respondit Nos enim pro Christo gaudentes morimur.
: :

uis.

Saturninus proconsul dixit Qm' sunt libri quos adoratis legentes? Speratus respondit: Quatuor Euangelia Domini nostri lesu Christi et
Epistolas sancti Pauli apostoli
et omnem diuinitus inspiratam Scripturam. Saturninus proconsul dixit: Spatium trium dierum tribuo uobis ut

resi-

piscatis.

Speratus dixit
nostri lesu Christi

:

Christianus

non discedimus.

sum et omnes qui mecum sunt Fac quod uis.

et

a fide Domini

Proconsul uidens etiam ipsorum mentis stabilitatem et fidei firmitatem dedit in eos sententiam per exceptorem, dicews sic: Speratum, Narzalem, Cittinum, Veturium, Felicem, Acyflinuni, Lsetantium, lanuariam, Generosam, Vestiwam,

Secundam christianos se esse confitentes et imperatori honorem et dare recusantes, capite truncari prcecipio. dignitatem Hcec cum essent ex tabella recitato, Speratus et qid cum eo erant omnes dixerunt Deo gratias conferimus qiii dignatur nos hodie martyres accipere in
Donatam,
et
:

coslis

pro confessione sua. His dictis ducti sunt, etflexis genibus unanimiter, cum iterum gratias

Christo

agerent, truncata sunt singulorum capita. Consummate sunt Christi martyres mense lulio, die septimo decimo, et intercedunt pro nobis ad Dominum nostrum lesum Christum cui honor et gloria

cum
1

Patre et Spiritu Saucto in secula seculorum.

Amen 1

.

I have reprinted these two recensions from Auhe Etude &e. pp. 30 ff., italicising those portions of them which are not found in the original text of the Martyrdom. We have thus an interesting study of the way in which Martyrdoms were modified and expanded for Church use.

THE ACTS OF THE SCILLITAN MAKTYRS.
Vestigia uero uenerabilis seqimta
est

121
meditabitur cor
esse uolo et

dicens:

Hoc semper

meum

et

labia

mea pronuntidbunt quia

Christiana sum.

Sancta uero Secunda similiter ait : Quod sum Christiana, ipsa a meorum sociorum professione nutto obstante recedo.
Saturninus
christiamis.

proconsul

Sperato sancto

dixit

:

Perseueras

ut uideo esse

Sanctus Speratus dixit : Hanc perseuerantiam non meis uiribus sed diuini muneris me habere confido. Proinde si uis fixam cordis mei habere sententiam quia christianus sum, quidquid mihi et suppliciis inferre uoliteris libenter pro

nomine Domini Dei mei lesu Christi suscipiens sustineam. In hac ergo confessions exerceri Dei martyres consenserunt. Satiirninus proconsul dixit: Forsitan ad deliberandum spatium uultis
accipere
't

Sanctus Speratus dixit: In rem tarn bonam qua erit secunda deliberatio? Tune enim deliberauimiis nos cidturam Christi non deserere, quando baptismi
gratia renouati
et

diabolo abrenunti<mrim.us
:

et Christi

Saturninus proconsul dixit cawsa et religione uestra ?
Sanctus Speratus dixit simi apostoli.
huius
mini.
:

Quaa

stuit,

dicite

uestigia secuti sumus. mihi, res doctrinarum in

Libri Eiiangeliorum et epistolse Pauli uiri sanctis-

Saturninus proconsul dixit Accipite morarn triginta dierum ut retractetis Forsitan ad deorum sac?-a[s] ccerimonia\s\ reuertisectce confessionem.
: :

Sanctus Speratus dixit

JVos triginta

ipsi erimus post triginta dies qui et hodie sumus.

dierum spatium non petimus. Nam Nee in triginta dierum moras

poterit professionem nostram in aliquo
\te~\

permutari ; sed potius obtarem et hoc spatium deliberandi accipere ut de tarn turpi cultura ydolorum christiance Cceterum si non es dignus accipere, suspende moram, religionis amator existeres. sententiam recita <[w]am. Nam quotes nos hodie cernis tales post hanc induciam

futuros esse non dubites. Cernens Saturninus proconsul sanctorum perseuerantiam decretum ex tabella

Speratum, Narzalum, Cittinum, Donatam, Vesti(/iam et omnes ritxi uiuere se confessi sunt et quotqiiot oblatam sibi facultatem redeundi ad deorum cidturam obstinanter non receperunt gladio animaduertere
recitauit
:

qui christiano

placet.

Sanctus Speratus dixit Narzalus sanctus dixit

:

Gratias

Deo agimus.
coalo

:

Hodie martyres in

sumus.

Deo

gratias.

Saturninus proconsul per prseconem sanctos iubet additci id est Speratum, Narzalum, Citinum, Ve?ierium, Felicem, Aquilinum, Lsetantium, Ianuaria[m], Generosa[m], Donatam, Vesti^iam atque Secondam et illi uenientes ad locum
martyrii beatas Deo animas tradiderunt. Dominus uero lesus Christus suscepi