The Parts of Speech Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun

, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word's part of speech can change from one sentence to the next, and following them is a series of sections on the individual parts of speech, followed by an exercise. Books are made of ink, paper, and glue.
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In this sentence, "books" is a noun, the subject of the sentence. Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets. Here "books" is a verb, and its subject is "Bridget." We walk down the street. In this sentence, "walk" is a verb, and its subject is the pronoun "we". The mail carrier stood on the walk. In this example, "walk" is a noun, which is part of a prepositional phrase describing where the mail carrier stood. The town decided to build a new jail.

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Here "jail" is a noun, which is the object of the infinitive phrase "to build." The sheriff told us that if we did not leave town immediately he would jail us. Here "jail" is part of the compound verb "would jail." They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night. In this sentence, "cries" is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb "heard." The baby cries all night long and all day long. But here "cries" is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the sentence, the baby.

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The next few sections explain each of the parts of speech in detail. When you have finished, you might want to test yourself by trying the exercise. What is a Verb? The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. In each of the following sentences, the verb or compound verb is highlighted:

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Dracula bites his victims on the neck. The verb "bites" describes the action Dracula takes. In early October, Giselle will plant twenty tulip bulbs. Here the compound verb "will plant" describes an action that will take place in the future. My first teacher was Miss Crawford, but I remember the janitor Mr. Weatherbee more vividly. In this sentence, the verb "was" (the simple past tense of "is") identifies a particular person and the verb "remembered" describes a mental action. Karl Creelman bicycled around the world in 1899, but his
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diaries and his bicycle were destroyed. In this sentence, the compound verb "were destroyed" describes an action which took place in the past. What is a Verb? The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. In each of the following sentences, the verb or compound verb is highlighted:

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Dracula bites his victims on the neck. The verb "bites" describes the action Dracula takes. In early October, Giselle will plant twenty tulip bulbs. Here the compound verb "will plant" describes an action that will take place in the future. My first teacher was Miss Crawford, but I remember the janitor Mr. Weatherbee more vividly. In this sentence, the verb "was" (the simple past tense of "is") identifies a particular person and the verb "remembered" describes a mental action. Karl Creelman bicycled around the world in 1899, but his
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diaries and his bicycle were destroyed. In this sentence, the compound verb "were destroyed" describes an action which took place in the past. What is a Noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns: Late last year our neighbours bought a goat. Portia White was an opera singer. The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes.
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a subject complement.C.According to Plutarch. many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -. like "engineer" or "teacher. an indirect object. Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving. an appositive. Once. the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B. A noun can function in a sentence as a subject.but this use of gender-specific nouns is very 9 .for example. an object complement. Noun Gender Many common nouns. a man was called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress" -." can refer to men or women. a direct object. an adjective or an adverb.

as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences: 10 . Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories. The manager was trying to write a want ad.rare today. Sarah Siddons was at the height of her career as an actress in the 1780s. as in the following sentences. but he couldn't decide whether he was advertising for a "waiter" or a "waitress" Noun Plurals Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding "-s" or "-es". David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor.

Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident. He tripped over a box left carelessly in the hallway. Some words ending in "f" form the plural by deleting "f" and adding "ves. I like to shout into the quarry and listen to the echoes that returned. they were startled by an unexpected echo. There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding "s"." and words ending in "y" form the 11 . we will need many boxes.When Matthew was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to be punished. Since we are moving. As they walked through the silent house.

"Are you a mouse or a man?" The audience was shocked when all five men admitted that they were afraid of mice. There are several wharves in Halifax Harbour. If English is your first language. The children circled around the headmaster and shouted." as in the following pairs of sentences: The harbour at Marble Mountain has one wharf. Other nouns form the plural irregularly. Warsaw is their favourite city because it reminds them of their courtship. The vacation my grandparents won includes trips to twelve European cities. you probably know most 12 .plural by deleting the "y" and adding "ies.

" You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and "s. 13 ." as in the following sentences: The red suitcase is Cassandra's. nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter "s. a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else. The only luggage that was lost was the prime minister's. consult a good dictionary. Possessive Nouns In the possessive case.of these already: when in doubt. Usually.

You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that ends in "s" by adding an apostrophe alone or by adding an apostrophe and "s.The exhausted recruits were woken before dawn by the drill sergeant's screams. The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus' eggs. The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs." as in the following examples: The bus's seats are very uncomfortable. Felicia Hemans's poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's. The bus' seats are very uncomfortable. 14 . The miner's face was covered in coal dust.

a jury's verdict is not always final." as in the following examples: The children's mittens were scattered on the floor of the porch. 15 . Since we have a complex appeal process. You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and a "s. The men's hockey team will be play as soon as the women's team is finished. The sheep's pen was mucked out every day.Felicia Hemans' poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's. The hunter followed the moose's trail all morning but lost it in the afternoon.

Religion is usually the subject of the roommates' many late night debates. The janitors' room is downstairs and to the left. and the babies' squalling.You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does end in "s" by adding an apostrophe: The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking. the ducks' quacking. Using Possessive Nouns When you read the following sentences. My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels' nest. The archivist quickly finished repairing the diaries' bindings. you will notice that a noun in the possessive case 16 .

the ducks' quacking." and "babies"' modifies "squalling. each possessive noun modifies a gerund. The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking. and the babies' squalling. In this sentence.frequently functions as an adjective modifying another noun: The miner's face was covered in coal dust. Here the possessive noun "miner's" is used to modify the noun "face" and together with the article "the. "ducks"' modifies "quacking." they make up the noun phrase that is the sentence's subject. The possessive noun "dogs"' modifies "barking"." 17 .

" My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels' nest." Types Of Nouns There are many different types of nouns.The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. In this sentence the possessive noun "squirrels"' is used to modify the noun "nest" and the noun phrase "the squirrels' nest" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to locate. you capitalise some nouns. In this example the possessive noun "platypus's" modifies the noun "eggs" and the noun phrase "the platypus's eggs" is the direct object of the verb "crushed. As you know. such as "Canada" or 18 .

" and do not capitalise others. and countable or non-countable or collective. the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun). You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common. the concrete noun. such as "badger" or "tree" (unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence). the common noun. and the collective noun. 19 . abstract or concrete."Louise. grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types. In fact. If you are interested in the details of these different types. the countable noun (also called the count noun). you can read about them in the following sections. including the proper noun. the abstract noun.

Beltane is celebrated on the first of May. institutions. historical documents. The names of days of the week. organisations. place. religions. Many people dread Monday mornings. 20 . their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. months. since the noun represents the name of a specific person. or thing.Proper Nouns You always write a proper noun with a capital letter. the proper nouns are highlighted: The Marroons were transported from Jamaica and forced to build the fortifications in Halifax. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun In each of the following sentences.

Abraham appears in the Talmud and in the Koran. In each of the following sentences. I had a Baptist. a Buddhist. the common nouns are highlighted: According to the sign. 21 .usually. the nearest town is 60 miles away. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. or thing in a general sense -. place. All the gardens in the neighbourhood were invaded by beetles this summer. you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. Last year. and a Gardnerian Witch as roommates. Common Nouns A common noun is a noun referring to a person.

22 . as in the following examples: The tenants in the Garnet Apartments are appealing the large and sudden increase in their rent. Sometimes you will make proper nouns out of common nouns. The meals in the Bouncing Bean Restaurant are less expensive than meals in ordinary restaurants. Many child-care workers are underpaid. The road crew was startled by the sight of three large moose crossing the road.I don't understand why some people insist on having six different kinds of mustard in their cupboards.

sight. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns: The judge handed the files to the clerk. or smell. Whenever they take the dog to the beach. 23 . taste. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun. hearing. Concrete Nouns A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch. The Diary of Anne Frank is often a child's first introduction to the history of the Holocaust.Many witches refer to the Renaissance as the Burning Times. it spends hours chasing waves.

The book binder replaced the flimsy paper cover with a sturdy. cloth-covered board. the thump of a disco tune overwhelmed the string quartet's rendition of a minuet. and is the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns: 24 . As the car drove past the park. Abstract Nouns An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses.The real estate agent urged the couple to buy the second house because it had new shingles.

and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp. 25 . You can make a countable noun can be made plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Some scientists believe that schizophrenia is transmitted genetically. Countable Nouns A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form.Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought. Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood.

and which refers to something that you could 26 . the highlighted words are countable nouns: We painted the table red and the chairs blue. Since he inherited his aunt's library. Over the course of twentyseven years. The oak tree lost three branches in the hurricane. Jerome spends every weekend indexing his books. Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock. Martha Ballad delivered just over eight hundred babies. Non-Countable Nouns A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form.In each of the following sentences.

Oxygen is essential to human life. it takes the singular verb "is" rather than the plural verb "are.(or would) not usually count. The word "oxygen" cannot normally be made plural. and are the opposite of countable nouns. Noncountable nouns are similar to collective nouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are noncountable nouns: Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen." 27 . A noncountable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Since "oxygen" is a non-countable noun.

" 28 . Gravel is more expensive than I thought. "is heaped. Since "furniture" is a non-countable noun. Since "gravel" is a non-countable noun. You cannot make the noncountable noun "gravel" plural." The crew spread the gravel over the roadbed. it takes the singular verb form "is.We decided to sell the furniture rather than take it with use when we moved. it takes a singular verb. The furniture is heaped in the middle of the room. You cannot make the noun "furniture" plural.

or persons." 29 . and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. animals. The collective noun "geese" takes the singular verb "spends. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. In each of the following sentences.Collective Nouns A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun. the highlighted word is a collective noun: The flock of geese spends most of its time in the pasture. You could count the individual members of the group.

" The steering committee meets every Wednesday afternoon. In this example the collective noun "jury" is the subject of the singular compound verb "is dining. What is a Pronoun? 30 ." The class was startled by the bursting light bulb. In this sentence the word "class" is a collective noun and takes the singular compound verb "was startled". "meets.The jury is dining on take-out chicken tonight. Here the collective noun "committee" takes a singular verb.

the indefinite pronoun. 31 ." "none. number. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types. and case. the relative pronoun." "which. and the intensive pronoun. including the personal pronoun. gender. the demonstrative pronoun.A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he. Personal Pronouns A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person." and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. the interrogative pronoun. the reflexive pronoun.

When she was a young woman." "you. each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence: I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack." "it. she earned her living as a coal miner." "they." "we. You are surely the strangest child I have ever met." "you. The subjective personal pronouns are "I. He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.Subjective Personal Pronouns A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence." In the following sentences." "he." "she. 32 .

preposition." "you. each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun: Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.m. or infinitive phrase. they returned to their homeland." "it." "you." and "them." "her.After many years." "us. Are you the delegates from Malagawatch? Objective Personal Pronouns An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb. 33 ." "him." In the following sentences. compound verb. The objective personal pronouns are: "me. It is on the counter. We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.

The pronoun "it" is the direct object of the verb "threw". the pronoun "you" is the direct object of the verb "address. Judy threw it into the garbage can.The objective personal pronoun "her" is the direct object of the verb "forced" and the objective personal pronoun "him" is the object of the preposition "with." Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market. 34 . "Our leader will address you in five minutes." After reading the pamphlet. The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said." In this sentence.

Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to"." Give the list to me.Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound verb "will meet. the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of the preposition "to". I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you." 35 . Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see. Similarly in this example. Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.

" "hers. This is yours.Possessive Personal Pronouns A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person." and "theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my." and "their." In each of the following sentences. the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun: The smallest gift is mine. Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement." "his. 36 ." "ours. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine." "its." "her." "yours.

Ours is the green one on the corner. Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence. the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence. Theirs will be delivered tomorrow. In this example.Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement. the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence. His is on the kitchen counter. 37 . In this sentence.

obviously. The demonstrative pronouns are "this. you use them differently." "that." and "those. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time.Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. though. 38 ." "these. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

that is the tree I want. each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun: This must not continue. 39 . Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted"." This is puny. Three customers wanted these.In the following sentences. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker. In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue.

" or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun. and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals. preposition. while "whom" acts as the object of a verb." "whom. Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective." "whichever." "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever. and that "who." "whom." "which." and occasionally "which" used to refer to people. "Who" acts as the subject of a verb. The interrogative pronouns are "who. You will find "who." and "whatever"). or a verbal. 40 ." "whomever." "whom.Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions.

Who wrote the novel Rockbound? Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence." 41 .The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun: Which wants to see the dentist first? "Which" is the subject of the sentence. Whom do you think we should invite? In this sentence. "whom" is the object of the verb "invite." To whom do you wish to speak? Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to.

" What did she say? Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say.Who will meet the delegates at the train station? In this sentence." Relative Pronouns You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who." 42 . the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet". To whom did you give the paper? In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to.

"whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns. You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun. You may invite whomever you like to the party. The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite".

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The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote". This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate." In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual. In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This

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subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers." Whoever broke the window will have to replace it. Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke". The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet. In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate." I will read whichever manuscript arrives first. Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces
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the subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read." Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.
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The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns: Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up. Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited". The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor. In this example ,"everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown." We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale. In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of theverb "donated."

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Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none. Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found." Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws. In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws." Give a registration package to each. Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."

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Reflexive Pronouns You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun. Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun: Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day. The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.
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After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building. Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself. Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves. Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns: I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
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or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. identifying. In the following examples. What Is An Adjective? An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing. 51 . They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time. Mrs.

A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. yellow rain boots.'' 52 . The coal mines are dark and dank. Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music. the adverb ``intricately'' modifies the adjective ``patterned. In the sentence My husband knits intricately patterned mittens.The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. An adjective can be modified by an adverb. The back room was filled with large. for example.

Possessive Adjectives A possessive adjective (``my.'' ``a.'' ``their'') is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun.'' ``her. for example. In the sentence Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. many pronouns.'' ``our.'' ``an'') to be adjectives. Grammarians also consider articles (``the.'' ``his. it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase. however.'' ``its.'' ``your. as in the following sentences: 53 . both highlighted adjectives are past participles.Some nouns.

the entire noun phrase ``your phone number'' is a subject complement. the possessive adjective ``my'' modifies ``assignment'' and the noun phrase ``my assignment'' functions as an object. Here the possessive adjective ``your'' is used to modify the noun phrase ``phone number''. In this sentence. 54 . Note that the possessive pronoun form ``mine'' is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``yours'' is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. What is your phone number.I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook.

the possessive adjective ``his'' modifies the noun phrase ``favourite type of bread'' and the entire noun phrase ``his favourite type of bread'' is the direct object of the verb ``sold.'' Note also that the form ``hers'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood.The bakery sold his favourite type of bread.'' After many years. In this example. 55 . Here the possessive adjective ``her'' modifies the noun ``homeland'' and the noun phrase ``her homeland'' is the object of the preposition ``to. she returned to her homeland.

Here the possessive adjective ``their'' modifies ``parents'' and the noun phrase ``their parents'' is the object of the preposition ``by. the possessive adjective ``its'' modifies ``ball'' 56 .'' Note that the possessive pronoun form ``theirs'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard. In this sentence.In this sentence. children are neglected by their parents. the possessive adjective ``our'' modifies ``way'' and the noun phrase ``our way'' is the direct object of the compound verb ``have lost''. In many fairy tales. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``ours'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

and the noun phrase ``its ball'' is the object of the verb ``chased.'' Note that ``its'' is the possessive adjective and ``it's'' is a contraction for ``it is.'' ``these. In this sentence.'' 57 . the demonstrative adjective ``that'' modifies the noun ``cord'' and the noun phrase ``that cord'' is the object of the preposition ``over.'' and ``what'' are identical to the demonstrative pronouns.'' Demonstrative Adjectives The demonstrative adjectives ``this.'' ``those. as in the following sentences: When the librarian tripped over that cord. she dropped a pile of books.'' ``that. but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases.

or to that 58 . ``those'' modifies ``plates'' and the noun phrase ``those plates'' is the object of the verb ``preferred. Even though my friend preferred those plates. Here ``this'' modifies ``apartment'' and the noun phrase ``this apartment'' is the subject of the sentence. ``these'' is the direct object of the verb ``bought.This apartment needs to be fumigated. I bought these. In the subordinate clause.'' In the independent clause.'' Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun.

``which'' modifies ``plants'' and the noun phrase ``which paints'' is the subject of the compound verb ``should be watered'': What book are you reading? 59 . Interrogative Adjectives An interrogative adjective (``which'' or ``what'') is like an interrogative pronoun.between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun. ``which'' can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives. In this example.

60 . I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sudbury. ``what'' modifies ``book'' and the noun phrase ``what book'' is the direct object of the compound verb ``are reading. The indefinite adjective ``many'' modifies the noun ``people'' and the noun phrase ``many people'' is the subject of the sentence.'' Indefinite Adjectives An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun. or noun phrase. pronoun. as in the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed.In this sentence. except that it modifies a noun.

In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun ``goldfish'' and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb ``found'': The title of Kelly's favourite game is ``All dogs go to heaven.'' Here the indefinite pronoun ``all'' modifies ``dogs'' and the full title is a subject complement. 61 .'' They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound.The indefinite adjective ``any'' modifies the noun ``mail'' and the noun phrase ``any mail'' is the direct object of the compound verb ``will send.

Unlike an adjective. an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence. While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix. or a clause. time." "how much"." "where. or degree and answers questions such as "how. most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole.What is an Adverb? An adverb can modify a verb." "when. an adjective. a phrase. An adverb indicates manner. another adverb. place. 62 . cause.

the adverb "quickly" modifies the verb "made" and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed. Similarly in this sentence. The boldly-spoken words would return to haunt the rebel. In this sentence. the adverb "patiently" modifies the verb "waited" and describes the manner in which the midwives waited. The midwives waited patiently through a long labour. 63 .In the following examples. each of the highlighted words is an adverb: The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.

" "hence. Conjunctive Adverbs You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together." "indeed." "finally. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are "also." "furthermore." "instead." Unfortunately. the bank closed at three today.In this sentence the adverb "boldly" modifies the adjective "spoken." We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously." 64 ." "however. Here the adverb "more" modifies the adverb "expeditiously." "consequently." "incidentally. the adverb "unfortunately" modifies the entire sentence. In this example.

" "nonetheless. class sizes have been increased." "meanwhile." "therefore." and "thus." "still. consequently."likewise. He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for." "otherwise." A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon. he decided to make something else. The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs: The government has cut university budgets." "nevertheless. The report recommended several changes to the ways the corporation accounted for 65 . therefore." "next." "then.

furthermore. the doors to the stadium were opened. it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately. the Joker had escaped through a secret door in the basement. The crowd waited patiently for three hours. finally. What is a Preposition? A preposition links nouns. Batman and Robin fruitlessly searched the building. pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.donations. indeed. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest 66 . A preposition usually indicates the temporal.

The book is beneath the table. a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. The book is beside the table. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition." "above." 67 . its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences. an adjective." "across. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun.of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is leaning against the table. She held the book over the table. The most common prepositions are "about. or an adverb." "after.

" "onto." "for." "around." "beneath." "in. the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." "with." "beside."against." "by." "below." "until. In this sentence." "from." "before." "toward." "of." "through." "over." "during." "at." "out." "behind." "within." and "without." "on." "to." "along." "under." "between." "throughout." "upon." "down." "till." "despite." "off." "past." "beyond." "but." "except." "near." "outside." "among." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition: The children climbed the mountain without fear." "inside." "underneath." The prepositional phrase 68 ." "up." "like." "into." "since.

The spider crawled slowly along the banister. There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. Here. describing where the spider crawled. 69 ." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing."without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed. The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the banister" and the prepositional phrase "along the banister" acts as an adverb. the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land.

The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes. Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase "under the porch. What is a Conjunction? 70 ." which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb "is hiding." which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers. Similarly in this sentence." The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office. the preposition "in" introduces a prepositional phrase "in his office.

and independent clauses. Call the movers when you are ready." "nor. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions." "or. 71 . phrases.You can use a conjunction to link words. phrases. In the following sentences." "for." "but. each of the highlighted words is a coordinating conjunction: Lilacs and violets are usually purple." or "yet") to join individual words." "so. and clauses. as in the following example: I ate the pizza and the pasta. Co-ordinating Conjunctions You use a co-ordinating conjunction ("and.

" 72 . Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish. This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists. In this example. the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two nouns. for the screenplay was written by Mae West.In this example. Here the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two participle phrases ("dancing on rooftops" and "swallowing goldfish") which act as adverbs describing the verb "spends. the co-ordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses.

Subordinating Conjunctions A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). Alice felt more independent." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction: After she had learned to drive." "although." and "while." "if." "when. The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after." "because." "since. 73 ." "once." "that." "until." "where." "though." "till." "before." "how." "than." "as." "whether.

your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday. the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the dependent clause "If the paperwork arrives on time." If the paperwork arrives on time.The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the dependent clause "After she had learned to drive." Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because 74 . The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the dependent clause "when his computer crashed." Gerald had to begun his thesis over again when his computer crashed. Similarly.

"not only...as.and..but also.." Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -.. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both.or." "neither.".nor." (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating 75 ..the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs.." "either...you use them to link equivalent sentence elements." and "whether. In this sentence.." "so... the dependent clause "because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs" is introduced by the subordinating conjunction "because.or.

conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.or" links two noun phrases: "a Jello salad" and "a potato scallop... In this sentence. Here the correlative conjunction "either.and" is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: "my grandfather" and "my father".." 76 .. the correlative conjunction "both. Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop.) The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions: Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.

..Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school. or" links the two infinitive phrases "to go to medical school" and "to go to law school. In this example the correlative conjunction "not only . but also" links the two noun phrases ("the school" and "neighbouring pub") which act as direct objects. Similarly.. Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs." The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub. 77 . the correlative conjunction "whether ..

Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose.What is an Interjection? An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. I forgot that the exam was today. eh?" 78 . The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections: Ouch. Hey! Put that down! I heard one guy say to another guy. except in direct quotations. You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. "He has a new car. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. that hurt! Oh no.

Noun 3. 1. Verb 2. Adverb 6. Conjunction 8. The clown chased a dog around the ring and then fell flat on her face.I don't know about you but. Pronoun 4. I think taxes are too high! Review: Parts of Speech Identify the part of speech of the highlighted word in each of the following sentences: 1. good lord. Preposition 7. Adjective 5. Interjection 79 .

Verb 2. 1. Adjective 5. Pronoun 4. Noun 3. Preposition 7. Preposition 7. Conjunction 8. . Interjection Bruno's shabby thesaurus tumbled out of the book bag 80 3. Interjection Yikes! I'm late for class. Verb 2. 1. Noun 3. The geese indolently waddled across the intersection. Adverb 6.2. Adverb 6. 4. Conjunction 8. Adjective 5. Pronoun 4.

Adverb 6. Pronoun 4. Interjection 81 . Pronoun 4. Preposition 7. Adjective 5. Noun 3. Adverb 6.when the bus suddenly pulled out into traffic. Preposition 7. Frederick angrily stamped out the fire that the local hooligans had started on his verandah. Conjunction 8. 1. 1. Adjective 5. Noun 3. Conjunction 8. Verb 2. Verb 2. Mr. Interjection 5.

1. Preposition 82 7. Later that summer. Adjective 5.6. Pronoun 4. "What was I thinking of?" 1. Pronoun 4. Noun 3. Verb 2. she asked herself. Adjective 5. Interjection She thought that the twenty zucchini plants would not be enough so she planted another ten. Adverb 6. Verb 2. Preposition 7. Adverb 6. Noun 3. . Conjunction 8.

Adjective 5. Conjunction 8. Verb 2. Although she gave hundreds of zucchini away. Verb 2.7. Adverb 6. Adjective 5. Preposition 7. 1. 1. Pronoun 4. she talked about the prolific veggies. Pronoun 4. Interjection Everywhere she went. Conjunction Interjection 8. . Noun 3. Noun 3. the enormous mound left over frightened her. 8. Adverb 83 9.

Pronoun 4. 8. Verb 2. Interjection Frankenstein is the name of the scientist.6. not the monster. Adjective 5. Preposition Conjunction Interjection 10. 7. Pronoun 4. Adjective 5. Adverb 84 11. Preposition 7. Verb 2. Noun 3. The manager confidently made his presentation to the board of directors. Adverb 6. 1. . 1. Conjunction 8. Noun 3.

Preposition 85 13. Adverb 6.6. Pronoun 4. Preposition 7. Verb 2. 8. Her greatest fear is that the world will end before she finds a comfortable pair of panty-hose. Preposition Conjunction Interjection 12. Pronoun 4. 1. Adjective 5. 1. Adverb 6. Verb 2. Interjection That suitcase is hers. Noun 3. Adjective 5. Conjunction 8. Noun 3. . 7.

Everyone in the room cheered when the announcement was made. Noun 3.7. Pronoun 4. Pronoun 4. Adverb 6. Verb 2. 1. Adjective 5. Adverb 86 15. . 1. Conjunction Interjection 14. Verb 2. Noun 3. Interjection The sun was shining as we set out for our first winter camping trip. Adjective 5. Conjunction 8. 8. Preposition 7.

Adjective 5. Adverb 6. Adverb 6. Pronoun 4. . Interjection Dust covered every surface in the locked bedroom. 1. Noun 3. Conjunction 8. Preposition 7. Verb 2. Preposition 87 17. 8. Preposition Conjunction Interjection 16. 1. Pronoun 4. Noun 3.6. Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves. Verb 2. 7. Adjective 5.

Adjective 5. Conjunction Interjection 18. The census taker knocked loudly on all the doors but nobody was home. Adjective 5. Noun 3. Preposition 7. 1. Interjection They wondered if there truly was honour among thieves. Verb 2. Pronoun 4. 1. Adverb 6. Pronoun 4. Conjunction 8. Verb 2.7. Noun 3. Preposition 88 19. . Adverb 6. 8.

Adverb 6. 1. Interjection The Parts of the Sentence The parts of the sentence are a set of terms for describing how 89 . Adjective 5. Noun 3. Pronoun 4. Exciting new products and effective marketing strategies will guarantee the company's success. Preposition 7. Verb 2. Conjunction Interjection 20. 8.7. Conjunction 8.

or even an entire phrase or clause. and it is important that you take some time to learn and understand them. Like the parts of speech. while the predicate tells something about the subject. Subject and Predicate Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate. the predicate is 90 . the parts of the sentence form part of the basic vocabulary of grammar.the subject of a sentence. however. There is not a direct correspondence between the parts of the sentence and the parts of speech -. a pronoun. In the following sentences. for example. The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about. could be a noun.people construct sentences from smaller pieces.

first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing "who?" or "what?" before it -. The predicate (which always includes the verb) goes on to relate something about the subject: what about the audience? It "littered the 91 . To determine the subject of a sentence. Judy and her dog {run on the beach every morning}. Judy {runs}. The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn. "The audience" is the subject of the sentence.the answer is the subject." Who or what littered? The audience did.enclosed in braces ({}). while the subject is highlighted. The verb in the above sentence is "littered.

it merely signals that the true subject will soon follow.") Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of the verb "to be." is understood rather than expressed." Unusual Sentences Imperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an order) differ from conventional sentences in that their subject. 92 .theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn. "there" is not the subject. ("You" is understood before "stand. There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch steps this morning. Stand on your head." In such sentences. which is always "you.

Consider the following example: A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger. "Piece" is the simple subject. The subject is built around the noun "piece."a" and "of pepperoni pizza" -. Simple Subject and Simple Predicate Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that." with the other words of the subject -. 93 . when stripped of all the words that modify it. the answer is "three stray kittens.modifying the noun." the correct subject.If you ask who? or what? before the verb ("were cowering"). is known as the simple subject.

A sentence may have a compound subject -.in other words.as in these examples: Team pennants. In the example we just considered. the simple predicate is "would satisfy" -. the verb of the sentence. which is always the verb or verbs that link up with the subject. rock posters and family photographs covered the boy's bedroom walls. Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there.Likewise. 94 . a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate.a simple subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun -.

Two kinds of objects follow verbs: direct objects and indirect objects. To determine if a verb has a direct object. The answer.The second sentence above features a compound predicate. "walked" and "admired"). if there is one. is the direct object: Direct Object 95 . isolate the verb and make it into a question by placing "whom?" or "what?" after it. Objects and Complements Objects A verb may be followed by an object that completes the verb's meaning. a predicate that includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject (in this case.

The advertising executive drove a flashy red Porsche. An indirect object (which. Direct Object Her secret admirer gave her a bouquet of flowers. or for what? after it. isolate the verb and ask to whom?. The second sentence above also contains an indirect object. 96 . like a direct object. to what?. for whom?. the recipient of the direct object. in a sense. Consider the verbs in the following sentences: The guest speaker rose from her chair to protest. To determine if a verb has an indirect object. is always a noun or pronoun) is. Not all verbs are followed by objects. The answer is the indirect object.

No Direct Object Did we win? Subject Complements In addition to the transitive verb and the intransitive verb. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Verbs that take objects are known as transitive verbs. Verbs not followed by objects are called intransitive verbs. there is a third kind of verb called a linking 97 . depending on the context: Direct Object I hope the Senators win the next game. Randy usually jogs around the canal. Some verbs can be either transitive verbs or intransitive verbs.After work.

" "appear. The word (or phrase) which follows a linking verb is called not an object." Other linking verbs are "become. sometimes transitive verbs. The most common linking verb is "be." "taste." and "sound. Linking verb with subject complement 98 .verb." "smell." "seem." among others. depending on how you use them: Linking verb with subject complement He was a radiologist before he became a full-time yoga instructor. Note that some of these are sometimes linking verbs. or sometimes intransitive verbs." "feel." "grow." "look. but a subject complement.

except that (obviously) it modifies an object rather than a subject. Consider this example of a subject complement: 99 . Object Complements (by David Megginson) An object complement is similar to a subject complement. Intransitive verb with no object The interior of the beautiful new Buick smells strongly of fish. Note that a subject complement can be either a noun ("radiologist". Transitive verb with direct object I can't smell anything with this terrible cold. "instructor") or an adjective ("delicious").Your homemade chili smells delicious.

judging. In this case." which is the subject of the sentence. the adjective "tired" modifies the noun "driver. 100 . the noun "driver" is the direct object of the verb "consider. as in the following example: I consider the driver tired.The driver seems tired. or changing something can cause their direct objects to take an object complement: Paint it black. the noun will be the object." but the adjective "tired" is still acting as its complement. verbs which have to do with perceiving. Sometimes. however. In this case. In general. as explained above.

" "she is out of order. then check your answer to see if it was correct. In every case. Question: His terror of spiders kept him out of the dark basement." Review: the Subject Try to determine the simple subject (disregarding any modifiers) in the following sentences." "the Prime Minister is sleeping.The judge ruled her out of order. I saw the Prime Minister sleeping. you could reconstruct the last part of the sentence into a sentence of its own using a subject complement: "it is black. Answer: 101 .

"Terror" is the simple subject because it answers the question "what?" before the verb "kept." Question: There will be three concerts in the arts centre tonight. Answer: "Concerts" is the simple subject because it answers the question "what?" before the verb "will be. Question: Would you willingly exchange half your intelligence for one million dollars? Answer: "You" is the simple subject because it answers the question 102 ." Remember that "there" is merely signalling that the true subject will follow." "Of spiders" and "his" are simply modifying the simple subject "terror.

" "With its crew of amateurs" is modifying the simple subject "ship. Emma and her brother bought a birthday present for their mother. the ship. Answer: "Emma."who?" before the verb "would exchange. brother" is the simple subject because it answers the question "who?" before the verb 103 . might have survived in more experienced hands." Question: After the movie. with its crew of amateurs." Question: Despite the storm's destructiveness. Answer: "Ship" is the simple subject because it answers the question "what?" before the verb "might have survived.

"his terror of spiders. identify the predicate. Review: the Predicate Now. 104 ." Question: There will be three concerts in the arts centre tonight."bought. Answer: "Kept him out of the dark basement" is the predicate because it contains the verb "kept" and it tells us something about the subject. Question: His terror of spiders kept him out of the dark basement." This sentence has a compound subject. using the same sentences.

willingly exchange half your intelligence for one million dollars" is the predicate because it contains the verb "would exchange" and it tells us something about the subject. "three concerts.. "you." Question: Despite the storm's destructiveness.. with its crew of amateurs..Answer: "There will be. the ship..in the arts centre tonight" is the predicate because it contains the verb "will be" and it tells us something about the subject." Question: Would you willingly exchange half your intelligence for one million dollars? Answer: "Would . might 105 .

. Answer: "After the movie. Answer: "Despite the storm's destructiveness. "the ship.. Emma and her brother bought a birthday present for their mother.might have survived in more experienced hands" is the predicate because it contains the verb "might have survived" and it tells us something about the subject.." Question: After the movie...bought a birthday present for their mother" is the predicate because it contains the verb "bought" and it tells us 106 .have survived in more experienced hands.. with its crew of amateurs.

or a subject complement. 1. an indirect object. Indirect Object 5. 1. a direct object.something about the subject. Simple Subject 2. Subject Complement 107 . Direct Object 4. Verb 3. "Emma and her brother. The old house on the hill gave Leonora chills and conjured up images of ghosts and monsters and other unknown beings." Review: Parts of the Sentence Identify the hilighted word in each of the sentences below as a simple subject. a verb.

Simple Subject 2.2. my cousin still seems unhappy. 1. Direct Object 4. Direct Object 4. Subject Complement Despite winning the lottery last week. Indirect Object 5. Indirect Object 5. Verb 108 3. Mrs. 1. . 4. Verb 3. 1. Simple Subject 2. Verb 3. Subject Complement They gave the university a large endowment for the scholarship fund. Simple Subject 2. Wilkes placed a polished side table and an antique jug. Next to the china cabinet.

Some experts believe it is easy to overstate the role that genes and heredity play in determining a person's predisposition to alcoholism. Direct Object 4. 4. 1. Direct Object Indirect Object Subject Complement 5. she grew drowsy and decided to take a nap. . Subject Complement 109 6. Subject Complement After the luncheon buffet. Direct Object 4.3. Verb 3. Verb 3. Indirect Object 5. Simple Subject 2. 1. Simple Subject 2. Indirect Object 5. 5.

9. Verb 3. Subject Complement His deaf aunt will be going to the symphony next week. Simple Subject 2.7. Verb 3. Direct Object 4. Verb 3. I don't know how you can understand anything that professor says. 1. . Indirect Object 5. 1. Subject Complement There were no credits after the movie. Direct Object 110 8. 1. Direct Object 4. Indirect Object 5. Simple Subject 2. Simple Subject 2.

Direct Object 4. This chapter begins with the comma. Subject Complement Punctuation The following sections will help you understand and use different types of punctuation more effectively in your writing. Simple Subject 2. The company has been mailing George CD catalogues ever since he bought his stereo. the punctuation mark which usually causes writers 111 .4. Indirect Object Subject Complement 10. Indirect Object 5. 1. 5. Verb 3.

mittens and sweaters before leaving for 112 . the use of a comma before the "and" in a series is usually optional. For instance. and many writers choose to eliminate it. The Comma Comma usage is in some respects a question of personal writing style: some writers use commas liberally. before turning to other types of punctuation. so when faced with the option of using a comma or not. Most modern North American style guides now recommend using fewer commas rather than more.the most trouble. provided there is no danger of misreading: We bought scarves. you may find it wise to refrain. while others prefer to use them sparingly.

(comma unnecessary before "and") We ate apples. plums. (comma unnecessary with short clauses) 113 . and strawberry and kiwi compote.Iceland. (comma needed before "and" for clarity) Comma Usage 1. but my van still smelled like trout for the next week. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that joins independent clauses (unless the independent clauses are very short): I wrapped the fresh fish in three layers of newspaper. (commas with two independent clauses) She invited him to her party and he accepted.

an anonymous donor contributed an additional $10. closely related phrase) 3.2. after an introductory phrase (unless the phrase is very short): After the hospital had completed its fund-raising campaign. (no comma with short. (after introductory prepositional phrase) In the bottom drawer you will find some pink spandex tights. often. (after introductory adverb clause) From the east wall to the west.000. Use a comma to separate items in a series: 114 . her cottage measures twenty feet. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause and.

and transporting heavy equipment to and from gigs. playing until 2 a. Even though removing the non-restrictive 115 . It is. (the comma preceding "and" is optional unless needed to prevent misreading) 4.m.. but many people do not realize the hardships involved: constant rehearsals.Playing in a band can be exciting. interrupting material that adds extra information to a sentence. in a sense. A non-restrictive modifier is a phrase or clause that does not restrict or limit the meaning of the word it is modifying. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive elements and other parenthetical elements. handling drunken audience members.

element would result in some loss of meaning. are unfamiliar with the workings of a true democracy. A restrictive modifier is a phrase or clause that limits the meaning of what it modifies and is essential to the basic idea expressed in the sentence. well-paying 116 . who for decades have lived with grinding poverty and mindnumbing violence. You should usually set off non-restrictive elements with commas: The people of Haiti. You should not set off restrictive elements with commas: Those residents of Ottawa who do not hold secure. the sentence would still make sense without it.

Placing parenthetical information between dashes has the opposite effect: it emphasises the material: 117 . Note that you can use two other punctuation marks to set off non-restrictive elements or other parenthetical information: parentheses and dashes. Enclosing parenthetical information in parentheses reduces the importance of that information: Mr.jobs must resent the common portrayal of the city as a land of opportunity. Grundy's driving record (with one small exception) was exemplary. 5.

Superfluous Commas Equally important in understanding how to use commas effectively is knowing when not to use them. • Do not use a comma to separate the subject from its predicate: [WRONG] Registering for our fitness programs before September 15. there are certain instances when you should definitely avoid a comma.was exemplary.Mr. Nevertheless. will save you 118 . you should usually set off parenthetical information with commas. Grundy's driving record -with one exception -. While this decision is sometimes a matter of personal taste.

or a preposition from its object: [WRONG] I hope to mail to you before Christmas. a bedroll. Do not use a comma to separate a verb from its object or its subject complement. [RIGHT] I hope to mail to you before Christmas a current snapshot of my dog Benji. [RIGHT] Registering for our fitness programs before September 15 will save you thirty percent of the membership cost. She travelled around the world with. a pup tent and a camera. a small backpack. 119 .• thirty percent of the membership cost. a current snapshot of my dog Benji.

• 120 . the family was used to the noise and paid it no attention. a bedroll. but the family was used to the noise and paid it no attention. a pup tent and a camera. we will play badminton. [RIGHT] Sleet fell heavily on the tin roof.• [RIGHT] She travelled around the world with a small backpack. Do not use commas to set off words and short phrases (especially introductory ones) that are not parenthetical or that are very slightly so: [WRONG] After dinner. Do not misuse a comma after a co-ordinating conjunction: [WRONG] Sleet fell heavily on the tin roof but.

121 • . if you want to improve in the martial arts. kicks and foot sweeps. [WRONG] You should practice your punches. three wigs. are bigger than those on his right. some costume jewellery and five thousand dollars in Monopoly money. [RIGHT] The fingers on his left hand are bigger than those on his right. on his left hand.• [RIGHT] After dinner we will play badminton. Do not use commas to set off restrictive elements: [WRONG] The fingers. Do not use a comma before the first item or after the last item of a series: [WRONG] The treasure chest contained.

and the 122 . [RIGHT] You should practice your punches. rewrite each sentence to correct the comma usage.[RIGHT] The treasure chest contained three wigs. some costume jewellery and five thousand dollars in Monopoly money. Question: The town of Wolfville boasts spectacular tidal flats an annual apple-blossom festival. then compare your answer with the one provided. kicks and foot sweeps if you want to improve in the martial arts. Review: the Comma Using a separate sheet of paper.

Answer: The town of Wolfville boasts spectacular tidal flats. Explanation: You need a comma after "flats" to end this element in the series. gold medals and framed certificates of merit. of Acadia University. Answer: 123 . and the beautiful campus of Acadia University. the two top scholars Janet and him. Question: The university gave.beautiful campus. The comma after "festival" is optional. an annual apple-blossom festival. You should not use a comma after "campus" because the phrase that follows is restrictive.

Janet and him. You need a pair of commas around "Janet and him.The university gave the two top scholars. should move to the front of the line. gold medals and framed certificates of merit. Explanation: The comma after "gave" in the original sentence incorrectly separates the verb from its object. with tickets to the seven o'clock showing of the Rolling Stones movie." because the element is non-restrictive. Answer: Everyone with tickets to the seven o'clock showing of the Rolling Stones movie should move to the front of the line. Explanation: 124 . Question: Everyone.

on his finger." Question: The ring. Do not keep the comma between "movie" and "should". who was usually quite decisive.There should be no comma after "everyone" because what follows is restrictive information. is solid gold. faced a true dilemma in her last year of university. Answer: Stacey. doing so incorrectly separates the subject from the verb. Explanation: You should use commas around the non-restrictive clause "who was usually quite decisive. Answer: 125 . Question: Stacey who was usually quite decisive faced a true dilemma in her last year of university.

however. The auditors made six recommendations. Explanation: The phrase "on his finger" is restrictive. so you should not set it off with commas.The ring on his finger is solid gold. Abdominal exercises help prevent back pain. proper posture is also important. Semicolons should join only those independent clauses that are closely related in meaning. The Semicolon You will usually use the semicolon to link independent clauses not joined by a co-ordinating conjunction. 126 .

the effort pays off in the long run.only one has been adopted so far. [WRONG] Although gaining and maintaining a high level of physical fitness takes a good deal of time. you should not place a semicolon before a co-ordinating conjunction that links two independent clauses. [RIGHT] Although gaining and maintaining a high level of physical fitness takes a good deal of time. the effort pays off in the long run. Generally. Do not use a semicolon to link a dependent clause or a phrase to an independent clause. The only exception to this guideline is if the two independent clauses are very 127 .

When punctuating a list or series of elements in which one or more of the elements contains an internal comma. It may be useful to remember that. you should use a semicolon only where you could also use a period.long and already contain a number of commas. for the most part. you should use semicolons instead of commas to 128 . [WRONG] The economy has been sluggish for four years now. There is one exception to this guideline. but some signs of improvement are finally beginning to show. [RIGHT] The economy has been sluggish for four years now. but some signs of improvement are finally beginning to show.

The Colon Writers often confuse the colon with the semicolon. will be happily resolved. and that Henry. but their uses are entirely different. who is thirty-five years old. and 129 . will never be able to do his own laundry. When to Use a Colon The colon focuses the reader's attention on what is to follow. that no one knows more about human nature than she.separate the elements from one another: Henry's mother believes three things: that every situation. no matter how grim.

as a result, you should use it to introduce a list, a summation, or an idea that somehow completes the introductory idea. You may use the colon in this way, however, only after an independent clause: He visited three cities during his stay in the Maritimes: Halifax, Saint John and Moncton. Their lobbying efforts were ultimately useless: the bill was soundly defeated. My mother gave me one good piece of advice: to avoid wasting time and energy worrying about things I cannot change. When Not to Use a Colon You should not place a colon between a verb and its object or subject complement, or between a preposition and its object:
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[WRONG] His neighbour lent him: a pup-tent, a wooden canoe, and a slightly battered Coleman stove. (colon between verb and objects) [RIGHT] His neighbour lent him a pup-tent, a wooden canoe, and a slightly battered Coleman stove. [WRONG] Her three goals are: to improve her public speaking skills, to increase her selfconfidence and to sharpen her sales techniques. (colon between verb and subject complement) [RIGHT] Her three goals are to improve her public speaking skills, to increase her selfconfidence and to sharpen her sales techniques. [WRONG] We travelled to: London, Wales and Scotland.
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(colon between preposition and objects) [RIGHT] We travelled to London, Wales and Scotland.

End Punctuation The punctuation marks that signal the end of a sentence are the period, the question mark and the exclamation mark. You use the period, by far the most common of the end punctuation marks, to terminate a sentence that makes a statement. You may also use periods with imperative sentences that have no sense of urgency or excitement attached: Without a doubt, Lady Emily was much happier after her divorce.
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Turn right at the stop sign. Bring me a cup of coffee and a cheese danish. When you want to express a sense of urgency or very strong emotion, you may end your imperative sentences and statements with an exclamation mark: Look out below! Leave this house at once! I hate him! Exclamation marks are, however, rare in formal writing. Use them sparingly, if at all. You should use the question mark at the end of a direct question: Who's on first? Where is my flowered cape? Be careful not to use a question mark at the end of an indirect
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question. Indirect questions are simply statements, and therefore end with a period: I wonder who was chosen as Harvest King in the county fair. She asked if she could play pinball. The teacher asked who was chewing gum.

Quotation Marks The exact rules for quotation marks vary greatly from language to language and even from country to country within the Englishspeaking world. In North American usage, you should place double quotation marks (") before and

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after directly quoted material and words of dialogue: One critic ended his glowing review with this superlative: "It is simply the best film ever made about potato farming." May replied, "This is the last cookie." You also use quotation marks to set off certain titles, usually those of minor or short works -- essays, short stories, short poems, songs, articles in periodicals, etc. For titles of longer works and separate publications, you should use italics (or underlined, if italics are not available). Use italics for titles of books, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, films, plays, long poems, long musical works, and television and radio programs.
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Once when I was sick, my father read me a story called "The Happy Flower," which was later made into a movie entitled Flower Child, starring Tiny Tim. Sometimes, you will use quotation marks to set off words specifically referred to as terms, though some publishers prefer italics: I know you like the word "unique," but do you really have to use it ten times in one essay? "Well" is sometimes a noun, sometimes an adverb, sometimes an adjective and sometimes a verb. Quotations Marks with Other Punctuation One question that frequently arises with quotation marks is where to place other punctuation marks in
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relation to them. Again, these rules vary from region to region, but North American usage is quite simple:
1.

Commas and periods always go inside the quotation marks. I know you are fond of the story "Children of the Corn," but is it an appropriate subject for your essay? "At last," said the old woman, "I can say I am truly happy."

2.

Semicolons and colons always go outside the quotation marks. She never liked the poem "Dover Beach"; in fact, it was her least favourite piece of Victorian literature. He clearly states his opinion in the article "Of Human Bondage": he believes that television has
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and dashes go inside quotation marks when they are part of the quotation.'" explained Sandy. "I think she said `I will try. 3. Where is your copy of "The Raven"? "How cold is it outside?" my mother asked. Question marks.enslaved and diminished an entire generation. Note that in North American usage. you should use single quotation marks (') only to set off quoted material (or a minor title) inside a quotation. and outside when they do not. 138 .' not `I won't try. exclamation marks.

139 . The convertible's engine has finally died.The Apostrophe You should use an apostrophe to form the possessive case of a noun or to show that you have left out letters in a contraction. (The noun "convertible's" is in the possessive case) I haven't seen my roommate for two weeks." simply place an apostrophe after the "s." He has his three sons' futures in mind. Note that you should not generally use contractions in formal. academic writing. (The verb "haven't" is a contraction of "have not") To form the possessive of a plural noun ending in "s.

" and "theirs" -. "hers. you can use a dash at the 140 ." "yours. damaging its radar receiver. ("it's" is the contraction of "it is") The Dash As noted in the section on commas.do not take apostrophes.for example. This is the case for the possessive pronoun "its" as well: when you write "it's" with an apostrophe." The spaceship landed hard. ("its" is the possessive pronoun) It's your mother on the phone. you are writing a contraction for "it is. Possessive pronouns -. the houses' designs are too much alike.In many suburbs.

beginning and end of parenthetical information. you will use dashes when you want to emphasise the information. has been quietly supported for years by many respected teachers -. (lengthy interruption containing internal commas) 141 . (abrupt interruption) The idea of returning to the basics in the classroom -. I think you would look fine wearing either the silk blouse -the one with the blue pattern -or the angora sweater. but you might also use them if the parenthetical information is too long or abrupt to be set off with commas.a notion which. Usually. incidentally.is finally gaining some currency with school administrators.

and three other reputable caterers -. We pored over exotic. mouthwatering menus from Nemo Catering.You can use a dash to conclude a list of elements. Dashes also mark sharp turns in thought.all go into this fabulously rich dessert. focusing them all toward one point. Review: Identifying Punctuation Errors Indicate whether each sentence is punctuated correctly or incorrectly. cream. Chocolate.and rejected them all. Question: 142 . Taste Temptations. Menu du Jour. honey and peanut butter -.

and my close friend Bernice. Explanation: You should have punctuated the sentence as follows: I wrote letters to my aunt. and my close friend Bernice who moved to Boston four years ago. Answer: The answer Incorrect is correct. the cable company. The comma after "company" is optional. who moved to Boston four years ago. You should never use a colon between a preposition and its objects.I wrote letters to: my aunt. but you need the comma after "Bernice" because the material that follows is non-restrictive. Question: 143 . the cable company.

Answer: The answer Correct is correct. Question: They read they studied and they reviewed. yet they could not define the term `onomatopoeia' on the English exam. the question mark must fall inside the final quotation marks. Answer: The answer Correct is not correct. Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: 144 ."Can working with a computer really improve one's writing?" they asked. Explanation: The material inside the quotation marks is dialogue and is a question. therefore.

In North American usage. yet they could not define the term "onomatopoeia" on the English exam. you should use double quotation marks around "onomatopoeia".They read. Question: Children sometimes knock at the Wilsons' door. Explanation: 145 . but neither the old man nor his sister ever answers. The comma after "studied" is optional. as if taunting the couple to show themselves. You need the comma after "read" to separate the items in the list. and they reviewed. Answer: The answer Correct is correct. they studied. but in British usage the single quotation marks are correct.

" which links the two independent clauses." You need the first comma before the parenthetical phrase "as if taunting the couple to show themselves."Wilsons"' is the correct possessive form of the plural noun "Wilsons. likewise. Answer: The answer Incorrect is not correct. Question: We cancelled our subscription to the magazine after it ran a homophobic article. Explanation: The semicolon correctly joins the two independent clauses. a number of our friends boycotted the publication. and the comma is necessary 146 ." and you need the second before the co-ordinating conjunction "but.

Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: My sister's skin used to be as smooth as a child's. Question: Aaron asked the counsellor if there were many job opportunities for music teachers and if he would have to leave the province to get a good position? 147 . Answer: The answer Correct is not correct. You need the second apostrophe to indicate that the noun "child's" is possessive." Question: My sister's skin used to be as smooth as a childs.after the conjunctive adverb "likewise.

Answer: The answer Correct is not correct. Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: Aaron asked the counsellor if there were many job opportunities for music teachers and if he would have to leave the province to get a good position. The sentence is an indirect question and therefore needs a period at the end. Answer: 148 . but fate in the form of the year's worst snowstorm intruded. not a question mark Question: They wanted very badly to see Peter Weirs new film.

but fate -in the form of the year's worst snowstorm -.intruded. OR They wanted very badly to see Peter Weir's new film. in the form of the year's worst snowstorm. or parenthetical. Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: They wanted very badly to see Peter Weir's new film. The phrase "in the form of the year's worst snowstorm" is non-restrictive. intruded. but fate. and you must set 149 ." then "Weirs"' or "Weirs's" would also be correct). You need the apostrophe in "Weir's" to indicate the possessive (if you thought that his name was "Peter Weirs.The answer Correct is not correct.

" which joins two independent clauses. "This little town and it's little 150 . and you need the question mark because this is a direct question. Most writers would use commas." she said. Question: "Take me with you. but you could use dashes if you wished to emphasise the parenthetical information. and how will your landlord live with himself? Answer: The answer Correct is correct.it off in some fashion. Explanation: You need the comma before the co-ordinating conjunction "and. Question: How could the rent review administrators have made such a decision.

"This little town and its little people are more than I can bear. and (2) the period belongs inside the closing quotation marks. 151 . but I know everything will be different in New York". Answer: The answer Correct is not correct.people are more than I can bear." The original sentence contained only two mistakes: (1) "its" is the possessive case and therefore is spelled without the apostrophe. but I know everything will be different in New York." she said. Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: "Take me with you.

Explanation: You could place a comma after "Tuesday. Question: Last Tuesday the committee agreed on its guest speakers for the coming year.Review: Adding Punctuation Using a separate sheet of paper. Question: 152 . then compare your answer to the one provided. Answer: This sentence requires no punctuation." but omitting it is better because the introductory phrase is short and only slightly parenthetical. punctuate each sentence.

and the comma must fall inside 153 ." said Samuel.I really enjoyed Lost Ground the new short story by William Trevor said Samuel. The comma after "Ground" is necessary because the phrase that follows is non-restrictive. Explanation: If you are following North American usage.' the new short story by William Trevor. because it is a minor title and is already inside double quotation marks (in British usage you write the single quotation marks by default). you need double quotation marks around the words spoken by Samuel and single quotation marks around the title of the short story. Answer: "I really enjoyed `Lost Ground.

" and you need the apostrophe in "father's" is needed to indicate the possessive. Answer: Guido. was born in Naples. Question: Guido who is my fathers cousin was born in Naples.the single quotation mark. and the comma must fall inside the double quotation marks. Explanation: You need commas around the non-restrictive clause "who is my father's cousin. Question: 154 . The comma after "Trevor" is required to introduce "said Samuel" (this is a convention of dialogue). who is my father's cousin.

" Question: My sisters favourite foods are as follows pepperoni pizza applesauce and strawberries. his dive was superior to his other competitors' attempts. Explanation: 155 . Answer: His form was excellent. Explanation: You need a semicolon to link the two independent clauses. Answer: My sister's favourite foods are as follows: pepperoni pizza. Place the apostrophe after the "s" to show the possessive of the plural noun "competitors. and strawberries. applesauce.His form was excellent his dive was superior to his other competitors attempts.

The comma after "applesauce" is optional. and the comma after "pizza" because it is an element in the list.You need the apostrophe in "sister's" to show that the noun is possessive. it must be clear what the 156 . A pronoun's antecedent may be either a noun or another pronoun. but in either case. Using Pronouns Pronoun Reference Pronouns usually refer to other words. the colon after "follows" because the clause preceding the colon is independent and introduces a list. called their antecedents because they (should) come before the pronoun.

It is not clear whether the pronoun "she" in this sentence refers to Ruth or Micheline. the reader will never be sure who's going to the square dance with whom. Unless pronouns refer unmistakably to distinct. A pronoun should have only one possible antecedent If there is more than one possible antecedent for a personal pronoun in a sentence. and single antecedents.antecedent is. close. make sure that the pronoun refers only to one of them: 157 . Consider this example: Micheline told Ruth that she would take Jerry to the barn dance.

The pronoun "he" could refer either to "Jerry" or to "Steve.[WRONG] Jerry found a gun in the knickers which he wore." A pronoun should not refer to an implied idea Make sure that the pronoun refers to a specific rather than to an implicit antecedent: When you leave the antecedent implied instead of stating it explicitly. the reader has to try to guess your sentence's meaning: [WRONG] John put a bullet in his gun and shot it. "Which he wore" could modify "knickers" or "gun. 158 ." [WRONG] Jerry called Steve twelve times while he was in Reno.

but it took time. [WRONG] The craftspersons' union reached an agreement on Ruth's penalty.The pronoun "it" can refer either to the noun "gun" or to the implied object of the verb "shot". [WRONG] If I told you had a beautiful body would you hold it against me? The pronoun "it" can refer to the noun "body" or to the entire statement. A pronoun should not refer to adjectives or possessive nouns You should not use adjectives. The pronoun "it" can refer to the noun "union" or to the implied process of decision making. or nouns or pronouns in the 159 .

". the pronoun "it" seems to refer to the noun "knickers. In this case. the pronoun "she" seems to refer to the noun phrase "Ruth's apology. reference to them will be ambiguous: In Ruth's apology she told Jerry she'd loved him for years. it was his favourite colour. though it was probably meant to refer to possessive noun "Ruth's. In this example. as antecedents.possessive case." Jerry wore those blasted green knickers." 160 . Although they may imply a noun." though it was probably meant to refer to the adjective "green.

the title will appear on a separate page. for example. Imagine. 161 . but since the idea is not in the body of the paper itself. the reference will not make sense. The writer probably wanted the pronoun "this" to refer to the idea of sewing knickers. and your opening will be confusing. a paper entitled "How to Sew Green Knickers": you should not begin the first paragraph with a sentence like This is not as easy as it looks. Often. do not write as if the title itself were part of the body of the paper.A pronoun should not refer to a title When you start your paper.

Use "it. however." and "In my home town they say that .." and "you" carefully In conversation people often use expressions such as "It says in this book that . these constructions are either too imprecise or too wordy: [WRONG] In Chapter four of my autobiography it says that I was born out of wedlock. what says that the speaker was born out of wedlock? [WRONG] In the restaurant they gave me someone else's linguini. without supporting evidence. In Chapter four. 162 .. for academic writing.."." "they. These constructions are useful for information conversation because they allow you to present ideas casually..

needs to be more 163 . academic writing. English speakers often use the pronoun to mean something like "a hypothetical person" or "people in general".Who gave the speaker someone else's linguini? It would be better to rewrite these two sentences as follow: [RIGHT] Chapter four of my autobiography states that I was born out of wedlock. In these revised sentences. however. The same basic rule applies to the pronoun "you." In informal conversation and in instructional writing (like HyperGrammar). [RIGHT] In the restaurant. there is no doubt about who is doing what. the server gave me someone else's linguini.

It would be better to rewrite the sentence so that it expresses your idea more precisely. and you should use "you" only when you want to address the reader directly (as I am doing here). Or even better yet. for example [RIGHT] In the fourteenth century. English peasant 164 .precise. people had to struggle to survive. Consider this example: [WRONG] In the fourteenth century. In this case. [RIGHT] In the fourteenth century. "you" obviously does not refer to the reader. since the reader was not alive during the seventeenth century. you had to struggle to survive.

farmers had to struggle to survive. Use "it" consistently within a sentence There are three common uses of the pronoun "it": As an idiom "It is snowing"." You may use all of these in academic writing. To postpone the subject "It is untrue that a rhinoceros can run faster than my tights". but did not get it. but to avoid awkwardness. and As a personal pronoun "I wanted a rhinoceros for my birthday. you should not use more than one within a single sentence: 165 .

According to this standard. the pronoun "who" usually refers to people. but may 166 . editors. It would be better to eliminate the first (idiomatic) "it": On my birthday. but over the last fifty years or so they have come a loose standard." and "that. and I will walk it often." in formal writing. writers. I hope to receive a rhinoceros. Use "who.[WRONG] When it is my birthday." "which. I hope to receive a rhinoceros." "which. and I will walk it often. and publishers have had difficulty establishing a clear guidelines for using the relative pronouns "who." and "that" carefully Historically.

wanders at will through the house. whom I call Spike. must love me very much. who gave me the rhino. which is a much maligned and misunderstood animal. The pronoun "which" refers to animals and things: The rhino. My rhino. the pronoun "that" refers to animals and things and occasionally to persons when they are collective or anonymous: 167 . Finally. is really quite affectionate.also refer to animals that have names: My mother. Its horn is a matt of hair which is sort of stuck to its snout.

168 . decide whether the writer used the hilighted pronoun appropriately for academic writing. Rhinos that like to swim cause both plumbing and enamelling problems for their owners. The answer that everyone missed was "Etruscan. Question: It says in this article in The Atlantic Advocate that Frederictonians are taking up line dancing in unprecedented numbers.The rhino that hid behind the television was missing for days." Review: Pronoun Reference In each of the following sentences. Answer: The answer Right is not correct.

Explanation: What says that Frederictonians are taking up line dancing? The pronoun refers very loosely either to the article or the the Atlantic Advocate. Question: They say Frederictonians often gather at clubs and dance the night away. but it does not have a clear and specific antecedent.who says that Frederictonians often gather at clubs? Of course. if there were a specific antecedent. this sentence would be correct: 169 . Answer: The answer Wrong is correct. Explanation: This sentence has the same problem as the last one -.

[RIGHT] My sisters are telling me about line dancing in Fredericton. the entire audience becomes involved. Explanation: The pronoun "their" can refer only to the noun "Frederictonians. Question: When a dancer which is talented performs the bestknown numbers. Answer: The answer Right is not correct." which precedes it. They say Frederictonians often gather at clubs and dance the night away. Answer: The answer Right is correct. Question: Recently Frederictonians gave a demonstration of their craft at the Saint John Exhibition. 170 .

Question: 171 . Question: In Martha's Guide to Fredericton she lists all the line dancing halls within 50 kilometres. but this type of a reference is very awkward. it is clear that the pronoun "she" must refer to the possessive noun "Martha's". but many people consider it a matter of good style not to use "which" to refer to people -"who is talented" would be much better.Explanation: Grammatically. Answer: The answer Right is not correct. Explanation: On careful reading. this sentence is fine.

especially in the summer. and Ruth enjoys spring because it is the season when all dancers buy new outfits. to watch the dancers. Answer: The answer Right is correct.Although Fredericton is a small town it has many interesting sights. the writer uses both in the same way. referring to the specific antecedents "Fredericton" (or "town") and "spring. Answer: The answer Wrong is not correct. Explanation: Although this sentence contains the pronoun "it" twice." Question: It is normal for tourists to visit Fredericton from all over Canada. 172 .

Question: Line dancing has a long and illustrious history. Answer: The answer Right is not correct. who were the first generation to line dance. line dancing or the history of line dancing? Since the nearest possible antecedent is "history." this sentence could be confusing.Explanation: "It is" is a perfectly correct idiomatic expression in English. and it is especially popular with the older generation. Question: Grandparents. Explanation: What is popular with the older generation. taught their children to consider 173 .

Question: The reasons for keeping this tradition alive include an awareness of your roots and pride in your heritage. Explanation: The reasons include an awareness of whose roots and a pride in whose heritage? The 174 . Answer: The answer Wrong is correct. Answer: The answer Right is correct. "grandparents"). You should not use "that" or "which" here.the activity as part of Fredericton's heritage. Explanation: The relative pronoun "who" is currently the most acceptable one to use to refer to people (in this case.

writer here is assuming that only a certain group of people (Frederictonians whose cultural heritage includes line dancing) will be reading the sentence. It would be better to rewrite the sentence as follows: [RIGHT] Frederictonians keep this tradition alive to help them remember their roots and take pride in their heritage. Tricky Points of Pronoun Usage This section covers some relatively tricky points which are no longer standard in spoken English. though many people still insist upon them in formal writing. Pronouns in Apposition A pronoun should also be in the subject case when it is in 175 .

apposition to a subject or subject complement." but that noun has become the object of the preposition "by. [RIGHT] The accessory was made by three craftspeople. Albert. and he" is in apposition to "craftspeople. The phrase "Mary." so the pronoun "him" is in the object case. or preposition: [RIGHT] Three craftspeople -Mary." the subject of the sentence. and he -. Albert. verbal.made the accessory for Jerry. and in the object case when it is in apposition to the object of a verb. Albert. The phrase "Mary. and him" is still in apposition to the noun "craftspeople. 176 . Albert. Mary. and him.

and she. If the noun functions as a subject. The pronoun "she" is part of the subject complement. 177 . "Us" and "we" before a Noun A first-person plural pronoun used with a noun takes the case of the noun. the pronoun should be in the object case: We rowdies left the restaurant late. so it is in the subject case. The restaurant owner mumbled at all us slow eaters. if the noun functions as an object. the pronoun should be in the subject case.[RIGHT] The three craftspeople involved were Mary. Albert.

Complete 178 . When a sentence ends with an objective pronoun. where the writer has left some words out of a sentence. Elliptical Ruth likes Jerry better than me. the pronoun must serve as the object of the omitted verb: Elliptical Ruth likes Jerry better than I. Complete Ruth likes Jerry better than I like Jerry. the pronoun must serve as the subject of the omitted verb. the case of the pronoun at the end of the sentence determines its meaning.Using 'than' or 'as' in a Comparison In elliptical comparisons. When a sentence ends with a subjective pronoun.

A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and expresses actions. 179 . In each of the following sentences. Using Verbs The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. The verb "bites" describes the action Dracula takes. events.Ruth likes Jerry better than she likes me. or states of being. the verb or compound verb appears highlighted: Dracula bites his victims on the neck.

Weatherbee more vividly. In this sentence. 180 . My first teacher was Miss Crawford. Compound Verbs You construct a compound verb out of an auxiliary verb and another verb. the verb "was" (the simple past tense of "is") identifies a particular person and the verb "remembered" describes a mental action. but I remember the janitor Mr. Here the compound verb "will plant" describes an action that will take place in the future. Giselle will plant twenty tulip bulbs.In early October.

In particular. The compound verb in this sentence is made up of the auxiliary "were" and the past participle "destroyed. you may use an auxiliary verb (also known as a helping verb) with the verb in order to create the many of the tenses available in English. but his diaries and his bicycle were destroyed. In each of the following sentences." The book Seema was looking for is under the sofa. the compound verb appears highlighted: Karl Creelman bicycled around in world in 1899. 181 .

" That dog has been barking for three hours." They will meet us at the newest café in the market. I wonder if someone will call the owner.Here the compound verb is made up of the auxiliary verb "was" and the present participle "looking. In this sentence the first compound verb is made up of the two auxiliary verbs ("has" and "been") and a present participle ("barking"). In this example the compound verb is made up of the auxiliary verb "will" and the verb "meet." Auxiliary Verbs 182 . The second compound verb is made up of the auxiliary verb "will" and the verb "call.

They have several kinds of gelato in the display case. The tea cups are in the china cabinet. My roommates and I do the laundry every second week. In each of the following examples. I can't complete my assignment because he still has my notes. and you may also use these verbs on their own. You use "Will" and "shall" to express future time. 183 .The most common auxiliary verbs are "be. a verb commonly used as an auxiliary verb appears as a simple predicate: She is the chief engineer." and "have"." "do. Garth does this kind of thing frequently.

" A verb like these is called a modal auxiliary and expresses necessity. obligation." "should.Other common auxiliaries are "can." and "would." "could. or possibility." "ought." "will. Henry told Eliza that she ought to have the hole in the bucket fixed. The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is a modal auxiliary: Zora was pleased to learn that she could take several days off. The small freckled girl told her neighbours that she would walk their dog for an appropriate fee. The principal told the assembled students that the school board might introduce a dress code next autumn." "might. 184 ." "may." "must.

The health department has recently decided that all high school students should be immunised against meningitis. The treasure chest was never discovered.According to the instructions. as in the following sentences: They have not delivered the documents on time. Will you walk the dog tonight? The ballet corps was rapidly and gracefully pirouetting about the stage. we must leave this goo in our hair for twenty minutes. Several words may intervene between the auxiliary and the verb which goes with it. 185 .

The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object. intransitive. INCOMPLETE The child broke.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Depending on the type of object they take. verbs may be transitive. INCOMPLETE The committee named. COMPLETE The committee named a new chairperson. or linking. 186 . as in the following examples: INCOMPLETE The shelf holds. COMPLETE The shelf holds three books and a vase of flowers.

The prepositional phrase "through the cathedral" acts as an adverb 187 . The verb "carried" is used intransitively in this sentence and takes no direct object. cannot take a direct object: This plant has thrived on the south windowsill. An intransitive verb.COMPLETE The child broke the plate. The prepositional phrase "on the south windowsill" acts as an adverb describing where the plant thrives. The sound of the choir carried through the cathedral. The compound verb "has thrived" is intransitive and takes no direct object in this sentence. on the other hand.

describing where the sound carried. we lingered in the restaurant for several hours. The train from Montreal arrived four hours late. and the noun phrase "four hours late" acts as an adverb describing when the train arrived. The verb "lingered" is used intransitively and takes no direct object. 188 . Since the company was pleasant and the coffee both plentiful and good. The prepositional phrase "in the restaurant for several hours" acts as an adverb modifying "lingered". The intransitive verb "arrived" takes no direct object.

189 . The compound verb "was hung" is used intransitively and the sentence has no direct object. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive. The prepositional phrase "on the south wall of the reception room" acts as a adverb describing where the paint hung. In the following pairs of sentences. the first sentence uses the verb transitively and the second uses the same verb intransitively: transitive According to the instructions.The painting was hung on the south wall of the reception room. we must leave this goo in our hair for twenty minutes. depending on their context in the sentence.

the verb "leave" takes a direct object. the noun phrase "this goo". the verb "watch" is used transitively and takes the noun phrase "the latest production of The Trojan Women" as a direct object. In this example.In this example. In this example. but we must leave. the verb "leave" does not take a direct object. intransitive We would like to stay longer. transitive The audience attentively watched the latest production of The Trojan Women. intransitive The cook watched while the new dishwasher surreptitiously 190 .

In this sentence "moves" is used as a transitive verb and takes the noun phrase "all the boxes and trunk" as a direct object.picked up the fragments of the broken dish. 191 . Here the verb "moves" is used as an intransitive verb and takes no direct object. the verb "watched" is used intransitively and takes no direct object. William moves all boxes and trunks from one side of the attic to the other. intransitive The crowd moves across the field in an attempt to see the rock star get into her helicopter. In this example. transitive Every spring.

Explanation: The verb "struggled" does not have a direct object. 192 . pulling a grocery cart that had lost one wheel behind her.Review: Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Identify whether the underlined verb or compound verb is used transitively or intransitively: Question: The old woman struggled up the hill. Answer: The answer transitive verb is not correct. the prepositional phrase "up the hill" acts as an adverb describing where she struggled.

Answer: The answer intransitive verb is not correct.Question: Hermione is editing her uncle's memoirs of his lifetime as a green grocer. Explanation: Here the verb "danced" is accompanied by a noun phrase 193 . Answer: The answer transitive verb is correct." Question: Much to the amusement of the onlookers. Paul danced a minuet to the polka music that drifted out of the beer tent. Explanation: The compound verb "is editing" takes a direct object--the noun phrase "her uncle's memoirs.

("a minuet") that acts as a direct object. the entire cast dances manically across the stage. Question: At the beginning of the play. the verb "dances" is not accompanied by a direct object. Answer: The answer intransitive verb is correct. Explanation: In this sentence. Question: Stella is reading quietly in the upstairs bedroom instead of doing her chores. The phrase "manically across the stage" acts as an adverb describing where the dancing takes place. Answer: 194 .

Answer: The answer transitive verb is correct. the compound verb "am reading" takes the noun phrase "all of the works of Sylvia Townsend Warner" as a direct object. Explanation: In this sentence. Question: 195 . Question: This term I am reading all of the works of Sylvia Townsend Warner. Explanation: The compound verb "is reading" is accompanied by the adverb "quietly" but does not take a direct object.The answer transitive verb is not correct.

Answer: The answer transitive verb is not correct. Explanation: In this sentence. the verb "ate" takes a direct object. we will eat heartily. Answer: The answer transitive verb is correct." 196 . "heartily" is an adverb modifying the compound verb. the noun phrase "his dessert. Explanation: Here the compound verb is not associated with a direct object. and ate his dessert first. examined the contents carefully.At the feast. Question: Charles opened up his lunch.

Answer: 197 . Answer: The answer transitive verb is not correct. what Vanessa paints is not stated. Explanation: The verb "paints" describes Vanessa's actions but takes no direct object. and early one morning. Virginia writes and Vanessa paints. my father left a can of paint open in my bedroom. Question: When I was three years old. I painted my baby brother's face green.Question: The Stephens sisters are both very talented.

Explanation: In the sentence. Linking Verbs A linking verb connects a subject to a subject complement which identifies or describes the subject. In this sentence. the verb "painted" takes the noun phrase "my baby brother's face" as a direct object.The answer transitive verb is correct. 198 . as in the following sentences: The play is Waiting for Godot. the linking verb "is" links the noun phrase "the play" to the identifying phrase "Waiting for Godot." which is called a subject complement.

In this sentence.Some of us thought that the play was very good. Others thought it became tedious after the first fifteen minutes. the linking verb "became" links the subject "it" to the subject complement "tedious. the verb "was" links the subject complement "very good" to subject "the play". The cast appears disorganised and confused. In this sentence. Here "appears" is functioning as a linking verb that connects the 199 ." The phrase "after the first fifteen minutes" functions as a adverb modifying the clause "it became tedious". perhaps Beckett intended this.

" "be." "sit. the first sentence uses the highlighted verb as a linking verb and the second 200 ." "remain." "taste") or verbs of existence ("act. The subject "the play" is joined to its subject complement "absurd" by the linking verb "seems". Linking verbs are either verbs of sensation ("feel. In the following pairs of sentences." "prove." "smell. The play seems absurd to me." "seem." "continue." "sound." "look.subject "the cats" to its subject complement "disorganised and confused". Many linking verbs (with the significant exception of "be") can also be used as transitive or intransitive verbs." "grow." "become." "turn")." "appear." "strand.

" "The soup" is the direct object of the verb "tasted. 201 . the adjective "terrible" is a subject complement that describes a quality of the water. Transitive I tasted the soup before adding more salt.uses the same verb as either a transitive or an intransitive verb: Linking Griffin insists that the water in Winnipeg tastes terrible. Here the noun phrase "the soup" identifies what "I tasted. In this sentence." Linking My neighbour's singing voice sounds very squeaky despite several hours of daily practice.

Here the verb "sounded" takes a direct object.In this example. 202 ." Transitive Upon the approach of the enemy troops. the phrase "very squeaky" is a subject complement that describes or identities the nature of the "singing voice. Transitive The customer carefully feels the fabric of the coat. the adjective "queasy" is a subject complement that describes Cynthia. In this sentence. the gate-keeper sounded his horn." Linking Cynthia feels queasy whenever she listens to banjo music. the noun phrase "his horn.

Here the noun phrase "the fabric of the coat" is the direct object of the verb "feels" and identifies what the customer feels. The noun phrase "the name of the scientist not the monster" is a subject 203 . this is a linking verb is correct. Written by Heather MacFadyen Review: Linking Verbs Identify whether the underlined verb is used as a linking verb: Question: Frankenstein is the name of the scientist not the monster. Answer: The answer Yes. Explanation: The verb "be" is usually used as a linking verb.

this is not a linking verb is correct. Answer: The answer No.complement that identifies the proper noun "Frankenstein." Question: The oenophile tasted several types of Beaujolais. Explanation: 204 . this is not a linking verb is correct. Question: Francine's uncle grows prize winning dahlias. Explanation: The verb "tasted" is accompanied by a noun phrase ("several types of Beaujolais") that acts as a direct object. Answer: The answer No.

Flannery turned green. "the cheesecake. Answer: 205 . this is not a linking verb is not correct. Question: The cheesecake tastes delicious." Question: After smoking three cigars. The adjective "delicious" is a subject complement that identifies the subject of the sentence. the verb "tastes" is used as a linking verb. Explanation: In this sentence.Here the verb "grows" is used as a transitive verb and takes the noun phrase "prize winning dahlias" as a direct object. Answer: The answer No.

The answer No. the verb "smelled" is used as a transitive verb and takes the noun phrase "the dish of food" as a direct object. Answer: The answer No." Question: The cat fastidiously smelled the dish of food placed before it. this is not a linking verb is not correct. Explanation: Here the verb "turned" is used as a linking verb and the adjective "green" is a subject complement that defines the subject "Flannery. Question: 206 . Explanation: In this sentence. this is not a linking verb is correct.

the verb "smells" is used as a linking verb and the phrase "too spicy" 207 .The flowers always grow quickly during a sunny summer." which acts as an adverb. Explanation: Here the verb "grow" is used as an intransitive verb and is accompanied by the phrase "quickly during a sunny summer. Answer: The answer Yes. this is a linking verb is correct. Question: The stew that Gordon made smells too spicy to me. this is not a linking verb is correct. Answer: The answer No. Explanation: In this sentence.

Explanation: Here the verb "turned" is used as a transitive verb and takes the direct object "pages. this is not a linking verb is correct. Answer: The answer No." Question: David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor. Answer: 208 .is a subject complement that identifies the nature of the stew. The dependent clause "that Gordon made" functions as an adjective defining the nature of the stew. Question: Walter was annoyed because Ross turned pages too quickly.

" Verbals A verbal is a noun or adjective formed from a verb. Writers sometimes make mistakes by using a verbal in place of a verb. this is not a linking verb is not correct. The noun phrase "a very prominent eighteenthcentury actor" is a subject complement that identifies the proper noun "David Garrick. This section covers three different verbals: the participle (which acts as an adjective). the gerund (which 209 . and in very formal writing. Explanation: The verb "be" is usually used as a linking verb.The answer No. by confusing different types of verbals.

and the infinitive (which also acts as a noun). you add "-ing" to the 210 . even though "building" is a noun rather than a verb. the noun phrase "a house" is the direct object of the verbal "building". The fundamental difference between verbals and other nouns and adjectives is that verbals can take their own objects.acts as a noun). In this example. The Participle A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. even though they are no longer verbs: Gerund Building a house is complicated. To make a present participle.

is a little more complicated. The following are all past participles: the sunken ship a ruined city a misspelled word Note that only transitive verbs can use their past participles as adjectives. sometimes doubling the final consonant: "think" becomes "thinking" "fall" becomes "falling" "run" becomes "running" The second type of participle.verb. since not all verbs form the past tense regularly. the past participle. and that unlike other verbals. past participles do not take objects (unless they are part of a compound verb). 211 .

just as with a present participle. To make a gerund. you add "ing" to the verb. The first is that since verbals look like verbs. ("Running" is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb "enjoy. The fundamental difference is that a gerund is a noun. while a participle is an adjective: gerund I enjoy running. they 212 . ("Running" is an adjective modifying the noun "water".) Using Verbals There are two common problems that come up when writers use verbals.") participle Stay away from running water.The Gerund A gerund is a noun formed from a verb.

swimming the most important race of his life. to find true love! [WRONG] Jimmy. In the first example. The second problem is a very fine point. which most editors and some teachers no longer enforce. and need to be treated differently.sometimes cause students to write fragmentary sentences: [WRONG] Oh. I admire the woman's finishing the report. consider the following two sentences: I admire the woman finishing the report. Although they look the same. the writer 213 . gerunds and present participles are different parts of speech. For example. "finishing" is a participle modifying the noun "woman": in other words.

214 . "finishing" is a participle.admires the woman. the writer admires not the woman herself but the fact that she is finishing the report. not what she is doing. modified by the possessive noun "woman's": in other words. in the second example. Forming and Using Verb Tenses English speakers form many verb tenses by combining one of principal parts of the verb with one or more auxiliary verbs.

In order to form verb tenses you need a good grasp of the auxiliaries and the principal parts of the verb. The basic form (or root of the verb is the form listed in the dictionary and is usually identical to the first person singular form of the simple present tense (except in the case of the verb "to be"): walk paint think grow sing The infinitive form of the verb is a compound verb made up of the the 215 . the past form. the present participle. There are four principal parts: the basic form. and the past participle.

the word group "I walking to the store" is an incomplete and ungrammatical sentence. while word group "I am walking to the 216 . add "-ing" to the basic form of the verb: walking painting thinking growing singing Note that you cannot use the present participle as a predicate unless you use an auxiliary verb with it -.preposition "to" and the basic form of the verb: to to to to to walk paint think grow sing To form the present participle.

When a basic form ends in "-y". 217 . you changed the "-y" to "-i-". walked painted thought grew sang The past participle of regular verbs is usually identical to the past form. or "-t" to the present form. You will often use the present participle as a modifier. The past form of verbs is a little trickier. you can create the past form by adding "-ed".store" is a complete sentence. If the verb is regular (or weak. "-d". in many cases you should also double terminal consonants before adding "-ed" (see the section on Spelling words with Double Consonants).

the past form of the verb "break" is "broke" and the past participle is "broken". This list contains the most common verbs that form their past tenses irregularly: arise 218 . For example.while the past participle of irregular verbs is often different: walked painted thought grown sung Irregular Verbs Irregular verbs form the past participle and the past form without "-(e)d" or "-t". and frequently their past form and past participle are different.

awakened bear (to carry) bore. offer) bid (to order. bet bid bid. beaten or beat be was. invite) 219 . awaked or awoken awaken awakened. become begin began. been become became.arose. begun bet bet. arise awake awoke or awaked. borne bear (to give birth) bore beat beat. bid (to.

bought cast cast. blown break broke. broken breed bred. burst buy bought. caught 220 . bred bring brought. cast catch caught.bade. bled blow blew. bitten bleed bled. bidden bind bound. brought burst burst. bound bite bit.

dug dive dived or dove. come creep crept. dived do did.choose chose. done draw drew. cut deal dealt. chosen cling clung. crept cut cut. dreamed or dreamt 221 . clung come came. drawn dream dreamed or dreamt. dealt dig dug.

driven eat ate. fallen feed fed. eaten fall fell. fought find found. found flee fled. fled fly flew. forbidden forget 222 .drink drank. felt fight fought. drunk drive drove. fed feel felt. flown forbid forbade.

forsaken freeze froze. hung hang (to execute) hanged. ground grow grew. forgiven forsake forsook.forgot. gone grind ground. frozen get got. had 223 . hanged have had. given go went. forgotten forgive forgave. grown hang (to suspend) hung. got or gotten give gave.

hit hold held. heard hide hid. known lay laid.hear heard. kept kneel knelt or kneeled. led 224 . knelt or kneeled knit knitted or knit. knitted or knit know knew. held hurt hurt. laid lead led. hurt keep kept. hidden hit hit.

lent let let. met mistake mistook. meant meet met. left lend lent. let lie lay. lighted or lit lose lost. lain light lighted or lit. lost make made.leap leaped or leapt. leaped or leapt leave left. mistaken overcome 225 . made mean meant.

rung rise rose. said see saw. risen run ran. seen 226 . overcome pay paid. put quit quit. ridden ring rang. paid prove proved. proved or proven put put. read ride rode.overcame. run say said. quit read read.

seek sought. shaken shed shed. shrunk shut shut. shot shrink shrank or shrunk. sent set set. sunk sit 227 . shut sing sang. sought sell sold. set shake shook. shed shoot shot. sung sink sank. sold send sent.

slain sleep slept. slung slink slunk. spent spin spun. spun spit spit or spat. slunk speak spoke. spoken speed sped or speeded. slide sling slung. slept slide slid. spit or spat split 228 .sat. sped or speeded spend spent. sat slay slew.

split spread spread. spread spring sprang or sprung. strewn stride strode.split. stolen stick stuck. struck string strung. stood steal stole. stuck stink stank or stunk. stunk strew strewed. sprung stand stood. stridden strike struck. strung strive 229 .

striven or strived swear swore. swung take took. swept swell swelled. swum swing swung. swelled or swollen swim swam. torn tell told. taken teach taught. sworn sweep swept.stove or strived. taught tear tore. though thrive 230 . told think thought.

wrung write wrote. wept win won. wound wring wring. waked or woken weep wept. won wind wound. throve or thriven throw threw. thrown thrust thrust. written 231 .throve or thrived. thrust wake woke or waked.

identify whether the highlighted verb or compound verb is formed correctly: Question: Beryl had wringed all of water out of the clothes before she hung them on the line. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed." Question: 232 . Explanation: The correct form is "had wrung. is not correct.Review: Verb Tense In the following sentences.

is not correct. Answer: The answer This verb is correctly formed. Question: The planes have flew over this neighbour for twenty years. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. Explanation: 233 ." Question: Once he had written a letter or two.Last night the wind shooked the house so much that I could not sleep. he went upstairs and listened to his short-wave radio. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. is not correct. Explanation: The correct form is "shook. is correct.

Explanation: The correct form is "was hanged. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed." Question: I betted my entire salary on a nag named Mephibosheth." Question: The child who had been caught stealing bread was hanged at noon. the past participle is "hanged.The correct form is "have flown. 234 ." The verb "hang" has different forms depending on the subject of the verb. is correct. If an inanimate object is the subject of the verb. the past participle is "hung". If a person is the subject of the verb.

is correct. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. Explanation: The correct form is "bet. is correct. God cast her out of Paradise. is not correct. Explanation: 235 . Question: The bells of the tower have rang for three hours in honour of the passing a generous soul." Question: After Lilith defied Adam. Answer: The answer This compound verb is not correctly formed.Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed.

" Question: Marilla has forbade us to play in the hayloft while she is away. is not correct. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. Question: The walls of the trenches that had been digged yesterday collapsed in the torrential downpour.The correct form is "have rung. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed." Remember to distinguish between the past part ("rang") and the past participle ("rung"). Explanation: The correct form is "had been dug. 236 . is not correct.

" Remember to distinguish between the past part ("forbade") and the past participle ("forbidden"). Frequently-Confused Verbs Writers often confuse the verb pairs "lie" and "lay" and "sit" and "set". The present participle of "lie" is "lying.Explanation: The correct form is "has forbidden." the past 237 . "Lie" and "Lay" The verb "lie" is an intransitive verb which means "to recline" or "to be situated".

In each of these examples.form is "lay" and the past participle is "lain": The cup is lying on the floor. the intransitive verb "lie" is used (in conjunction with an adverbial phrase) to describe the location of the subject. The newspapers had lain on the verandah for two weeks before anyone noticed that Mr. The verb "lay" is a transitive verb which means "to place" or "to put". The present participle of "lay" is "laying". The cat lay in the sun all morning. and both the past form and the past participle is "laid": 238 . Gilfillian had disappeared.

Jenkins laid the suspicious parcel on the commissioner's desk. The present participle is "sitting". The intransitive verb "sit" means "to rest" or "to occupy a seat". the transitive verb "lay" is used to describe the fact that someone had placed something somewhere. The supervisor had laid a cup of scalding coffee on the counter only moments before the bulldozer rammed into the construction office. In each of these sentences. Sit and Set The verbs "sit" and "set" are also frequently confused. and 239 .I was laying the cups and saucers on the table when I dropped one.

they have sat in the excruciatingly uncomfortable chairs outside the dean's office for several hours. The present participle of "set" is "setting". We sat in the corridor outside the dean's office all afternoon. the verb "sit" is used in conjunction with a adverbial phrase to describe the position of the subject. The student delegate is persistent.both the past part and the past participle are "sat"." "to put. The transitive verb "set" is means "to place. Charlie will be surprised when he learns that he is sitting on a freshly painted bench. and both the past form and the past participle are "set": 240 ." or "to lay". In each of these sentences.

we went to bed. In each of these sentence. Question: 241 .The clockmaker was setting his tools on the bench when the hooligans came into his shop. identify whether the highlighted verb or compound verb is used correctly. Review: Frequently-Confused Verbs In the following sentences. the verb "set" is used to describe the placing of an object in a specific place. Germaine set plates and soup bowls on the table. Once we had set the clock ahead an hour.

The correct form is "has been sitting." Question: The cows were laying in the field even though it was raining. but the sentence describes the position of the casserole. not the act of placing it somewhere.The leftover casserole has been setting in the refrigerator for a couple of weeks. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. Explanation: 242 . Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. is not correct. is not correct. Explanation: The compound verb "has been setting" is transitive.

The compound verb "were laying" is transitive. is correct." Question: Set that vase on the sideboard. The correct form is "were lying. Explanation: The verb "set" is transitive and is used to described the act of placing the vase rather than to describe its position. Answer: 243 . not the act of lying down. but the sentence describes the position of the cows. Answer: The answer This verb is correctly formed. Question: The beavers spent the afternoon lying new branches on the lodge.

" Question: Joseph argues that setting in a rocking chair is a form of aerobic exercise. but the sentence does not describe the act of placing something or someone in a particular place. not the position of the branches. Answer: The answer This verb is correctly formed. is not correct. is not correct. Explanation: The verb "lying" is intransitive. The correct form is "laying. but the sentence describes the act of placing the branches. The correct form is "sitting." 244 .The answer This verb is correctly formed. Explanation: The verb "setting" is transitive.

is not correct. is not correct. Answer: The answer This verb is correctly formed. Explanation: "Sitted" is not one of the principal parts of the either the verb "to sit" or "to set. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed." Question: While they were lying the new linoleum.Question: The entire cub pack suddenly sitted down." The correct form is "sat. the McLeod boys listened to some Howie MacDonald fiddle music. Explanation: 245 .

but the sentence requires the intransitive "to sit.The compound verb "were lying" is intransitive but the sentence describes the act of placing the linoleum on the floor. Willa saw several small grease spots. Explanation: The infinitive "to set" is transitive." Question: After the clerk had laid the fabric on the table. is not correct. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed." Question: The cat preferred to set on the dining room table. Answer: 246 . The correct form is "were laying.

The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. is correct." 247 . Question: While Charlene and Shasta were sitting the post in the concrete. Explanation: The sentence describing the action of placing the post in the concrete and thus requires the transitive compound verb "were setting. Explanation: The dependent clause describe the act of placing the bolt on the table and therefore the transitive form "had laid" is appropriate. is correct. they were harassed by clouds of black flies. Answer: The answer This compound verb is not correctly formed.

Explanation: "Laid" is the past participle which must be used with and auxiliary verb. is not correct.Question: Mary laid down for a short nap before the exam." Question: We have set here four hours and still haven't caught a fish. Explanation: The compound verb "have set" is intransitive. is correct. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. Answer: The answer This verb is not correctly formed. but the sentence describes the position of the 248 . The correct form is "lay.

Explanation: The verb "lying" is intransitive but the sentence requires the transitive verb "laying" because it describe the action of placing the carton on the counter. Answer: 249 . Beverly began to search for the frying pan. she was able to find her door keys. is not correct. The correct form is "have sat.people rather than the act of sitting down. Question: After she had sat the bags of groceries down." Question: After lying the egg carton on the counter. Answer: The answer This verb is correctly formed.

is not correct. Answer: 250 . Explanation: The compound verb "had sat" is intransitive but the sentence describes the action of putting the bags down. Explanation: The correct form is "lay. is not correct.The answer This compound verb is correctly formed." Question: Charlie and Paulette lied in the sun all afternoon." Question: The youngest child usually sets in a special chair. The correct form is the transitive "had set. Answer: The answer This verb is correctly formed.

" Question: We spent the morning lying on the sofa watching cartoons instead of raking the leaves.The answer This verb is correctly formed. Answer: The answer This verb is not correctly formed. Explanation: The participle "lying" is intransitive and describes the position the "we" rather than the act of placing something on the sofa. Question: 251 . is not correct. Explanation: This sentence describes the position of the child and should use the intransitive verb "sits. is not correct.

Jason carefully sits the bamboo bridge on the counter. Answer: The answer This verb is not correctly formed. Explanation: The sentence describes the act of placing the bridge on the counter and thus requires the transitive form "sets." Question: The records were ruined because they had laid on top of the radiator all weekend. is not correct. Answer: The answer This compound verb is correctly formed. Explanation: The compound verb "had laid" is an transitive verb but the sentence describes the position of the records rather than the 252 . is correct.

Question: Lie those boxes on the top shelf in the garage." Using Verb Tenses A verb indicates the time of an action.act of placing them on the radiator. Answer: The answer This verb is not correctly formed. event or condition by 253 . Explanation: The verb "lie" is intransitive but the sentence requires the transitive verb "lay. is correct. The intransitive form "had lain" should be used.

and future tenses. the simple past ("I went") 2. present tenses. and conditions There are many ways of categorising the twelve possible verb tenses. Verb Tense: Time The four past tenses are 1. The verb tenses may be categorised according to the time frame: past tenses. events. Through the use of a sequence of tenses in a sentence or in a paragraph. the past perfect progressive ("I had been going") 254 . the past perfect ("I had gone") 4.changing its form. the past progressive ("I was going") 3. it is possible to indicate the complex temporal relationship of actions.

the future progressive ("I will be going") 3.The four present tenses are 1. The four future tenses are 1. the simple future ("I will go") 2. the future perfect ("I will have gone") 255 . the simple present ("I go") 2. the present progressive ("I am going") 3. the present perfect progressive ("I have been going") Note that the present perfect and present perfect progressive are a present not past tenses -.that idea is that the speaker is currently in the state of having gone or having been going. the present perfect ("I have gone") 4.

4. describe an action but do not state whether the action is finished: • • • the simple past ("I went") the simple present ("I go") the simple future ("I will go") A verb in the indefinite aspect is used when the beginning or ending 256 . the future perfect progressive ("I will have been going") Verb Tense: Aspect Verb tenses may also be categorised according to aspect. The three indefinite tenses. or simple tenses. Aspect refers to the nature of the action described by the verb. complete (or perfect). There are three aspects: indefinite (or simple). continuing (or progressive).

or condition is unknown or unimportant to the meaning of the sentence. event. event. however. an event. or condition is known and the is used to emphasise the fact that the action is complete. be 257 .of an action. The three complete tenses. The action may. describe a finished action: • • the past perfect ("I had gone") the present perfect ("I have gone") the future perfect ("I will have gone") • A verb in the complete aspect indicates that the end of the action. The indefinite aspect is also used to used to indicate an habitual or repeated action. or perfect tenses. or condition.

to describe an action which was in progress and then finished: 258 . It is also possible to combine the complete tenses and the incomplete tenses. in the past or in the future. or condition is ongoing in the present. describe an unfinished action: • the past progressive ("I was going") the present progressive ("I am going") the future progressive ("I will be going") • • A verb in the continuing aspect indicates that the action. The three incomplete tenses. the past or the future. or progressive tenses.completed in the present. event.

event. or condition is unknown or is unimportant to the meaning of the sentence. at the moment of speaking or writing. or condition that is occurring in the present. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the simple 259 .• the past perfect progressive ("I had been going") the present perfect progressive ("I have been going") the future perfect progressive ("I will have been going") • • The Function of Verb Tenses The Simple Present Tense The simple present is used to describe an action. The simple present is used when the precise beginning or ending of a present action. an event.

present tense and each sentence describes an action taking place in the present: Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets. 260 . The crowd moves across the field in an attempt to see the rock star get into her helicopter. as in the following sentences: Rectangles have four sides. Ross annoys Walter by turning pages too quickly. The simple present is used to express general truths such as scientific fact. Virginia writes and Vanessa paints. The shelf holds three books and a vase of flowers. The Stephens sisters are both very talented.

Menarche and menopause mark the beginning and the ending of a woman's reproductive history. My grandmother sends me new mittens each spring. Calcium is important to the formation of strong bones. or condition. event.Canada Day takes place on July 1. the anniversary of the signing of the British North America Act. The simple present is used to indicate a habitual action. things happen in threes. as in the following sentences: Leonard goes to The Jumping Horse Tavern every Thursday evening. In fairy tales. The moon circles the earth once every 28 days. 261 .

Lear rages against the silence of Cordelia and only belatedly realizes that she.We never finish jigsaw puzzles because the cat always eats some of the pieces. One of Artemisia Gentleschi's best known paintings represents Judith's beheading of Holofernes. as in the following sentences. loves him. Lolly Willowes is the protagonist of the novel Townsend published in 1926. The Lady of Shallot weaves a tapestry while watching the passers-by in her mirror. The simple present is also used when writing about works of art. Jesse polishes the menorah on Wednesdays. 262 . not her more vocal sisters.

The publisher distributes the galley proofs next Wednesday. The doors open in 10 minutes. event. or condition.The play ends with an epilogue spoken by the fool. The Present Progressive While the simple present and the present progressive are sometimes used interchangeably. the present progressive emphasises the continuing nature of an act. The simple present can also be used to refer to a future event when used in conjunction with an adverb or adverbial phrase. The premier arrives on Tuesday. The lunar eclipses begins in exactly 43 minutes. Classes end next week. 263 . as in the following sentences.

The union members are pacing up and down in front of the factory. In each sentence the on-going nature of the action is emphasised by the use of the present progressive rather than the simple present. The presses are printing the first edition of tomorrow's paper. Deirdre is dusting all the shelves on the second floor of the shop. Nora is looking for the first paperback editions of all of Raymond Chandler's books. The present progressive is occasionally used to refer to a future event when used in 264 .Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the present progressive tense. KPLA is broadcasting the hits of the 70s this evening.

conjunction with an adverb or adverbial phrase. 265 . The premier is arriving on Tuesday. as in the following sentences. The publisher is distributing the galley proofs next Wednesday. The Present Perfect Tense The present perfect tense is used to describe action that began in the past and continues into the present or has just been completed at the moment of utterance. The present perfect is often used to suggest that a past action still has an effect upon something happening in the present. The doors are opening in 10 minutes. Classes are ending next week.

They have not delivered the documents we need. This sentence suggest that the documents were not delivered in the past and that they are still undelivered. The government has cut university budgets. The writer of this sentence uses the present perfect in order to suggest that the decision made in the past is still of importance in the present.Each of the highlighted compound verbs in the following sentences is in the present perfect tense. the dean has 266 . consequently. The health department has decided that all high school students should be immunised against meningitis.

the writer uses the present perfect to indicate that a condition (the heat wave) began in past and continues to affect the present. Here the action of dreaming has begun in the past and continues into the present. 267 . In this sentence.increased the size of most classes. Donna has dreamt about frogs sitting in trees every night this week. The heat wave has lasted three weeks. Here both actions took place sometime in the past and continue to influence the present.

is used to stress the on-going nature of that action. 268 . That dog has been barking for three hours. condition. the present perfect progressive is used to describe an action. event.The Present Perfect Progressive Tense Like the present perfect. however. I wonder if someone will call the owner. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the present perfect progressive tense and each sentence suggests that the action began in the past and is continuing into the present. or event. or condition that has begun in the past and continues into the present. The present perfect progressive.

I have been relying on my Christmas bonus to pay for the gifts I buy for my large family. They have been publishing this comic book for ten years. We have been seeing geese flying south all afternoon. Even though the coroner has been carefully examining the corpse discovered in Sutherland's Gully since early this morning, we still do not know the cause of death. The Simple Past Tense The simple past is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that occurred in the past, sometime before the moment of speaking or writing. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the simple
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past tense and each sentence describes an action taking place at some point in past. A flea jumped from the dog to the cat. Phoebe gripped the hammer tightly and nailed the boards together. The gem-stones sparkled in a velvet lined display case. Artemisia Gentilsechi probably died in 1652. The storyteller began every story by saying "A long time ago when the earth was green." The Past Progressive Tense The past progressive tense is used to described actions ongoing in the past. These actions often take place within a specific time frame. While actions referred to in
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the present progressive have some connection to the present, actions referred in the past progressive have no immediate or obvious connection to the present. The ongoing actions took place and were completed at some point well before the time of speaking or writing. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the past progressive tense. The cat was walking along the tree branch. This sentence describes an action that took place over a period of continuous time in the past. The cat's actions have no immediate relationship to anything occurring now in the present.

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Lena was telling a story about the exploits of a red cow when a tree branch broke the parlour window. Here the action "was telling" took place in the past and continued for some time in the past. When the recess bell rang, Jesse was writing a long division problem on the blackboard. This sentence describes actions ("ran" and "was writing") that took place sometime in the past, and emphasises the continuing nature of one of the actions ("was writing"). The archivists were eagerly waiting for the delivery of the former prime minister's private papers.
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Here the ongoing action of "waiting" occurred at some time unconnected to the present. Between 1942 and 1944 the Frank and Van Damm families were hiding in a Amsterdam office building. In this sentence, the action of hiding took place over an extended period of time and the continuing nature of the hiding is emphasised. The Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense is used to refer to actions that took place and were completed in the past. The past perfect is often used to emphasis that one action, event or condition ended before another past action, event, or condition began.
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Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the past perfect. Miriam arrived at 5:00 p.m. but Mr. Whitaker had closed the store. All the events in this sentence took place in the past, but the act of closing the store takes place before Miriam arrives at the store. After we located the restaurant that Christian had raved about, we ate supper there every Friday. Here the praise ("had raved") precedes the finding ("located") of the restaurant. Both actions took place sometime before the moment of speaking or writing.

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The elephant had eaten all the hay so we fed it oats for a week. In this sentence, both actions take place in the past, but the eating of the hay ("had eaten") preceded the eating of the oats ("fed"). The heat wave had lasted three weeks. While the sentence "The heat wave has lasted three weeks" suggests that a condition began in the past and continues into the present, this sentence describes an action that began and ended sometime in the past ("had lasted"). By using the past perfect the writer indicates that the heat wave has no connection to any events occurring in the present. After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
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Here the learning took place and was completed at a specific time in the past. By using the past perfect rather than the simple past ("learned"), the writer emphasises that the learning preceded the feeling of independence. The Past Perfect Progressive Tense The past perfect progressive is used to indicate that a continuing action in the past began before another past action began or interrupted the first action. Each of the highlighted compound verbs in the following sentences is in the past perfect progressive tense. The toddlers had been running around the school yard for ten
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We had been talking about repainting the front room for three years and last night we finally bought the paint. Here the action of the toddlers ("had been running") is ongoing in the past and precedes the actions of the teachers ("shooed") which also takes place in the past. A construction crew had been digging one pit after another in the middle of my street for three days before they found the water main. the ongoing action of "talking" precedes another past action ("bought").minutes before the teachers shooed them back inside. 277 . In this example.

The digging was followed by the action of finding ("found"). Madeleine had been reading mystery novels for several years before she discovered the works of Agatha Christie.Here. the action of digging ("had been digging") took place in the past and occurred over a period of time. The 278 . The chef's assistant had been chopping vegetables for several minutes before he realized that he had minced his apron strings. This sentence is a bit more complex in that it contains three different past verb tenses. In this sentence the act of discovery ("discovered") occurred in the past but after the ongoing and repeated action of reading ("had been reading").

the past perfect ("had minced") is used to suggest that act of mincing was completed. an action that followed both the chopping and the mincing. The simple past ("realized") is used to describe the action closest to the present. While a second past perfect progressive ("had been mincing") could be used. 279 . The Simple Future Tense The simple future is used to refer to actions that will take place after the act of speaking or writing. The past perfect progressive ("had been chopping") is used to emphasise the ongoing nature of the past act of chopping.sequence of tenses conveys a complex set of information.

The Future Progressive Tense The future progressive tense is used to describe actions ongoing in the future. we will eat heartily. The Smiths say that they will not move their chicken coop. Each of the highlighted compound verbs in the following sentences is in the future progressive tense. Will you walk the dog tonight? At the feast.Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the simple future tense. Bobbie will call you tomorrow with details about the agenda. 280 . They will meet us at the newest café in the market. The future progressive is used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future.

Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the future perfect tense.The glee club will be performing at the celebration of the town's centenary. 281 . The Future Perfect Tense The future perfect is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future before another action takes place. Ian will be working on the computer system for the next two weeks. The selection committee will be meeting every Wednesday morning. We will be writing an exam every afternoon next week. They will be ringing the bells for Hypatia next month.

In this sentence. 282 . The plumber and his assistant will have soldered all the new joins in pipes before they leave for the next job. Here. By the time you get back from the corner store. we will have finished writing the thank you letters. the act of operating ("will have operated") takes place in the future sometime before the act of attending ("attends"). the plumbers' act of soldering ("will have soldered") will precede the act of leaving ("leave").The surgeon will have operated on 6 patients before she attends a luncheon meeting.

In this sentence. They will have written their first exam by the time we get out of bed. the act of finishing ("will have finished") occurs well before the act of starting ("starts"). the act of returning from the store ("get back") takes place after the act of writing ("will have written"). the act of getting out of bed occurs sometime after the writing of the exam. Here. 283 . In this example. If this year is like last year. I will have finished my holiday shopping long before my brother starts his.

284 . I will have been studying Greek for three years by the end of this term. the future perfect progressive is used to indicate the ongoing nature of the future act of the studying. In this sentence.The Future Perfect Progressive Tense The future perfect progressive tense is used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the future perfect progressive tense. This tense is rarely used. The act of studying ("will have been studying") will occur before the upcoming end of term.

When he returns. the wine will have been fermenting for three months. Similarly in this sentence. the ongoing nature of a future act ("will have been arguing") is emphasised by the use of the future perfect progressive.By the time the meeting is over. Here the ongoing action of fermentation will precede ("will have been fermenting") the act of returning. 285 . The act of sustained arguing will take place before the meeting is over. the committee will have been arguing about which candidate to interview for three hours.

Using Verb Tenses in Sequence Using verbs in correct sequence is often difficult. you must be able to identify independent and dependent clauses. In order to determine correct verb sequence. use the tenses that fit the logic of the sentence. The sequence of tenses in complex sentences is usually determined by the tense of the verb in the independent clause. The situation is further complicated by the fact that context. especially for those people whose cradle tongue is not English or whose cradle tongue does not uses a similar tense system. (In compound sentences. idiom. and style play as large a role in determining tense sequence as grammatical rules.) 286 .

and the present perfect progressive. the verb in the dependent clause can be a present tense verb. a past tense verb or a future tense verb. as in the following sentences. When these tenses are used in an independent clause. 287 . the present progressive. The four present tenses are the simple present.Present Tenses in Sequence In general. present tenses may be followed by a wide variety of tenses as long as the sequence fits the logic of the sentence. The simple present tense is used in both the independent clause and the dependent clause. Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets. the present perfect.

The simple predicate of the dependent clause ("I buy for my large family") 288 . I have been relying on my Christmas bonus to pay for the gifts I buy for my large family.They have not delivered the documents we need. In this sentence the compound verb of the independent clause ("I have been relying on my Christmas bonus to pay for the gift") is in the present perfect progressive. The verb of the independent clause "They have not delivered the documents" is in the present perfect tense. The simple future could also be used in the dependent clause ("we will need"). The verb in the dependent clause "we need" is in the simple present tense.

289 . we still do not know the cause of death. . The simple predicate of the dependent clause ("Even though the coroner has been carefully examining the corpse discovered in Sutherland's Gully since early this morning") in the present perfect progressive tense ("has been . The simple future could also be used ("will buy"). examining"). . In this sentence the compound verb of the independent clause ("we still do not know the cause of death") is in the simple present tense. Even though the coroner has been carefully examining the corpse discovered in Sutherland's Gully since early this morning.is in the simple present ("buy").

the 290 . The simple future could also be used in the second independent clause ("consequently. the dean has increased the size of most classes. Past Tenses in Sequence When the verb in the independent clause is the past tense. consequently.The government has cut university budgets. the dean will increase the size of most classes") if the writer wants to suggest that the dean's action will take place in the future. In this compound sentence. The past tenses are the simple past. the verb in the dependent clause is usually in a past tense as well. both predicates are in the present perfect.

m. If the action in the dependent clause occurred before action in the independent clause. the past perfect is usually the most appropriate tense for the dependent clause.past progressive. The action of dependent clause ("but Mr. Whitaker had closed the store") is described with a past perfect tense ("had closed") because the act of closing takes 291 . Whitaker had closed the store. The verb in dependent clause should accurately reflect the temporal relationship of the two clauses. but Mr. the past perfect. as in the following sentences. Miriam arrived at 5:00 p. and the past perfect progressive.

The simple predicate of the independent clause ("by the time Miriam arrived") is in the simple past. We fed the elephant oats for a week because it had eaten all the hay.place before the act of arriving. After we located the restaurant that Christian had raved about. Since actions of the second dependent clause ("that Christian had raved about") precedes the other actions in the sentence. the past perfect is most appropriate verb tense. we ate supper there every Friday. both actions take place in the past. but the action of the independent clause (the 292 . In this sentence.

So if the simple past is used in the independent clause. the predicate of the dependent clause is in the past perfect ("had eaten"). the tense usually match. Alice felt more independent. In this example the predicate of the dependent clause is in the past perfect ("had learned") because the act of learning preceded the independent clause's the act of feeling independent.feeding oats) follows the action of dependent clause (the eating of the hay) and as a result. If the action in the dependent clause. occurs at the same time as the action in the independent clause. the simple past may also used in the dependent clause. After she had learnedd to drive. 293 .

as in the following sentences: Lena was telling a story about the exploits of a red cow when a tree branch broke the parlour window. When the recess bell rang. the simple past is usually the most appropriate tense for the dependent clause. Jesse was writing a long division problem on the blackboard. Here the action "was telling" took place in the past and continued for some time in the past. and 294 .When the verb of the independent clause is one of the progressive tenses. The breaking of the window is described in the simple past. This sentence describes actions ("ran" and "was writing") that took place sometime in the past.

Remember "has" is a present tense auxiliary and "had" and "have" are past tense auxiliaries. One of the most common source of verb sequence error arises from a confusion of the present perfect ("has walked") and the past perfect ("had walked"). but the present perfect is categorised as a present tense verb. Both tense convey a sense of pastness.emphasis the continuing nature of the action that takes place in the independent clause ("was writing"). One of the easiest ways of determining whether you've used the perfect tenses correctly is to examine the auxiliary verb. The future tense auxiliary is "will." 295 .

The highlighted verbs in the following sentences are all in the indicative mood: Joe picks up the boxes. and the subjunctive mood.Using Verb Moods A verb may be in one of three moods: the indicative mood. The german shepherd fetches the stick. the imperative mood. 296 . Most of the statements you make or you read will be in the indicative mood. Charles closes the window. The Indicative Mood The indicative mood is the most common and is used to express facts and opinions or to make inquiries.

Close the window. The imperative is identical in form to the second person indicative. Fetch.The Imperative Mood The imperative mood is also common and is used to give orders or to make requests. The subjunctive mood rarely appears in everyday conversation or writing 297 . The highlighted verbs in the following sentences are all in the imperative mood: Pick up those boxes. The Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive mood has almost disappeared from the language and is thus more difficult to use correctly than either the indicative mood or the imperative mood.

painted past subjunctive: "painted" 298 . You form the present tense subjunctive by dropping the "s" from the end of the third person singular. except for the verb "be". The past tense subjunctive of "be" is "were". paints present walks present thinks present is present subjunctive: "paint" subjunctive: "walk" subjunctive: "think" subjunctive: "be" Except for the verb "be.and is used in a set of specific circumstances." the past tense subjunctive is indistinguishable in form from the past tense indicative.

The subjunctive mood is used in dependent clauses to express unreal conditions and in dependent clauses following verbs of wishing or requesting. the verb "save" is in the subjunctive mood. For example. The subjunctive is usually found in complex sentences. in the sentence "Heaven forbid". 299 .walked past subjunctive: "walked" thought past subjunctive: "thought" was past subjunctive: "were" The subjunctive is found in a handful of traditional circumstances. in the sentence "God save the Queen". Similarly. the verb forbid is in the subjunctive mood.

" "necessary." "require" "suggest. It is urgent that Harraway attend Monday's meeting." "order." "recommend." "insist.The subjunctive mood is used in a dependent clause attached to an independent clause that uses a verb such as "ask. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the subjunctive mood." or "urgent")." "command." "essential"." or "wish. "important. The Member of Parliament demanded that the Minister 300 ." The subjunctive mood is also used in a dependent clause attached to an independent clause that uses an adjective that expresses urgency (such as "crucial." "imperative." "demand.

The sergeant ordered that Calvin scrub the walls of the mess hall. If Canada were a tropical country. If the council members were interested in stopping street prostitution. The committee recommended that the bill be passed immediately. we would be able to grow pineapples in our backyards. I wish that this book were still in print. he would not have chased the canvassers away from his door. they would urge 301 . We suggest that Mr. Beatty move the car out of the no parking zone. If he were more generous.explain the effects of the bill on the environment.

I'd eat your toque. Answer: The answer The verb is not in the correct mood. Review: Using Verb Moods Identify whether the highlighted verbs in the following sentences are in the correct mood.the police to pursue customers more vigorously than they pursue the prostitutes. is correct. Question: If an elephant was to fly in this window. Explanation: Since the sentence deals with an unreal condition (flying 302 .

Answer: The answer The verb is not in the correct mood. is correct.elephants) the subjunctive "were" should be used. Answer: The answer The verb is in the correct mood. Explanation: The subjunctive is appropriate here since it follows a verb of demanding ("insists"). is correct. Explanation: 303 . Question: The chef insists that the wholesaler deliver fresh salad greens every morning. Question: It is crucial that Wendell arrives on time.

the subjunctive mood ("were") should be used. we would suffocate. Explanation: Since the clause expresses an unreal condition. Answer: 304 . is not correct. Question: If this apartment was any smaller.The subjunctive form "arrive" should be used here since it follows an expression of necessity ("it is crucial"). Answer: The answer The verb is in the correct mood. Question: The committee recommends that all three buildings are condemned.

the subjunctive ("were") should be used. Question: If Mae West was alive. 305 . she might enjoy Madonna's performances.The answer The compound verb is in the correct mood. is correct. is not correct. Answer: The answer The verb is not in the correct mood. Explanation: The compound verb should be in the subjunctive ("be condemned") since it follows a verb of demanding. Explanation: Since the sentence expresses an unreal condition (Mae West is dead). Question: Ms Watson requires that her baby sitter provides receipts.

Question: 306 . Answer: The answer The verb is in the correct mood. Lynn would win the gold medal. is not correct. Messiness is not an Olympic sport.Answer: The answer The verb is not in the correct mood. Question: If instanteously reducing a room was an Olympic sport. Explanation: The subjunctive ("were") should be used here instead of "was. Explanation: The subjunctive ("provide") should be used following the verb of demanding ("requires")." because the clause describes an unreal condition. is correct.

is correct.Bunbury wished that Oscar Wilde were still alive to write a sequel to The Importance of Being Earnest. for the clause expresses a wish that cannot come true since Wilde is dead. Answer: The answer The verb is in the correct mood. an adverb. Explanation: The subjunctive ("were") is the correct mood. Modifiers A modifier can be an adjective. or a phrase or clause 307 .

Adjectives are words that modify nouns and pronouns.acting as an adjective or adverb In every case. Using Adverbs and Adjectives Adverbs are words that modify verbs. and sometimes clauses and whole sentences. other adverbs. the basic principle is the same: the modifier adds information to another element in the sentence.but the information here will also apply to phrases and clauses which act as modifiers. Be careful not to use an adjective where you need an adverb. adjectives. you will begin by working with single-word modifiers -.adjectives and adverbs -. In this chapter. 308 .

Sharon walked slowly out of the classroom. and you should avoid in in formal essays. to modify the verb "walked. [RIGHT] We tried really hard to get the muffin mixture perfect.Consider the following sentences. not an adjective. [RIGHT] Once the test was over.) 309 . not an adjective." (Note that "really" is an informal substitute for "very". for instance: [WRONG] Once the test was over. The sentence needs an adverb. to modify the adjective "hard. Sharon walked slow out of the classroom." [WRONG] We tried real hard to get the muffin mixture perfect. The sentence needs an adverb.

Using "good. Using Adjectives with Linking Verbs In the same vein. The actor's performance was good even though he felt bad that night. remember that adjectives modify nouns and 310 ." You might also note the distinctions between "good" and "bad" (which are adjectives) and "well" and "badly" (which are adverbs): Shelley plays the piano well and the drums badly." "bad." "well. "Well" is an adjective only when it refers to health or condition: She protested that she was well enough to start playing sports again." and "badly.

pronouns. You will recall that the linking verb is a special kind of verb because it links its subject to a subject complement. A subject complement can be either a noun (renaming the subject) or a modifier (describing the subject). after a linking verb you may be tempted to use an adverb instead of an adjective. It does not modify the linking verb itself and should therefore not be an adverb: [WRONG] We felt badly about having caused the accident 311 . For example. Do not mistakenly use an adverb to modify these parts of speech. When it is a modifier it must be an adjective because it describes the subject (always a noun or pronoun).

" "moreover. be sure to precede it with a semicolon not a comma.[RIGHT] We felt bad about having caused the accident." When using a conjunctive adverb at the beginning of the second independent clause. 312 . My roommate usually listens to rock music." "however." "consequently." and "furthermore. Some common conjunctive adverbs are "therefore. Using Conjunctive Adverbs The conjunctive adverb is a special kind of adverb that often serves as a transition between two independent clauses in a sentence. however." "nevertheless. he also likes John Coltrane and several other jazz musicians.

the days are getting longer. (longer now than before) You should use the superlative form to compare three or more things. You can form the comparative by adding the suffix "-er" to the modifier (for some short words) or by using the word "more" with the modifier: Of the two designs. (comparing two designs) Now that it is March. the architect is convinced that the city will select the more experimental one.Using the Comparative and Superlative You should use the comparative form of an adjective or adverb to compare exactly two things. You can form the 313 .

Adjectives like "perfect" and "unique. most imaginative comic strip I have ever seen. you should check a dictionary to see which words take use "more" and "most" and which words take the suffixes "-er" and "-est". Common Problems with the Comparative and Superlative There are certain modifiers which you cannot logically use in the comparative and superlative forms.superlative by adding the suffix "est" to the modifier (for some short words) or by using the word "most" with the modifier: This is definitely the smartest." for instance. wittiest. express absolute conditions and do not 314 . (implying that I have seen more than two) Note: if you are not certain.

allow for degrees of comparison. using both a suffix and an adverb to indicate the comparative or superlative: [WRONG] I am convinced that my poodle is more smarter than your dachshund. [RIGHT] I am convinced that my poodle is smarter than your dachshund. [WRONG] Laurel and Hardy are the most funniest slapstick comedians in film history. [RIGHT] Laurel and Hardy are the funniest slapstick comedians in film history. You should also avoid using a double comparison -. 315 .that is. Something cannot be more perfect than another thing: it is either perfect or not perfect.

[WRONG] I can't get no satisfaction. Double negatives involving "not" and "no" are fairly easy to spot and 316 . [RIGHT] I can't get any satisfaction. you should avoid using it in formal writing: [WRONG] We decided there wasn't no point in pursuing our research further. although the double negative -. OR We decided there was no point in pursuing our research further. [RIGHT] We decided there wasn't any point in pursuing our research further.is common in speech and has a long history in the English language.the use of two negative words together for a single negative idea -. OR I can get no satisfaction.Similarly.

imply the negative. he does not have hardly any friends there. Review: Adverbs and Adjectives 317 .fix. OR Even though he has lived in Toronto for four years. [RIGHT] Even though he has lived in Toronto for four years. he has hardly any friends there. some other adverbs -for example. he does not have many friends there. "hardly." "barely" -. and you should not use them with another negative: [WRONG] Even though he has lived in Toronto for four years." "scarcely. However.

318 . Question: The sound quality of this film is poor. but you are certainly one of the *** salespeople we have met. Question: Many people have tried to sell us vacuum cleaners. Answer: The answer more persuasive is not correct. Answer: The answer badly is correct. Explanation: The superlative "most persuasive" is correct because the sentence are comparing more than two salespeople ("many").Choose the correct word in each of the following sentences. and the picture is focused *** as well.

Explanation: The adverb "badly" is correct because it modifies the verb "focused. Note that "more louder" is incorrect because it is a double comparison." Question: My brother's roommate this year is *** than the graduate student he lived with last year. Question: 319 . Explanation: The comparative "louder" is correct because the sentence is comparing two things: my brother's roommate this year and his roommate last year. Answer: The answer loudest is not correct.

That executive dresses *** and knows his material." Question: She is *** effective at making group presentations. you should use "very" instead of the more colloquial "really." Question: 320 . Answer: The answer smart is not correct." Note that in formal writing. Explanation: The adverb "really" is correct because it modifies the adjective "effective. Explanation: The adverb "smartly" is correct because it modifies the verb "dresses. Answer: The answer real is not correct.

Question: Gerald is a more skillful piano player than I.'s fees are high. Answer: The answer more is correct. Remember 321 . it is the *** reliable company. Explanation: The comparative "more" is correct here because we are comparing two firms. Explanation: "Is hardly" is the correct choice because "isn't hardly" is a double negative. but he *** the best musician in our band.We have studied the proposals from both firms and have decided that although Zero Inc. Answer: The answer isn't hardly is not correct.

322 ." "Smelled" is a linking verb here. Question: Sunita followed the recipe closely. never adverbs." imply the negative. Remember that subject complements are always nouns or adjectives. Answer: The answer strangely is not correct.that some adverbs." not the verb "smelled. Explanation: The adjective "strange" is correct because it is describing the noun "cake. and "strange" is its subject complement. but the cake smelled *** after twenty minutes in the oven. including "hardly.

Question: Her husband draws so *** that he has been asked to submit sketches to a local graphic art firm. and she felt *** about the whole incident for weeks afterward. Answer: The answer bad is correct." not the verb "felt. Explanation: The adjective "bad" is correct because it is modifying the pronoun "she." "Felt" is a linking verb 323 . Answer: The answer good is not correct. Explanation: The adverb "well" is correct because it modifies the verb "draws." Question: She accepted responsibility for the accident.

Remember that subject complements are always nouns or adjectives. However.here. never adverbs. We vigorously rowed the boat. and "bad" is its subject complement. Vigorously we rowed the boat. you must be careful to avoid misplaced modifiers -modifiers that are positioned so 324 . Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers You have a certain amount of freedom in deciding where to place your modifiers in a sentence: We rowed the boat vigorously.

we could understand the Spanish spoken by our visitors from Madrid easily. Consider the following sentence: [WRONG] After our conversation lessons. In fact.that they appear to modify the wrong thing. you should place singleword modifiers near the word or words they modify. especially when a reader might think that they modify something different in the sentence. you can improve your writing quite a bit by paying attention to basic problems like misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers. Misplaced Words In general. 325 .

" "only." and so on. Many writers regularly misplace these modifiers." "just. These are words like "almost. You can accidentally change the entire meaning of a sentence if you place these modifiers next to the wrong word: [WRONG] Randy has nearly annoyed every professor he has 326 .Do we understand the Spanish easily." "hardly." "merely. or do the visitors speak it easily? This revision eliminates the confusion: [RIGHT] We could easily understand the Spanish spoken by our visitors from Madrid." "nearly. It is particularly important to be careful about where you put limiting modifiers.

(we didn't "almost eat" it) [RIGHT] Randy has annoyed nearly every professor he has had. he poked the little girl with his finger in the eye. [RIGHT] We ate almost all of the Thanksgiving turkey. Misplaced Phrases and Clauses It is important that you place the modifying phrase or clause as close as possible to the word or words it modifies: [WRONG] By accident. [WRONG] I heard that my roommate intended to throw a surprise party for me while I 327 .had. (he hasn't "nearly annoyed" them) [WRONG] We almost ate all of the Thanksgiving turkey.

[WRONG] After the wedding. [RIGHT] Ian told us at his stag party that he would start behaving like a responsible adult after the wedding. Ian told us at his stag party that he would start behaving like a responsible adult. [RIGHT] While I was outside her bedroom window. I heard that my roommate intended to throw a surprise party for me. Squinting Modifiers A squinting modifier is an ambiguously placed modifier that can modify either the word before it or the word after it. he poked the little girl in the eye with his finger. In other 328 .was outside her bedroom window. [RIGHT] By accident.

" "to serve. Split Infinitives The infinitive form of the verb consists of the word "to" followed by the base form of the verb: "to be. OR A clear definition of your terms strengthens your argument.words. it is "squinting" in both directions at the same time: [WRONG] Defining your terms clearly strengthens your argument." etc. (does defining "clearly strengthen" or does "defining clearly" strengthen?) [RIGHT] Defining your terms will clearly strengthen your argument. Prescriptive 329 . Inserting a word or words between the "to" and the verb of an infinitive creates what is known as a split infinitive." "to chop.

you should avoid placing long. Nevertheless. In general.grammarians. run an anticipatory ad 330 . Sometimes a sentence becomes awkward if a single-word modifier is placed anywhere but between the elements of the infinitive: [WRONG] The marketing team voted to. who knew Latin grammar better than English. some careful writers still prefer to avoid splitting infinitives altogether. disruptive modifiers between the "to" and the verb of an infinitive. once decreed that a split infinitive was an error. before they launched the new software. but now it is growing increasingly acceptable even in formal writing. However. you must use your judgement when it comes to single-word modifiers.

A dangling modifier is usually a phrase or an elliptical clause -. Consider the following example: 331 .campaign. is often (though not always) located at the beginning of a sentence. a persistent and frequent grammatical problem in writing. Dangling Modifiers The dangling modifier. or (worse) modifies the wrong word.that functions as an adjective but does not modify any specific word in the sentence.the infinitive should not be split) [RIGHT] The marketing team voted to run an anticipatory ad campaign before they launched the new software.a dependent clause whose subject and verb are implied rather than expressed -. (disruptive -.

it is natural to miss the smell of the sea.in this case. but no one is mentioned in the sentence.Raised in Nova Scotia. The introductory phrase in the above sentence looks as if it is meant to modify a person or persons. (the phrase no longer functions as an adjective) Raised in Nova Scotia. Such introductory adjective phrases. I often miss the smell of the sea." The connection in this case is illogical because "it" was not raised in Nova Scotia. it is natural to miss the smell of the sea. (the 332 . because of their position. automatically modify the first noun or pronoun that follows the phrase -. "it. You could revise the sentence in a number of ways: For a person raised in Nova Scotia.

The way this sentence is structured.phrase functions as an adjective but now automatically modifies "I." the pronoun directly following the clause. the clause "Although nearly finished" illogically modifies "we. An easy way to rectify the problem is to re-insert the subject and verb that are understood in the elliptical clause: Although the play was nearly finished. we left the play early because we were worried about our sick cat. we left early because we were worried about our sick cat. 333 ." a logical connection) A dangling modifier can also appear when you place an elliptical clause improperly: Although nearly finished.

1. 1. The 334 . Flashing a huge grin. Explanation: This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. Ralph apologised for being late and then handed his grandmother a bouquet of lilacs.Review: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Indicate whether each sentence does or does not contain a misplaced modifier or a dangling modifier. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. 2.

" 2. Explanation: This sentence does contain a misplaced modifier.phrase "flashing a huge grin" is correctly modifying the noun "Ralph." 335 . This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. 1. The surgeon was able to quickly and painlessly remove the stitches from Greta's forehead. The adverbs "quickly and painlessly" are splitting the infinitive "to remove. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. 2.

The phrase "after gathering wild flowers all summer and pressing them between the pages of a heavy book" is illogically modifying "petals" instead of modifying "Teresa. Explanation: This sentence does contain a misplaced modifier. the dried petals were ready for Teresa to make greeting cards to sell at the fair. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier.3." 336 . This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. 1. After gathering wild flowers all summer and pressing them between the pages of a heavy book. 2.

" 5.we "almost watched" -.when it should be modifying "the entire" -. Explanation: This sentence does contain a misplaced modifier. Before buying a new stereo. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. The adverb "almost" is incorrectly modifying "watched" -. "The doctor did it!" 1. This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. We had almost watched the entire movie when suddenly the person behind us blurted out.4. 2."almost the entire movie. you should carefully consider 337 .

what you need and what you can afford. 2. 2. 1. 1. The phrase "before buying a new stereo" is correctly modifying "you. This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. I heard that he got married to a countess with a vast fortune in a small church in Italy. Explanation: This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier." 6. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. 338 .

and huge frosted cakes. The phrase "in a small church in Italy" is placed so that it incorrectly modifies "fortune" instead of "got married." 7. the OK Dance Club had organised a magnificent tea.Explanation: This sentence does contain a misplaced modifier. 1. Explanation: 339 . plates of bread and cheese. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. trays of squares and cookies. Covered with bowls of strawberries. 2.

and huge frosted cakes" is illogically modifying "the OK Dance Club. Explanation: This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. he had barely enough money to pay his rent. trays of squares and cookies." 8. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. After borrowing from all his friends. plates of bread and cheese. The phrase "after borrowing from all 340 . This sentence contains a misplaced modifier.This sentence does contain a misplaced modifier. The phrase "covered with bowls of strawberries. 1. 2.

2. This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier." and the adverb "barely" is correctly modifying "enough." 9. Explanation: This sentence does contain a misplaced modifier. The phrase "to succeed in the engineering field" is illogically modifying "technical writing ability" instead of modifying the person 341 . some technical writing ability is a definite asset.his friends" is correctly modifying "he. To succeed in the engineering field. 1.

Explanation: This sentence does contain a misplaced modifier." 342 . This sentence contains a misplaced modifier. My best friend is starting a weight-gaining regime in two weeks of five meals a day. This sentence does not contain a misplaced modifier. 1. The phrase "of five meals a day" is placed so that it incorrectly modifies "two weeks" instead of "regime. 10.or persons who hope to succeed. 2.

OR Soon after she starts running. Question: Running quickly gives her a headache. Then compare your answer with the samples provided. Answer: Running fast gives her a headache.Review: Fixing Misplaced Modifiers On a separate sheet of paper. rewrite each sentence to eliminate misplaced modifiers. Question: 343 . she gets a headache.

the sale was so good that we shopped until nine. we had a terrible blizzard on Saturday. Answer: Although tired. we shopped at the sale until nine. the sale was so good that we shopped until nine.Although tired. OR The sale was so good that we shopped until nine. Question: Raging and blowing from the north. OR Although we were tired. even though we were tired. Answer: 344 .

Question: I gave my niece a photo of her golden retriever in a silver frame. Answer: I gave my niece a silver-framed photo of her golden retriever. the blizzard on Saturday was terrible. OR On Saturday we had a terrible blizzard that raged and blew from the north. Answer: 345 . your resume must look professional. Question: To be considered by the top firms.Raging and blowing from the north.

NOTE: "Your resume must look professional to be considered by the top firms" still contains a dangling modifier. the phrase "to be considered by the top firms" still illogically modifies "resume. OR You must have a professionallooking resume to be considered by the top firms." 346 . you must have a professional-looking resume. Placed at the end of the sentence.To be considered by the top firms.

347 .

a group of grammatically-linked words with 348 .Building Phrases A phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate -.

the group "bay the across" is not a phrase. The group "teacher both students and" is not a phrase because the words have no grammatical relationship to one another. You use phrase to add information to a sentence and can perform the functions of a subject.a subject and predicate is called a clause. a verb. or an adverb. an object. an adjective. a subject or object complement. The group "both teachers and students" and the group "across the bay" are both phrases. the words need to be rearranged in order to create phrases. Similarly. The highlighted words in each of the following sentences make up a phrase: 349 . In both cases.

noun. Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky. Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves. Giselle planted twenty tulip bulbs. its direct and/or indirect objects. unfortunately. an adverb. 350 .She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night. squirrels ate the bulbs and none bloomed. Verb Phrases A verb phrase consists of a verb. The Function Of Phrases A phrase may function as a verb. or an adjective. In early October.

After she had learned to drive.and any adverb. Noun Phrases A noun phrase consists of a pronoun or noun with any 351 . We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m. He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for. he decided to make something else. adverb phrases. or adverb clauses which happen to modify it. Alice felt more independent. therefore. The predicate of a clause or sentence is always a verb phrase: Corinne is trying to decide whether she wants to go to medical school or to go to law school.

as the object of a verb or verbal. as a subject or object complement. object of a preposition The arctic explorers were caught unawares by the spring breakup. Like a noun. a noun phrase can act as a subject. or as the object of a preposition. as in the following examples: subject Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves. including adjectives. adjective phrases.associated modifiers. adjective clauses. subject complement 352 . and other nouns in the possessive case. object of a verb To read quickly and accurately is Eugene's goal.

the gerund and the infinitive -. then. its 353 . A gerund phrase or infinitive phrase. However. object complement I consider Loki my favorite cat.Frankenstein is the name of the scientist not the monster.in particular.can act as nouns. they can also take direct objects and can be modified by adverbs. since verbals are formed from verbs. these also can form the nucleus of a noun phrase: Ice fishing is a popular winter pass-time. Noun Phrases using Verbals (by David Megginson) Since some verbals -. is a noun phrase consisting of a verbal.

You often construct adjective phrases using participles or prepositions together with their objects: I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising. Adjective Phrases An adjective phrase is any phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun.modifiers (both adjectives and adverbs). I am planning to buy a house next month. the prepositional phrase "of my neighbour's constant piano 354 . In this sentence. and its objects: Running a marathon in the Summer is thirsty work.

Here the participle phrase "dashing across the quadrangle" acts as an adjective describing the proper noun "Peter." We saw Peter dashing across the quadrangle. the participle phrase "broken in the scuffle" modifies the noun phrase "the records." 355 ." We picked up the records broken in the scuffle." My father-in-law locked his keys in the trunk of a borrowed car. the prepositional phrase "of a borrowed car" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "trunk.practising" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "sound. Similarly in this sentence. In this sentence.

In this sentence." Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky. as in the following sentences. Giselle planted twenty tulip bulbs. In this sentence. She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. the prepositional phrase "in the night sky" functions as a adverb modifying the verb "flashed." In early October.Adverb Phrases A prepositional phrase can also be an adverb phrase. 356 . functioning as an adverb. the prepositional phrase "to the corner store" acts as an adverb modifying the verb "went.

unfortunately, squirrels ate the bulbs and none bloomed. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "in early October" acts as an adverb modifying the entire sentence. We will meet at the library at 3:30 P.M. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "at 3:30 P.M." acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "will meet." The dogs were capering about the clown's feet. In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "about the clown's feet" acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "were capering."

357

Review: The Function Of Phrases Identify the function of the phrase highlighted in the following sentences.
1.

The projectionist dreamt that he chased an enormous gorilla around the theatre. 1. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as an Object 4. This phrase functions as a Predicate
358

5.

6.

This phrase functions as an Adjective This phrase functions as an Adverb

Explanation: In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "around the theatre" functions as an adverb because it modifies the verb "chased." Justine hoped to attend the masquerade even though her guardian had forbidden such adventures. 1. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as an Object
359

2.

4.

5.

6.

This phrase functions as a Predicate This phrase functions as an Adjective This phrase functions as an Adverb

Explanation: In this sentence, the verb phrase "had forbidden such adventures" acts as the predicate of the sentence.

3.

The child dancing about the stage hopes to become a movie star. 1. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. This phrase functions as a Complement
360

3.

4.

5.

6.

This phrase Object This phrase Predicate This phrase Adjective This phrase Adverb

functions as an functions as a functions as an functions as an

Explanation: In this sentence, the participle phrase "dancing about the stage" acts as an adjective because it modifies the noun phrase "the child."

4.

The reporter consulted a number of published accounts before interviewing the senator.

361

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

This phrase functions Subject This phrase functions Complement This phrase functions Object This phrase functions Predicate This phrase functions Adjective This phrase functions Adverb

as a as a as an as a as an as an

Explanation: In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "of published accounts" acts as an adjective because it modifies noun "number."

362

5.

The party was a dreadful failure because the caterers forgot to bring the tableware. 1. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as an Object 4. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. This phrase functions as an Adjective 6. This phrase functions as an Adverb

Explanation: In this sentence, the infinitive phrase "to bring the tableware" acts as the direct object of the verb "forgot."

363

6.

The guild is meeting to discuss the latest misdemeanours of the apprentices. 1. This phrase functions as Subject 2. This phrase functions as Complement 3. This phrase functions as Object 4. This phrase functions as Predicate 5. This phrase functions as Adjective 6. This phrase functions as Adverb

a a an a an an

Explanation: In this sentence, the verb phrase "is meeting to discuss..." acts as the predicate of the sentence.
364

1. This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence. They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night.7. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. the prepositional phrase "in the middle of the night" acts as an 365 . This phrase functions as an Object 4. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. This phrase functions as an Adjective 6.

This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as an Object 4.adverb because it modifies the verb "heard. 1. Megan believed that dreaming about grapes meant that she should skip Latin class. This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: 366 . This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. This phrase functions as a Subject 2." 8. This phrase functions as an Adjective 6.

The guard woken from his sleep by the burglar alarm knocked a bowl of potato chips off the desk. This phrase functions as an Object 4." 9. This phrase functions as an Adjective 367 . This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. 1.In this sentence. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. the gerund phrase "dreaming about grapes" acts as the subject of the verb "meant.

This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence. 1. the past participle phrase "woken from his sleep by the burglar alarm" acts as an adjective because it modifies the noun phrase "the guard. This phrase functions as an Object 368 .6. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. The reporter consulted a number of published accounts before interviewing the senator. This phrase functions as a Subject 2." 10.

5. 369 . 1." The bar was full of patiently waiting customers.4. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as a Predicate This phrase functions as an Adjective This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: The prepositional phrase "before interviewing the reporter" acts as an adverb because it modifies the verb "consulted. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. This phrase functions as an Object 11. 6.

6. the present participle phrase acts as an adjective because it modifies the noun "customers. I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising. This phrase functions as a Subject 2." 12. This phrase functions as a Complement 370 .4. This phrase functions as a Predicate This phrase functions as an Adjective This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence. 1. 5.

371 13. the prepositional phrase "by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising" functions as an adverb because it modifies the compound verb "was driven. 6. 4. This phrase Object This phrase Predicate This phrase Adjective This phrase Adverb functions as an functions as a functions as an functions as an Explanation: In this sentence. 5.3. ." The committee gave our neighbourhood association an award for innovative tree planting.

2.1. 4. the noun phrase "our neighbourhood association" acts as the indirect object of the verb "gave. 3. This phrase functions Subject This phrase functions Complement This phrase functions Object This phrase functions Predicate This phrase functions Adjective This phrase functions Adverb as a as a as an as a as an as an Explanation: In this sentence. 6." I hate camping and nothing you tell me will persuade me to get into a canoe with you. 5. . 372 14.

This phrase functions Subject This phrase functions Complement This phrase functions Object This phrase functions Predicate This phrase functions Adjective This phrase functions Adverb as a as a as an as a as an as an Explanation: The verb phrase "will persuade me to get into a canoe with you" functions as the predicate of the sentence. 2. 6. 3. 373 .1. 5. 4.

This phrase functions as an Object 4. This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence.15. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. This phrase functions as an Adjective 6. 1. The apprentices elected Wilkins Lord of Misrule." 374 . the noun phrase "Lord Of Misrule" is the object complement of the direct object "Wilkins. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as a Subject 2.

This phrase functions as a Subject 2.16. she earned her meagre living as a coal miner 1. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as an Adjective 6. the prepositional phrase "as a coal miner" acts as an adverb describing how the subject earned her living. This phrase functions as an Object 4. When she was a young woman. This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. 375 .

making supper is Richard's duty tonight and washing the dishes is Dorothy's." 376 . This phrase functions as a Subject 2. This phrase functions as an Adjective 6. 1. According to the chart.17. This phrase functions as an Object 4. This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. the gerund phrase "making supper" is the subject of the linking verb "is.

This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence. This phrase functions as an Object 4. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. the prepositional phrase "off the desk" functions as an adverb modifying the verb "knocked." 377 . This phrase functions as an Adjective 6. 1. The guard woken from his sleep by the burglar alarm knocked a bowl of potato chips off the desk.18. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5.

Thomson was a landscape painter. This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: In this sentence. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5. This phrase functions as a Subject 2. the noun phrase "landscape painter" acts as a subject complement. 378 . This phrase functions as an Object 4. 1. This phrase functions as an Adjective 6.19.

" 379 . This phrase functions as an Adjective 6. 1. This phrase functions as a Subject 2.20. This phrase functions as an Object 4. During the winter the smell of woodsmoke drifts through the neighbourhood. This phrase functions as an Adverb Explanation: The prepositional phrase "during the winter" acts as an adverb modifying the verb "drifts. This phrase functions as a Complement 3. This phrase functions as a Predicate 5.

Clauses are the building blocks of sentences: every sentence consists of one or more clauses. Recognising Clauses 380 .Building Clauses A clause is a collection of grammatically-related words including a predicate and a subject (though sometimes is the subject is implied). This chapter will help you to recognise and (more importantly) to use different types of clauses in your own writing. A collection of grammatically-related words without a subject or without a predicate is called a phrase.

Consider these examples: clause cows eat grass This example is a clause. clause cows eating grass are visible from the highway 381 . because it contains the subject "cows" and the predicate "eat grass." phrase cows eating grass What about "cows eating grass"? This noun phrase could be a subject. but there is nothing here to show why the writer is mentioning cows in the first place. but it has no predicate attached to it: the adjective phrase "eating grass" show which cows the writer is referring to.

This is a complete clause again. The subject "cows eating grass" and the predicate "are visible from the highway" make up a complete thought. You should not usually use direct commands in your essays. With a direct command. 382 . it is not necessary to include the subject. the clause really reads "[You] run!". even though it does seem to have a subject. clause Run! This single-word command is also a clause. except in quotations. since it is obviously the person or people you are talking to: in other words.

I love to eat Montréal bagels clause phrase Explanation: This is a clause because it contains the subject "I" and the predicate "love to eat Montréal bagels. See if you can spot the clauses. 1. a subject). with a predicate (and usually. bad wolf clause phrase 383 . 2. 2. while others are simply phrases. the big. Remember: a phrase will not have a subject and a predicate of its own. 1." 2.Review: Identifying Clauses Some of the following passages are clauses. 1.

3.Explanation: This passage names the wolf. 2. but does not tell the reader what the wolf is doing or what state the wolf is in. 4. since it does not have a predicate. phrase Explanation: 384 . but no subject. they were thinking about the language issue 1. clause 2. 1. rode the bus to Halifax clause phrase Explanation: Who "rode the bus to Halifax"? This passage has a predicate.

This passage is clearly a clause. however. since it expresses a grammatically-complete thought -. clause 2. in this passage. the student considering everything written on this subject 1. phrase Explanation: Both the word "considering" and the word "written" are participles made out of verbs ("consider" and "write"). they are acting not as verbs.it has the pronoun "they" acting as its subject and the verb phrase "were thinking about the language issue" acting as its predicate 5. but as 385 .

phrase Explanation: It is easy to see why you might have though this passage was a phrase -.adjectives -. clause 2."considering" modifies the noun "student." while "written" modifies the pronoun "everything. stay on the Trans-Canada highway through British Columbia 1. Remember that a direct command has the 386 . 6. this is simply a phrase." Since there is no verb acting as a predicate. it has no visible subject.after all.

8. 1. with no subject and no predicate." and that it is still a clause. 2.implied subject "you. this passage must be a phrase. after the morning rush hour clause phrase Explanation: Who did what after the morning rush hour? This passage consists only of the preposition "after" followed by its object. 2. they hate politics clause phrase Explanation: 387 . 7. 1.

with the subject "I" and the simple predicate "bought. Since there is a subject and a predicate." but that clause simply modifies 388 . and the predicate "hate politics" tells you what they do. the passage is a clause. because of the coat which I bought in the West Edmonton Mall 1. 9. phrase Explanation: What happened because of the coat? This is a very difficult passage -.There is nothing missing here -the pronoun "they" tells you who hates politics. clause 2."which I bought in the West Edmonton Mall" is a clause.

it does contain a subject ("the train") and a predicate ("arrived at the station") -. phrase Explanation: You might have though that this is a phrase because it is not a complete sentence. when the train arrived at the station 1.the subordinating conjunction "when" simply shows that it is 389 . clause 2." A phrase is still a phrase. however." which is the object of the preposition "because of. 10. even if it has a clause inside.the noun "coat.

they are dependent clauses or subordinate clauses. as in the following example: Independent the Prime Minister is in Ottawa Some clauses. Using Clauses as Nouns. Adjectives. it is an independent clause.dependent on something else in the sentence. however. Consider the same clause with the subordinating conjunction "because" added to the beginning: Dependent 390 . and Adverbs If a clause can stand alone as a sentence. cannot stand alone as sentences: in this case.

since the conjunction "because" suggests that the clause is providing an explanation for something else. Note how the clause can replace the adverb "tomorrow" in the following examples: adverb The committee will meet tomorrow. the clause could not be a sentence by itself. adverb clause 391 . Since this dependent clause answers the question "when.when the Prime Minister is in Ottawa In this case. it is called a dependent adverb clause (or simply an adverb clause." just like an adverb. since adverb clauses are always dependent clauses).

Like a noun. but also for nouns and for adjectives.The committee will meet when the Prime Minister is in Ottawa. Noun Clauses A noun clause is an entire clause which takes the place of a noun in another clause or phrase. noun clause I know that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language. Dependent clauses can stand not only for adverbs. 392 . a noun clause acts as the subject or object of a verb or the object of a preposition. Consider the following examples: noun I know Latin. answering the questions "who(m)?" or "what?".

. the noun "Latin" acts as the direct object of the verb "know. noun clause Where they are going is unknown. The question "Where are they going?." In the second example." the clause is the subject of the verb "is.. the entire clause "that Latin .In the first example." is the direct object. many noun clauses are indirect questions: noun Their destination is unknown.like the noun "destination. In fact. becomes a noun clause when used as part of a larger unit -." Here are some more examples of noun clauses: 393 ." with a slight change in word order.

" and answers the question "about what?" Whoever broke the vase will have to pay for it. This noun clause is the subject of the verb "will have to pay.about what you bought at the mall This noun clause is the object of the preposition "about. This noun clause is the object of the verb "hope." and answers the question "who will have to pay?" The Toronto fans hope that the Blue Jays will win again." and answers the question "what do the fans hope?" 394 .

the dependent clause "which I bought yesterday" in the second example modifies the noun "coat. Like an adjective." Note that an adjective clause usually comes after what it 395 .Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is a dependent clause which takes the place of an adjective in another clause or phrase. answering questions like "which?" or "what kind of?" Consider the following examples: Adjective the red coat Adjective clause the coat which I bought yesterday Like the word "red" in the first example. an adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun.

" "that." In informal writing or speech. an adjective clause begins with the relative pronouns "who(m). while an adjective usually comes before. In formal writing. formal 396 . you may leave out the relative pronoun when it is not the subject of the adjective clause. but you should usually include the relative pronoun in formal. informal Some firefighters never meet the people they save." or "which.modifies. formal The books that people read were mainly religious. academic writing: informal The books people read were mainly religious.

Some firefighters never meet the people whom they save. they are searching for the one who borrowed the book The clause modifies the pronoun "one" and answers the question "which one?". about the movie which made him cry This clause modifies the noun "movie" and answers the question "which movie?". Here are some more examples of adjective clauses: the meat which they ate was tainted This clause modifies the noun "meat" and answers the question "which meat?". 397 .

"where?".Did I tell you about the author whom I met? The clause modifies the noun "author" and answers the question "which author?". An adverb clause answers questions such as "when?". Note how an adverb clause can replace an adverb in the following example: adverb The premier gave a speech here. "with what goal/result?". "why?". Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is a dependent clause which takes the place of an adverb in another clause or phrase. and "under what conditions?". 398 .

" and "so that. but the second cannot -." will introduce an adverb clause." "after.adverb clause The premier gave a speech where the workers were striking." "when(ever)." "since. Here are some more 399 . Note that a dependent adverb clause can never stand alone as a complete sentence: independent clause they left the locker room dependent adverb clause after they left the locker room The first example can easily stand alone as a sentence.the reader will ask what happened "after they left the locker room". Usually. a subordinating conjunction like "because." "where(ever).

and condition: cause Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle because the uncle had murdered Hamlet's father. effect Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle so that his father's murder would be avenged. The adverb clause answers the question "why?".examples of adverb clauses expressing the relationships of cause. space. The adverb clause answers the question "with what goal/result?". time After Hamlet's uncle Claudius married Hamlet's 400 . effect. time.

the Europeans may achieve monetary union. The adverb clause answers the question "under what conditions?" 401 . Hamlet ordered a play in an attempt to prove his uncle's guilt.mother. condition If the British co-operate. The adverb clause answers the question "when?".an adverb clause can often appear either before or after the main part of the sentence. Hamlet wanted to kill him. Note the change in word order -. place Where the whole Danish court was assembled. The adverb clause answers the question "where?".

Remember that a noun clause answers questions like "who(m)?" or "what?". and an adverb clause answers questions like "when?". "where?". and Adverb Clauses See if you can determine the function of the hilighted dependent clause in each of the following passages. an adjective clause answers questions like "which (one)?". Some people buy expensive cars simply because they can.Review: Noun. and "under what conditions?". "with what goal/result?". 1. adjective clause 402 . "why?". Adjective. 1. noun clause 2.

3." 403 . and acts as the direct object of the verb "hope." showing cause. adverb clause Explanation: The clause answers the question "what?". adverb clause Explanation: This clause answers the question "why. It does not act as a subject or object. 1. Many people hope that Canada can resolve its economic problems. noun clause 2. so it is an adverb clause. 2. adjective clause 3. and it does not modify a noun or pronoun.

The bankers need to know what they should do. adverb clause Explanation: This clause does not tell you which bankers need to know. it is a noun clause. but rather. noun clause 2. it tells you what they need to know -. Which one is the person who stole your car? 1.3. adverb clause 404 4. adjective clause 3. noun clause 2. . 1.since it answers the question "what?" (and acts as the direct object of "to know"). adjective clause 3.

Explanation: The relative pronoun "who" might have confused you here. noun clause 2. adverb clause Explanation: This clause tells where poverty will exist. 5. but the question "which person?". adjective clause 3. showing that it modifies the noun "person" and is acting as an adjective clause. however. there will be poverty. 1. Wherever there is a large American city. the clause itself does not answer the question "who?". and specifying a location is the function of an 405 .

8. 1.adverb or (in this case) of an adverb clause. adverb clause That is the place where Wolfe's and Montcalm's armies fought. noun clause 2. 1. adverb clause Canada might give up its marketing boards if the European Community gives up its grain subsidies. noun clause 2. 1. . adjective clause 3. 6. noun clause 406 7. The books which the professor assigned were very expensive. adjective clause 3.

adjective clause 3. 1. adjective clause adverb clause 9.2. adverb clause 10. the accused murderer will not be convicted. noun clause 2. noun clause 2. adjective clause 3. 3. 407 . Unless the crown can make a better case. 1. adverb clause It is important to ask whether the wedding is formal or semi-formal.

408 .

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