The Sun Rising Summary Lying in bed with his lover, the speaker chides the rising sun

, calling it a busy old fool, and asking why it must bother them through windows and curtains. Love is not subject to season or to time, he says, and he admonishes the sun the Saucy p edantic wretch to go and bother late schoolboys and sour apprentices, to tell the c ourt-huntsmen that the King will ride, and to call the country ants to their har vesting. Why should the sun think that his beams are strong? The speaker says that he cou ld eclipse them simply by closing his eyes, except that he does not want to lose sight of his beloved for even an instant. He asks the sun if the sun s eyes have no t been blinded by his lover s eyes to tell him by late tomorrow whether the treasure s of India are in the same place they occupied yesterday or if they are now in b ed with the speaker. He says that if the sun asks about the kings he shined on y esterday, he will learn that they all lie in bed with the speaker. The speaker explains this claim by saying that his beloved is like every country in the world, and he is like every king; nothing else is real. Princes simply p lay at having countries; compared to what he has, all honor is mimicry and all w ealth is alchemy. The sun, the speaker says, is half as happy as he and his love r are, for the fact that the world is contracted into their bed makes the sun s jo b much easier in its old age, it desires ease, and now all it has to do is shine o n their bed and it shines on the whole world. This bed thy centre is, the speaker tells the sun, these walls, thy sphere. Form The three regular stanzas of The Sun Rising are each ten lines long and follow a l ine-stress pattern of 4255445555 lines one, five, and six are metered in iambic te trameter, line two is in dimeter, and lines three, four, and seven through ten a re in pentameter. The rhyme scheme in each stanza is ABBACDCDEE. Commentary One of Donne s most charming and successful metaphysical love poems, The Sun Rising is built around a few hyperbolic assertions first, that the sun is conscious and h as the watchful personality of an old busybody; second, that love, as the speake r puts it, no season knows, nor clime, / Nor hours, days, months, which are the r ags of time ; third, that the speaker s love affair is so important to the universe that kings and princes simply copy it, that the world is literally contained wit hin their bedroom. Of course, each of these assertions simply describes figurati vely a state of feeling to the wakeful lover, the rising sun does seem like an int ruder, irrelevant to the operations of love; to the man in love, the bedroom can seem to enclose all the matters in the world. The inspiration of this poem is t o pretend that each of these subjective states of feeling is an objective truth. Accordingly, Donne endows his speaker with language implying that what goes on i n his head is primary over the world outside it; for instance, in the second sta nza, the speaker tells the sun that it is not so powerful, since the speaker can cause an eclipse simply by closing his eyes. This kind of heedless, joyful arro gance is perfectly tuned to the consciousness of a new lover, and the speaker ap propriately claims to have all the world s riches in his bed (India, he says, is n ot where the sun left it; it is in bed with him). The speaker captures the essen ce of his feeling in the final stanza, when, after taking pity on the sun and de ciding to ease the burdens of his old age, he declares Shine here to us, and thou art everywhere. A Valediction: forbidding Mourning Summary The speaker explains that he is forced to spend time apart from his lover, but b efore he leaves, he tells her that their farewell should not be the occasion for mourning and sorrow. In the same way that virtuous men die mildly and without c

Here. Commentary A Valediction: forbidding Mourning is one of Donne s most famous and simplest poems and also probably his most direct statement of his ideal of spiritual love. it is also innocent. each describing a way of looking at their separation that will help them to av oid the mourning forbidden by the poem s title.omplaint. If. Also. Form The nine stanzas of this Valediction are quite simple compared to many of Donne s poems. but it removes that whi ch constitutes the love itself. they are experiencing an expansion . Though he must go. their souls are two instead of one . they are not endur ing a breach. for t o publicly announce their feelings in such a way would profane their love. Donne professed a devotion to a kind of spiritual love that transcended the merely physical. however. the soul they share will simply stretch to take in all the space between them. therefore. The firmness of the center foot mak es the circle that the outer foot draws perfect: Thy firmness makes my circle jus t. the speaker compares harmful Moving of th earth to innocent trepidation of the spheres. For all his erotic carnality in poems. th ey are like the feet of a compass: His lover s soul is the fixed foot in the cente r. Like the rumbling earth. the dull sublunary (sublunary meaning literally beneath the moon and also subject to the moon) lovers are all physical. and it is the pe rfect image to encapsulate the values of Donne s spiritual love. Like many of Donne s love poems (including The Sun Rising and The Canonization ). rather than cause a rift bet ween them. since the lovers two souls are one. for to weep would be profanation of our joys. each four-line stanza is quite unadorned. because. but the love he shares with his beloved is so re fined and Inter-assured of the mind that they need not worry about missing eyes. he says. it brings harms and fears. and beautiful in its polished simplicity. The poem is essentially a sequence of metaphors and comparisons . though the impact is greater. and. The compass (the instrument u sed for drawing circles) is one of Donne s most famous metaphors. he invokes the nature of that spiritu al love to ward off the tear-floods and sigh-tempests that might otherwise attend on their farewell. like the trepidation of the spheres. The speaker then declares that. serious. with an ABAB rhyme s cheme and an iambic tetrameter meter. Here. in the same way that gold can be stretched by beating it to aery thinness. their souls are still one. lips. I nter-assured of the mind. connected. their love is n ot wholly physical. he says. like the trepidation (vibration) of the spheres (the co ncentric globes that surrounded the earth in ancient astronomy). where I begun. their movement wi ll not have the harmful consequences of an earthquake. eyes. which utilize strange metrical patterns overlaid jarringly on regular rhy me schemes. an d hands to miss. If their souls are separate. his departure will simply expand the area of their unified soul. Th e love of dull sublunary lovers cannot survive separation. Here. and his is the foot that moves around it. the speaker claims tha A Val . with the center foot fixing the orbit of the outer foot and helping it to describe a perfect circle. Next. the speaker says that their farewell should be as mild as the uncomplaini ng deaths of virtuous men. they are as the feet of a drafter s compass. li ps. equating the first with dull sublunary lovers love and the second with their love. / And makes me end. and hands. intellectual. which is balanced . But the spiritual lovers Care less. anticipati ng a physical separation from his beloved. First. unable to experience separation without losing the sensation that comp rises and sustains their love. diction: forbidding Mourning creates a dichotomy between the common love of the e veryday world and the uncommon love of the speaker. The s peaker says that when the earth moves. such as The Flea. so they should leave without tear-floods and sigh-tempests. but when the sph eres experience trepidation. symmetrical.

the speaker mocks Death s position: It is inferior to drugs and potions. nor. or better than. is a slave to fate. and lives in the gutter with poison and sickness. a childbearing pun. in which an e stablished idea is turned completely on its head by a seemingly innocuous line o f reasoning the idea that Death could die is startling and counterintuitive but co mpletely sensible in light of Donne s reasoning. his lover. Death is not powerful or mighty because he does not kill those he thinks he kills. Death s stroke. for though some have call ed it mighty and dreadful. the most famous phrase in Don ne. then upon the moment a person dies. The effect of this dichotomy is to create a kind of emotional aristocracy that is similar in form to the political aristocracy with which Donne has had p ainfully bad luck throughout his life and which he commented upon in poems. second. and the rea der of the poem. and sickness. chance. Death be not proud seems to be. Those whom Death thinks it kills do not trul y die. In the third quatrain. such as The Canonization : This emotional aristocracy is similar in form to the politic al one but utterly opposed to it in spirit. kings. a slave to fate. First. thus. poison. Divine Meditation 10Summary The speaker tells Death that it should not feel proud. to rest their bones and enjoy the delivery of their souls. In its structural division of its subject. Death itself must be even more so indeed. . The speaker says that poppies and magic charms can make men sleep as well as. kings. so why should Death swell w ith pride? Death is merely a short sleep. for some reason. and desperate men (each of which d eals out death). after which the dead awake into eterna l life. the speaker reasons. it is a Petrar chan sonnet rather than a Shakespearean one. chance. Form This simple sonnet follows an ABBAABBACDCDEE rhyme scheme and is written in a lo ose iambic pentameter. by saying that. The sonnet takes the oblique reasoning and topsy-turvy symbolism of Donne s me taphysical love poems and applies them to a religious theme. the speaker says. the membership of this elite never includes more than the speaker and his lover or at the most. and is forced to dwell with wa r. and the best people di e most readily to hurry to their soul s delivery ( delivery. where Death shall no longer exist: Death itself will die. and desperate men. and he is clearly contemptuous of the dull sublunary love of other l overs. if the afterlife is eternal. Few in number are the emotional aris tocrats who have access to the spiritual love of the spheres and the compass. In the couple t. and the subsequent sestet resolving it. Of course. with an octet establishing the poem s tension. for that person will never again be subject to Death. who is called upon to sympathize with Donne s romantic plight. Rest and sleep are like little co pies of Death. th roughout all of Donne s writing. of his love would be to profane its sac red nature. introd uces the idea that the death of the body is a birth for the soul). Commentary This rather uncomplicated poem is probably Donne s most famous and most anthologiz ed. can st thou kill me. it is the best men who go soonest to Death. even in the seventeent h century the idea would not have seemed as startling as many of Donne s other met aphysical conceits it is an idea that appears not only in Shakespeare ( And death on ce dead. from I Corinthians). which are pleasurable. This final idea represents the classic metaphysical moment. it is really Death that dies to that person and not vice-versa. Death. the experience of being dead must be more pleasurable than res t and sleep. the speaker rounds out the idea of the poem. it is not. treating the person ified figure of Death as someone not worthy of awe or terror but of contempt. pale copies of death. the speaker. Do nne charts a line of reasoning that explores a different idea in each quatrain. and they are pleasurable.t to tell the laity. the speaker claims. there s no more dying then ) but also in the Bible itself ( The last enemy th at shall be destroyed is death. or the common people.

in this case the crafts of guilding and draughtsmanship. weepe . . . and saying goodbye. As in 'A Valediction: of Weeping'. . . In contrast to the passion-filled images of water and the outpouring of emotion in 'A Valediction: of Weeping'. In presenting his arguments Donne draws analogies from many sources. and. . . Like gold to ayery thinnesse beate. in order to make his reasoning seem more logical and more real. . while 'A Valediction: forbidding mourning' is a gentle confident persuasion. the poem is written in a colloquial manner. but an expansion. . On first reading 'A Valediction: of Weeping' one is struck by the numerous refer ences to water made by the poet: 'powre . . Thy firmness makes my circle just This poem also draws upon crafts and industries for analogies. The poet is talking to his mistress expres sing regret that he must leave her. No teare-floods. endure not yet A breach. 'A Valediction: of Weepin g' is a passionate plea. the two poems convey very different moods. Though I must goe. . shore . The meaning of 'Thy firmness makes my ci rcle just' lies in it's allusion to drawing a circle with a pair of compasses. nor sigh-tempests move. Typically for Metaphysical poetry. seas . He introduce s worldly analogies. This immediately gives the im pression of weeping and an outpouring of emotion. .John Donne A Valediction: of Weeping. which are one. and the opening line: Let me powre forth tells us that the poet intends to 'pour out' his feelings. but here the argument is quieter and calmer. trying to persuade her to stop c rying by conveying ideas in the form of logical reasoning. 'A Valediction: forbidding mourning' opens with an idea of death: As virtuous men passe mildly away This idea of death is not associated with fear. . . drowne'. . and the craft of cartography. . dissolves . or sphere. In both 'A Va lediction: of Weeping' and 'A Valediction: forbidding mourning' Donne is taking leave of a lover. c apturing the tone of everyday speech. again in keeping with the manner of Met aphysical poetry. and A Valediction: forbidding mourning by Ian Mackean Our two soules therefore. waters . A 'valediction' means a parting. particularl y from the industry of minting coins. . but while having many similarities characteristic of Metaphysi cal poetry. the meaning is presented as a reasoned argument. he is presenting an argument. even at times mundane ones. but with peaceful acceptance and mild sadness. the main image of 'A Valediction: forbidding mou rning' is of the stable unity and wholeness of a circle. tears . leave-taking. . w .

Our two soules therefore. her face is reflected in his tears. fearing that the elements might take example from her and sink his ship. as described above. and his world. Who e'r sighes most. . the poet describing their love as a spir itual uniting of souls which is above the sensuality and emotion of love between men and women.here the point of the compass remains fixed while the pencil draws a circle. and hasts the others death. The poem has an ethereal quality to it. He draws an analogy between her tears and the sea. Our two soules. He is about to go on a voyage by ship. Using the clever conceit of likening the outpouring of tears to the minting of coins he conveys that his tears are as much a part of her as of him. . In 'A Valediction: forbidding mourning' he is also pleading for an unemotional p arting. In the second stanza he develops this ide a by comparing his tears. He argues th at a globe without countries marked on it would be worthless. and they only have meaning because they are for her: For thy face coins them. . Their souls are always united. But we by a love so much refined . . endure not yet A breach. therefore. He says that all they have together will be lost when they are parted: so thou and I are nothing then. . this time not because he feels the emotion is too much for him. . and thy stamp they beare. he compares his falling tears to coins being minted. . which are one. . which are one The essential idea of 'A Valediction: of Weeping' is the poet persuading his mis tress to let him weep while they are together. . And by this mintage they are something worth 'and thy stamp they beare' suggests that just as a coin bears the stamp of a hea d. and that is all that is important. with a geographer's globe. but beca use their love is spiritual and above the level of emotion. In the opening stanza of 'A Valediction: of Weeping'. Dull sublunary lovers love (whose soul is sense) . when on a divers shore. for they are soon to part and thi s causes him grief. . He argues that as th eir love is of the spirit it can never be broken. where he will be at the mercy of the elem ents. . When she starts to weep with him he asks that they both stop crying because thei r expression of emotion takes them closer to death: Since thou and I sigh one another's breath. is cruellest. saying that they would be wort h nothing without her 'stamp' on them. but an expansion In both poems the ideas the poet is trying to express are so abstract that he ne eds extended metaphors from the worlds of practicalities in order to support the m. Though I must goe. and between her sighs a nd the wind.

separated physically of compasses. so much refin'd . which were thought to have repercussions in human life. in this case symbols of more grief to come: Fruits of much grief they are. my heaven dissolves so. that is. and an Asia. but an expansion. . that is. Donne also refers to his tears as fruits. His mistress is 'more than the moon'. but their love is above that. and . Dull sublunary lovers love (Whose soul is sense) cannot admit Absence. and portends no evil. and he . With her his world is all that matters to him. endure not yet A breach. The couple in love. He implies that together he and his lover become 'all'. emblems of more. as the end product o f unseen natural processes. The fixed point leans in sympathy with but united spiritually. But trepidation of the spheares. is innocent. . Though I must goe. inter-assured of the mind. Moving of th'earth brings harmes and feares. And quickly make that. Though greater farre. as inter pretable symbols. But we by a love. Afrique. are like a pair end. She is li is like the pencil which draws a circle the other when it is at a distance. in keeping with one of t he themes of metaphysical poetry: the 'all-sufficiency of lovers'. perhaps. He goes on to argue that their spirits cannot be separated but only extended. like the movement of heavenly bodies in space. Men rekon what it did and meant.On a round ball A workman that has copies by. No teare-floods. O more than Moone. can lay An Europe. He also refers to them as emblems. All. nor sigh-tempests move The emotions of other people are like floods and tempests. it is his heaven. as gold is extended when beaten into gold leaf. so she is drawing tears from inside him. he makes a pictur esque reference to the blurring of vision caused by tears in the eyes: by waters sent from thee. The physical love of the 'layetie' is far below their heavenly uniting of spirit s. two separate points at on ke the point which remains fixed. In the same way the moon pulls the tides o n Earth. which was nothing. As well as saying that his heaven will be lost when they part. but joined at the other. Draw not up seas to drown me in thy spheare The first metaphor in 'A Valediction: forbidding mourning' compares the expressi on of human emotion to the force and movement of the elements on Earth. Like gold to ayery thinnesse beate.

Typically of Metaphysical poetry. while a gain the pattern of 'A Valediction: of Weeping' is lively: (ABBACCDDD). is being de stroyed. which reflects in them. Finally. he is simply writing poetry for its own sake. emot ionally and in the verse form. In 'A Valediction: forbidding mourning' the lines are all of four feet. Dunne goes on to apply this metaphor to his relationship saying that each of h is tears. he is using metaphor to say that his tears are like money (coi ns) in which his lover's face. but al so more in that since she is present in his tears. he as ks his partner to allow him to "pour forth his tears" or cry before her. "dissolve his heaven" in that the lovers are pa rting and therefore his heaven. If they be two. In the first line. Such wilt thou be to me. although small. giving heightened feeling to the lines of two. In these poems Donne is not trying to make any significant or sincere statements. and adding vigour to the rhythm of the poem. He regularly intermi xes lines of five feet with lines of two. In both the poet begins by presenting his mistress. The last line of the stanza implies that "wate rs sent from thee" or her tears.with analogies to convey the situation he is in. more a feeling of calm serenity. we can note that both poems adhere to a strict rhyming pattern. the poems have a similarity in style in that t hey are both presented in the form of persuasive speech. and hearkens after it. and he chooses his adjectives and metaphors so well that his argument cannot be faulted. which was his relationship with her. 'A Valediction: of Weeping' expresses the idea of great passion. He progresses from there to state what should happen next i n terms of the analogy and the dramatic situation. And grows erect. they are two so As stiffe twin compasses are two Yet when the other far doth rome It leans. There are no urgent passions being expresse d. until it is less and less. Whether the arguments he is presenting relate to any real life situation or not is beside the point. The next stanza shifts gears into another metaphor common in Dunne's poetry. In this line. There is a significant contrast in the form of expression of the two poems. Dunne uses hyperbole (exaggeration)/overstatement bec ause this cannot actually happen.straightens up when they are closer. like money. giving t he poem a confident peaceful rhythm. tha t of a map. and that of 'A Valediction: forbidding mourning' is steady: (ABAB). He expla ins that his tears are "fruits of much grief" or results of his saddness. . He explains how a catographer (mapmaker) creates a replica of the en tire world by lying continents on a ball/globe that was originally simply a ball . The speaker of this poem is a man or a woman saying good-bye to his or her roman tic partner. It cannot always be inferred that the speaker is John Dunne. combined with his lover's tears.the readers . are enough to overflo w the world. and the versification is lively and varied. is "stamped" and therefor e her face gives his tears value. In sayi ng the next line. and us . although often he is the speaker. each time a tear falls their relationship falls also. as it comes home. even t hough he is the poet. "For thus they be pregnant of thee " reinforces the fact that she is being imprinted/stamped in his tears.

in reality. the tone of the poem is sorrowful in that neither lover wants to leav e the other and Dunne/the speaker is trying to tell his/her lover not to make th e good-bye more painful by crying excessively. like the moon. "if you kill me. another over statement saying that the water produced from his lover's tears will drown him a nd. will die. Dunne mentions the moon. T he two lovers. They have so far and so long ignored their bodies. ekstasis means going forth The poet and his beloved meet near a heap of earth that has swelled up like a pi llow on the bed to enable the reclining heads of violet flowers to rest on it. While their souls communicated with each other in this situation." Basically. so to say. It appeared as if their eyes were strung together on a double thre ad. As a result of the union of two souls. Their hands were firmly clasped together and thereby they are mingled each other . they are of spiritual substance. becaus e we are one and therefore breathe each other's breath. but that soul might have undergone a fresh process of purification and f elt more refined than before. Love also removes the feeling of loneliness felt by single souls. too. Souls are made of various elements of which they have no knowledge. in the same way. The last line in a way threatens the lover saying. After transplantation it almost doubles itself and also grows more rapidly. undecided which way to turn the scale. each thinks of the other as the best person in the world They were holding firmly the hands of each other. In a similar manner when love brings two souls together it imparts to them a gre at zeal and life. the two h ave separate existence. He asks her not to kill him with her tears/sadness and to decline from "teaching the sea" to drown him. t heir souls. They realized that love was not sex-experience. It is love w hich brings together two souls and makes them one. such a soul may not have understood t he conversation of their souls because both their souls meant and spoke the same thing. Greek word. which had left their bodies to sublimate to a state of bliss. whose soul had been purified by a similar process had stood bes ide their souls. though. a new soul comes into being. When a violet plant is transplanted (removed from one place and replanted in a b etter soil) it shows a marked improvement in its color. Ecstasy means to t he trans-like state the lovers have entered into. It makes us real ize that the substances of which they are made are not subject to any change. Their souls have reached a state of ecstasy which revealed to them what they did not know earlier. They are souls. but the y are distinct from the bodies. Their eyes gaze fixed into eac h others eye. another metaphor telling her not to make his leave worse by her growing sad ness. If any stranger. they are like heavenly planet while their bodies are the spheres in which they .In the next line. they lay quiet and motionless like statues built over the monument of the dead.ù Donne: Ecstasy The poem. you. Their bodies r emain sitting in the same positions without movement or speech through out the d ay. When two equally powerful enemies fight each other their fate holds the victory in a state of balance. hung b etween the two of them uncertain of their future. T his new soul knows of what elements the two souls are composed. The Ecstasy deals with John Donne s metaphysic love poem. The bodies are their. pull the current to drown him in as well. The stronger (or noble soul) supplements (or removes) the defi ciencies of the lesser soul. size and strength. They discover ed the first time that love really is a matter of the soul and not of the body. and had been capable of understanding the language of the souls his purified mind would have forgotten the existence of the body and enlightene d and sharpened the faculties of his mind. which pulls the current. Their eyes reflected their images and this was the only fusion of their love.

he will never b e free. pleading with Him not for mercy or clemency or be nevolent aid but for a violent. because they brought them together in the fir st instance. or break that knot ag ain. But they are like an alloy (an alloy when mixed with gold makes it tougher and brighter). like God s viceroy. which is like a prisoner. They are thankful to their bodies. Just a s a prince who is imprisoned cannot gain freedom unless somebody comes to his ai d. o erthrow. Just as the blood which is an important constituent of their bodies labors to pr oduce the essence (the semen) which helps in uniting two bodies. The influence of heavenly bodies on man comes through the air. Yet the speaker says that he loves God dearly and wants to be loved in return. it implores G od to perform actions that would usually be considered extremely sinful from batte ring the speaker to actually raping him. bend. the speaker as a maiden betrothed to God s enemy) work with its extra ordinary series of violent and powerful verbs (batter. which. The body is an important as the soul in the matter of love. which seeks unsuccessfully to admit the army of its allies and friends. Like a town that has been captured by the enemy. and seeks to mend. with an octet followed by a sestet. break. but Reason. Hen ce a union of souls may need the contact of bodies as the first step. for until he is God s prisoner. shines. Their bodies surrendered their sense in order to enable their love to be spiritual. The body is usefu l agent for holy love. thus. This subtle knot of love may not be fully understood. it can contact it through the medium of the body. They must now turn to their bodies so that weak men may have a test of high love . he says. in the same way the sense of the body go to the aid of the lover s soul and sec ure freedom for it. almost brutal overmastering. is th e only way he will ever be chaste. Their bodies are not impure matter. blo .move. The poem s metaphors (the speaker s heart as a ca ptured town. in the same way the lover s soul leaves some linking element s like the sense and the bodily faculties to express their love. Form This simple sonnet follows an ABBAABBACDDCEE rhyme scheme and is written in a lo ose iambic pentameter. he says in the final line. If some lover like them has heard this discourse (made by two souls with one exp erience) let him look carefully at them. to take him prisoner. Donne s PoetryJohn Donne Get this SparkNote to go! < Previous Section Divine Meditation 10Next Section > Hymn to God. the spe aker works to admit God into his heart. and to make him new. it is a Petrarchan sonnet rat her than a Shakespearean one. blow. he needs God to overthrow him and bend his force to break. Just as blood produces elements which bring about the union of sense and soul wh ich constitute a man. untie. In its structural division. in my Sickness Divine Meditation 14Summary The speaker asks the three-personed God to batter his heart. for as yet God only kno cks politely. and burn him. my God. Commentary This poem is an appeal to God. The speaker says that to rise and stand. but he is like a maiden who is betr othed to God s enemy. breathes. Love sublimates the soul but it is through the medium of the body that love is first experienced. and he will never be chaste until God ravishes him. So when a soul wi shes to love another soul. in the same way a spiritual love produces a kind of ecstasy which binds the two souls together. has been c aptured by the enemy and proves weak or untrue. The speaker asks God to divorce. After their pure love when they go back to their bodies he will find no change in them because they will not revert to physical sex again. The sense and f aculty of the body come to the aid of the soul.

imprison. take. ravish) to create the image of God as an overwhelming. But that I would not lose her sight so long: If her eyes have not blinded thine. Princes doe but play us. that s done in warming us. Shine here to us. unruly Sunne. or lie here with mee. All here in one bed lay. enthrall. In this case. and strong Why shouldst thou thinke? I could eclipse and cloud them with a winke. Looke. Whether both the India s of spice and Myne1 Be where thou leftst them. break. in which the s peaker claims that only if God takes him prisoner can he be free. Goe tell Court-huntsmen. John Donne : The Sunne Rising Busie old foole.w. Thou sunne art halfe as happy as wee. goe chide Late school boyes. Why dost thou thus. The bizarre nature of the sp eaker s plea finds its apotheosis in the paradoxical final couplet. Thine age askes ease. Nor houres. these walls. Through windowes. i. Thy beames. that the King will ride. compar d to this. Nothing else is. divorce. As is amply illustrated by the contrast between Donne s religious lyrics and his m etaphysical love poems. and through curtaines call on us? Must to thy motions lovers seasons run? Sawcy pedantique wretch. All wealth alchimie. so reverend. violent conqueror. dayes. and to morrow late. tell mee. Love. all alike. violent. which are the rags of time. All honor s mimique. John Donne (1572-1631) P. and all Princes. the speaker achieves that mix b y claiming that he can only overcome sin and achieve spiritual purity if he is f orced by God in the most physical. Call countrey ants to harvest offices. 1633 FOOTNOTES 1 India (spices) and the West Indies (mines.e. and thou art everywhere. and sowre prentices. And thou shalt heare. Donne is a poet deeply divided between religious spiritu ality and a kind of carnal lust for life. no season knowes. Many of his best poems. mix the discourse of the spiritual and the physic al or of the holy and the secular. She is all States. I. Aske for those Kings whom thou saw st yesterday. three-personed God. untie. moneths. and only if Go d ravishes him can he be chaste. including Batte r my heart. nor clyme. gold) . In that the worlds s contracted thus. and since thy duties bee To warme the world. and carnal terms imaginable. thy spheare. burn. This bed thy center is.

nor sigh-tempests move. Afrique. that thou falst1 which it bore. when on a divers2 shore. to goe. Draw not up seas to drowne me in thy spheare. Weepe me not dead. O more then Moone. A globe. And quickly make that. in thine armes. So thou and I are nothing then. what it may doe too soone. Moving of th earth1 brings harmes and feares. Though greater farre. is cruellest. is innocent. Who e er sighes most. Men reckon what it did and meant. and make no noise. For thus they bee Pregnant of thee. But trepidation of the spheares2. All. and an Asia. but forbeare To teach the sea. yea world by that impression grow. And whisper to their soules. T were prophanation of our joyes To tell the layetie our love. my heaven dissolved so. emblemes of more. and hasts the others death. Till thy teares mixt with mine doe overflow This world. When a teare falls. 1633 FOOTNOTES 1falls . No teare-floods. no: So let us melt. 2diverse John Donne : A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men passe mildly away.John Donne : A Valediction of Weeping Let me powre forth My teares before thy face. and thy stampe they beare. Whilst some of their sad friends doe say. The breath goes now. John Donne (1572-1631) P. Fruits of much griefe they are. So doth each teare. Let not the winde Example finde. Dull sublunary3 lovers love . And by this Mintage they are something worth. On a round ball A workeman that hath copies by. For thy face coines them. by waters sent from thee. To doe me more harme. and some say. then it purposeth. Since thou and I sigh one anothers breath. whilst I stay here. which was nothing. can lay An Europe. Which thee doth weare.

i. And though it in the center sit. Our two soules therefore. And makes me end. as that comes home. Being in thine own heart. and hands to misse. But we by a love. 4 as in a compass with two feet for drawing circles WITCHCRAFT BY A PICTURE. How many ways mightst thou perform thy will? But now I've drunk thy sweet salt tears. John Donne (1572-1631) P. because it doth remove Those things which elemented it. on the earth . but an expansion. Thy firmnes makes my circle just. That our selves to know not what it is. Such wilt thou be to mee. Yet. and hearkens after it. Though I must goe. When I look lower I espy . but doth. from all malice free. and there Pity my picture burning in thine eye . And growes erect. 3 beneath the moon. they are two so As stiffe twin compasses4 are two. eyes. 1633 FOOTNOTES 1 earthquakes . vanish all fears That I can be endamaged by that art . by John Donne I FIX mine eye on thine. . And though thou pour more. Hadst thou the wicked skill By pictures made and marr'd. My picture vanished. lips. Like gold to ayery thinnesse beate. who must Like th other foot. If they be two. to kill. when the other far doth rome. Inter-assured of the mind. It leanes. My picture drown'd in a transparent tear.e.(Whose soule is sense) cannot admit Absence. which are one. I'll depart . Though thou retain of me One picture more. obliquely runne. yet that will be. Care lesse. if the other doe. Thy soule the fixt foot. where I begunne. 2 the heavenly planets . makes no show To move. endure not yet A breach. so much refin d.

40 When love. know. A single violet transplant. and made. We owe them thankes. whom no change can invade. so by love refin'd. which thence did spring. 30 Wee see by this. which thence doth flow. who are this new soule. And by good love were growen all minde. all the day. For. 20 If any. Wee are The intelligences. Did us. Love. Are soules. 55 Nor are drosse to us. and scant. one anothers best. so long. and multiplies. we saw not what did move: But as all severall soules containe Mixture of things. so farre Our bodies why doe wee forbeare? 50 They are ours. it was not sexe. they the spheare. and mee. though they are not wee. 10 And pictures in our eyes to get Was all our propagation. And part farre purer then he came. and did thred Our eyes. Defects of lonelinesse controules. each this and that. to rest The violets reclining head. they know not what. as yet Was all the meanes to make us one. This Extasie doth unperplex (We said) and tell us what we love. So to'entergraft our hands.) hung 'twixt her. upon one double string. Our hands were firmely cimented 5 With a fast balme. Sat we two. And whil'st our soules negotiate there. 35 And makes both one. (which to advance their state. That abler soule. and the size. And wee said nothing. But O alas. Our soules. th'Atomies of which we grow. doth mixe againe. but allay. The strength. the colour.John Donne 14. Yeelded their forces. because they thus. at first convay. (All which before was poore. to us. Within convenient distance stood. A Pregnant banke swel'd up. the same our postures were. Wee then. Wee see. Wee like sepulchrall statues lay. with one another so Interinanimates two soules. Our eye-beames twisted. 15 Were gone out. like a pillow on a bed. both spake the same) Might thence a new concoction take. As 'twixt two equall Armies. Fate Suspends uncertaine victorie. 45 Of what we are compos'd.) Redoubles still. That he soules language understood. He (though he knew not which soule spake. sense. . All day. to us. these mixt soules. The Extasie WHERE. 25 Because both meant.

alas ! the fire Of lust and envy burnt it heretofore. John Donne HOLY SONNETS. John Donne HOLY SONNETS. You which beyond that heaven which was most high Have found new spheres. But that it first imprints the ayre. and of new land can write. But yet the body is his booke. To'our bodies turne wee then. and. I am a little world made cunningly Of elements. which makes us man: So must pure lovers soules descend 65 T'affections. such as wee. let their flames retire. then from thee much more must flow. Death. Much pleasure. it must be burnt . V. 70 Loves mysteries in soules doe grow. nor yet canst thou kill me. for thou art not so . Or wash it if it must be drown'd no more.On man heavens influence workes not so. Because such fingers need to knit That subtile knot. Soe soule into the soule may flow. . But O. 60 As our blood labours to beget Spirits. with a fiery zeal Of Thee and Thy house. which doth in eating heal. as like soules as it can. But black sin hath betray'd to endless night My world's both parts. both parts must die. Let him still marke us. poor Death. X. O Lord. whom thou think'st thou dost overthrow. though some have called thee Mighty and dreadful. Which sense may reach and apprehend. which but thy picture[s] be. be not proud. Else a great Prince in prison lies. Though it to body first repaire. From rest and sleep. For those. that so Weake men on love reveal'd may looke. O. and an angelic sprite . and to faculties. Have heard this dialogue of one. And if some lover. when we'are to bodies gone. Pour new seas in mine eyes. he shall see 75 Small change. And made it fouler . And burn me. that so I might Drown my world with my weeping earnestly. Die not.

but as in my idolatry I said to all my profane mistresses. But am betroth'd unto your enemy . Rest of their bones. Beauty of pity. Yet dearly I love you. for I. me should defend. and tell Whether His countenance can thee affright. but O. o'erthrow me. And better than thy stroke . But is captived. And dost with poison. and make me new. To wicked spirits are horrid shapes assign'd . Blood fills his frowns. we wake eternally. burn. your viceroy in me. no . where thou dost dwell. Death. That I may rise. and soul's delivery. Divorce me. to another due. John Donne HOLY SONNETS. O soul. and proves weak or untrue. Thou'rt slave to Fate. and bend Your force. which from His pierced head fell . and would be loved fain. for you As yet but knock . or break that knot again. foulness only is A sign of rigour . The picture of Christ crucified. chance. shine. John Donne HOLY SONNETS. and stand. and seek to mend . never shall be free. war. and desperate men. or charms can make us sleep as well. This beauteous form assures a piteous mind. What if this present were the world's last night ? Mark in my heart. I. XIV. Reason. thou shalt die. XIII. Nor ever chaste. Except you enthrall me. to break.And soonest our best men with thee do go. And poppy. three-person'd God . to no end. Labour to admit you. Batter my heart. why swell'st thou then ? One short sleep past. Take me to you. . Tears in His eyes quench the amazing light . untie. And Death shall be no more . breathe. and sickness dwell. like an usurp'd town. imprison me. And can that tongue adjudge thee unto hell. blow. kings. so I say to thee. Which pray'd forgiveness for His foes' fierce spite ? No. except you ravish me.

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