This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF HRIS AT OPJIT
A PROJECT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES, JINDAL STEEL & POWER, RAIGARH
A Vision transcending
Steel and Power
JINDAL STEEL & POWER
ISO 9002 and 14001 Certificate Company
A PROJECT REPORT ON
ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF HRIS AT OPJIT JSPL, RAIGARH
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the award of Degree in
Master of Technology (Human Resources Dev. & Mangt.)
Department of Humanities and social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Submitted by Anand Kumar
M. Tech. Human Resources Dev. & Mangt.
Guided By Manish Bishwash
Dy. Manager, HRD Jindal Steel & Power
I, Anand Kumar, student of M.Tech. (HRDM) in Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur for the session 2009-11 do here by declare that this project report named “Analysis and Development of HRIS at OPJIT” has been prepared in lieu of a compulsory paper for the partial fulfillment of Master of Technology (Human Resources Dev. & Mgmt.). This is my original work which I have submitted to my guide Mr. Manish Bishwash, Dy. Manager, HRD, Jindal Steel and Power, Raigarh.
All the information and data in my project are authentic to the best of my knowledge and taken from reliable sources.
Anand Kumar M. Tech. (HRDM) IIT, Kharagpur
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur for encouraging me to do this project and Jindal Steel & Power, Raigarh for giving me an opportunity to do this project in their Organization.
I also express my earnest and sincere gratitude to my guide Mr. Manish Bishwash, DGM (HRD), Jindal Steel & Power Limited, Raigarh, for his noble guidance ,valuable suggestions and unflagging supervision during the entire project. His keen interest, noble motivation, encouragement, intellectual support and ever helping attitude have made the tenure of my work smooth and easy. I convey my deepest sense of gratitude to my internal guide Prof. Partho Basu, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur for encouraging me to do this project. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. C.D Mathew, Sr.GM (HRD), for his continuous support & valuable suggestions from time to time, which helped me enhance the features of my project. The encouragement and cooperation of my family members has always been a great source of inspiration.
1.1. Human Resource Functions 188.8.131.52.1. 1.4.3. The Manzini—Gridly Hardware Network Model 2.1.1. HRIS and Data 21 1.3.1. Resource Flow Model 2.4.4. Stand Alone Architecture .4. The Simon Input/Data Maintenance/Output Model 28 2.4. Introduction 1.3. 1.4. 26 27 22 24 25 Theoretical Point of View 2.4. Effect of HRIS on Organization 184.108.40.206. History and Background 1.1. Architecture of HRIS 2. Uses and Exploitation of HRIS 1. HRIS and Management Work 2. Design Point of View 31 31 30 28 27 2.5 Contents 220.127.116.11.4. The Hyde-Shafritz Notion of Integrated Input and Output Model 2.1. 7 8 Technology and Human Resource Information System 9 Human Resource Management and Development 16 13 1. Primer of Human Resource Information System 18 19 1.
2. Physical Design 18.104.22.168. Analysis and Design 22.214.171.124. Logical Design 4.3.1. Database Architecture 37 4.3.1. 5.3.3. Inheritance 53 53 55 5. System function diagram 5.2.3. 5. Three Tier & N-Tier Architecture 3. HRIS Need Analysis 3. 126.96.36.199.2. Introduction of OOP Analysis Objects Classes Message 50 50 51 52 5.4. 4. Design System 56 56 57 62 5. Introduction to Database Management System Various Database Terms Database Design 40 38 38 4.6.2. Two Tier Architecture 31 32 2. Advance Technology 49 50 46 47 47 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 2. In General In OPJIT 32 35 36 4.3. Conceptual Design 40 4. Class Diagram 220.127.116.11.1. Class Description Object Diagram . Polymorphism 5.2. 5. 5. 5. 18.104.22.168.
2. Summery and Conclusion 8. Feasibility 65 6. Sequence Diagram 63 65 6.3. Implementation 67 68 7.4.7 5. Feasibility Analysis and Implementation 6.1. References 71 .
8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .
or customers. Civil. This project is about analysis and development of HRIS of HR department of OPJIT. In general. in 2006.9 O. Declining costs of capturing and using information have joined with increasing competitive pressures to spur numerous innovations in use of information to create value. these systems use information or processing capabilities in one organization to improve the performance of another or to improve relationships among organizations. Analysis part basically covers analysis of current system in OPJIT and analyze current trend of HRIS. and Government of India. including talent acquisition and workforce planning. A research was conducted by Alice S. distribution channels. Raigarh (A unit of Jindal Education & Welfare Society) is affiliated to Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University. found that only a quarter thought that strategic functions such as workforce planning. Jindal Institute of Technology. The ideas do not constitute a procedure leading inexorably to competitive advantage. The survey of 100 senior HR managers. shows a significant disconnect between HR's strategic functions. Ministry of HRD. This is a study by talent management solutions company TALEO. and Metallurgy & Computer Science. and IT ability to support these business initiatives. The Institute offers bachelor degree in engineering courses of 4 years (8 semesters) duration in Mechanical. Bhilai & is recognized by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). Development of HRIS consists all phases of development of new software from need analysis of HRIS to implementation of new software. However.P. . all in organizations employing more than a thousand people. First part of this project basically deals necessity of HRIS to HR department through different research and example and introduction of HRIS in different form. Technology and Human Resource Many well-known examples of the use of information technology for competitive advantage involve systems that link an organization to suppliers. Electrical & Electronics. they have been of value when combined with an appreciation of the competitive dynamics of specific industries and a grasp of the power of information. HR management of OPJIT is an extension of HR of JSPL.
Findings of this study clearly show that HR is evolving to play a more strategic role in supporting fundamental business objectives. • IT focused on lower-level. administrative functions. leadership development and planning (25%) and strategic workforce planning (25%) were not well supported. Respondents said that payroll and employee administration (68%) and evaluation and management reporting (53%) were adequately supported by IT. • Inadequate data and technology systems obstructed workforce management. Respondents said that payroll and employee administration (68%) and evaluation and management reporting (53%) were adequately supported by IT. • IT focused on lower-level. • The HR function was striving to become more strategic. However. but the systems being used by HR functions are not keeping up and not as the requirement. Just 29% of respondents felt that they had sufficient systems in place to gain a clear picture of existing employee skills. leadership development and planning (25%) and strategic workforce planning (25%) were not well supported. Only a third felt confident in systems support for recruitment and employee progression. It is clear that talent management and other strategic initiatives are being recognized as essential functions by ambitious companies that want to retain and recruit the best people. The right HR technology is a critical element of any HR strategy moving forward. 63% of respondents cited talent management (including recruitment) as a significant priority in the year ahead. Over half the respondents (55%) felt that more sophisticated technology systems and processes were needed to support recruitment and development. administrative functions. more strategic HR initiatives such as performance management (28%). Some important other findings are: • Current technology systems were out-of-date.10 leadership development and performance management were well supported by their IT systems. more strategic HR initiatives such as performance management (28%). but organizations need to arm their HR peoples with the tools and technology needed to support this strategy. . However.
Information is a combination of information technology and the people activities that support operation. Display properties that are peculiar to the whole but are not possessed by any of the individual elements 4. . Lauria (2007). It has many different definitions relevant to other fields but one thing is common in all that is “Information is a pattern of facts in any kind of fields”. Input. have boundaries that are usually defined by the system observer Every system is the part of lager system. It is an integration of people. All system consist followings gadgets and properties 1. relevant and complete data fact. These elements continually influence one another to maintain their activity and the existence of the system. in order to achieve the common purpose of the system. System is a set of several individual and subsystem. Information is a systematic. and communicating information. place and resources to carry out a specific activity. perform a duty or solve a problem. Business firms. meaningful. Information system is an integrated set of components for collecting. A system has Organized. management and decision making. supply services. Maintain an internal steady-state ( homeostasis) despite a changing external environment 3. Human resource management system is slightly more backward in the use of technology and its tool. M. is composed by sub system and shares common properties of other system. purposeful structure regarded as a 'whole' consisting of interrelated and interdependent elements.11 I have given just one research example but I have found many articles (Eitel J. Information System Information system is a term that constitutes two different terms “Information” and “System”. storing. and augment personal lives. process. processing. Karen Beaman (2000)) as well as company research document(Africa Health (2009)) that shows technology and its tool can improve productivity and accuracy of decision making system of any department. other organizations and individuals in contemporary society rely on information systems to manage their operations. compete in the marketplace. Output and Feedback system 2.
Production and purchasing systems to calculate raw material requirements . Transaction Processing System 2. Decision Support System 4.Billing systems to send invoices to customers .Stock control systems to process all movements into. within and out of the business .Systems to calculate the weekly and monthly payroll and tax payments . Knowledge Management System Or Expert System These four information system uses different levels of information and provide different set of output to different types of user. Transaction Processing Systems ("TPS") are designed to process routine transactions efficiently and accurately. Management Information System 3. A business may have several TPS .12 Banking Communicati on Accounti ng Economi cs Managem ent Agricult ure Informati on system Psycholo gy Architect ure Engineeri ng There are four type of information system: 1. As the name implies.
For example. PowerPoint presentations. accountants and management consultants. a KMS would use group collaboration systems such as an intranet.13 A management information system is mainly concerned with internal sources of information.which can then be shared by other people in the organization to create further commercial opportunities. KMS are built around systems which allow efficient categorization and distribution of knowledge. the knowledge itself might be contained in word processing documents. These are typically used in a business where employees create new knowledge and expertise . MIS usually take data from the transaction processing systems (see below) and summarize it into a series of management reports. DSS comprise tools and techniques to help gather relevant information and analyze the options and alternatives. Good examples include firms of lawyers. Internet pages or whatever. Knowledge Management Systems exist to help businesses create and share information. MIS reports tend to be used by middle management and operational supervisors. Decision-support systems are specifically designed to help management make decisions in situations where there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions. To share the knowledge. DSS often involves use of complex spreadsheet and databases to create "what-if" models. spreadsheets. .
But now these concepts have been expanded to focus on the efficient and effective management of people in achieving the organization’s vision or purpose. We know people are most valuable asset of any organization. was to consider this as a stand-alone system that is devoid of any meaningful relationships to other organizational functions and purpose. In other words. the HRM goes beyond a set of coordination functions and activities of an organization’s human resources. that we were so used to. and many organizations have many people as • • • • Under Valued Under Trained Under Utilized Poorly motivated The market place for talented. skilled people is competitive and expensive. the organization should be able to side with its HR strategies and policies with whatever their organization might exist for.14 Human Resource Management and Development HRM is an important branch of management. recruitment to termination of people in any organization. HRM if designed carefully can become the driving force for organizational success. organizational climate and take care of them. It covers all activity from manpower planning. The business or service organizations used to consider human resource management (HRM) as the anchor of managing their people within their employer-employee relationship. But now these concepts have been expanded to focus on the efficient and effective management of people in achieving the organization’s vision or purpose. it is the HR that stands in . So the role of HR department is truly defined: “Selection of right people in correct number with right quality at adequate cost at right time and finally with the scheme to retain these people” The business or service organizations used to consider human resource management (HRM) as the anchor of managing their people within their employer-employee relationship. For. it emphasis on people and their activity management. One of the precarious HR practices. HR department is also responsible to built work culture. Conceptually. One of the fundamental ideas underlying the HRM theory is that the organization can create a strategic fit or synergy between its HR strategies and organizational strategies. Taking new employee is an expensive issue and loss of any such employee is a loss as capital.
present three additional unique features that in one way or another affect the management of human resources: . the quality of products or services. in 2000 The International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) is adopted a frame work for human resource management system. all the companies have access to the latest technological advancements. revenues or development outcomes are greatly determined by HR strategies and polices. Harward has given analytical framework of Human Resource Management Stake Holder Concern Shareholders Management Employee Group Government Institution Community Unions Situational Factors Workforce Characteristics Business strategy and condition Management Philosophy Labor Market Union Technology Law and social values HRM Policies Planning Recruitment & selection Orientation & training Performance Appraisal Compensation Separation HRM Outcomes Commitment Compliance Congruence Cost effectiveness Long term Outcomes Individual wellbeing Organizational Effectiveness Social well-being We know that every system has internal and external component to influence it. A human resources management framework does not exist in a vacuum but is interconnected with the organization’s mission and is subject to a number of forces. however. work and overall policy. it include external and internal forces. both internal and external. In the present competitive environment. therefore. International organizations of the United Nations family. Variables such as customers and stakeholders. We know that many forces at various levels influence changes the strategy and direction of HRM.15 the key position to influence growth and development of any organization. it is the HR practices which sets the companies apart. These forces may change organization’s mission.
multicultural nature: the organizations’ aims and activities are global and their employees come from all parts of the world The frame work of ICSE is as Human Resource Management Strategies Ethics/Standards of conduct For the international civil service Human Resource Information Management Underpins the framework Organizational design. Job design and Human Resource Planning Career Management Career management.16 • • • Their system of governance: all organizations are responsible to large numbers of Member States which decide their missions. Placement & retention Compensation & Benefit System to maintain it Role of staff representative Contractual arrangements Mobility Administration of justice Staff well-being Performance Management ICSC HRM framework. mandates and strategies Their legal status: the organizations are extraterritorial and not bound by national legislation or international labor conventions Their international. 2000 . staff development & training Good Governance Management Style Employment Recruitment.
17 Human Resource Functions HR department practices several functions that cover from recruitment to separation of employee and planning to termination. transfer. Making policies and procedure As the accountability of people HR department should have a complete and clear policies and procedure. It also participate in major decision making system in business like expansion of business. downsizing people. key employee leaving the . Shortage of employee. Integrated planning is central to the successful implementation of the PSMA. strategic plan and budgetary resources. environmental scan and gap analysis. Performance Measurement and Risk Management Human resource department are expected to maintain an effective internal control and ensure availability the performance information to decision makers. promotion. Policy must have clear map for every decision in all condition and complete procedure for implementation. First. HR priorities. promotion etc. It plays important role in organization and study organizational need from people and people need from organization. HR department also plays an important role in risk management in two ways. It will help align an organization’s workforce to government priorities. Some of important HR functions are as follows: a. These policies should be documented and available to concern people in easy way. A batter performance management system improves the productivity of employee and organization can take the decision about employee’s future career like transfer. and the organization’s mission. denial to take additional responsibility from key employee. c. HR planning should serve as a link between human resources management and the overall strategic plan of an organization. training etc. HR Planning Integration of business and HR planning suggest HR planning is a process that identifies current and future human resources needs for an organization to achieve its goals. sloppy work. b. employee is a prime source of risk so HR department must implement a procedure to identify and keep the track of the source of risk. strategies and work plans should be based on the organization’s goals. acquisition and merging of companies.
i. Classification is a high profile job that may create new position in organization and assign duties to these positions. work satisfaction etc. its motivate people to stay in organization. Second. its distribution to employee is justified manner is much more important. This is a responsible though which HR people secure and manage workplace with several rule and regulations in both . Workplace maintenance This is a code of conduct of HR department. Resourcing for service delivery HR professionals are expert in handling people problems like health. f. d. and Staff Relations Compensation is main motive of any employee. trainer.18 organization etc. Learning and Development Learning and development is continuous process that keeps people update and make them ready for future need and threat. h. These three actions from HR department must helps organization to basic infrastructure system. Staff relation must be kept healthy and friendly in organization. Staffing This is another important action. e. are example of risk. behavioral. training. Recruitment Most of people this is main job and may be only job or HR people. Identification of people. HR department is responsible to distribute people to several positions and departments. so HR people are responsible to provide resource and suggestion to manager to handle such problem. Staffing should be based on policy and legal obligation imposed by state or organization. Program should be beneficial to organization and its ROI must be calculated. psychological. process is critical work in this phase. technical. Classification. So recruitment is only way to fill requirement of organization. Compensation. but I can say HR function starts with HR planning for staffing and it require people for that. g. people are important to handle the risk so HR department should take appropriate system to identifies and delegate responsibility to these people.
on the face of employees’ family. in work culture and organization climate etc.19 ways physical and psychological. . All HR functions cannot be documented on any volume of paper because we can feel its presence in everywhere. Values and Ethics apply here that give life to workplace and people do the work as his own work. The success of HR activity is not mirrored in revenue generation of organization only but its presence can be seen also in the kitchen of employee. in employees’ success.
and validating certain data needed by an organization about its employees. and manipulate data for Human Resources. The definitions are also affected by the application area. They are mainly handbooks or other practical guidebooks of the design and use of HRIS in organizations. manage. The definitions of HRIS are created in the 1980s and in the 1990s. retrieve. analyze. Kossek. HRIS is a system to operate human resource management activity in systematic way. and organization unit characteristics. retrieving. Kavanagh. deliver. In addition. 1. definition. retrieving. All the four definitions of HRIS emphasize the technical activities to process the data of human resources. applicants. even though DeSanctis (1986) wrote an article on HRIS in the 1980s. and validating data needed by an organization about its human resources. development and management of other aspect is also important. Because of its important in management of human resource. store. Thus. store. Kovach & Cathcart Jr. What is HRIS? There are several definitions of HRIS but I am giving four definitions to introduce HRIS. maintaining. present. Young. and distribute pertinent information about an organization’s human resources. Walter(1982) The modern Human Resource Information System may be defined as a computerbased method for collecting. personnel activities. As we know. so far any other books on HRIS do not exist. its knowledge. The literature of HRIS has its base mostly on research articles and papers because HRIS have been studied more extensively and thoroughly not until in the new millennium.20 Primer of HRIS HRIS are a novel research subject in IS field. Because HRIS is . 2. (1999: 275) A Human Resource Information System is a systematic procedure for collecting. Gueutal & Tannenbaum (1990) A human resource information system is a system used to acquire. Four books are available of HRIS. 3. manipulate. storing. 4. maintaining. the number of the research articles on HRIS has not increased until in the late 1990s and in the new millennium. storing. computer applications. and hardware and software that are used to collect/record. Gash & Nichol (1994: 135) The composite of data bases. and former employees.
earlier personnel systems. a. Forcht & Thomas 1998. History and Background The history of HRIS begins from payroll systems in the late 1950s and continues into the 1960s when the first automated employee data was used (Kavanagh 1990. training. As objectives. were mostly designed and implemented for those activities of HRM. 2. development and the successful implementation of various computer-based HRIS (Martinsons 1997). Thus. Walker (1993) presents how a “true” personnel system was defined in the late 1960s: A true personnel system has following Characteristics: 1. Martinsons 1997). facilitating and setting up processes that select. In other words. HRM is also defined as monitoring. and assign people to appropriate roles in an organization (Townley 1994. and systems professionals. HRIS. Hubbart. and they necessarily involve procedures. It is multifunctional and in that it handles or addresses user needs in more than one personnel area. the first personnel systems were made to store a tremendous amount of data for record keeping and reporting associated with personnel administration. HRM is defined by using lists of different tasks associated with employees like: recruiting. ad-hoc retrieval techniques d. 3. a human resource information centre to assist with administration e. It is used to solve personnel’s needs. promoting. Kavanagh et al. to solve personnel – not financialproblems. It utilizes the five basic concepts underlying human resource systems. it is not limited to one function such as benefits. or wage and salary administration. the development of HR activities generated the design. Targowski & Deshpande 2001. a method of data update and entry c. Walker 1993. These concepts bring methodology to the development and operation of personnel systems. Ball 2001). not just payrolls. (1990) . they provide an approach and structure for the work. That is the system is developed primarily for the Personnel Department’s use. A data quality focus. In the course of time. or employment. a database with definitions specified for data elements b.21 related to HRM thus all other things referred to HRM. users. assess. record keeping and meeting various legal requirements.
22 present their conception of the development of HRIS introducing the historical eras in HR from the pre-World War II era to the 1980s and how the eras have affected the development of HRIS. Table shows development and changes in HRIS with time Ref – Table1. .
HRIS capabilities lower in cost. web-based HR. advent of MIS in computer world. there are terms which may have similar meanings to e-HRM. protector of employees. e-commerce and e-business became possible and common because of the invention of World. early applications of mainframe computers for personnel are used in defense industry. according to the literature. increased emphasis on R&D for HR. An organization was considered efficient if it had technology and IS to support HR activities. Along with the development of HRIS the concept of electronic HRM (e-HRM) has also been launched as an internet invention and implementation of HRIS. caretaker activity.23 Table 1 Historical eras in HR Era Pre-World War II Postwar: 1945–1960 Emphasis in HR Reactive. Also. HR now more in mainstream of operations. various articles and web sites. virtual HR (M). Still. Studies about advantages of using HRIS and about users of HRIS were performed. increased paperwork and reporting requirements. e-HRM is the most commonly-used term. Because of the different technical devices and realizations. In the new millennium electronic services such as e-learning. research and development (R&D) in selection of employees. payroll automation. introduction of IBM/360. Social issues legislation changes HR. HR internet. such as electronic HR (e-HR). the increased government regulation of the 1980s increases HR role and paperwork. advent of microcomputers and HR software explosion. Importance of employee morale. effectiveness of HRIS on work and development of HR departments and HR professionals were under discussion. HR expected to cost justify activities. personnel is part of operating costs but not yet in mainstream of operations. thus affordable by smaller firms. computer based human resource information systems (CHRIS) and HR portals. We can define e-HRM as: . particularly utility analysis Social issues era: 1963– 1980 Cost-effectiveness era: the 1980s In the 1990s there existed various expectations of how HRIS should have affected an organization’s HR activities and business planning.Wide-Web (WWW 1994). not part of the mainstream of business. record keeping and caretaker of employees. HR becomes part of the business strategy process.
and practices in organizations through a conscious and directed support of and/or with the full use of web-technology-based channels Ruël. at least following questions should be asked when designing. supports the process of SHRDP. Also different private or semi-private data could have been stored in the system. data can be available in a different way than in manual systems and requires more concern of data security and sensitivity than earlier. for SHRDP reliable data and knowledge are vital issues. strategic human resource development and planning (SHRDP) is focused on strategic management.24 • • A way of implementing HR strategies. phone numbers. The data is important a) for management and b) to keep the HRM effective and in real-time order. for its part. education. career development and documents of the personal development discussion are typical employee data in HRIS. HRIS are mostly constructed for knowledge management (KM) of HRM. Lederer & Sethi 2002). For example. and knowledge-based system (KBS) helps deliver HRM qualitative outputs as well as increases both employee and customer satisfaction (Grundy 1997. It links business strategy and organizational strategy to the management skills. addresses. training. Therefore. manipulate and provide data on employees. Herein it should be taken into account that because of the automation. In addition. Strohmeier (2005: 2) Based on the above it is possible to conclude that today the development of HRIS is still an ongoing process both in practice and in science. manipulate and provide data of employees for the organizational use. HRIS have been designed to accomplish most of the routine HR tasks that help to maintain necessary HR knowledge in databases. implementing and maintaining HRIS: Who can have access to the system? What kind of data is available to different users? How are the system and data protected? What kind of security system has been implemented? What legal and ethical issues should be considered in data specifications? (Hubbard et al. spatial segregated. which creates better challenges to a profitable and effective organization. Names. The reason for that is the desire to control basic data of personnel. policies. Therefore. Martinsons 1997. Bondarouk & Looise (2004) As a rule. Mainly HRIS have been designed to store. both technically networked and supported. Thus. 1998) . Strategic information systems planning (SISP). HRIS and Data The commonly used interpretation is that the purpose of HRIS is to store. organizational behavior and HRM. shared and organized performing of HRM tasks through at least two actors. Basu. Hartono.
and necessary resources. workable and effective HR information system provides a company with a significant competitive advantage (Broderick & Boudreau 1992).) Simultaneously. Simultaneously the organization must be familiar with cultural differences which should be taken into account in designing the HR information system (Stroh et al. software and hardware can be regarded as both investments and costs for the organization. Only big enterprises could use personnel systems because they were able to invest in both computers and software. it is important to inform personnel in detail about the implementation and the reformation of the system as well as to organize training to all levels to confirm capability to use the system. Secondly. managers and employees access and use HRIS both locally and globally. Therefore the discussions of the costs and benefits of the employees and HRIS are highlighted. The development of technology influenced the prices of big computers. in other words it does not give exact numbers of either of the costs. At the same time. Personnel costs started to increase resulting in careful consideration when investing in IS.). Although technology was cheap.e. Walker 1993. globalization gives an extra challenge to HRIS. In addition. Also. Kavanagh et al. the collaboration between HR and IT experts keeps . i. In addition. Now companies were also able to invest in different IS due to the decline in costs of technology. legislation of personnel functions as well as demands and needs of different administrative activities and reports developed significantly. In addition to costs and benefits. databases and personal computers (PC) decreased the costs of computers. devices and workforce. a well-designed. An organization must be aware which parts of the HR information system is similar in every unit regardless of the country. (DeSanctis 1986. a company had to budget money for personnel expenses. the automation and computerization of HR activities and tasks have other influences as well. 1998. Developed and sophisticated HRIS do not only reduce overall HR costs but also help to simplify the way the customers. Top management and stakeholders expect the investments to benefit the organization. The figure does not include specific HRIS costs but it concentrates on computer costs. 1990. First. which had an effect on investments in HRIS. The process should be started step by step. but it indicates visually that in the 1960s employee costs were low whereas big computers were expensive investments for organizations. Thus costs and benefits are the subjects of conversations when employment and device investments are in question in an organization. the figure does not speak out the ranges between employee and computer costs directly. In the 1970s new inventions such as microcomputers. Herein. the automation and computerization of HR activities and tasks have on influence on the implementation of new HR technology and the HR information system in an organization. A chronological development of personnel costs and computer costs can be described as HRIS cost and personnel cost and its comparison is shown in figure1. the design and implementation of other organizational IS needed more resources and increased prices of software. should be allocated for the process sufficiently. small companies became interested in automating their HR actions and making them more effective.25 Effects of HRIS on organizations Personnel. At the same time the costs should be kept in check. Thirdly.
Figure 1 comparison of computer and employee trend Computer storage and retrieval cost C o s t Employee Cost 1950 1960 1970 Yea r 1980 1990 2000 Cost and benefits are constantly the matters involved when measuring the meaning of HRIS. . (Ngai & Wat 2006. It would be a great advantage if managers. an organization will lose a lot of money and resources. for example. HRIS usually bring about changes in the activities of HRM. If technological development and changes are not taken into account. The skills to understand database management help HR professionals to understand what data is stored and how it is stored as well as why and how that data can be manipulated. accomplish and to implement HRIS. how to produce reports for decisionmaking.) As IS in other organizational application areas.26 the users’ ideas in practical shape and help all of them in problematic situations (Axel. in the 2000s the implementations of HRIS are still under consideration. regardless of all the notions and advice concerning the HRIS use. leaders and HR professionals.) Still. Changes affect not only everyday processes but also the skills of managers. leaders and HR professionals were aware of how to specify data technically and what the changes to the old system are. It is important that HR people understand what an information system is about and what it takes to design. A positive finding is that some studies have already been made to investigate and highlight the barriers behind the implementation of HRIS in organizations. 1998.
There are also organizations utilizing HRIS in training and recruitment. New technologies give new possibilities to solve administrative work efficiently. Today HRIS are supported by techniques which help recognize the needs of training and allow tracking suitable training for employees. Technology offers effective devices to implement and use IS. They also emphasize that the theoretical development of the model brings out several significant conclusions. manipulate and to provide data on employees. i. They may wonder if the technology works. and utility as moderated by the individual’s predisposition to trust technology. Before automated HR data.27 Use and exploitation of HRIS Since the 1960s due to the growth of computerized HRIS. HR people spend less time on day-to-day administrative tasks and have more time on strategic decision making and planning. leaders and . using HRIS generates needs to add new useful modules to the system. Secondly. Also the understanding of the determinants of HRIS may improve overall organizational performance (Lippert & Swiercz 2005. by understanding the technology trust. Some people state that HRM and HRIS are ready to assume a far greater enterprise role. reliability. if the data is reliable and if they are familiar enough with the technology.” (Lippert & Swiercz 2005: 341). the improvement of user satisfaction may increase. They begin developing HRIS by separating it from HR administration (Ball 2001. It is important for managers. The HR information system is a tool that supports HR management functions and assists managers in managing their human resources more effectively than earlier (Targowski & Deshpande 2001. HR managers and professionals have spent a great deal of time establishing. for example.).). What organizational qualities make an organization use HRIS? The number of employees is the first issue. As stated before. Lippert & Swiercz (2005) introduce their model which offers 11 propositions to explore the relationship between HRIS technology trust and implementation success. Although HRIS are mainly created for HR people. also employees and managers should be able to use and should use the system. which need supervisory skills or management skills. Some questions can be presented when the core meaning of HRIS is evaluated: What tasks is the system for? What do managers expect of HRIS? Does the HR information system support strategic initiatives? Does it provide information – not just raw data – to support decisions? How does the HR information system serve corporate needs and expectations? Furthermore. Lippert & Swiercz (2005) argue that the model forms a framework to test the relationship empirically. In a large organization usually both individual and organizational knowledge of HR functions are computerized. “Technology trust can be defined as an individual’s willingness to be vulnerable to a technology based on person specific expectations of the technology’s predictability. users can be skeptical when using IT and IS. the HR information system brings changes to everyone’s work. maintaining and using HR databases. if they make mistakes when using IT and IS.). some organizations utilize HRIS when hiring people and therefore HRIS are developed widely in HR activities and administrative actions. Still. to identify which employees need certain technical skills. HRIS have become more sophisticated than ever. For example.e. the essential purpose of HRIS has been to store. HR managers needed a lot of time. For example.
A HR information system is considered a tool to support HRM functions and an aid to help managers in managing their human resources effectively. it does not automatically mean they are effective and sufficiently good users of systems. Also HR professionals with more general IS experience may encourage users at higher levels. 1998. The questions when considering HRIS design are: How does the HR information system help managerial work? How can employees attend to their own profiles in the system? What is HR staff’s responsibility in using the HR information system? HR professionals mostly work with top and line management because HRM is part of the managers’ work. originally HRIS have been planned for managerial and HR work. 2007. they will not use the system. technology brings more possibilities to operate with data than manual systems. organizations must be familiar with cultural differences to identify them in HRIS. Managers have been responsible for employee data and thus they may have drawn a conclusion that it has been on their shoulders to update administrative information. When the HR work is shared between the managers and HR staff. Stroh et al. a HR information system can be designed so that it is easy to use by everyone and it will not be a burden or a loss to anyone. HRIS also develop management both locally and globally. Hussain et al. Even though managers and HR professionals may have good skills to construct HRIS. have not been pleased with the change brought about by managers’ and employees’ more active roles in HR administrative work. If managers are not comfortable with the HR information system and if they do not get needed data. Still. leaders and HR people. . On the other hand. User satisfaction and system usage have become common measures of system success in HR function.). HRIS and management work We know. HR professionals. It is important to pay attention to encouragement at management level and point out the usefulness of the HR information system.28 HR professionals to be involved together when designing and developing HRIS with the help of IT professionals. Their use has caused uncertainty about the division of labor between managers and HR staff. Globally integrated HRIS should be efficient by developing management in the increasingly competitive multinational global markets (Haines & Petit 1997. the managers with longer work experience may be less satisfied with the HR information system. This may cause co-operational challenges between managers. Yet. who have wanted to maintain the control of HR issues. Furthermore. the HR professionals have more time to develop HR strategy in the organization. Technology and computerization may also cause the management work to transfer from managers to HR professionals. but the situation also gives an opportunity for possible hidden features of HRM to emerge. Therefore.
29 Chapter 2 ARCHITECTURE OF HRIS .
From the evolution time HRIS is described is several forms and architecture. personnel data that was maintained in hardcopy in past but it became automated now with the help of processing power. database features.30 Architecture of HRIS HRIS is basically function oriented system. pay characteristics and changes.1 lists the modules and provides brief descriptions. as well as data describing job functions. In order to satisfy legislation. One. These particular modules were identified during a study for the State Department. its application taken care of at least two points of HR need. reporting format and communication facilities. Hyde and Jay M. some are as follows Theoretical Point of View 1. Second point. firms began developing computer-based systems to maintain data on job applicants. they identified sixteen database modules. and the authors recognize that each firm could have a unique combination of such modules. and compensation and benefits.1 . which were integrated in that they had the capability of exchanging data. In a 1977 journal article. Figure 2. This model does not show any internal structure but it viewed and input and output module. Shafritz were among the first to attempt a conceptual framework for the HRIS. Table 2. The Hyde-Shafritz Notion of Integrated Input and Output Modules Albert C. programming tools. consists of applications made necessary to meet the government reporting requirements.
and deleting records. users interface with the system by means of online devices. providing database security. and how it should be processed. The Simon Input/Data Maintenance/Output Model This model contains three different system Input. when it is provided. Also included are data validation and error correction. . According to this model. such as PCs or terminals. An administrative function called HRIC (for Human Resources Information Center) exists within HR for the purpose of assisting users. The Manzini-Gridley Hardware Network Model In 1986. Shafritz. Public Personnel Management. this model present HRIS in the term of interfaces with a corporate human resources database. The output function uses the database contents to produce information. changing existing records. HRIS: Introduction to Tomorrow's System for Managing Human Resources. This function includes procedures that describe the details of data gathering: who provides data. and includes the standard processes of keeping the human resource database current—adding new records. 6 (March-April 1977). 2. primarily in the form of periodic reports. The maintenance function is next performed. 76. The input function provides the capability for entering data into the HRIS. Data maintenance and Output. 3. and enforcing privacy controls. Their model appears in Figure 2. The database contents are illustrated with shapes that resemble file drawers.2.31 Source: Albert C. Hyde and Jay M. and receive outputs in the form of hardcopy re-ports and responses to ad hoc queries.
32 Figure 2. Integrating Human Resources and Strategic Business Planning. New York: American Management Association.2 Source: Andrew O. 1986 . Manzini and John D. Gridley.
3 . While in the firm. the employees receive training and education. The employees who retire continue to receive benefits. Resource Flow Model A resource-flow view of the HRIS focuses on the flow of human resources through the firm. It recognizes that the firm's environment provides a pool of potential employees who are subjected to a screening process before joining the firm. and receive evaluations. Eventually. This system is described in figure 2. store the data until it is needed.33 4. The task of the HRIS is to gather data that tracks this human resource flow. the employees terminate their employment and return to the environment. and use the data to produce information that enables persons both in the firm and its environment to monitor the flow. perform their tasks.3 Figure 2. The employees are compensated for their efforts with money and other benefits.
M.34 Hyde.C. A. "HRIS: Introduction to Tomorrow's System for Managing Human Resources. 6 (March-April 1977) . and Shafritz." Public Personnel Management.. J.
Stand Alone System A single system consist all thing input system. 2. Figure 2. home addresses. Two-Tier System This is basically a client server model of system. Server consist all data. It is basically a single user system that must be HR professional. security and report subsystem. Even more complex checks such as term of employment and salary deduction calculations could be done on the local PC. The purpose of client-server architecture was to spread out low-powered processing capability to the dozens of PCs now being used across an organization. storage. In this case. High-performance applications such as Payroll would still be run in a batch process on the mainframe computer or outsourced to vendors such as Automated Data Processing (ADP). logic. output.35 Design Point of View Hare I am going to present some architecture that commonly found in several organizations on practical point of view. without looking up the business rule at the server on the mainframe. Everything is done locally in this system. and name formats would be checked instantly by the PC. .4 shows the client server architecture. reporting and processing. In addition. that is. administrative. Different architecture must require different angle of attention of programming and design aspect. Issues such as having valid data entries for hiring dates. an HR application’s logic or set of business rules would run on the local machine. Some of architectures are as follows: 1. software applications could apply the more graphics-oriented user interface of the Windows environment. But day-to-day processing could be implemented on the PC. Ease of computer usage was a major factor that enabled individuals with a relatively low level of technology experience to use the applications.
With a 3-tier architecture. which performed tasks between the client and the database server. Therefore. or the ability to move lots of data quickly between computers. a large amount of information has to move from the client computer across the network to the server to execute database transactions quickly. First. For example. There are a couple of drawbacks with both 2-tier and 3-tier systems. Products such as BEA’s Tuxedo1 transaction processor implemented transaction logic to maintain data reliability. With the development of the 2-tier and 3-tier systems. application server. finally. the HRIS professional still managed the user interface. This allowed several users to access the central database simultaneously. this division of processing activity expanded from 2-tier to 3-tier and. which necessitates the use of significant bandwidth. HRIS access tended to be limited to employees within the “four .36 3. Second.5). a transaction processor would ensure that both updates were entered into the database. but more demanding processing occurred in the middle. This type of software. The corollary issue of this requirement is that employees need to be trained on this application. and tier. the user interface client needs to be installed (along with database drivers) on every PC needed to access the HRIS. N-tier architectures. became known as middleware—software that managed data and transactions before they were saved to the database. if two recruiters updated the same job position at the same time. Three Tier Architecture and N-Tier Architecture Throughout the 1990s and into the current decade. the servers have two roles—as database (DBMS) server and as application server(s) (Figure 2.
processes and data are distributed and populated to entire company architecture on local or global platform. Therefore. It shows multiple level of processing and data storage. Finally. was impractical. only those residing within the local area network of the organization. An Internet Web browser comes installed on all major operating systems (Windows. that is. very little employee training is required to use a browser-based application.5 Three Tier . So now the typical HRIS application architecture looks like Figure 2. The browser provides a “thin client” and is a relatively small piece of software requiring fairly small client computing resources. Linux.37 walls” of the enterprise. Mac OS. made possible by the 3-tier computing model. N-Tier architecture is a general form of Three-Tier Architecture. Figure 2.5. To provide for employee self-service. a browser works well in a low-bandwidth network environment. and even Palm OS). such as Internet dial up. Low-bandwidth access. It is basically a distributed system. the Web browser was adopted to solve the above issues. The browser’s user interface has become ubiquitous. A “thick client” would require a significant-sized software product and computing power at the client location (as necessitated by the 2-tier model).
6 N-Tier Architecture .38 Figure 2.
39 Chapter 3 HRIS NEED ANYLYSIS .
training process. improved communication. Almost 90% managers agree on this. 4. Information Effect This is most important advantage of any computerized system. In General The use of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) has been advocated as an opportunity for human resource (HR) professionals to become strategic partners with top management. The HRIS appears to have . data analysis capability. planning. A computerized HRIS can provide speed. as well as employees. recruitment process. Decision making A general purpose of an HRIS is to provide decision support applications that help HR and non-HR managers. It can improve data processing and maintenance. its timely and accurate retrieval. business data intelligence capability. 3. and decreases in time spent on mundane activities should create an environment where in the Human Resources (HR) department would play a more strategic role in the organization. This IS improve the information effect through accuracy. it take time for presentation to relevant audience. Decreased costs. accuracy and data storage. The idea has been that HRIS would allow for the HR function to become more efficient and to provide better information for decision-making. real time or online processing. and the key is to make better decisions rather than simply produce data faster. We have study the impact of HRIS on the organization in general then on OPJIT. Some impacts of HRIS are as follows 1. forecasting etc. Cost saving and Time saving HRIS decreases the cost of almost every process of HR activity. HR Process We know almost every HR process required a processing of huge amount of data. It also decreases paper work. better presentation.40 Before doing any need analysis we have do a review of advantages and component of HRIS. make better decisions. 2. Various authors have advocated that the use of a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) should lead to valuable outcomes for the organization.
1. leading to a more strategic/managerial role and contributing to the organization’s competitiveness. So now HRIS may more helpful in this area. There are some other colleges also have to manage. E-Recruitment etc into HR department HR people become in strategic role in organization. E-Training.P. In OPJIT O. as well as creating new paths for HR to add value to the organization. One area where respondents believed that the system did aid in making decisions concerns promotions. and Government of India.41 little effect on decision making. Salary statistics required . Raigarh (A unit of Jindal Education & Welfare Society) is affiliated to Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University. Ministry of HRD. but this project cover OPJIT only. Bhilai & is recognized by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). Regular and non-regular employee. They have following set of situation a. So we can say HRIS must provide an edge to HR people through they become more profitable and more valuable for organization. A section of HR department of JSPL is active in OPJIT to manage employee activity or HR activities. 3-Tier or N-Tier architecture of HRIS. Role of HR HRIS has been envisioned as having a substantial impact on the importance of human resource departments. with 60% responding that it provides useful information. With the introduction E-HRM. Now we have more advance system. Most of the HR directors perceived that HR decision making had become less effective in 1990s and the results were similarly negative pertaining to the impact of HRIS on decisions concerning promotion and especially those decisions related selection and the timing of training and of hiring. 5. Collect adequate set of resume( Soft and hard copy ) b. Duplicate set of resume c. data mining). database tools (data warehouse. distributed system and computing in HR. HR department practice almost all HR functions. HR Process OPJIT has teaching and non-teaching employee. Jindal Institute of Technology. programming Tools etc.
This HRIS provide computerized set of solution of HR process. Decision making HRIS must provide much useful information on time and request. History of applicant and employee e. . Different section of HR for other institution My project provides the solution of all above problem. so it makes system helpful for decision making. Cost saving and Time saving Computerized short listing process.42 d. find duplicate applicant from applicant history etc gives cost and time saves. Medical claim f. 3. automatic data transfer from applicant to employee on joining. 2.
43 Chapter 4 DATABASE ARCHITECTURE .
Picture etc. backup and operative facility (analyzing. For example. . Security: There cannot be enforcement of centralized control on data access. a student’s name in a university’s database would appear in the field named as “student_name”. in which data items are organized in such a way that one can have random access to data. Data inconsistency means discrepancy in values of data elements in same data files physically stored at different locations. or deletion of a field) will warrant for changes to be made in the coding of application also. Access controls planning becomes difficult in such situation. Various Database Terms Database is a databank. which is managed by a single agency. and wastage of storage space. Character string. even if desired so. which are usually of ad hoc nature. Any change in design of data files (say addition of a new field. Data Dependency: The coding in applications is very much dependent upon the data files design. Some database terms are as follows: Field: It is the smallest unit of data. Logical. Hyperlink. which can be stored in a database. Data Isolation: The data files of common use cannot be made available for sharing. 3. merging etc. sorting.44 Introduction to Database management System Database management system is a complete system that manages data of any organization in systematic manner. Every DBMS must have following quality 1. The decisions regarding storing the same data at multiple places are taken at various levels by different people. Data Inconsistency: Data redundancy leads to data inconsistency. security. the other users within the department / organization can not have access to these data files. Data Redundancy: Since. which uses it. 5. Database provides several facilities to information system like storing. even if they are common. retrieval. as per specific needs of the users. Memo. each application has its own data files. and it consists of interrelated files. Thus for every application separate data files are maintained.). Date. 2. as the data files are created / duplicated as per individual applications requirements. 4. Usually the data types in a field are Numeric. This causes data redundancy.
the date of birth. A trigger is triggered automatically when an associated DML statement is executed. Combination of more than one field to act as identifier of a record is called Composite Primary Key. A cursor contains information on a select statement and the rows of data accessed by it. The set of rows the cursor holds is called the active set. These nomenclatures can be used synonymously. and it always has a unique value. . the course taken. it describes an entity (something. and updating of values of fields corresponding to a record. contact address and the grade etc. Trigger: A trigger is a PL/SQL block structure which is fired when DML statements like Insert. Primary Key: Every record in a file usually contains at least one field that uniquely identifies that record for the purpose of data retrieval. Record: It is a collection of related stored fields. Usually that common field is Primary key in one table. and it is called foreign key in the second table. This identifier field is called the primary key.45 The field is at times referred as attribute/data element / data item also. about which data is to be stored). Delete. This temporary work area is used to store the data retrieved from the database. Foreign Key: For setting relationship between two tables. A file is usually referred as a Table also. Foreign key can have repeated values also. File (Table): It is a collection of different occurrences of same type of stored record. and manipulate this data. Cursor: A cursor is a temporary work area created in the system memory when a SQL statement is executed. there should be at least one common field in two tables. A cursor can hold more than one row. A student record may consist of collection of fields like Student’s name. and Update is executed on a database table. but can process only one row at a time.
backup and recovery. Equipment given to employee. As a carefully thought database forms the foundation of business functionality and adds efficiency to the whole system. College Documents List of expected output reports and their layout o Training Reports o Applicant Report: History. department. Nowadays every business needs a database for the management of its business data based on different querying models suitable for different organizations. one needs to be clear about the Information System requirements. Database design has basically three different Phases: 1. Employee Documents. General Board Meeting Information. Applicant. o Search Training: Search based on training information. College Committee. current applicant statistics. Equipment distribution. courses etc Database should keep physical data and maintain it as per security. HR manager. for which database and the procedures are to be designed. by designation • • . o Hiring Report: Total hire by year. Conceptual Design To begin with.46 Database Design Database design is the process of producing a comprehensive data model for any database with storage and management parameters being pre-set. The output of this process is known as System Requirements Specifications (SRS). It mainly consists of: • A well defined objective of database application The objective of database is to acquire data of employee of OPJIT. Operators. This can be done by adopting systematic technique2 for structured analysis. We carry out a comprehensive analysis of Organizational database needs and provide database solutions that fulfill business needs. One more additional work is to support business data intelligence that provides some additional analysis report to decision maker. College Committee List of agencies / roles who receive reports Employee. • List of users who supply inputs Employee. Courses). HR manager (HR policy for promotion. o Shortlisted Report: Report in every phase of recruitment. The database development life cycle starts with requirements specification for the database and ends with its support and maintenance after its implementation and deployment. history of employee. report for current openings.
Emergency Contact List: A list of all staff with emergency contact details. Job Breakdown: Total staff by job Retirement Planning: Staff totals by retirement year. Hires per Year: Hire totals by year. by Qualification. category. Address. Promotion History List of inputs transactions & data entry forms layout o Applicant Information. by position. Home Contact List: All staff with home contact details. Salary Script. Search Report: Search all person records in the system. Position List: A list of all positions. Job Description.General. college information. Staff Directory: A list of all current staff with work contact information. users. designation.47 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o • Termination. resignation : By year. List of Leaves o Continuing Education o Training program o Performance appraisal Inventory • • List of major processes o Short listing of Applicant o Report generation in various format o Error finding in various methods Start o Joining the employee o Salary Fixation Select o Searching Process required o Salary Enhancement o Medical claim fulfillment Position o Salary report generation Layout of User Interfaces to Short Listing Process link various processes 1. Facilities. by subject taught. Short listing Graph Analysis Process Short Listed Process JobDescription Applicant information . Holidays Age Distribution: Total of all staff by age range. Qualification etc o Employee Information o List of holidays o Courses. designation Faculty List: A list of all faculties. Salary statistics. Departments. Salary List: A list of all employees with salary details. Classification Breakdown: A total of all staff by classification.
Joining of Employee Start Select Applicant ID from list of final short listing after interview NO Is Medical Report OK? YES Stop Collect all relevant data of applicant.49 2. Report Generation Start Select or Write Criteria Database Process Data Given By Database Generate Intermediate Report Select Format Report in given format 3. Add some additional relevant data Applicant Information Employee Information .
50 4. Salary Fixation Start Select Applicant ID and designation Retrieve salary range norm of AICTE Compute some statistics of Existing Employee Employee Information Display all values NO Is negotiation succeeding? YES Stop Add fixed Salary to applicant .
51 • List of entities o Applicant General Qualification Address Expectation Experience Benefits o Employee General Experience Qualification Address Leave status Salary Identification Family Continuing Education Research and publication Medical claim Fact information History Contacts o Leave Matrix o Salary matrix o Equipment General Issuing Vendor information o History Employee history Applicant history o GBM Information o Job Description o Holidays o Users o Institute General Information o Department o Courses .
n Applicant Address n 1 Applicant Qualification Applicant n Experience Applicant Applicant General Copy of data when selected 1 Expectation Applicant n Employee Address n 1 Employee Qualification Employee n Experience Employee n Identification Employee n Benefits n n Benefits Employee 1 Employee Family Employee Salary n n General 1 1 Employee Medical Claim Employee R&P n n n Employee Continuing EDU Employee Contact Employee Leave .52 • Conceptual database This is design of database system where we indentify relationship between entities.
Logical Design Logical database design helps us to define and communicate our business’ information requirements. or the business rules that govern.Text Work condition.Date Salary DescriptionText M . Example: JobD Job Title.Text 1 Duties and responsibility.Text Duration. we can verify with users and management that the design is complete and it is accurate.Text Salary DescriptionText M Qualification1 Degree. Creating a logical data design is an information-gathering and it is a iterative process.53 2.Text Salary DescriptionText Table: JobD (Job Description) Skill and Experience Job Title. Here we have to decide collection of attribute for row.Text Work condition. those pieces of information.Text Institute. We know table is logical collection of data of same entity that is formed by row.Text Duties and responsibility. Once we create a logical database design. It includes following steps: o o o o Define all table Establish Relationship between table Determine content of each table and it constraints Normalize the form of table Here I am going to presents some example of this project. When we create a logical database design we have to describe each piece of information that we need to track and the relationships among.
the actual structures of tables are created using a particular DBMS package. The physical design shows how the files.54 One JD Has Multiple Qualifications and Multiple Experiences on one Qualification. Various applications developers have the . is called schema. JOBD pos_id(PK) nvarchar(15) position nvarchar(30) role descrip Job_cat nvarchar(MAX) nvarchar(MAX) nvarchar(15) Unchecked Unchecked Checked Checked Checked JOBQuali Pos_id(FK) quali expr role_on_quali nvarchar(15) nvarchar(30) nvarchar(2) nvarchar(MAX) Unchecked Unchecked Checked Checked Jobd table is parent table and it has a key field ( pos_id). 3. depending upon the type of database. Physical Design In the physical design. the DBMS supports. Jobquali table is connected with jobd table on key field so pos_id in JOBQuali is foreign key. This physical design giving complete logical view (the way user wants to view it) of the database. records. fields are actually stored on the physical storage media.
Advance Topic in Database Database is an area in computer field that growing in every day. to improve the functionality of database technology. after that. Normally. Grid database. Data mining. such as every night or every weekend. such as sales. The data warehouse need not be a relational database. They can customize these views as per their specific needs. management can perform complex queries and analysis on the information without slowing down the operational systems. Most data warehouses hold information for at least one year and sometimes can reach half century. depending on the business/operations data retention requirement. if the operational systems contain a record for every sale. Active database. The data warehouse also normally stores information at a coarse grain than the operational systems: for example. and deductive tools with inference method (Artificial Intelligence) etc. like data mining. or other information from day-to-day operations. Such logical view is called subschema. Deductive database. as it must be organized to hold information in a structure that best supports not only query and reporting. an organization summarizes and copies information from its operational systems (such as human resources) to the data warehouse on a regular schedule. DBMS provides tools for creating the subschema. Multidimensional database etc are the examples of advance feature. the data warehouse might simply contain the total number of sales for each product at each store. Data Warehouse for Storage A data warehouse is a computer system designed for analyzing the historical data of an organization. salaries. Data warehouse. Database incorporates some intelligence system. but also advanced analysis techniques. Database is not now used as storage only but it helps user in decision making.55 choice of getting different logical views (which may be even partial) of the same database. active tools. .
56 CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN .
One object can communicate with other though message. All programming component is design as real world component. Monitor. Object An object is an instance of a class. This methodology is based on a concept that is real world programming concept. Some methodologies are as follows Waterfall Model Prototype Incremental Spiral Rapid Application Development Object Oriented Model Analysis Object Oriented Model of software development is in developing phase and software industry is trying to take move towards this methodology. . System analysis and design refers the process that analyzes actual work place work and design a logical system for same work place. It can be uniquely identified by its name and it defines a state which is represented by the values of its attributes at a particular time. things. place and process. Some object example of HRIS of OPJIT. Characteristic refer all data part of object and behavior refers all functional part. The methodology is changing in continues pattern with the evolution of new technology.57 Software system is basically a complete set of logical world that appears to user physically through a set of hardware. Keyboard. In any system we have to identify all objects separately. Printer etc are the external system that helps user to interact with the system for real work. Software design process has a vast set of methodology. In real world. Some concept of OOPS are as follows. Each and every separate thing has basically two different concepts that are characteristics and behavior. every system has people.
Initial Catalog=JITS.Integrated Security=True" Try s=s+1 conn. accessibility.Empty s=0 End Sub Public Sub connect() conn. ApplicantExpact. An example of Class from project: DatabaseConnection Imports System. Actually class is a building block of object. MainProgram. Equipment.Empty pass = String.Show(ex.SqlClient Imports System.Data.ToString + "/ Please Try with correct Value".Message.Data. EmployeeHistory. Classes A class is a structure that defines the data and the methods to work on that data.SqlTypes Public Class oraconn Dim user As String Dim pass As String Dim utype As String Dim uname As String Dim s As Integer Dim conn As New SqlConnection Public Sub New() user = String.ConnectionString = "Data Source=rohit-pc. SalaryMatrix.Open() Catch ex As Exception MessageBox. Holidays.OK) End Try End Sub Public Function getconn() As SqlConnection Return conn End Function . JobDescriopsion etc. LeaveMatrix. method. ApplicantGeneral. It define object in all manner data. communication etc. "LOGIN ERROR". EmployeeQuali. MessageBoxButtons.58 DatabaseConnection. EmployeeGeneral.Empty utype = String. security.
destroyed and interacting. Message A running program is a pool of objects where objects are created. This class provides database connection to all project area. The object is declare as Dim conn as oracon Conn is object and oraconn is class. A message is a request to an object to invoke one of its methods.Close() End Sub End Class This class describes the connection of database with program through valid user ID and password.59 Public Function getuser() As String Return user End Function Public Sub setutype(ByVal s As String. Example: Oraconn Connect() Getconn() Getuser() SetuType() Give Loginform Connection Getconn MainForm Departmnet() Intitree() Conn Connect () Getuser(conn) Connect UserTyp SetuType() . ByVal us As String) utype = Trim(s) uname = Trim(us) End Sub Public Function getutype() As String Return utype End Function Public Function getuname() As String Return uname End Function Public Sub conclose() conn. This interaction is based on messages which are sent from one object to another asking the recipient to apply a method on itself.
OOPS provides a feature that is a object can show different forms and it helps the programming method to generalized the program. In the . VB.60 Inheritance One object-oriented concept that helps objects work together is inheritance. In inheritance. all classes descend from System. Dim s as system S= new data S=new window . Inheritance defines relationships among classes in an object-oriented language.Sqlclient and implement its methods. An object of system object may show multiple forms or it appears in all subclass forms.data.NET programming language. a new class can be derived by any base class or classes and in this process derived class can get the access of all public and private attributes.net has complete framework of inheritance as follows System Collectio n Data Diagnost ics Drawin g Globalizati on IO NE T Security Window s Web Xm l Forms OleD b Sqlclie nt Odbc OracleClie nt Security Drawing2 D Imaging Imaging Service Polymorphism Polymorphism refers multiple forms.
61 So ‘S’ may show the form of data or window which object of base class system During the analysis and introduction of system we have found several classes. This analysis result can be shown by some components 1. . object and message passing method of communication. admin resource diagram Setup User Departments Courses Set HR Policy for Equipment Job Description Admin Setup Leave Holidays Salary Metrics Training This diagram shows admin work and some work that must be done after installation of software.
. It also shows hierarchy of function for execution. System Function Diagram This diagram shows all system function in OPJIT.62 2.
modules. OOD (Object oriented Design) has different type of notation of different face of system. and processes Operations are related to specific objects and/or classes of objects Groups of classes and objects are often combined into frameworks Some notations of OOD are used in design of HRIS. Every window is a class that performs transition between them. 1. Class diagram of such forms is a higher level diagram because it does not shows any description. CLASS FirstFrm CLASS SalmFrm CLASS Mainfrm CLASS LoginFrm CLASS EquipFrm CLASS HrpFrm CLASS HoliFrm CLASS CLASS JobdFrm CLASS AppFrm CLASS EmpFrm ComFrm .64 Design Design is basically a phase where we design a logical solution or blue print of solution of entire system. objects. Some characteristics of OOD are as follows Design based on modeling classes and objects in the application domain Generally follows a “hierarchical data abstraction” strategy where the design components are based on classes. This project contains many forms (window) to receive request and give response to users. Class Diagram(Higher level) Class diagram shows actual class name and interaction between classes.
Items.Add(sb) s1 = "select * from applicant" .Items.Add("Single") Cms.SqlClient Public Class addapp Dim Dim Dim Dim da1. s2.Add("OBC") Ccat.Controls.Add("Negative") Cgn.Items.Add("Others") Cblood.Items.Items.Add("Widow") Crel.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Add("Female") Me.Add("B") Cblood.Add("SC") Ccat.Items. 80) sb = New StatusBar sb.Location = New Point(10.Add("O") Cblood. da3 As SqlDataAdapter ds As New DataSet s1.Items.Items.Add("A") Cblood.Items.Add("Married") Cms.Items. da2.Add("Positive") Crh. s3 As String sb As StatusBar System Class call Add Applicant Class begin Private Sub addapp_Load(ByVal sender As System.Items.Add("Islam") Crel.Items. 420) Cms.Items.Data.Add("Hindu") Crel.65 2.Items.Items.Add("Sikh") Crel. Class description Class description refers the actual code or detail description of a class.Add("Divorced") Cms.Add("Others") Ccat.Add("ST") Ccat. Example of Applicant Form Imports System.Items.SqlTypes Imports System.Items.Data. ByVal e As System.Items.Items.Add("Christian") Crel.Items.Add("AB") Crh.Items.Object.Load Me.Location = New Point(270.Add("General") Ccat.Add("Male") Cgn.Items.
Text = "Enter Catagory into The Box" Else Label14.Object. mainform.StretchImage End If End Sub Private Sub get_pos() .EventArgs) Handles Ccat.ShowDialog() = Windows. ByVal e As System.SizeMode = PictureBoxSizeMode.InitialDirectory = "c:\downdata" End With Odb.getconn) da3 = New SqlDataAdapter(s3.FileName) Pphoto. mainform.Forms.bmp|All File|*. "tem") Call get_pos() End Sub Private Sub ComboBox4_SelectedIndexChanged(ByVal sender As System. ByVal e As System.jpg" .Text = " " End If End Sub Private Sub init() Dim cnt As Control For Each cnt In Me.Filter = "Image file|*.Title = "Select Applicant Photograph" .*" .jpg.Fill(ds.Text = " " End If End Sub Private Sub ComboBox3_SelectedIndexChanged(ByVal sender As System.DialogResult. ByVal e As System.OK) Then Pphoto.EventArgs) Handles Crel.SelectedIndexChanged If (Ccat.Click With Odb .*. "jd") da3.Empty End If Next End Sub Private Sub Label24_Click(ByVal sender As System.getconn) da1.DefaultExt = "*.con.66 s2 = "select * from job_desc" s3 = "select * from tempapp" da1 = New SqlDataAdapter(s1.Fill(ds.EventArgs) Handles Label24.getconn) da2 = New SqlDataAdapter(s2.con.FromFile(Odb.con.Fill(ds.Object.Text = "Enter Religion into The Box" Else Label14.Image = Image. "app") da2.SelectedIndex = 4) Then sb.SelectedIndexChanged If (Crel.Controls If (TypeOf cnt Is TextBox) Then cnt. mainform.Text = String.ShowDialog() If (Odb.SelectedIndex = 4) Then sb.Object.
Text = Str(d) End Sub Private Sub Cpos_MouseEnter(ByVal sender As Object.MouseEventArgs) Handles Label24.MouseEnter sb.MouseMove sb.67 Dim i As Integer For i = 0 To ds.Add(ds.Text = "Middle Name" End Sub Private Sub Tln_MouseEnter(ByVal sender As Object.1 Cpos. ByVal e As System. ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Tln.Text = Str(y) Tday. ByVal e As System. ByVal e As System.MouseEnter sb.EventArgs) Handles Tmn.EventArgs) Handles Cpos. Today) Mod (365 * y) End If Tyear.Error) Else d = DateDiff(DateInterval.Year.MouseEnter sb. Today) If (y < 18) Then MessageBox.EventArgs) Handles Dbirth. ByVal e As System.MouseEnter sb.Text = "Last Name" End Sub Private Sub Dbirth_MouseEnter(ByVal sender As Object.Items.Tables("jd"). MessageBoxIcon.Show("Please Check Date of Birth". ByVal e As System.Text = "Click to Add Applicant Photo" End Sub .Text = "Age Should be Greater than 18" End Sub Private Sub Dbirth_ValueChanged(ByVal sender As System.Item("position")) Next End Sub Private Sub Dbirth_Leave(ByVal sender As Object.Leave Dim y.EventArgs) Handles Dbirth.Object.Count .Forms.Rows.OK.EventArgs) Handles Tfn. MessageBoxButtons. CDate(Dbirth.Tables("jd"). CDate(Dbirth. ByVal e As System.Text).Rows(i).Day.Text). ByVal e As System.MouseEnter sb.Text = "First Name" End Sub Private Sub Tmn_MouseEnter(ByVal sender As Object.ValueChanged End Sub Private Sub Label24_MouseMove(ByVal sender As Object.Text = "Select Position(If position is Not In List Go Job Description)" End Sub Private Sub Tfn_MouseEnter(ByVal sender As Object.EventArgs) Handles Dbirth. "Age Error". d As Integer y = DateDiff(DateInterval.Windows.
Text)) newr.NewRow() newr.Error) Else mainform.Item(3) = UCase(Trim(Tmn.Item(0) = UCase(Trim(Tappid.Empty) Then MessageBox.Item(4) = UCase(Trim(Tln. "Error In Fill Form".Show("You Have still To Add" + mainform.Item(2) = UCase(Trim(Tfn.Object. MessageBoxButtons.Text)) newr. "Exit Confirmation". MessageBoxIcon.Text)) newr.Click Dim cnt As Control Dim f As Boolean f = True For Each cnt In Me.Forms.Show(" You May Lose Entered Information--> Continue ".appid = String.OK.Empty End If End If Me.Error) = Windows.Text)) newr.Text)) newr.Show("Empty field".Click If (Bcancle.EventArgs) Handles Bsave.Error) f = False Exit For End If Next If (f) Then Dim newr As DataRow newr = ds.Yes) Then Me. MessageBoxButtons.YesNo. ByVal e As System.appid = String.Text = String.Controls If (cnt.Close() Else Exit Sub End If Else If (Not mainform. MessageBoxButtons.Text)) .Item(1) = UCase(Trim(Cpos.Text = "Cancle") Then If (MessageBox.DialogResult.Close() End Sub Private Sub Bsave_Click(ByVal sender As System. MessageBoxIcon.68 Private Sub Bcancle_Click(ByVal sender As System.EventArgs) Handles Bcancle.Item(6) = UCase(Trim(Tfocc.Object.Empty And (TypeOf cnt Is TextBox Or TypeOf cnt Is ComboBox)) Then MessageBox.Text)) newr.appid. ByVal e As System.Tables("app"). MessageBoxIcon.Item(5) = UCase(Trim(Tfname. "Exit Unsaved Information".OK.
Length) fs.FileName. 0.Item(10) = UCase(Trim(Crh.SelectedIndexChanged Dim s As String Dim c As Integer If (Cpos. MessageBoxButtons.Length) As Byte fs. Len(cnt.Item(7) = CDate(Dbirth.Read(data.Text) If (MessageBox.Text)) newr.Text <> String.Item(15) = Trim(Crel.FileAccess. "app") mainform.Name) .Text) newr.FileMode.Show() End If End Sub Private Function makemes(ByVal cnt As Control) As String Dim s As String s = Mid(cnt.Question) = Windows.Text)) newr. ByVal e As System. "Save Confirmation".appid = UCase(Trim(Tappid.FileStream(Odb.Forms.1) s = "L" + s Return s End Function Private Sub Cpos_SelectedIndexChanged(ByVal sender As System.Item(13) = UCase(Trim(Tfl.Item(8) = Trim(Temail.Empty) Then s = Mid(Cpos.Text = "Exit" appall.DialogResult.Tables("app"). IO. 1.EventArgs) Handles Cpos. IO.Text)) newr.Object.Text) newr.Text) newr.Item(18) = Trim(Cgn.Item(9) = Trim(Cblood.Text) Dim fs As New System.Item(17) = data newr.Item(16) = Trim(Ccat.Item(14) = UCase(Trim(Tsl. MessageBoxIcon.Text)) newr.IO.OK) Then ds.Item(11) = Trim(Cms.Add(newr) Dim cb1 As New SqlCommandBuilder(da1) da1. 1.Name. fs.Text) newr.OpenOrCreate.Text) newr.Text.Item(12) = UCase(Trim(Tmt. 8) Else s=" " End If Dim sql As String sql = "select position from applicant" .Close() newr.OKCancel.Show("Sure About Save".Update(ds.Read) Dim data(fs.Rows.69 newr.Text)) End If Bcancle.
Clear() dal. ByVal e As System.Text = s End Sub Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As System. "loc") c = dsl.con.70 Dim dal As SqlDataAdapter Dim dsl As New DataSet dal = New SqlDataAdapter(sql. Object Diagram This diagram covers all type of object and describes the way of communication between object.Count + 1 Dim s1 As String s1 = Trim(Str(c)) While (Len(s1) <= 5) s1 = "0" + s1 End While dsl.Dispose() s = s + s1 Tappid. mainform.getconn) dal.Show() End Sub Add Applicant Class End Class End 3.Fill(dsl. Example Employee Object Diagram Object GenEmp Object Quali Object Leave Object Address Object Family Object Contacts Object Termination Object Loan Object ResPub Object Identification Object Notes Object Benefits Object MediClaim Object Salary .EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click appall.Object.Rows.Tables("loc").
Sequence Diagram of short listing of applicant Position Position Position Job description Graph Short listing This diagram basically deals sequence of execution of module with response sequence.71 4. Sequence Diagram Short listing Applicant Process a. Job Description Graph Design Shortlisted List Applicant List .
b. Sequence diagram of Login
Main Form Start Program Call
Call User, pass
Start Application User Type
Chapter 6 Feasibility Analysis & Implementation
Feasibility analysis is a process through which we can estimate or measure the ratio between cost, effort in development of system and benefit of the system. It is actually a pre-development study that emphasizes on multiple issues of project design. Software development system performs study multiple times and at multiple phase. It has to design several break points where feasibility study performed. Figure 5.1 Feasibility check points
This is typical system of feasibility study with check points. Analyst has to do feasibility study before the starting of each phase but feasibility study before start of project is most important, it may save cost and effort for not feasible project.
a. Economical feasibility
Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed system. More commonly known as cost-benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system. An entrepreneur must accurately weigh the cost versus benefits before taking an action. Since that was an internship project so its cost can be estimated as
Cost to developer: 36000/ Rs Cost of S/H: Dot Net Visual studio: 35000 Crystal Report: 20000(Small scale) SQLServer express (Database Application): (free) Other cost: 10000 Total: 101000/Rs
Return: Stop repeated Applicant: 10/year Cost per Applicant: 10000Rs Cost will return in one year. Other non quantity Benefits: accuracy, Time saving Saving: 100000Rs
b. Technical feasibility Technical feasibility analysis has one important purpose that is estimate technological availability, robustness, uncertainty and adaptation. This software is event driven, Window based, user friendly and incorporate well available technology. One database administration is required to handle recovery and backup. So HRIS for OPJIT is technical feasible software.
Training Training to user just take 6 hours. Software Installation Installation is very easy and it automatically provides path setting and icon. Implementation process takes care from hardware. it require introduction to component and terms used in software . It is the very last phase of any software process or any process. backup. Database Configuration This requires some effort design of database on customer system and gives authorization to administration. This is a million dollar phase and if any software system is failed in this phase then entire Implementation has basically three important phases 1. 3.76 Implementation Implementation of any software system refers a process that involves from installation of new system to easy handling of system in organization. network. reporting. 2. software issues and training of users.
77 Chapter 7 Summery and Conclusion .
so HRIS has slower rate of adaptation also. Database architecture is very much important. Every design requires coding. but object diagram shows internal structure and interaction. I have found a significant difference between these two architectures. HRIS need analysis is introduced in chapter 3. but design level study based on current available technology and programming capability. This chapter deals basic database architecture for HRIS in OPJIT. chapter 5 describe several tool of analysis and design. problems related to interaction of HR and technology. HRIS is a tool that improves decision making capability and participation into corporate decision making system. Second. Information is provided in an organization by an interrelated set of procedures and process known as an information system. Design structure. construction of basic tools of DBMS. Some advance tools of database are used in database construction like Cursor. Introduction chapter present some term related with industry. and database system is SQLServer 2008 express Edition. manage. Design of database is processed in database architecture phase.NET. HRIS is developed in VB. availability of data and form of data. HRIS for OPJIT is designed in Object oriented design method. it describes several structures and all structure shows combination and interaction between components. Adaptation of technology in HR department is slower than any other department. this study presents need of HRIS in organization and how an HRIS can satisfy expectation of organization. security to data. In Architecture of HRIS. Data storage. HR department. theoretical structure gives only high level contents and study. . it describes basic structure for programming and one can be selected on the basis of organizational size. theoretical structure. constraints on data etc. One. Trigger and Business data intelligence. A quality planning effort cannot be accomplished without sound and adequate information. This system is very much feasible as technical and economical shown in chapter 6 and smoothly implemented at OPJIT. HRIS has two different class of architecture. HRIS makes some changes in organizational work culture and make it more users friendly. Class diagram shows high level interaction.78 Information is the raw material of planning.
I think HRIS is not a data processing tool only but it is a privilege to HR department that helps us to think our system in different manner and become an integral part of corporate decision maker. skill etc. But we have to do more work in this area to cover entire function of HRM. hobby. training and development. . salary fixation system that provides statistics of all current employees and specific class of employees. task monitor. Finally. I have designed this software as per requirement of OPJIT and it has lots of future work to do like performance appraisal. and Risk management tools. ambition. Many available HRIS support HR planning. employee management. HR work is basically people related work. first. Most of HR managers felt that current technologies could not give much support to HR department rather to data processing function. department must have the knowledge of each and every employee. that’s why very less number of software products are available in the market. graph based automatic short listing process. HRIS is in growing phase and it will definitely reach to that stage so that it becomes an integral part of HRM. HRIS for OPJIT has all necessary functions and I include two tools in this architecture of HRIS. recruitment.79 Conclusion HR departments are usually not much happy with implementation of new technologies. expectation of the applicant and norms for particular class of job to HR manager during salary negotiation. HR people require a complete system with intelligence tools and capability to handle large volume of data. Second. Succession planning etc. their strength and weakness. succession planning.
Human Resource Planning 18(4): 50– 53. Avison D & Elliot S (2006) Scoping the discipline of information systems. 13. Downsizing with Executive Information Systems. Victor Y. Paper DJ & Molnar P (1998) Reengineering the human resource information system at Gamma. Information Exchange and Strategic Advantage. Mohan Tite (2006) HRIS. 15. MIS Quarterly 30(3): 611– 642. CE (1999) Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS): Providing Business with Rapid Data Access. 11(4): 615–668. Armstrong M (2006) Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th edition). 7.. Kahai S & Dodge GE (2000) E-leadership: Implications for theory. Wallace J & Cornelius NE (2007) Tthe use and impact of human resource information systems on human resource management professionals. Hubbard JC. . MIS Quarterly 26(1): 1–1 9. (1997). Communications of the ACM 32: 1199–1216. Hirschheim R & Klein HK (1989) four paradigms of information systems development. Gregor S (2006) The Nature of Theory in Information Systems. 17. 4. Pendharkar PC. Axel H (1998) Human resources and the role of IT. 3. 14. Chichester. 11. Human Resource Management 20(3):214-218 12. 16. John Wiley and Sons. London. Information Systems: The state of the field. Kavanagh. In: J King & K Lyytinen (Eds. Facilities 16(12/13): 361–365. (1995). Techniques and Tools (3rd edition). Beheshti. Application and Future Direction SAGE New Delhi 18. Hussain Z. Journal of Business Ethics 17(12): 1319– 1323. Industrial Management 24(7):240-245 10. Human Resource Management International Digest 6(6): 30–32. 19.H (1983) The HRIS: what capability must it have? Persnonnel 60(5):36-49. and practice. Gueutal HG & Tannenbaum SI (1990) Human Resource Information Systems: Development and Applications. Applegate LM & Elam JJ (1992) New Information Systems Leaders: A Changing Role in a Changing World. The Leadership Quarterly. Rodger JA. 5. Avison DE & Fitzgerald G (2003) Information Systems Development: Methodologies.80 References 1. Kavanagh MJ. Information & Management 44(1): 74–89. H. Atwater DM (1995) Workforce Forecasting.). Haines. Baskerville R & Myers M (2002) Information systems as a reference discipline. research. Petit. Avolio BJ. McGraw-Hill. Boston: PWS-KENT Publishing Company. HR. 6. 2.Basic. Kovach KA & Cathcart Jr. Simon. M. Michael J. Andre. 8. UK. MIS Quarterly 16(4): 469–490. London: Kogan Page. Public Personnel Management 28(2): 275–282. Forcht K & Thomas DS (1998) Human resource Information Systems: An Overview of Current Ethical and Legal Issues. H. Conditions for Successful Human Resource Information Systems.
. Alfred J. Handbook of Human Resource Information Systems: Reshaping the Human Resource Function with Technology. USA: McGraw-Hill Inc. Walker. (1993).81 20.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.