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Effective

Exhaust Thrust Firing Maximum Technology


Method Duration Delta-v readiness
Velocity (N)
(km/s) level
(km/s)
103 - 107[citation 9:Flight
Solid-fuel rocket 1 - 4[citation needed] needed] minutes ~7
proven
<0.1 - 107[citation 9:Flight
Hybrid rocket 1.5 - 4.2[citation needed] needed] minutes >3
proven
Monopropellant millisecon 9:Flight
1-3 0.1 - 100 ~3
rocket ds-minutes proven
0.1 - 107[citation 9:Flight
Liquid-fuel rocket 1 - 4.7[citation needed] needed] minutes ~9
proven
Electrostatic ion 15 - 210[21][Full citation 10−3 - 10[citation months/yea 9:Flight
needed] needed] > 100
thruster rs proven
Hall effect thruster 10−3 - 10[citation months/yea 9:Flight
8 - 50 needed] > 100
(HET) rs proven[22]
8:Flight
Resistojet rocket 2-6 10−2 - 10 minutes ?
qualified[23]
8:Flight
Arcjet rocket 4 - 16 10−2 - 10 minutes ? qualified[citati
on needed]

Field Emission
months/yea 8:Flight
Electric Propulsion 100[24]-130 10−6[24]-10−3[24] ?
rs qualified[24]
(FEEP)
~2,000- 7:Prototype
Pulsed plasma
~ 20 ~ 0.1 10,000 ? demoed in
thruster (PPT)
hours space
7:Prototype
Dual mode millisecon
1 - 4.7 0.1 - 107 ~3-9 demoed in
propulsion rocket ds-minutes
space
9:Light
pressure
attitude-
9/km2 @ 1 AU control
230/km2@0.2 flight proven
299790:Light
Solar sails AU indefinite > 40 6:Deploy-
145-750:Wind −10 2
10 /km @4 only demoed
ly in space
5:Light-sail
validated in
lit vacuum
6:Prototype
0.1 - 107[citation
Tripropellant rocket 2.5 - 5.3[citation needed] needed] minutes ~9 demoed on
ground[25]
6:Model-1 k
Magnetoplasmadyna
20 - 100 100 weeks ? W demoed
mic thruster (MPD)
in space[26]
6:Prototype
Nuclear thermal
9[27] 107[27] minutes[27] > ~ 20 demoed on
rocket
ground
6:Model-
Mass drivers (for 32MJ
0 - ~30 104 - 108 months ?
propulsion) demoed on
ground
6:Model-
31.7 km
Tether propulsion N/A 1 - 1012 minutes ~7
demoed in
space[28]
6:Prototype
Air-augmented seconds-
5-6 0.1 - 107 > 7? demoed on
rocket minutes
ground[29][30]
6:Prototype
Liquid air cycle 3 7 seconds-
4.5 10 - 10 ? demoed on
engine minutes
ground
5:Componen
Pulsed inductive [31] [31]
10 -80 20 months ? t validated in
thruster (PIT)
vacuum[31]
Variable Specific 5:Componen
40 -
Impulse days - t-200 kW
10 - 300[citation needed] 1,200[citation > 100
Magnetoplasma needed] months validated in
Rocket (VASIMR) vacuum
Magnetic field 5:Componen
days -
oscillating amplified 10 - 130 0.1 - 1 > 100 t validated in
months
thruster vacuum
4:Componen
Solar thermal rocket 7 - 12 1 - 100 weeks > ~ 20 t validated in
lab[32]
4:Componen
Radioisotope rocket 7 - 8[citation needed] 1.3 - 1.5 months ? t validated in
lab
4:Componen
Nuclear electric
t-400kW
rocket(As electric Variable Variable Variable ?
validated in
prop. method used)
lab
3:Validated-
Orion Project (Near
several 900 kg
term nuclear pulse 20 - 100 109 - 1012 ~30-60
days proof-of-
propulsion)
concept[33][34]
3:Validated
Space elevator N/A N/A indefinite > 12 proof-of-
concept
3:Validated
Reaction Engines
30/4.5 0.1 - 107 minutes 9.4 proof-of-
SABRE[19]
concept
3:Validated
Magnetic sails 145-750:Wind 70/40Mg[35] indefinite ? proof-of-
concept
Magnetic sail#Mini- 3:Validated
magnetospheric 200 ~1 N/kW months ? proof-of-
plasma propulsion concept[36]
Beam-
3:Validated-
powered/Laser(As
Variable Variable Variable ? 71m proof-
prop. method
of-concept
powered by beam)
2:Technolog
Launch loop/Orbital
N/A ~104 minutes >>11-30 y concept
ring
formulated
Nuclear pulse 2:Technolog
propulsion (Project 20 - 1,000 109 - 1012 years ~15,000 y concept
Daedalus' drive) formulated
2:Technolog
Gas core reactor
10 - 20 103 - 106 ? ? y concept
rocket
formulated
2:Technolog
Nuclear salt-water
100 103 - 107 half hour ? y concept
rocket
formulated
2:Technolog
Fission sail ? ? ? ? y concept
formulated
2:Technolog
Fission-fragment
15,000 ? ? ? y concept
rocket
formulated
2:Technolog
Nuclear photonic years-
299,790 10−5 - 1 ? y concept
rocket decades
formulated
2:Technolog
100 - 1,000[citation
Fusion rocket needed] ? ? ? y concept
formulated
Antimatter catalyzed 2:Technolog
days-
nuclear pulse 200 - 4,000 ? ? y concept
weeks
propulsion formulated
Antimatter rocket 10,000- ? ? ? 2:Technolog
y concept
100,000[citation needed]
formulated
2:Technolog
Bussard ramjet 2.2 - 20,000 ? indefinite ~30,000 y concept
formulated
1:Basic
Gravitoelectromagne 299,790:GEM[clarific <299790[citat principles
ation needed] ? ? ion needed]
tic toroidal launchers observed &
reported
Effective
Maximum Technology
Exhaust Thrust Firing
Method Delta-v readiness
Velocity (N) Duration
(km/s) level
(km/s)