Term paper On MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND oRGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

TOPIC; - EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Batch 2010-12

SUBMITTED TO MR.Vikram KATYAL YASMEEN

SUBMITTED BY Afifa NAZIM

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Rs1002 , A68
INDEX 1.Preface 2.Acknowledgement 3.Introduction 4.Objectives of study 5.Different models of emotional intelligence 6.Literature review 7.Methodology :-sources of data 8.Analysis 9.Conclusion 10.Research and Bibliography

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It is hoped that this report meets the given expectations and various requirement of the research ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. With the help of term paper we can able to understand the deep knowledge about the specific topic assign to us. We are thankful to all those. who have been instrumental in creating proper. During our project work I observed some of the behind the DUMPING-BOON OR BANE. valuable time and advice. that is why research programs are there to give deep as well as through knowledge of the subjects. various problems are to be dealt with in these courses. 3 |Page . their help. WE have attempted to live up these requisites while preparing this term paper. healthy and conductive environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for us during the project. wholehearted guidance. VIKRAM KATYAL SIRfor his active support. We are highly thankful to MR. Lastly.PREFACE AS MBA Degree requires equal attention practical as well as theoretical aspect of the business. particularly the various friends . sincere cooperation and pains-taking involvement during the study and in completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time stipulated. It is part of professional courses. it would have been extremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time bound framework. We are really grateful to our HOD for providing us with an opportunity to undertake this project in this university and providing us with all the facilities.

Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included 4 |Page . and controls the emotions of one's self. For instance. several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. In the 1900s. In 1983. The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and second adaptation. even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving.INTRODUCTION Emotional intelligence (EI) describes the ability. and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately describe these factors. the ability EI and trait EI models (but not the mixed models) enjoy support in the literature and have successful applications in different domains. Despite these disagreements. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. and of groups. which are often highly technical. in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior. a self-perceived ability to identify. in the case of the trait EI model. capacity. of others. Similarly. Different models have been proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists as to how the term should be used. assesses. as early as 1920. E. skill or.L.

The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000 As a result of the growing acknowledgement by professionals of the importance and relevance of emotions to work outcomes. fail to fully explain cognitive ability. In Gardner's view. even though the names given to the concept varied. the term "emotional intelligence" had appeared in Leuner (1966). the research on the topic continued to gain momentum. Thus. Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model. A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985. The first use of the term "emotional intelligence" is usually attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis. but it wasn't until the publication of Daniel Goleman's best seller Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ that the term became widely popularized Nancy Gibbs' 1995 Time magazine article highlighted Goleman's book and was the first in a string of mainstream media interest inEI 5 |Page . such as IQ. fears and motivations). followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990). to appreciate one's feelings. motivations and desires of other people) and Intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself. traditional types of intelligence. prior to this.both Interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions. However. there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes. and Goleman (1995).

Emotional intelligence determines how you handle yourself and others.OBJECTIVES OF STUDY Main objectives of studying about Emotional Intelligence is to study about the following    Emotional Intelligence Models of Emotional Intelligence Measurement of models of Emotional Intelligence What Is Emotional Intelligence? People vary in their ability to understand and control their feelings and the emotions of others. You can also detect shifts in your own state – and change it if you need to. increased political skills and greater personal influence. verbal and physical cues that reveal how others feel. For leaders. 6 |Page . Those who are able to do this well are said to have high levels of Emotional Intelligence (EQ). They include reduced stress levels. the benefits of developing EQ are numerous. • Understanding the theory of EQ. • If you have high emotional intelligence. will help you become a better leader. you can accurately read the facial.

There has been much confusion regarding the exact meaning of this construct. 7 |Page . and the field is growing so rapidly. EQ consists of four elements. It is an essential component of the skills underlying empathy and rapport-building. The definitions are so varied. It is essential if we are to regulate emotion in ourselves and in others. Awareness of others This is the ability to identify emotions in faces. he came upon the work of Mayer and Salovey. Daniel Goleman. At the present time. 4. the person most commonly associated with the term emotional intelligence is the New York writer. Doing this helps us link emotional reactions to external triggers and then to remove un-resourceful "anchors. with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. They are: 1. Essentially.• The term "emotional intelligence" was first coined by John Mayer and Peter Salovey in 1990. or opposites. People with this skill are more productive and effective. that researchers are constantly re-evaluating even their own definitions of the construct. That's why you need to develop it. Self-Management This is the ability to solve emotional problems and to know which emotions are similar. Around 1994 and early 1995 he was planning to write a book about "emotional literacy." This is an essential skill for leaders and managers. It is used to recognize links between our feelings and processes such as reasoning and problem solving. Having certainty about your feelings gives you more control of your life. Relationship Management This helps us understand the implications of social acts for emotions. He named his book 'Emotional Intelligence' and brought the term into popular speech. and stories. music. These define your ability to monitor and manage emotions in both yourself and others. Awareness of self This involves relating emotions to other mental sensations like self-talk and internal pictures. • Daniel Goleman estimates that EQ underpins to 85% of your success in life and business. 3. there are three main models of EI." In his reading. However. 2. DEFINING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODEL Substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition of EI.

such as thinking and problem solving. as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. integrate emotion to facilitate thought.MODELS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE THE ABILITY INTELLIGENCE MODEL • Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. voices. their initial definition of EI was revised to "The ability to perceive emotion. and cultural artifacts—including the ability to identify one's own emotions. • Using emotions – the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities. The model claims that EI includes four types of abilities: • Perceiving emotions – the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces. understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth. Following their continuing research. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. 8 |Page . The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand." • The ability-based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence. pictures.

but without stating this officially. with regard to empathy. While some of these measures may overlap. the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion. the MSCEIT test results of 111 business leaders were compared with how their employees described their leader. It was found that there were no correlations between a leader's test results and how he or she was rated by the employees. and leader effectiveness. 9 |Page . The current measure of Mayer and Shalvey’s model of EI. Therefore. it generates scores for each of the branches as well as a total score. and manage them to achieve intended goals. Follesdal also criticized the Canadian company Multi-Health Systems. the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based on a series of emotion-based problem-solving items Consistent with the model's claim of EI as a type of intelligence. • Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. even negative ones. The MSCEIT can also be expert-scored. so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an individual's answers and those provided by a group of 21 emotion researchers • In a study by Follesdal. The test contains 141 questions but it was found after publishing the test that 19 of these did not give the expected answers.• Understanding emotions – the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. which administers the MSCEIT test. • The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace MEASURMENT OF THE ABILITY EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODEL • Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct. the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions. with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual's answers and those provided by a worldwide sample of respondents. Therefore. most researchers agree that they tap slightly different constructs. and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time. the test is modeled on ability-based IQ tests. ability to motivate. This has led Multi-Health Systems to remove answers to these 19 questions before scoring. By testing a person's abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence. For example. • Managing emotions – the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions.

Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. • Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. which was created in 2007. which was created in 1999. and react to others' emotions while comprehending social networks. Emotional competencies are not innate talents. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal. and develop others while managing conflict. and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs: • Self-awareness – the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. • Relationship management – the ability to inspire. but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance.MIXED MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE • The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. • Social awareness – the ability to sense. influence. understand. • Self-management – involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. Goleman's model of EI has been criticized in the research literature as mere "pop psychology". which was created in 2001 and which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment 10 | P a g e . MEASURMENT OF MIXED EI MODEL Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model: • The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI).

by Bar-On.THE BAR-ON MODEL OF EMOTIONAL SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE (ESI) • Bar-On defines emotional intelligence as being concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others. and therapy. programming. problem solving. • In general. Problems in coping with one's environment are thought. & Roberts. 2001). and impulse control. The EQ-I is not meant to measure personality traits or cognitive capacity. One hundred and thirty three items (questions or factors) are used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotional Quotient) and to produce five composite scale scores. and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands. The EQ-I has been found to be highly susceptible to faking. but rather the mental ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and pressures. However. • Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average EQs are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person's general intelligence. stress tolerance. 11 | P a g e . to be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing. doubts have been expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific settings it is being replaced by the trait emotional intelligence model discussed below MEASURMENT OF EMOTIONAL SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE MODEL (ESI) • The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory is a self-report measure of EI developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior that provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. corresponding to the five main components of the Bar-On model. He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems. see Matthews. Zeidner. A limitation of this model is that it claims to measure some kind of ability through self-report items (for a discussion. relating well to people. which then offers an indication of one's potential to succeed in life. Bar-On posits that EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training.

including the EQ-i. abilities. the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT). • The TEIQue provides an operationalization for Petridis and colleagues' model that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality. Trait EI is "a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality". MEASURMENT OF TRAIT EI MODEL • There are many self-report measures of EI. • The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed above. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about. are major critics of the ability-based model and the MSCEIT arguing that they are based on "psychometrically meaningless" scoring procedures.the Schulte EI model. • The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct • That lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. Petrides et al. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report. Self-Control.. THE TRAIT EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODEL • Petrides et al proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI. The psychometric 12 | P a g e . which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. none of these assess intelligence. and Sociability. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. or skills but rather. trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities. Emotionality. The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being. In lay terms. An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy. they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence One of the more comprehensive and widely researched measures of this construct is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire which is an open-access measure that was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is currently available in many languages.

openness. where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable. attitudes and values. TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion. • The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven's matrices). conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others (alexithymia. which they interpreted as support for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence).properties of the TEIQue were investigated in a study on a French-speaking population. and that it even runs contrary to what researchers have come to expect when studying types of intelligence: "[Goleman] exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency to class almost any type of behavior as’ intelligence’. 13 | P a g e . EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE CAN NOT BE RECOGNIZED AS A FORM OF INTELLIGENCE Goleman's early work has been criticized for assuming from the beginning that EI is a type of intelligence. and in any case if we cannot measure them. and personality traits and emotional states The term EI is viewed by some as having merged and conflated accepted concepts and definitions. Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated. He suggests the concept should be re-labeled and referred to as a skill. skills and habits. The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and consistent construct utilization. neuroticism). how do we know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand: there is no sound scientific basis. and that in advance of the introduction of the term EI. but intelligence—the ability to grasp abstractions—applied to a particular life domain: emotions. A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model. agreeableness. As expected. • Two recent studies (one a meta-analysis) involving direct comparisons of multiple EI tests yielded very favorable results for the TEIQue. If these five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence'. which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritability’s for all trait EI scores. psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between factors such as abilities and achievements." Similarly.. Eysenck writes that Goleman's description of EI contains assumptions about intelligence in general. we would expect some evidence that they are highly correlated. Locke claims that the concept of EI is in itself a misinterpretation of the intelligence construct.. and he offers an alternative interpretation: it is not another form or type of intelligence.

there appear to be two dimensions of the Big Five that stand out as most related to self-report EI – neuroticism and extraversion. The interpretations of the correlations between EI questionnaires and personality have been varied.EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE HAS NO SUBSTANTIAL PREDICTIVE VALUE Landy has claimed that the few incremental validity studies conducted on EI have demonstrated that it adds little or nothing to the explanation or prediction of some common outcomes (most notably academic and work success). individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. other researchers have raised concerns about the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate with established personality dimensions. with the trait EI view that re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits being prominent in the scientific literature. as measured by the MSCEIT. which suggests that the EI. In particular. may only be measuring conformity. NOT ABILITY1 MEASURES ARE MEASURING • One criticism of the works of Mayer and Salovey comes from a study by Roberts et al. Generally. Intuitively. and in the fact that scores on the MSCEIT are negatively distributed (meaning that its scores differentiate between people with low EI better than people with high EI). selfreport EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure personality traits. or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence. Landy proposes that the reason some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is in fact a methodological fallacy—incomplete consideration of alternative explanations: "EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure. Ability EI measures are measuring knowledge (not actual ability) 1 14 | P a g e . ABILIYY EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE CONFORMITY. neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. Specifically." Landy In accordance with this suggestion. This argument is rooted in the MSCEIT's use of consensus-based assessment.

the problems of response sets in high-stakes scenarios become clear (Paulhus & Reid. employment settings). Paulhus. This is contrasted with a response style. It has been suggested that responding in a desirable way is a response set. acting as a mediator of the relationships between selfreport measures (Nichols & Greene. There are a few methods to prevent socially desirable responding on behavior inventories. which is a situational and temporary response pattern (Pauls & Crost. faking good is defined as a response pattern in which test-takers systematically represent themselves with an excessive positive bias (Paulhus.. McFarland & Ryan.g. Some researchers believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking a personality test (e. it doesn't necessarily follow that he could actually carry out the reported behavior..Further criticism has been offered by Brody who claimed that unlike tests of cognitive ability. 2004. Nichols & Greene. Zerbe & Paulhus. 1983). Considering the contexts some selfreport EI inventories are used in (e. 2003). Some inventories use validity scales in order to determine the likelihood or consistency of the responses across all items. McFarland. The main argument is that even though someone knows how he should behave in an emotionally laden situation. Peebles & Moore. Self-report measures are susceptible to faking good More formally termed socially desirable responding (SDR). which is a more long-term trait-like quality. 15 | P a g e . the MSCEIT "tests knowledge of emotions but not necessarily the ability to perform tasks that are related to the knowledge that is assessed".. 2001). This bias has long been known to contaminate responses on personality inventories (Holtgraves. 2000. 2002). Gangster et al. 1991).g. 2004. 1997. 1998. 1987). 1997.

CLAIMS FOR THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ARE TOO EXTREME 16 | P a g e .

Antonakis and Ashkanasy/Dasborough mostly agreed that researchers testing whether EI matters for leadership have not done so using robust research designs. . unless those datasets are made public and available for independent analysis. because leaders who are too sensitive to their and others' emotional states might have difficult to take decisions that would result in emotional labor for the leader or followers). Thus. Harms and Credé found that overall (and using data not having common-source. these correlations would probably be substantially lower." Landy further reinforces this argument by noting that the data upon which these claims are based are held in "proprietary databases". In contrast. Goleman (1998) asserts that "the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. the validity of these estimates does not include the effects of IQ or the big five personality. or verification. which correlate both with EI measures and leadership. • In an academic exchange. ability-measures fared worst the WLEIS (Wong-Law measure) did a bit better and the Bar-On measure better still. A recently-published meta-analysis seems to support the Antonakis position: In fact. Mayer (1999) cautions "the popular literature's implication—that highly emotionally intelligent people possess an unqualified advantage in life—appears overly enthusiastic at present and unsubstantiated by reasonable scientific standards. while the latter is trying to warn users against these claims. the former makes expansive claims on the applied value of EI.• Landy distinguishes between the "commercial wing" and "the academic wing" of the EI movement.. an organization can successfully leverage two key trends identified in Patricia Aburdene's Megatrends 2010: "The 17 | P a g e . According to Landy. Interestingly. basing this distinction on the alleged predictive power of EI as seen by the two currents. had Harms and Credé meta-analytically controlled for IQ and the big five personality factors. However. Antonakis argued that EI might not be needed for leadership effectiveness (he referred to this as the "curse of emotion" phenomenon. the credibility of the findings cannot be substantiated in a scientific manner. EI measures correlated only r = . replication. which means they are unavailable to independent researchers for reanalysis. Intelligence: a Conscious Solution • By enhancing the Emotional Intelligence (EI) of its employees. currently there is no strong evidence showing that EI predicts leadership outcomes when accounting for personality and IQ. thus. common-methods variance problems). therefore.emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership".11 with measures of transformational leadership. as recent research suggests.. As an example.

the emotional center. the limbic system. REVIEW OF LITRATURE 18 | P a g e .Wave of Conscious Solutions" and "Spirituality in Business. • The concept of Emotional Intelligence is based on brain research showing that these skills are different from technical and purely cognitive abilities because they involve a different part of the brain . It enables you to use your emotions to help you make better choices in-themoment and have more effective control over yourself and your impact on others. The second is managing your feelings. rather than the neo cortex. the fourth is empathy. is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge from your emotions and the emotions of others. The first knows what you're feeling. and the fifth is managing relationships. reaping the benefits over your competitors who lag behind bogged down with traditional business beliefs. The third is self-motivation. The information about what you're feeling helps you make effective decisions about what to say or do (or not say or do). especially distressing feelings. Emotional Intelligence is comprised of five basic competencies. a conscious solution to knee-jerk reactionary emotional habits. ensure that your organization is an early adopter." As we enter this new era welcoming the widespread application of conscious techniques in business. • Emotional Intelligence.

The data for the study were collected from 63 managers. The second characteristic is passion or enthusiasm and the ability to communicate that passion to others. The results of the study provided empirical support for emotional intelligence being the foundation of other aspects of leadership. Self-knowledge is knowing one’s strengths and weaknesses. Candor is being honest with yourself and is the key to knowing yourself. A leader has a clear idea of what she or he wants to do professionally and personally.1 . Megerian (1999) looked at the self-awareness component of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Third. 2. 3. What makes a person a leader is still debated. 192 subordinates. The first is a guiding vision or purpose. candor. Sosik and Lara E. Sosik and Lara E.What then is the link between emotional intelligence and effective leaders J. is integrity. and will pursue the goal regardless of the setbacks.Do We Know Emotional Intelligence When We See it? the Properties and Promise of Observer Hillary Anger Elfenbein 11 DECEMBER 2009 19 | P a g e . and 63 management superiors. and maturity. Megerian (1999) What then is the link between emotional intelligence and effective leaders? A Pennsylvania State University study done by John J. According to Warren Bennis (1994) all leaders seem to share some common traits. consisting of three ingredients: self-knowledge.

Data (N = 1. and social skills of supervisors to subordinates' strategies of handling conflict: problem solving and bargaining. 5. A Model of Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management Strategies: A Study in Seven Countries M. self-regulation. 4. Hong Kong and Macau. the article discusses what modifications the author would make to the course. and in the combined sample provided support for the model which suggests that self-awareness is positively associated with self-regulation. motivation. limited convergent validity of these ratings with respect to ability tests. Greece.S.395) for this study were collected with questionnaires from MBA students in seven countries (U. observer-rated EI overlapped significantly less with conventional personality traits than did self-rated EI..518 participants.According to author we examine the social perception of emotional intelligence (EI) through the use of observer ratings. South Africa. and excellent predictive validity of observer ratings in work and task performance domains. Bangladesh. Differences among countries in these relationships are noted and implications for organizations discussed. If there are meaningful individual differences in EI. and practical implications are discussed. These data suggest that the social perception of EI via observer ratings is a reliable and valid way of conceptualizing EI. close observers in the environment should be able to recognize these differences. and social skills. which in turn. Limitations. Finally. Further. We test this proposition in two studies with real colleagues drawing on 2. future directions. moderate but significant self-observer agreement. Cain2004 In this article the author describes an externship class offered at the University of Denver focusing on emotional intelligence. empa-thy. is positively associated with problem solving strategy and negatively associated with bargaining strategy. and Portugal). empathy. and provides a useful complementary perspective to other EI approaches. Psychometric properties of the measures were tested and improved with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of indicator and internal consistency reliabilities. Results in the U. 20 | P a g e . self regulation is positively associated with empathy and social skills.S. empathy and social skills are positively associated with motivation. Further. and the hypotheses were tested with a structural equations model for each country. methodology and materials used in teaching the class. China. and the organization. Afzalur Rahim 2002 On the study investigated by the author the relationships of the five dimensions of emotional intelligence: self-awareness. even after controlling for cognitive intelligence and personality traits. the goals and preconceptions of the author in offer the class. It describes emotional intelligence and its importance to the law school curriculum. Results indicate significant consensus across observers about the EI skills of targets.A First Step Toward Introducing Emotional Intelligence into the Law School Curriculum: The 'Emotional Intelligence and the Clinic Students Paul J. relatively consistent divergent validity across the components of EI. it discussed the students' reaction to the class and how the students scored on an emotional intelligence instrument.

and productive. 8. both towards the internal workgroup than towards the relation to guests. efficient. Mayer January 2008 Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. performance. Gender. and describe the scope of the field today. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. as much as the further focus on its applicability to the tourist industry. 9. and that those who have more managerial experience have had more time to enhance their emotional intelligence skills. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective.6. This study on 200 middle managers shows that female middle managers have higher emotional intelligence kills when compared to male middle managers. The scope for this study is to determine the advantages of the knowledge and application of Emotional Intelligence within the Hospitality realm. and Emotional Intelligence Belal A. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes.Organizational Management: A Study on Middle Managers.Learning to Display Emotional Intelligence March 2004 In this article Serge Sardo argues that recent research in Australia demonstrates that emotional intelligence is not simply an ingrained trait but can be taught. managers. just like a toddler needs a parent to help him or her mature and develop into an independent. Kaif 21st june 2010 In this article author tries to says that as organizations continuously evolve. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. 21 | P a g e . Implications for researchers. We discuss the origins of the EI concept. and psychological and physical well-being.Emotional Intelligence in Practice Alessandro Cavelzani MARCH 2004 In this article the author attempt to examine the concept of Emotional Intelligence and its application to the professional environment. it is important to know who can lead and manage an organization to be effective. sustainable. and human resource professionals are considered. 7. but more specifically to the Hospitality. Managers with uman skills are needed to help an organization mature and develop.Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence John D. and self-sufficient adult. define EI.

Daniel Goleman's Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ' remains one of the most widely read social science books in the world. ANALYSIS:- 22 | P a g e . not only can we measure EI we can enhance it as well. The continued fascination with Emotional Intelligence(EI) goes beyond the fact that if we have only an average IQ we can at least claim that our EI is high. Today. SQ. and CQ are also necessary to be an effective leader. but that EQ.Leadership James G. 10. The general thrust is that IQ alone does not a good leader make. Clawson 2008 and Intelligence In this article the author introduces the notion of EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE as described in Daniel Goleman's book by the same name and extends that concept to include Social Quotient or Intelligence and Change Quotient or Intelligence.Published in 1995.

Is quality is important for customer or client satisfaction: Is educational services different from other services? Emotional health of staff working in educational institution is key for its quality delivery. no stop it may come again as like wave one after another. and there is an impressive. Furthermore. CONCLUSION • In some ways. Positive Emotions of teacher would leave positive impact on students. Goleman has never claimed otherwise. In the course of my research for this case study. That come to us with rush. it is based on a long history of research and theory in personality and social. some time it may take us along. On the basis of my study I analyse that the EI i. It is similar to waves of the sea. The concept of emotional intelligence means we must have a self-awareness that enables us to recognize feelings and manage our emotions. totally unpredictable of its power and strength. Emotional Intelligence. one of his main points was that the abilities associated with emotional intelligence have been studied by psychologists for many years. 23 | P a g e . In fact. I will try to explore the various models of emotional intelligence.e emotional intelligence is the ability to understand our own emotions and those of people around us. body of research suggesting that these abilities are important for success in many areas of life. and growing. Emotions: Emotion refers to a feeling state or felt-tendency. 'Why It Can Matter More Than IQ'. The Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence: The four branch model of emotional intelligence describes four areas of capacities or skills that collectively describe many of areas of emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey. emotional intelligence really is not new. Negative emotions would affect our normal life and emotional decisions would lack fairness of judgment and affect others. Emotional Intelligence and Quality Assurance in Higher Education Quality is the catchy word today. In fact. 1997). I came across many articles that discuses the effect of emotional intelligence and also its various models. we wipe our tear that threatening to fall on to our cheeks in a little while. It has become popular after the immense success of Daniel Goleman's book in 1995.In this paper.

. First. as the pace of change increases and the world of work make ever greater demands on a person’s cognitive. focusing individuals on the few great performance factors. developing in each person the desire to be responsible for his or her performance. James A. These four principals align personal and company goals through emotional intelligence. and energizing people around the business focus. Second. The data (Information can be collected from the Primary sources and Secondary sources. this particular set of abilities will become increasingly important. create the environment where the transfer of ownership can take place.• It is useful and interesting to consider how important it is for effective performance at work. for the company and each person. aligning organization systems and structures to send a clear message as to what is necessary for great performance. including him or herself. Fourth. identify and manage emotion provides the basis for the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are important for success in almost any job. Third.) Data collection methodThere are two types of data collocation method1. engaging each individual’s heart. create conditions in the organization that challenge every person to continually learn. transfer ownership for work to the people who do the work. where each person wants to be responsible for his or her own performance. mind and hands in the business of the business. the method used by the researches in obtaining information. develop individual capability and competence. and physical resources. METHODOLOGY The word “Methodology” spells the meaning itself i. Primary 24 | P a g e . Belasco and Ralph C Stayer (1993) suggest four responsibilities a leader must implement at all levels of an organization. This entails painting a clear picture of what the company believes great performance is. psychologists are best situated to help clients to use emotional intelligence to improve productivity and psychological well-being in the workplace of tomorrow both • A leader has to have emotional intelligence to align personal and subordinate goals to accomplish company goals. Furthermore.e. emotional. There is a considerable body of research suggesting that a person’s ability to perceive.

Internet. Interview method 3. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data. News paper. Researcher must be very careful in using secondary data. magazine. and Indian journal of marketing. Questionnaire method Secondary Data Secondary data means data that are already available. In secondary source of data collection I have use internet. These are the secondary source of data collocation. and thus happen to be original in character.2. Secondary Primary dataPrimary data are those which are collected a fresh and for the first time. etc. they refer to the data which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. He must make a minute scrutiny because it is just possible that the secondary data may be unsuitable or may be inadequate in the context of the problem which the researcher wants to study. In this case he is certainly not conformed to the problems that are usually associated with the collection of originals data. Source of Secondary data The secondary source of data collection is the Books. Method of Primary data collection 1. Observation method 2. 25 | P a g e . My data collection in primary source was questionnaire and schedule. books.

www.com/emotional_intelligence.php 6.com/emotion/index.no/studier/drpsych 2 fromhttp://www. infed. Org/thinkers/gardner.http://www.peoplesmithglobal. Emotional Intelligence 26 | P a g e . 4Brad berry.psykologi. Jean. Htm 3 Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. http://www. Travis and Greaves. 343-362).Research methodology:- My research work is EXPLORATORY RESEARCH as it focuses on the exploration of the facts.asp (2009).baatschools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. It will collect secondary data and my study will be based on that REFERENCE 1.uio. 5.

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