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with Plates.









with the Author's Corrections and iMPROvEMENXSi





A C C O U N T of


L I F E,


by Himfclf.


Pi inted




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by T.

(Sucoeffors to

C a dell Mr. Cadell,)


W. Davkis,

In the

and T. N.












therefore I be fhort. I Edinburgh. College of Juftice : Prefident of the The title of Lord Halkerton came by fucceffion to her brother. was not rich.MY OWN E. was of a good family. My . according family. daughter of Sir David Falconer. indeed. My mother was Hume's . but this Narrative Ihall con-* . or and my anceftors had been proprietors of the eflate which my brother polTefles for feveral generations. almofl purfuits my has been fpent in literary and occupations. more than the Hillory of my Writings life as. my patrimony. The firfl: fuccefs of moft of my writings I was was not fuch as to be an object of at vanity. both by father father's family is and mother My a branch of the Earl of Home*s. however. to the My mode of my country. I It be thought an inftance of vanity that to write pretend my all life . and being myfelf a younger brother. was a 3 of courfe very llender. old flyle. born : the 26th of April 1711. IT without may at tain all little is difficult for a man to fpeak long of himfelf fliall vanity .

with fome recommendations to eminent merchants . fortune. compofei my . though young and handfome. to to re- gard every object as contemptible. Cicero and Virgil were the authors which I was fefuits of philofophy and general learning . vi M My I Y O W N L man I F E. in Anjou. I went over life to France with have fleadily a view of profecuting my (ludies in a country retreat which I I and I there laid that plan of "and fuccefsfully purfued. and the great fource of my enjoyments. and while they fancied I was poring upon Voet and Vinnius. leaving me with an elder brother and a fifler. devoted herfelf entirely to the rearing and educating of her children: pafTed through the ordinary I courfe of education with fuccefs. rigid frugality fupply refolved to make and a very maintain unimpaired my deficiency of my independency. ^ho pafled for a of parts. at I but chiefly at La Fleche. my fobriety. My very flender fortune. who. died when was an infant. a woman of fmgular merit. father. My ftudious difpofition. however. except the im- provement of my talents in literature. to make a very feeble life. able to this plan of and my health being a I little broken by into a my ardent application. firft During my retreat in France. was tempted. under the care of our mother. gave my family a notion that the law was a proper profeffion for me but I found an unfurmountable averfion to every thing but the pur. being unfuitlife.. Rheims. cretly devouring. and was feifed very early with a paflion for literature. but in a few months found that fcene toaclive fcene of more In tally unfuitable to me. and my induftry. for entering 1734 I went to Brillol. or trial rather forced. which has been the ruling pafiion of my life.

that the friends and fain England mily of that young nobleman were defirous of putting him under my care and direction. Clair then received an invitation from General to attend him as a fecretary to his expedition. for the ftate of his mind and health required it. It fell deadwithout reaching fuch diftinc- tion as even to excite a murmur among the zealots. Vli After pafling tliree •my Treaiife of Human Nature. and was employed himfelf very judiciouily and faccefsfully in the improvement of his fortune. who lived at his country-houfe. inviting me to come and live with him I found alfo. I came over to my In the end of 1738. Never hterary attempt was more unfortunate than my Treatife of Human born fro?n the prefs. I publiflied Treatife. — made I a confiderable accelTion to my fmall fortune. and made me entirely forget my former difappointI ment. My appointments during that time . which in was at firll meant againft Canada. I and fanguine temvery foon recovered the blow. years very agreeably in that country. But being per. and immediately went down to my mo- ther and my brother. Next year. which had too much my early youth. continued with my mother and brother I in the country. but ended an incurfion on the coaft of France. In 1745 I received a letter from the Marquis of Annandale. I received an invitation from the General to I 4 atten4 . I lived with him a twelvemonth. and profecuted naturally of a cheerful with great ardour 1 my fludies in the country. L I F E. St. and in that time recovered the know- ledge of the neglefted in Greek language.MY OWN London in 1737. Nature. to wit. firfl In 742 I : printed at Edinburgh the part of my EfTays fo6ri The work was favourably received. 1747.

which I called independent. met not with a much better reception. with my frugality. Thefe two years were almofl the only interruptions which my : fludies have received during the courfe of in my life •. and good company and my appointments. I wore the uniform of an at thefe courts as and was introduced aid-de-camp to the General. Human Na- had proceeded more from the manner than the matter. I had the mortification to find all England In a ferment. On my return from Italy. I palfed them agreeably. had made me reach a fortune. moral and political. officer. I HAD always entertained a notion. for my mother was nov/ dead. I there compofed the fecond part of my difappolntments made Httle or . him In the fame flatlon in his military cm* then bafly to the courts of Vienna and Turin. now General Grant. Such is the force of natural temper. along with Sir Harry Erfkine and Captain Grant. in going to the prefs too early. which was But this piece was publifhed while I was at Turin. MIddleton's Free Enquiry. that my want of fuccefs in publifhing the Treatlfe of ture. of my EiTays. I was inclined to fmile when I faid fo : now mafler of near a thoufand pounds. my A at London. though mofl: of my friends were In fhort. while fore call the firfl work anew in the performance was entirely overlooked and negnew edition. S ' E%j . I went down in 1749. and that I had been guilty of a very ufual indlfcretion. on account of Dr. and lived two years with my brother at his country-houfe. which had been publifhed leded.vVii M attend Y O W N L I F E. that thefe no ImprcfTion on me. at firft little more fuccefsful than the Treatlfe of Human Nature. part of that I there- Enquiry concerning Human Underftanding.

was publiflied at London. belt. and not being very irafcible In my temper.M Y OW Eflay. mind which an is more happy of ten thou- to poiTefs. In 1 75 1 5 I removed from the country to the town. that the fale of them me encouragement. is (who ought not to judge on It that fubjed). and I found. It was w^ell In the fame year received abroad and at home. Thefe fymptoms of a rlfmg reputation gave fation. a turn of as I was ever more it dif- pofed to fee the favourable than unfavourable fide of things . never to reply to any body . N L 1 F E. that the books were beginning to be efteemed in good company. or literary. I have eafily kept myfelf clear of all literary fquabbles. Millar. Meanwhile my bookfeller. Warburton's railing. by Dr. Anfwers by Reverends and Right Reverends came out two or three in a year . of all my Vv^ritings. informed me that my my former publications (all but the unfortunate Treatife) were beginning to be the fubjeft of conver- was gradually increafingj and that hew editions were demanded. in my own opinion. In . A. h and alfo which I called Political Difcourfes. the only work of mine that on the firft publication. my was Political Difcourfes. In 1752 were publilhed at Edinburgh. my Enquiry concerning fuccefsful the Principles of Morals j which. which I inflexibly maintained. I had a fixed refolution. Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals. where I then lived.. which is another part of my Treatife that I cafl anew. hlflorlcal. the true fcene for a man of letters. philofophical. However. incomparably the came unnoticed and un- obferved into the world. than to be born to ellate fand a year.

Millar told me. an office from which I received Htde or no emolument. and even deteftaEnglilh. that in a twelvemonth he fold only forty-five copies of it. I' fcarcely. I own. I was. I mufl only except the primate of England. confiderable for rank or letters. and the primate of Ireland. and as the fubjed was fuited to every capafuccefs of this work. Stone. thought that city. fent me melfages I WAS. an epoch when 1 700 years. the book feemed to fmk into oblivion. and courtier. and after the firfl ebullitions of their fury were over. and authority. interefl. Scotch. fanguine in I my expectations of the I was the only hiftorian that had at once negle£ted prefent power. I the accefiion of the I thought :. difapprobation. In 1752 the Faculty of Advocates chofe me thelt Librarian. that could endure the book. and the cry of popular prejudices . but which gave me the command of a then formed the plan of writing the Hiftory of England . Whig and Tory. I But mifeI was aifaiied by one rable was my difappointment cry of reproach. . Herring. and Irifh. Dr. tion churchman and fedary. I notion of continuing a narrative through a period of commenced with houfe of Stuart. patriot Thefe dignified prelates feparately not to be difcouraged. what was ftill more mortifying. freethinker. heard of one man in the three kingdoms. : . and religionifl. united in their rage againfl the man who had prefumed to fhed a generous tear for the fate of Charles I. which feem two odd exceptions. and the earl of Strafford . but being frightened with the large library. indeed.the mif- reprefentations of faction began chiefly to take place. Dr.MY OWN LIFE. expected proportional applaufe. Mr.

two years after the fall of the firfl volume. . party were in poiTellion of bcftowing I all places. whi'^h diflinguijfh the Warburtonian fchool. little both in the ftate and in literature. native country. It not only rofe itfelf. Hurd wrote a pamphlet with all the illiberal petulance. or recollection engaged me to make in the reigns of the two firfi: Stuarts. I have made all of them invariably to the Tory fide. In . and fcurrility. ex- cept only that Dr. was pubiifhed the fecond volume of my Hiftory. I publiflied at London my Nafeme other againft tural Hiftory of Religion. it. containing the period from the death of This performance Charles I. but helped to buoy up its unfortunate brother. arrogance. which farther ftudy. however. happened to give leis difpleafure to the Whigs. till the Revolution. But as this In this interval. But that the though Whig had been taught by experience. and the fubfequent volume was confiderably advanced. have changed my name. that m above a hundred alterations. I confefs difcouraged and had not the war at that time been breaking out between France and England. It is ridiculous to confider the Englifh conftitution before that period as a regular plan of liberty. and never more have returned to my fcheme was not now pradicable. xi WAS. I had certainly retired to fomc provincial town of the former kingdom. I refolved to pick up courage and to perfevere. This pamphlet gave me fome confolation for the otherwife indiiierent reception of my performance. In 1756. and was better received.M I Y O WN L I F E. along with fmall pieces : Its public entry was rather obfcure. I wasTo inclined to yield to their fenfelefs clamour. reading.

in the was reluctant to begin connections with the great. I accepted of it. the more early part Hiftory. to 1761. when I received. and becaufe I was afraid that the civilities and gay company of Paris would prove difagreeable to a person of my age and humour But on his Lordfhip's : repeating the invitation. As of paffing was now turned of fifty. I retired to my native country of Scotland. I thought the reft of my life in this philofophical manner. I at firft declined. But burgh. however mviting. factlon of never having preferred a requefl to one great man. determined never more to fet my foot out of it and retaining the fatif.' xit M Jn 1759 I Y O WN my L 1 F E. in 1763. and but tolerable. that the copymoney given me by the bookfellers much exceeded any thing formerly known in England I was become not only independent. But notwithftanding this variety of winds and feafons to which my writings had been expofed. which I gave to the public in in v/ith tolerable. with a near profpeft of being appointed cretary to the embaffy . an invitation from the earl of Elertford. This offer. or even making advances of I all friendfhip to any of them. with whom I was not in the leaft acquainted. both becaufe I and. fuccefs.. of the Englifli two volumes. performance was publiflied Hiflory of the Houfe of Tudor. firil: The clamour againft this ahnofl equal to that againft the Hiflory of the two Stuarts. I have every . they had ftill been making fuch advances. . and continued very peaceably and contentedly in my retreat at Edinlarly obnoxious. of performing the fundions of that office. finifli. to attend him on his embafly to Paris. fe- meanwhile. The reign of Elizabeth was particuI was now callous againft the imprelBons of public folly. but opulent.

and by means of Lord Hertford's friendfhip. with the profped of enjoying larger income. a real fatisfadion in living at Paris. m fummer d* Affaires 1765. thought once of fettling and^ there for I WAS appointed fecretary to the embaify . being ap« I pointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. and my connexions with Lord Hertford. tions. of burying Paris. not richer. vilities. xui every reafon. to think myfelf happy in my connexions with that nobleman.. very opulent (for I pofTeired a revenue of I cool. from men and women of aH ranks and llawill never The more the I refiled from their excefiive ci- more I was loaded with them. MY OWN as well as LIFE. But in 1767 I received from Mr. myfelf in a philofophical a retreat. prevented me from declining. than I left it. till was Charge of the Duke of Richmond. I returned to that place. a-year). much long . ajid I was defirous of trying what fuperfluity could produce. Conway an invitation to be Under-fecretary . life. as I had formerly made an experiment pf a competency. afterwards with his brother General Conway. and though fomewhat ftricken in years. 1766. but with much more money. and this invitation. not feen the flrange effefts of imagine the reception I met with at Paris. is. There however. Lord Hertford the arrival left me. In the beginning of towards the end of the year. both the charafter of the perfon. from the great number of polite company with which all knowing. I left and next fummer went to Edinburgh. both of pleafure and interefl. fenfible. I returned to Edinburgh in 1769. healthy. Those who have modes. and that city abounds above I places in the univerfe. with the fame view as formerly.

and of feeing the encreafe of I my re- putation. notwithftanding my frequent diiiippointments. of an open. and the fame gaiety in company. as well as to the ftudious and literary . and what more flrange. Even my of literary fame. notwithftanding the great decline moment's abatement fpirits . I might be tempted to point to this later I polfefs the fame ardour as ever in ftudy. that a man of fixty-five. as I I was flruckwith a diforder in my firfl gave me no alarm. I breaking out at I with additional knew that could have but few years to enjoy it. In fpring 1775 bowels. It is difficult to be more detached from life than I am at prefent. focial. I am. a man of mild difpofition. more my fentiments) I was. incurable. which at fmce. my ruling pafTion. and as I took a particular pleafure in thie company of modefl: women. apprehend become mortal and diffolution. never fuffered a my of my fymptoms of my lafl literary reputation's luftre. capable of at^ tachment. period. I now reckon upon aYpeedy little have fufis fered very pain from my diforder . never foured my temper. I confider. great moderation in all and of love my palTions. cuts off only a few years of infirmities . My company was not unacceptable to the young and carelefs. my eafe. To conclude hiftorlcally with my own character. and cheerful humour. but httle fufceptible of enmity. of command of temper. or rather was to fpeak (for that is the ftyle I muft now ufe in fpeaking of myfelf.xiv M long Y O W N L I F E. by dying. that were I to name a period of my life which I fhould moft choofe to pafs over again. I had no reafon to be difpleafed . and though I fee many perfon. infomuch. befides. but has it. me the I fay. of have. which emboldens .

no vanity in making this funeral oration of myfelf. charadler and conduct My friends never had occafion to vindicate any one circumflance of my : Not but that the zealots. or even attacked. ^pril i8. we may well fuppofe. they feemed to in be difarmed my behalf of their wonted fury. xv met with from them. and though of both I civil wantonly expofed myfelf to the rage and religious faftions. by her baleful tooth . 1776. . would have been glad to invent and propagate any ftory to my difadvantage. and this is a matter of hCt which I cannot fay there is . difpleafed with the reception have found reafon to complain of calumny.M Y O W N I L I F E. In a word. any wife eminent. though moft men. I never was touched. but they could never find any which they thought would wear the face of probability. js eafily cleared and afqertained. but I hope it is not a mifplaced one .


he wrote that account of his own life. he A - has left to your care. My account. begin where his ends. KIrkaldy. John Home and myfelf. Efq^. together with his other papers. real. therefore. Flfefliire.LETTER FROM ADAM SMITH. He and at fet out for London towards Morpeth met with Mr. A . days before he fet out. DEAR is SIR. who had both come down from London on purpofe VoL. thata during his I aft illnefs. by the entreaty of his friends. 9. with ITfure. Nov. Hume. Though in his own judgment his tal difeafe was mor- and incurable. to try few what might be the efl-e6ts of a long journey. Mr. I. 1776. yet he allowed himfelf to be prevailed upon. WILLIAM STRAHAN. TO LL. though a very melancholy pleaI fit down to give you fome account of the behaviour of our late excellent friend. D. fhall the end of April. which.

and change of air." faid *' and in a fair v/ay of recovery. was under the difeafe tinning exercife my journey. which appeared for feemed to yield to and when he arrived in fome time to have fo good an efFed: he himfelf began to entertain. Home returned with him. notwithftanding all bad fymptoms. with the <. he was apparently in much better health than when he left Edinburgh. that even what he was not apt tq health. His cheerfulnefs was fo great. Upon his return to Edinburgh. and he continued to divert himfelf. yet his cheerfulnefs never abated. Ihe might expedt neceflity of con-» rne in Scotland. though he found himfelf much weaker. Mr. do. with correcting his tion. that.svUi LETTER FROM pofe to fee hlrrij expefting to have found him at Edinburgh. He was advifed to go to Bath to drink the waters." '' faid Do6lor Dun-r das to you much better. many people could not believe he was dying. that I left . for a new edi- reading books of amufement. and from that moment he gave up all of recovery. however." " ^s I believe yovi would not choofe to tell any fie^ " thin^ him one day. with own works . thoughts toms. London. " Dodor. and his converfation and amufements run fo much in their ufual ftrain. and at- tended him during the whole of his flay in England. ^* " I fiiall tell your friend. as ufual. own His fymp.onverfation of his friends and fomietimes in the evening with a party at his favourite game of whift. Colonel Edmondilone. foon returned with their ufual violence. with that care and attention which might be expeded from a temper fo perfe6tly friendly As > I had written to I my mother His that and afFe£tionate. a better opinion of his upon him. but fubmitted with the utmoft cheerful^ nefsj and the moft perfed complacency and refignation.

as could wifh. that am dymg my enemies. that though I was fenfible how very much he was weakened. you had better I *' *' hhn. and take leave of him . fo that faid I.'* Colonel came to fee and on his way home he could not forbear writing him a letter. and applying to him. tell XIX thing but the truth. and which he immediately fliewed me. "When I He down in the *' evening. that hopes.Dr. Hume's magnanimity and firmnefs la Fare. I happened to come into his room while he was reading this letter. ADAM as fafl as SMITH." muft be fcs you have at leaft the fatif- A 2 " fadioa . laments his approaching feparation from his friend the Marquis de Mr. and that appearances were in many reto a dying fpetls very bad. if I have any. as to a dying man. would be a very bad difeafe at any age At my " age. " . I . that his moll affedionate friends knew beautiful that they hazarded nothing in talldng or writing to man. yet his cheerfulnefs him as was ftill fo great. *' *• am fenfible. and that fo far from being hurt by this franknefs. were fuch. the afterwards Edmondftone foon him. that I fome of my vital parts are afl^ded. An habitual diarrhoea of more than a year's ftandcc ing. and as eafily and cheerfully my beft friends could defire. French verfes in which the Abbe Chaulieu. it is a mortal one." " Well. I feel myfelf weaker than when I rofe in '' the morning and when I rife in the morning *' weaker than when I lay down in the evening. which he had juft received. I told him. " if it mufl foon die. in expedation of his own death. could not help entertaining fome faint Your hopes are groundlefs. bidding him once more an eternal adieu. he was rather pleafed and Hattered by it. He anfwered. the fpirit of I life feemed ftill to be fo very ftrong in him. befides.

" But Charon would anfwer." patience. " I could not well imagine." He then diverted him- felf with inventing feveral jocular excufes which he and with imagining the very furly anfwers which it might fuit the characler of Charon to return to them. fo. pleafe ftep into <i (( cc the boat. Allow me a little fuppofed he might to Charon. " When you nave feen the effed: of thefe. I have been correcting '* my works for a new edition. among all the excufes which Charon for not entering readily into one that fitted him . he had no enemies upon whom he wifhed to revenge himfelf. '^Good Charon." He faid. I may have the fatisfadlion of feeing 9 the downfal of fome of the prevailing fy Items of " fuper- . your brother's family in particular. that I may fee how the Public receives the " alterations. " I thought I might (C fay to him. honefl friend. If I live a few years longer.XX '' *' LETTERFROM faction of leaving all your friends. " Have a little good Charon. I have done every thing " of confequence which I ever meant to do. in great profperity. he had no daughter to provide for.'* faid he. that he felt that fatisfadion fo fenfibly. *' make time. Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead. you will be for making other alterations. he had no houfe to finifh." faid he. I have been endeavouring iC •' open the eyes of the Public. " what excufe I could make to Charon in order his boat. There will be no end of fuch excufes . and I " could at no time expedl to leave my relations and " friends in a better fituation than that in which I '* *' am now likely to leave them : I therefore have all reafon to die contented. a few days before. that when he was are alleged to reading. he could not find *' to obtain a little delay. to But I might dill urge. " Upon furcc ther confideration.

naturally made concerning verfation which I the flate of his health. Do " you fancy I " term ? Get *' will grant you a Icafe for fo long a into the boat this inftant. and which paffed on Thurfday the 8th of Augufl. undertaking. his complaifance tion. for his cheerfulnefs was ftill fo and focial difpofition were ftill fo entire. therefore. At his dehre. A3 Ojt . *' ADAM SMITH. to write me occafionally an account of the ftate of his health. he never affected to make any parade of his magnanimity.'* But though Mr.*' temper and decency. mentioned the fubjed: but when the converfation naturally led to it. he could not help talking more. I agreed to leave Edinburgh. It was a fubjed. you lazy loitering rogue. and with greater exergreat. upon condition that he would fend for me whenever he the phyfician who faw him mofl wiflied to fee me frequently. " You loitering rogue. in confequence of the inquiries which his friends. The con- mentioned above. who came to fee him. in the mean time. indeed. that I ever had with him.Dr. that ^' will not happen thefe many hundred years. Doctor Black. I where was flaying partly upon his account. except one. and never dwelt longer than the courfe of the converfation happened to require. own than fuited the weaknefs of his body. He had now become fo very weak. and re- turned to my mother's houfe . that the company of his mofl intimate friends fatigued him . that when any friend was with him. But Charon would then lofe all xxl fuperftition. was the lafl. here at Kirkaldy. which occurred it He never upon pretty frequently. Hume always talked of his ap- proaching diflblution with great cheerfulnefs.

Aug." days after. Mr.Hume expired. He even the converfation of his mofl: intimate friends fatigues and oppreiTes him . I AM obliged to make I Edinburgh. is mc the following letter " Since my Mr. DEAR SIR. a6. but Doctor Black can better inform you concerning the degree of ftrength which may from time to time remain witlv me. Monday. . but feldom fees any body. &c." I RECEIVED the day after a letter is himfelf. 33. of Aiigull the Doctor wrote laft. and it is happy that he does not need it. Adieu. to this tedious illnefs but unluckily it has in a great meafure gone over here on fee I cannot fubmit to your coming as it is my account. Aug. and amufes ing. 1776. * * " L GO very fad fmall fever. but much has paffed his time weaker. about four o'clock afternoon. in writing to you. of <' which the following from Mr. and paffes his time very well with the ailiflance of amufing books. impatience. He fits up. goes himfelf with readfinds that down (lairs once a day. I and laft night had a hoped might put a quicker period to decline.: : xxii LETTER FROM On the 226. 1776. for he is quite free from anxiety. an extract Hume *' MY DEAREST FRIEND. or low fpirits. Hume pretty eafily. as ^ ******** do not rife ufe of my nephew's hand to-day. which off. i Three " I received the follov^ang letter from Doctor Black Edinburgh. " Yesterday. The near approach of his death be- ^ came . polTible for me ta you fo fmall a part of the day.

his great and neceffary frugality never hindered him from exercifnig. according as they happen to coincide or difagree with his own but 5 con- cerning whofe charaiSter and condud there can fcarce be a difference of opinion. feemed to be more happily balanced. than that perhaps of any Even in the lowed: other man I have ever known. It was a frugality founded not upon avarice. his nature never weakened either the firmnefs of his mind. continued to the lafl perfeftly and free from much pain or feelings of di- He never dropped the fmalleft expreffion of . efpecially as tated a letter to you. or the fteadinefs of his refolutions. afts both of charity and generofity. if I may be allowed fuch an expreffion. His temper. imp£itience but when he had occafion to fpeak to it the people about him. but upon the The extreme genllenefs of love of independency. it cofl him an effort to fpeak. always did with affection to write to and tendernefs. that he could no longer rife evident in the night between out of his bed. and foon weakened him fo much. every one approving or condemning them. when his difeafe became exceffive. I thought it improper bring you over. defiring I heard that he had dic- you not to come. indeed." Thus nions died our moft excellent and never-to-be for. ftate of his fortune. fenfible. and he died in fuch a happy compofure of mind that nothing could exceed it.DR. upon proper Gccafions. XXlll Thurfday and Friday. tempered with delicacy and modePr/j . came ADAMS M He I T H. ftrefs. When he became very weak. His conflant pleafantry was the genuine effufion of goodnature and good-humour. gotten friend concerning whofe philofophical 6pi- men will no doubt judge varioufly.

ADAM SMITH. SMITH. any one of great and ami- able qualities which contributed converfation. the greateft depth of thought. it feldom failed to pleafe and delight even thofe who were the objedts of it. perhaps. .aair LETTER FROM Dr. as approaching as nearly to the idea of a per- fedly wife and virtuous man as perhaps the nature of human frailty will permit. the moft extenfive learning. Upon the whole. both in his life-time and fmce his death. I have always confidered him. dear Sir. flighteft tln£l:ufe modefly. and a capacity in every refpeft the moft comprehenfive. It never was the meaning of his raillery to mortify . more to endear his And that gaiety of temper fo agreeis able in fociety. and therefore. fo frequently the difagreeable fource of what is called wit in other men. and without even the of malignity. accompanied with frivolous and fuperficlal was in him certainly attended with the moft fevere application. Moft aifeclionately your's. far from offending. who were frequently the objects of all his it. but which fo often qualities. there was not. To his friends. I ever am.

CHAP. Ethelbald and Ethelbert Ethelvvolf Eth- Alfred Athel ftan Great——Edward the Edmund Edred— Edwy the —— — Elder Edward the Martyr. The Egbert ered II. Iron- Canute the Great Harold Harefoot Har130 dlcanute Edward the ConfefTor . Settlement of the Normans Edmund Harold. Romans of Kent Saxons The Heptarchy of Suffex The kingdom of Eaft Anglia of Weflex. H dgar 66 CHAP. Ethelred fide III. The Britons I. Page I CHAP. of Northumberland of Eflex of Mercia.CONTENTS O F T H E FIRST VOLUME. ANGLO-SAXONS.

WILLIAM RUFUS. The Anglo-Saxon Government and Manners. Saxon government SuccefTion of The Wittenagemot The ariftocracy Courts ofjuftice Military force the kings The feveral orders of men Criminal law Public revenue ^ Rules of proof Value of Money Manners. C H A P. V. — Acqiai285 ^— Normandy Quarrel with Anfelm the primate ^Death — and charafter . IV. Submlffion of the battle of Haflings Settlement of the government King's re- turn to Normandy Difcontents of the Englifh Their infurreclions Rigours of the Norman governInnovaRevolt ment vernment New infurre6lions New rigours of the go- Introduftion of the feudal law tion in ecclefiaftical government Infurre£lion of the Norman barons of prince Robert - Difpute about inveftitures Doomfday book 'reft War with France —— The New FoDeatlx — and charafter of 23 William the Conqueror. APPENDIX Firfl: I. Page 197 CHAP.1 xxvi CONTENTS. WILLIAM Confequences of the Englifh the Conqueror. AccefTion of William Rufus Invafion of Normandy fjtion of Confpiracy againft the king The Crufades of William Rufus.

archbifliop of Canterbury Qiiarrel between the king and Becket Conftitu^ Clarendon Banifhment of Becket His return from banifhment Com. ^xvU HENRY. King's fecond marriage Death of prince William^-Page 309 Death and charader of Henry. HENRY Europe '^ vernment— powers tions of — Difputes between Thomas — of France Firfl afls of Henry's go« the civil and ecclefiaftical a Becket. CHAP. II.i Wars abroad CHAP. State of VIII. The Crufades king AccefTion of Invafion by duke Robert Henry——Mgrriage of the Accommodation Conqueft of with Robert Attack of Normandy Normandy the primate Continuation of the quarrel with Anfelm Compromife with 1. VI. AccefTion of Stephen War with Stephen Scotland Infurrec* lion in favour ot Matilda Stephen taken prifoner— releafed Matilda crowned the Reftored to Continuation of the civij wars crown promife between the king and prince Henry Com-Death of the king. STEPHEN. I.CONTENTS. 370 . — — hin. VII. 349 CHAP. His promife with him Riurdef-rr-^-Grief — and fubmiflion of the king.

State of Ireland S. king of Scotland. defeated ket's murder the king's accommodation with and taken prifoner with Scotland his War fons The Henry king's equitable adminiftration Crufades character of reign. Revolt of prince Richard Death and Page 424 Mifcellaneous tranfa6lions of his . IX.jtxvin CONTENT CHAP. Conqueft of that ifland— — The king*3 accommodation with the court of Rome Revolt of infurreftions young Henry and his brothers Wars and Penance of Henry for BecWilliam.

The Kingdom of Kent of IVcJex. Romans^ of Eafi-AngUa of Stf/ex Saxons . and Ingenious men. B ftate . contradiftion. uncertainty. could afford little or no entertainment to men born in a more cultivated age. The convulfions of a civilized Vol. by all nations. I.THE HISTORY O F ENGLAND. of enquiring into the exploits and adventures of their anceftors. pofTelTed of leifure. even if they were recorded. l ir'^T? ' irW'S'H a CHAP. of Northii?nof Mercicl herland EJfex — The BRITON entertained S. The Brltonsy I. are apt to pu(h their refearches beyond the period in which literary monuments are framed or preferved . that the hiftory of paft events is immediately loft or disfigured when entrufted to memory and oral tradition. commonly excites a regret that the hiftory of remote ages fhould alvi^ays be fo much involved in obfcurity. without reflecting. civilized TH E curiofity. and that the adventures of barbarous nations.' the Hep* of tarchy.

are fo much guided by caprice and terminate fo often in cruelty. we fhall only confider the ftate of the inhabitants as it appeared to the Romans on their invafion of this country : fliall briefly run over the events which attended the conqueftmade by that empire. The which are commonly employed to fupply the place of true hiftory. The only certain means by which nations can indulge their curiofity in refearches concerning their remote origin. which are fo celebrated and fo agreeable. efpecially . and unprepared revolutions incident to Barbarians. peopled that ifland from the neighbourTheir language was the fame. and it Is rather fortunate for letters that they are buried in filence and oblivion. that they will ever be the objefts of the attention of manldnd. their ing continent. all traditions. manners. manners. it can only be in favour of the ancient Grecian fiftions. which time or a communication with the bordering nations muft neceffarily introduce. their fuperftition j varied only by thofe fmall differences. violent. or rather tales. concerning the more early hiftory of Britain. who The inhabitants of Gaul. flate ufually CHAP. Negletling. or if any exception be admitted to this fables general rule. and cuftoms of their anceftors. their government.1 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. All ancient writers agree in reprefenting the firfl inhabitants of Britain as a tribe of the Gauls or Celtse. interefting part of hiilory . is to confider the language. ^' compofe the tnofl its inflruftive and mofi but the fudden. and to compare them with thofe of the neighbouring nations. therefore. that they difgufl us by the uniformity of their appearance . ought entirely to be difregarded . as belonging more to Roman than fliall haften through the obfcure Britifh ftory : and uninterefting period of Saxon Annals : And We We is fliall referve a more when the truth narration for thofe times both fo well afcertalned and fo comfull plete as to promife entertainment and inftru6lion to the reader.

They fhifted with which the country was covered tafily their habitation. Dion. and being a military people. before the age of Casfar. after they had acquired a reliih of liberty. which they magnified. Ibme refinement in the arcs. = Casfar. B 2 within . 6. had there increafed The other inhabitants of to a great multitude \ the ifland dill maintained themfelves by pafture : They were clothed with Ikins of beafts They dwelt in huts. were free. 4. as well as thofe of all the Celtic nations 5 and the common people feem even to have enjoyed more liberty among them% than among the nations of Gaul % from whom they were was their defcended. however. though monarchical ^. as ufual. made the firft . Mela. 75. 4. lib. requifite ftep towards a civil fettlement and moft and the Bri- and agriculture. Strabo. had already. tons. from a commerce with their fouthern neighbours. «: Diod Sic. The Greek navigators or merchants (for there were fcarcely any other travellers in thofe ages) brought back the moft Ihocking accounts of the ferocity of and Roman the people. whofe fdle property The arms and their cattle. The fouth-eaft parts. which they reared in the forefls and marfhes. lib. Each date was divided *> into factions lib. fpotic authority over them. ^ cap. which gradually diffufed themfelves northwards. their wants and their poifeffions were equally fcanty and by tillage : : : : limited. 4. Britons were divided into many fmall nations or tribes . of Britain. for their princes or chieftains to eftablilh any deTheir governments. Caefar. when aduated either by the The hopes of plunderj or the fear of an enemy convenience of feeding their cattle was even a fuffiAnd as they cient motive for removing their feats were ignorant of all the refinements of life.Caflius. and fpread cially in thofe parts v/hich lie CHAP. it was impolTible. ^ ^i^ ^ but a very faint light over this ifland.THE BRITONS. lib. lib. in order to excite the admiration of their countrymen. 3. contiguous to Italy. had acquired. lib. 6.

the bands of government. and formed the chief objett of ambition among the people. 6. Thus. lib. of fuperflition was ever more terrible than that of the Druids. which it was in the power of the ecclefiaftics to inflict in this world.4-' HISTORY OF ENGLAND. lib. The fentence of excommunication was pronounced againfl him He was forbidden accefs to the facrifices or public worfhip He was debarred all intercourfe with fons. and thereby extended their authority as far as the fears of their timorous votaries. as profane and dangerous He was refufed the proteftion ^ of law : And death itfelf became an acceptable relief from the mifery and infamy to which he was expofed. within itfelf ' : It was agitated with jealoufy or animofity againfl the neighbouring dates And while the arts of peace were yet unknown. thority altar. cap. They practifed their rites in dark groves or other fecret recelTes ^. Strabo. among them. lib. Befides all minit'tering at the anddireding religious duties. they prefided over the education of youth . they enjoyed an immunity from wars and taxes . life : even in the : common aifairs of His company was univerfally fliunned. f Csfar. they communicated their fpecies e Tacit. Befides the fevere penalties. they poffeffed both the civil and criminal jurifdidlion . they decided all controverfies among ftates as well as among private per- and whoever refufed to fubmit to their decree w^as expofed to the moft fevere penalties. i. they inculcated the eternal tranfmigration of fouls . wars were the chief occupation. doctrines . HA p. iz. : c The Druids. which were naturally loofe among that rude and turbulent people. No Agr. were happily corroborated by the terrors of their fuperflition. : ": his fellow-citizens. religion of the Britons confiderable parts of their was one of the moft government . and in order to throw a greater myftery over their religion. and the pofieifed great au- who were their priefts. 4- g Plin.

and made an invafion on Britain. 6.THEBRITONS. 55. however. Britons had long remained In this rude but independent date. fird cad his eye on Ke was not allured either by its riches their illand. but being ambitious of carrying the Roman arms into a new world. B 3 tained . a violence which had never. while The 'HE ROMANS. in vita Claudii. lib. having overrun all Gaul by his viftories. at Deal j and having ob. . as is fuppofed. »_/. ftri£lly : : '5 doctrines only to the Initiated. and endeavoured to appeafe him by fubmiffions. and CHAP. The natives. then modly unknown. were fenfible of the unequal conted. No idolatrous worffiip ever attained fuch an afcendant over mankind as that of the ancient Gauls and Britons and the Romans. led they fhould at any time be e:Kpofed to the examination of the profane vulgar. he took advantage of a fliort interval in his Gaulic wars. he Anno ante cution of his defign. forbad the committing of them to writing . informed of his intention._* . fecured by no other guard than the terrors of their religion'' and this fteady conqueft over human avidity may be regarded as more fignal than their prompting men to the mod extraordinary and mod violent efforts.c. or its renown . landed. been practifed by thofe tolerating conquerors ' maders. in any other indance. which. retarded not the exeAfter fome refidance. it finding it impoffible to recon- thofe nations to the laws and inditutions of their maintained its authority. b Caefcir. and they punlihed with the fevered tortures whoever dared to fecrete any part of the confecrated offering Thefe treafures they kept in woods and forefls. » Sueton. after their cile conqued. were at lad obliged to abolidi it by penal datutes . when Casfar. Human facrifices were pradlifed among them Thefpoils of war were often devoted to their divinities .

bratius. He advanced into the coijntry . iu which he menaced Britain with an invafion. during fe Tacit. The Britons. content with the vii^ory obtained oyer the liberties of his own country.es over the Britons. Tiberius. •vvhich had fubverted the republic. the fucceiforof Csefar. yoke which was ready tq be impofed upon them. jealous of the fame which might be acquired by his generals. one of their petty princes. tained feyeral advanta<::. made this advice of Auguftus a pretence fallies for his inadivity ^.' < . and which prepared the way for the eftablifhment of faved the Britons from that monarchy in Rome. and left the authority of the Romans more nominal than real in this ifland. ferved only to expofe himfelf and the empire to ridicule : And the Britons had now. he recommended it to his fucceifors never to enlarge the territories of the Romans. eilablifhed his ally. was little ambitious of acquiring fame by foreign wars . He landed with a greater force . by the neceffity of his to withdraw his forces into Gaul. relieved from the terror of his arms. and being apprehenfive left the fame unlimited extent of dominion. Agr. and though he found a more regular refiftance from the Britons. The mad of Caligula. Mandu. might alfo overr. vyhelm the empire. and that haughty conqueror refolved next fummer to chaftife them for this breach of treaty. Auguftus. The civil wars which enfucd. ^^Imofl . and obliged them to promife hoflages for their future obedience.e HISTORY OF ENGLAND. CHAP. of Caffivelaunus . in the fovereignty of theTrinobantes and having obliged the inhabitants to make him ne\y fubmiffions. who had united under CafTivelaunus. took and burned the capital and the approach of winter. he difcomhtted them in every action. he was condrainedj affairs. palTed the Thames in the face of the enemy . he again returned with his army into (jaul. neglefted the performance of their ftipulations .

THEROMANS. D. Atrebates.^ to think ferioufly of reducing them under their doWithout fecking any more juCdfiable reaminion. reign of Nero. CHAP. Notwithstanding thefe misfortunes. This general advanced the Roman conquefls over A. the Cantii. now Anglefey. who gained fome vidlories. D. Under the A. and Trinoftates. of Mona.' took him prifoner. Claudius himfelf. 5a. Itill maintained an obftinate refiftance. till Oftorius Scapula was fent over to command their armies.A. finding matters fufficiently prepared for his reception. fons of hollility than were employed by the late Europeans in fubje(St:ing the Africans and Americans. Suetonius Paulinus was invefted with the command. B 4 Cf . and prepared to fignalize his name by vidories over thofe barbarians. The other Britons. made a journey into Britain. pierced into the country of the Silures a warlike nation. where his magnanimous behaviour procured him better treatment than thofe conquerors ufually bellowed on captive princes '. under the command of Caraftacus. lib. and made a confiderable progrefs in fubduing the inhabitants. defeated Caraftacus in a great battle . 7 almofl a century. an able general. who inhabited the banks of the Severne . D. and the Romans made little progrefs againfl them . who inhabited the fouth-eafl parts of the ifland. the Britons . when the Romans. bantes. and fent him to Rome. they fent over an army under the command of Plau. and whom their poiTeffions and more cultivated manner of life rendered willing to purchafe peace at the expence of their liberty. in the reign of Claudius. began i^_L. was 1 the chief feat Tacit. the Bri- tons were not fubdued . Ann. enjoyed their liberty unmolefted . Finding that the Ifland 59. 43 tius. and received the fubmillion of feveral Britifh Regni. and this ifland was regarded by the ambitious Romans as a field in which military honour might flill be acquired. la.

and toffing their diflievelied they ftruck greater terror into the afloniflied Romans by their bowlings. : Iceni. both by the force of their arms.000. than the real danger from the armed forces was able But Suetonius. queen of the hair. The women and pricftswere intermingled with the foldiers upon the fliore . HISTORY OF ENGLAND. burned the Druids in the fame fires which thofe priefts had prepared for their captive enemies. in reducing the people to fubjection. were every where put to the fword without diftin£lion and the Britons.t C H A p. had already attacked with fuccefs feveral fettlements of their infulting conquerors. that it would be requifite for the general fafety to abandon Lon-i that place to the mercilefs fury of the enemy. cries. he thought his future progrefs would be eafy. were all inarms. feemed determined to cut off all hopes of peace or compofition with the enemy. Suetonius haftened to the protection of London. by rendering the war thus bloody. and running about with flaming torches in their hands. The Britons endeavoured to obllruQ: his landing on this facred illand. to the number of 70. fuch of the inhabitants as remained in it were cruelly maffacred . the Romans and all ftrangers. he refolved to attack It. and the terrors of their religion.^_^ of the Druids. taking advantage of his abfence.^J. . But he was difappointed in his expectations. and headed by Boadicea. defpife the menaces of a fuperllition which they defpifed. and. who had been trea'ted in the mod ignomi- nious manner by the Roman tribunes. and which afforded protedion to all their baffled forces. and to fubje£t a place which was the centre of their fuperilition. and execrations. but he found on his arrival. But this cruelty was 7 revenged . deftroyed all the confecrated groves and rdtars . drove the Britons off the field. having thus triumphed over the religion of the Britons. exhorting his troops to to infpire. impelled them to the attack. don was reduced to afhes . which was already a flourifhing Roman colony . The Britons.

revenged by Suetonius in a great and decifive battle, c where 80,000 of the Britons are faid to have perifhed j and Boadicea herlelf, rather than fall into the hands of the enraged victor, put an end to her own life by poifon "'. Nero foon after recalled Suetonius from a government, where, by fuffering and he was judged iminflicting fo many feverities, proper for compofmg the angry and alarmed minds After fome interval, Cerealis of the inhabitants.
received the
Vefpafian, and by his bravery propagated the terror of the Roman arms.
Julius Frontinus fucceeded CereaHs both in authority and in reputation : But the general who finally




command from

the dominion

of the




was Julius Agricola, who governed it in the reigns of Vefpafian, Tjtus, and Domitian, and diftinguifhed himfelf in that fcene of action.



commander formed

a regular plan for

fubduing Britain, and rendering the acquifition ufeful to the conquerors. He carried his victorious arms northwards, defeated the Britons in every encounter, pierced into the inacceffible forefts and mountains of Caledonia, reduced every ftate to fubjeftion in the fouthern parts of the ifland, and chafed before him all the men of fiercer and more intra6table fpirits, who deemed war and death itfelf lefs intolerable than fervitude under the victors. He even defeated thera jn a decifive action, which they fought under Galgacus, their leader ; and having fixed a chain of garrifons, between the friths of Clyde and Forth, he thereby cut oft the ruder and more barren parts of the ifland, and fecured the Roman province from the incurfions of the barbarous inhabitants ". During thefe military enterprifes, he negledted not the arts of peace. He introduced laws and civility among the Britons, taught them to defire and
faife all the

conveniencies of






Tacit, linn.


» Tacit. Agr.



language and manners, inflrucled them in letters and fcience, and employed every expedient to render thofe chains, which he had forged, both eafy and agreeable to them". The inhabitants, having experienced how unequal their own force was to refift that of the Romans, acquiefced in the dominion of their mafters, and were gradually iiicorporated as a part of that mighty empire. This was the iafl durable conquefl made by the Romans; and Britain, once fubdued, gave no farther inquietude to the Viftor. Caledonia alone, defended by its barren mountains, and by the contempt which the Romans entertained for it, fometimes infefled the more cultivated parts of the ifland by the The better to fecurc jncurfions of its inhabitants. the frontiers of the empire, Adrian, who vifited this ifland, built a rampart between the river Tyne and Lollius Urbicus, under Antothe frith of Sol way ninus Pius, erefted one in the place where Agricola had formerly eftablifhed his garrifons Severus, who made an expedition into Britain, and carried his arms to the moft northern extremity of it, added new fortifications to the wall of Adrian ; and during the yeigns of all the Roman emperors, fuch a profound
: :





tranquillity prevailed in Britain, that little


by any hiftorian. The only incidents which occur, are fome feditions

made of

the affairs of that ifland

or rebellions of the


legions quartered there,

and fome ufurpations of the imperial dignity by the




difarmed, difpi-

and fubmifTive, had loft all defire, and even idea, of their former liberty and independence. But the period was now come when that enormous fabric of the Roman empire, which had diffufed flavery and opprefTion, together with peace and civility, over fo confiderable a part of the globe, was approaching towards its final difTolution. Jtaly^
• Tacit,


and the centre of the empire, removed, during fo many ages, from all concern in the wars, had entirely loft the military fpirit, and were peopled by an enervated race, equally difpofed to fubmit to a
foreign yoke, or to the tyranny of their





The emperors found themfelves obliged to recruit their legions from the frontier provinces, where the genius of war, though languifhing, was not totally extindt ; and thefe mercenary forces, carelefs of laM^s and civil inilitutions, eftablifhed a military govern* ment, no lefs dangerous to the fovereign than to the people. The farther progrefs of the fame diforders introduced the bordering barbarians into the fervice of the Romans ; and thofe fierce nations, having now added difcipline to their native bravery, could no longer be reflrained by the impotent policy of the emperors, who were accuflomed to employ one in the deflrudion of the others. Senfible of their own force, and allured by the profped of fo rich a prize, the northern barbarians, in the reign of Arcadius and Honorius, affailed at once all the frontiers of the Roman empire ; and having firft fatiated their avidity by plunder, began to think of fixing a fettlement in the wafled provinces. The more diflant barbarians, who occupied the deferted habitations of the former, advanced in their acquifitions, and prefTed with their incumbent weight the Roman flate, already unequal to the load which it fuflained. Inftead of arming the people in their own defence, the emperors recalled all the diflant legions, in whom alone they could repofe confidence ; and collected the whole military force for the defence of the capital and centre of the empire. The neceflity of felf-prefervation had fuperfeded the ambition of power ; and the ancient point of honour, never to contraft the limits of the empire, could no longer be attended to in this defperate extremity. Britain by its fituation was removed from the fury of thefe barbarous incurfions j and being alfo a remote




remote province, not much valued by the Romans, the legions which defended it were carried over to the prctcclion of Italy and Gaul. But that province, though fecured by the fea againft the inroads of the greater tribes of barbarians, found enemies on its frontiers, who took advantage of its prefent defenceThe Picls and Scots, v/ho dwelt in Icfs fituation. the northern parts, beyond the Wall of Antoninus, made incurfions upon their peaceable and effeminate neighbours ; and befides the temporary depredations which they committed, thefe combined nations threatened the whole province with fubjeclion, or what the inhabitants more dreaded, with plunder and The Picls feem to have been a tribe of devaftation. the native Britifli race, who, having been chafed into the northern parts by the conquefls of Agricola, had
there intermingled with the ancient inhabitants : The Scots were derived from the fame Celtic origin, had

been eftablifhed in Ireland, had migrated to thq north-weft coafls of this ifland, and had long been accuftomed, as well from their old as their new feats, to infefl the Roman province by piracy and rapine*, Thefe tribes, finding their more opulent neighbours expofed to invafion, foon broke over the Roman wall, no longer defended by the Roman arms ; and though a contemptible enemy in themfelves, met with no refiflance from the unv/arlike inhabitants. The Britons, accuftomed to have recourfe to the emperors for defence as well as government, made fupplications to Rome ; and one legion was fent over This force was an overmatch for their protection. for the barbarians, repelled their invafion, routed them In every engagement, and having chafed them into their ancient limits, returned in triumph to the defence of the fouthern provinces of the empire % Their retreat brought on a new invafion of the enemy. The Britons made again an application tQ

* See Note


at the

P Gildas, Bede,

end of the "Volume. Paul. Diacon. i, cap, 12.


Rome, and



again obtained the affiftance of a legion, c which proved eiiedtual for their relief: But the Romans, reduced to extremities at home, and fatigued with thofe diflant expeditions, informed the Britons that they mud no longer look to them for fuccour, exhorted them to arm in their own defence, and-

ha p.

urged, that as they were






became them to protect by their valour that independence which their ancient lords had conferred upon them ", That they might leave the iHand with the better grace, the Romans affifted them in erecting anew the wall of Severus, which was built entirely of ftone, and which the Britons had not at that time artificers ikilful enough to repair'. And having donethis laft good office' to the inhabitants, they bid a final adieu to Britain, about the year 448 ; after being mafters of the more confiderable part of it
during the courfe of near four centuries.

The B R
dition to




abjed Britons



prefent of

liberty as fatal to

and were in no conput in practice the prudent counfel given


them by the Romans, to arm in their own defence. Unaccuftomed both to the perils of war and to the
cares of

government, they found themfelves incapable of forming or executing any meafures for

refifting the

Gratian. Conftantine, two Romans, v/ho had a little alfo and before alTumed the purple in Britain, had carried

incurfions of the barbarians,

over to the continent the flower of the Britifh youth ; and having perifhed in their unfuccefsful attempts on the imperial throne, had defpoiled the ifland of


in this defperate extremity,

were bed able

to defend



and Scots, finding that the

Romans had finally relinquilhed Britain, now regarded
' Bede,
lib. i.

cap. la,

r Ibid,



the whole as their prey, and attacked the northerif wall with redoubled forces. The Britons, already

found the ramparts but a weak defence for them ; and deferting their ftation^ left the country entirely open to the inroads of the barbarous enemy. The invaders carried devaflation and ruin along with them ; and exerted to the utmofl their native ferocity, which was not mitigated by the helplefs condition and fubmiffive behaviour of the inhabitants*. The unhappy Britons had a third time recourfe to Rome, which had declared its refolution for ever to abandon them. iEtius, the patrician, fuftained, at that time, by his valour and magnanimity, the tottering ruins of the empire, and

fubdued by their own

revived for a moment, among the degenerate Romans, the fpirit, as well as difcipline, of their anceftors. The Britifh ambaifadors carried to him

the better of their countrymen, which was infcribed^, The Groans of the Britons. The tenor of the epiftle


fuiiable to



The Barbarians^

fay they, on the one hand^ chafe us into the fea ; the fea on the other, throws us hack upon the barbarians j

and we have only the hard choice left us, of perijhing But uEtius, prefled hy the fword or by the wavesK by the arms of Attila, the mod terrible enemy that ever affailed the empire, had no leifure to attend to
the complaints of allies,

whom generofity alone could

induce him to afTift". The Britons, thus rejected, were reduced to defpair, deferted their habitations, abandoned tillage, and flying for proteftion to the forefls and mountains, fuffered equally from hunger and from the enemy. The barbarians themfelves began to feel the preflTures of famine in a country which they had ravaged ; and being harafled by the difperfed Britons, who had not dared to refift them

Gildas, Bede,
cap. 13.

lib. I.

Ann. Beverl. p. 45. * Gildas, Fede> Malmefbury, lib. i. cap. i. Ann. Beverl. p. 45.

« Chron. Sax. p. ji. edit. 169Z.


they retreated with their fpoils into their C own country ^. The Britons, taking advantage of this interval, returned to their ufual occupations; and the favourable feafons, which fucceeded, feconded their induftry, made them foon forget their paft miferies, and reftored to them great plenty of all the necefNo more can be imagined to have faries of life. been poffefTed by a people fo rude, who had not, without the affiftance of the Romans, art of mafonry fuffjcient to raife a ftone rampart for their own dewho treat of Yet the Monkifli hillorians fence : thofe events, complain of the luxury of the Britons during this period, and afcribe to that vice, not to


m a body,

HA p,


cowardice or improvident counfels, all their fubfequent calamities. The Britons, entirely occupied in the enjoyment of the prefent interval of peace, made no provifion for refifting the enemy, who, invited by their former timid behaviour, foon threatened them with a new invafion. are not exadlly informed what fpecies of civil government the Romans on their departure had left among the Britons ; but it appears probable, that the great men in the different diflrifts aflumed a kind of regal, though precarious authority; and lived To in a great meafure independent of each other''. this difunion of counfels were alfo added the difputes of theology ; and the difciples of Pelagius, who was himfelf a native of Britain, having increafed to a great multitude, gave alarm to the clergy, who feem to have been more intent on fuppreffing them, than on oppofmg the public enemy ^. Labouring under thefe domeflic evils, and menaced with a foreign invafion, the Britons attended only to the fuggeflions of their prefent fears ; and following the counfels of Vortigern, prince of Dumnonium, who, though ftained


^ Gildas, Bede, Beverl. p. 45. Gildas, Uflier, Ant. Brit. p. 248. 347. lib. I. cap. 17. Conftant. in vita Germ,

w Ann.

lib. 1.

cap. 14.

« Gildas, Bede,






With every vice, poffefied the chief authority among them% they fent into Germany a deputation to invite over the Saxons for their protection and affiltance.




the barbarous nations, known either in ancient or modern times, the Germans feent to have been the moft diftinguidied both by their


and to have carried to the higheft pitch the virtues of valour and love of liberty ; the only virtues which can have place among an uncivilized people, where juflice and humanity are commonly neglefted. Kingly government, even v/hen eftablifhed among the Germans (for it was not univerfal), poffeffed a very limited Authority; and though the fovereign was ufually chofen from among the royal family, he was directed in every meafure by the common confent of the nation over whom he prefided. When, any important affairs were tranfaded, all the warrior^ met in arms ; the men of greatefl authority employed perfuafion to engage their confent ; the people exprefied their approbation by rattling their arthere was na mour, or their diffent by murmurs neceffity for a nice fcrutiny of votes among a multitude, who were ufually carried with a ftrong current to one fide or the other; and the meafure, thus fuddenly chofen by general agreement, was executed with alacrity, and profecuted with vigoilr. Even in war, the princes governed more by example than by authority: But in peace, the civil union was in a great meafure diffolved, and the inferior leaders adminiftered jufdce after an independent manner, each in his particular dillrift. Thefe were eleded

manners and poHtical

by the votes of the people
f Gildas, Gulm.

in their great councils
p. S,









and though regard was paid to nobility

in the choice, C



their pcrfonal quah'ties, chiefly their valour,


them, from the fuffrages of their fellow-citizens, that honourable but dangerous diflinftion. The warriors of each Tribe attached themfclvcs to their leader with the mod devoted affection and moft unihaken conftancy. They attended him as his ornament in peace, as his defence in war, as his council in the adminiflrationof juftice. Their conftant emulation
in military renown diifolved not that inviolable friend (hip which they profeifed to their chieftain and to each other. To die for the honour of their band



chief ambition






or the death of their leader, was infamous. They even carried into the field their women and children, who adopted all the martial fentiments of the men : And being thus impelled by every human motive, where they were not oppofed they were invincible

manners and inftitutions of the neighbouring Germans, or by the fuperior difcipline, arms, and numbers of the Romans The leaders and their military companions were maintained by the labour of their Haves, or by that of the weaker and lefs warlike part of the commueither

by the



contributions v/hich they levied went not beyond a bare fabfifteiice ; and the honours, acquired by a fuperior rank, were the only reward of their fuperior dangers and fatigues.


they defended.


were unknown among the Germans Tillage itfelf was almofl wholly negThey even feem to have been anxious to lefted prevent any improvements of that nature and the leaders, by annually diftributing anew all the land
All the refined arts of





the inhabitants

of each village, kept them

from attaching therafelves to particular polTeflions, or maldng fuch progrefs in agriculture as might

Casfar, lib. 6.

Tacit, de Mor.






divert their attention froni military expeditions, the


chief occupation of the


community ". Saxons had been for fome time regarded


one of the moft warlike tribes of this fierce people, and had become the terror of the neigbouring nations'*. They had diffufed themfelves from the northern parts of Germany and the Cimbrian Cher^ fonefus, and had taken pofleflion of all the fea-coafl: from the mouth of the Rhine to Jutland ; whence they had long infefted by their piracies all the eaftern and fouthern parts of Britain, and the northern of Gaul ^ In order to oppofe their inroads, the Romans had eftablifhed an officer, whom they called (^oiint of the Saaon jhore \ and as the naval arts can flour ifii among a civilized people alone, they feem to have been more fuccefsful in repelling the Saxons, than any of the other barbarians by whom they were invaded. The dilTolution of the Roman power invited them to renew their inroads and it was an

acceptable circumflance, that the deputies of the Britons appeared among them, and prompted them to undertake an enterprize, to which they were of

themfelves fufficiently inchned ^ Hengist and Horfa, two brothers, poffefled great credit among the Saxons, and were much celebrated both for their valour and nobility. They were reputed, as moft of the Saxon princes, to be

fpruRg from

Woden, who was worlhipped
^ ;

as a



thofe nations, and they are faid

to be his

great grandfons

a circumftance which added


to their authority.



not attempt to trace

any higher the origin of thofe princes and nations. labour it muft be to It is evident what fruitlefs learch, in thofe barbarous and illiterate ages, for the




Tacit, ibid.





28. Orolius.


Asnni Marceli.lib 27. cap.
p. 8.

lib. 38.




lib. j.

cap. 15, Saxon Chron. p. 13.


cap %%.


728. or from a man exalted by ignorance into that charadler. and immediately marched to the defence of the Britons againft the northern invaders. C 2 among . a. hoped thenceforth to enjoy peace and fecurity under the power*. 309. or by uncertain traditions.T H E tinnals S A X O N S. had not yet acquired any union h But Saxon Chronicle. p. ^ were believed by them to be the fourth in defcent from a fabulous deity. Huntington. were determined to conquer and fight for thei'i own grandeur. p. tility and riches ©f Britain . led by imaginary analogies of names. 12. known CHAP. from their eafy vidory over the Scots and Pidls with what facility they might fubdue the Britons themfelves. would in Vain attempt to pierce into that deep obfcurity which covers the remote hiftory of thofe nations. The dark indultry of antiquaries. ful protection of that warlike people. lib. being now cut off from the Roman empire. They embarked their troops in three veffels. when their firft leaders. found it eafy to perfuade their countrymen to embrace the fole enterprize which promifed a favourable opportunity of difplaying their valour and in any true hiftory. who had not been able to refift thofe feeble invaders. carried over 1600 men. Thanet. and the rich provinces of Gaul already conquered or over-run by other German tribes. Hengift and Horfa perceiving. who. The Scots and Picls were unable to refift the valour of and the Britons applauding their thefe auxiliaries own wifdom in calling over the Saxons. of which they had been a province during fo many ages. p. and about the year 449 or 450 ^. not for the defence of their degenerate They fent intelligence to Saxony of the ferallies. who landed in the ifle of gratifying their avidity. and reprefented as certain the fubjeftion of a people fo long difufed to arms. Gul. p. Malm. obferving the other provinces of Germany to be occupied by a warlike and necefTitous people. Ethfelwerd. 19 of a people. n. These two brothers. Brornpton.

Sax. fought at Eaglesford. were a new ground of hope and the Saxons in Germany. Ncnnius. i. and left the iole command over his countrymen in the hands of Hengift. except a paffive fubmillion and connivance. foon reinforced Hengift and Horfa with 5000 men. This tion to their liberties.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. They fought many battles with their enemies . Ann. he fpared neither age. . Britons. EeJc. cap. by complaining tliat their weak expedient foon were ill failed S^ons fiffidies '' paid. This aftive general. Gildas. cap. Horfa. and though the viclories in thefe adions be difputed between the BritiPn and Saxon annalifts. forces. And The ties. who had become odious from his vices. carried devaftation into the moft remote corners of Britain . were neceffitated to take arms . among themfelves. lib. new . following fuch agreeable profpe6ts. nor fex. the Britifh leader. nor condition. 35. Bever! p 49. § 25. and having depofed Vortigern. The vices and pufillanimity of Vortigern. The Britons now began to entertain apprehenfions of their allies. p. ij. The fought a quarrel. and being chiefly anxious to fpread the ter- ror of his arms. and from the bad event of his rafh counfels. impelled by thefe violent extremi- and roufed to indignation againft their trea- cherous auxiliaries. they formed an alliance with the Picts and Scots. the progrefs proves that the In one battle. lide. and were deftitute of all afFec- and of all national attachments and regards'. wherever he i marched with his victorious ^ Chron. continually reinforced by frefii made by the Saxons advantage was commonly on their ftill numbers from Germany. and proceeded to open hofUlity againft the Britons. however. and their provifions withdrawn immediately taking off the mafk. whofe numbers they found continually augmenting but thought of no remedy. the Saxon General. nov/ Ailsford. they put themfelves under the command of his fon Vortimer. was flain. 15. . who came over in feventeen veffels. them.

C 3 Hengifl:. 12. and himfelf detained captive ". being charitably received by a people of the fame language and manners. not without fuccefs. The fame hiftorians add. Galfr. 325. ton. on the akars by thofe idolatrous ravagers The bifliops and nobility fliared the fate of the vulThe people. deferting their native country. 21 The private and public aflies tons were reduced to The of the Bri. After the the death of Vortimer. 1 command "' Bede. that Vortimer died .c prieftswere flaughedifices : HA I. and endeavoured. 47. 6. the daughter of Hengift. Nennius. writers afTign one caufe which facilitated the entrance of the Saxons into this ifland Britifli The the love with which Vortigern was at firft feized for Rovena. lib. lib. p. over his countrymen. and gave the country the name of Britr tany '. being rcf flored to the throne. vv'here. cap. Galfr. p. were intercepted and butchered in heaps Some were glad to accept of life and fervitude untered : der their vigors : Others. Stillingfieet's Unier. and that Vortigern. i. and which that artful warrior made ufe of to blind the eyes of the imprudent monarch "'. creafed the animofity between the two nations. But thefe llcries feem to have been in^ . though of Roman a Bridefcent. cap. .T H E forces.vented by the Welfli authors. in order to palliate the weak rehflance made at firft by their countrymen. Nennius. § 34. 324. 2z6. • Orig. accepted of a banquet from Hengifl at Stonehenge. they fettled in great numbers. " Gildas. which had before been funk into a fatal lethargy. and to account for the rapid progrefs and licentious devallations of the Saxons ". and roufed the military Ipirit of the ancient inhabitants. Brit. cap. Thofe contefls in™. was invefted with Ambrofms. took fhelter in the province of Armorica . S A X O N : S. flying to the mountains and degar ferts. where 300 of his nobility were treachcrouflv flaughtered. p. to unite them in their refiftance againft the Saxons. 15.

ftill maintained his ground in Britain . and laid the foundation of the kingdom of Kent. however. 78. p. Kent. the fon of Oda and he fettled them in Northumberland. p. He himfelf remained in the fouthern parts of the ifland. a Saxon flate. notwithftanding their oppofitlon. and received protection from the remote firfl fituation or after that of inacceflible mountains of thofe countries. I The Saxon P Dede. : ". Beverl. 12. they called over a tribe of . he CHAP. Middlefex. fometimes of Angles . and other parts of the kingdom. Angles. Saxons. querors were chiefly compofed of three tribes. were inhabited by Angles. i. and being governed by the fame inftitutions. Camdeni.^lla. In the year 477 % . and he died in or near the year 488 leaving hia new acquired dominions to his poflerity. where he governed about forty years. 81. Surry. p. Bcvcrl. 14. Ann. .lib. and Jutes who all pafTed under the common appellation. fometimes of Saxons. and of Ebifla. 15. at Canterbury. Sax. and under different leaders. Ann. . till they were driven into Cornwal and Wales. 833. and part of Surry. edit. Ethelwerd. though unequal. The fuccefs of Hengifl excited the avidity of the other northern Germans . and at different times. was the kingdom of South Saxony. p. they flocked over in mulThefe contitudes to the invafion of this ifland. Hengifl. which was eflablifhed in Britain. and in order to divide the forces and attention of the natives. were peopled by Saxons Mcrcia. the Saxons. and Ifie ofWight were Jutes. Chron. Suflex. Sax.2« HISTORY OF ENGLAND. to unite themfelves againfl The refiflance however^ the ancient inhabitants.. comprehending the county of that name. p. under the command of his brother Ocla. new were naturally led from thefe caufes their as well as from common interefl. all the Southern counties to Cornwal. was flill maintained by the Britons but became every day more feeble : And their calamities admitted of few intervals. and fpeaking the fame language. "'. chief. Middlefex. cap. Chron. He lixed his royal feat Eflex. Tlie inhabitants of Kent and the Efiex.

were called the Weft Saxons. proceeded to take The Bri])ofleirion of the neighbouring territory. and though vanquiftied. where. inhabitants with defperate valour '. i. These Saxons. and landed in the year 495. ' Flor. C 4 pufhing . did not tamely abandon their poffeffions . now armed. or exerted fuch valour and perfeverance in • None Saxon Chron.THESAXONS. i. Will. who had taken pofTeflion of frefh numbers of his : that territory. again took the field againft the Britons . J. and of his fon Kenric \ The Britons were. by paft experience. The mofl memorable aftion. 485. 23 HA p. p. nor were they expelled. and fo well prepared to receive the enemy. brought over an army from Germany . p. as fomewhat retarded the proBut JSlla. that they gave battle to Cerdic the very day of his landing . lib. cap. till defeated in many battles by their warlike invaders. and ex^ tended his dominion over Suflex and a great part of Surry. and when mailers of it. Wigorn. their liberties againft the invaders. Chron. confiderabie a lofs. Malm. countrymen. mentioned by hiftorians. from in the fituation of the country which they fettled. He was flopped in his progrefs to the eaft In that to the Weft by by the kingdom of Kent another tribe of Saxons. fo much on their guard. Sax. for fome time. This declfive advantage fecured the conquefts of JElla. and C landmg on the fouthern coaft. though the Saxons feem to have obtained the victory. redoubled their ef* forts againft the place. tons. lib. is that of Meacredes-Burn ' . of the other tribes of Saxons met with fuch vigorous refiftance. enraged by this refiftance. under the command of Cerdic. 15. and by the fatigues and dangers which they had fuftained. who aflumed the name of King. they fuffered fo chief. D. * Hen. la. A. ftill defended. reinforced by grefs of their conquefts. Hunting. and laid fiege to AndredCeafter. put all their enemies to the fword without diftindion. which was defended by the garrifon and The Saxons.

which ended in a complete victory gained by the Saxons '". and clofe manner of fighting. ^ Huutins. Ethelvvevtl.j^. Cerdic was even obliged to call for the afliltance of his countrymen from the kingdoms of Kent and SulTex. CHAP. tend his conqueils. as even to give occa-. " Chron. with truth where they are the fole hiltorians. brought timely affiftance to his father. 17. who had prevailed in the other wing. that . Chroii. lib. vic- and routed the wing in which Cerdic himfelf commanded but Kenric. and of his fons Bleda and Megia ". and he was thence joined by a frefh army under the command of Porte. w j^. and ufe ftrange liberties country ". But poets. a. whither the moil obftiThe nate of the difcomlited Britons had retired. 17. a defperate battle with the Britons. whofe heroic valour now fuftained the declining fate of his This is that Arthur fo much celebrated in the fongs of Thalieffin. applied for affiflance to Arthur. p. lib. with 5000 but left the Britons more weakened of his army The war flill contithan difcouraged by his death. whofe Ihort fvvords. nued. Certain it is. he fought.jntinj: lib 2i. as among the Britons. who was . Sax. and in order to exwanting to his good fortune torious in the beginning of the action. fouthern Britons. . though they disfigure the mod certain hiftory by their fictions. he laid fiege to Mount Badon or Banefdowne near Bath.Sax. and whofe military atcliievements have been blended with fo many fables. and reftored the battle. p. in the year 508. lion for entertaining a doubt of his real exiflence. gave them great advantage over the Cerdic was not miilile weapons of the Britons. Strengthened by thefe fuccours. Prince of the Silures. though the iuccefs vv'as commonly on the fide of the Saxons. commanded by Nazan-Leod. in this extremity. have commonly fome foundation for their wiidefl exaggerations. pufhing their conquefts.24 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. i. as well as from Germany. Nazan-Leod perifhed. . and the other Britifli bards.

^ Math. p. but. Dorfet. as did all y The Gildas. and the Ifle of Wight. igCiuon. that none of their princes for a long time affumed the appellation of At laft. Sax. lib. and Erk enwin that of Eaft-Saxony or EiTex nearly about the fame time. and part of Hertford (hire. Hunting. a Saxon prince of king. 25 in Badon was ''. as they met with an obftinate refiftance. to the frontiers of thefe two He and his fon Kenric. the . 19. great valour ^ who claimed a defcent. Suffolk. Tiiis latter kingdom was difmembered from that of Kent. Kenric in 560. but the year is uncertain. H. had been planted in Northumberland . That of the Eaft-Angles. but was not fufficient to wrefl from him the conquefts which he had already made. and comprehended Eflex. who kingdoms.T H E rhat the fiege of S A X O N raifed S. in 534. landed on the eafl coait of Britain . z. * Huntington. In the year 527. a great tribe of adventurers. Saxons. in 547 % Ida. or of WeiTex. over the counties of Hants. under feveral leaders. and left their newCerdic died acquired dominions to their pofterity. fucceeded him. foon after the landing of Henglft. b Will. Mercia was extended over all the middle counties. by the Britons the year 520: And the Saxons were there dii'comfited This misfortune flopped the in a great battle progrefs of Cerdic . and after fighting many battles. th^y efl:abliil:ied three new kingdoms in this ifland. their countrymen were not lefs aftive in other quarters. from the banks of the Severn. the counties of Cambridge. of which hiftory has preferved no particular account. eflablifhed the kingdom of the Weft Saxons. Uffa affumed the title of king of the Eaft-Angles in S7Sy Crida that of Mercia in 585^. and made but fmall progrefs in fubduing the inhabitants. lib. 2. Sax' n Chron. Mulmf. Weft. While the Saxons made this progrefs in the fouth. p. Berks. and Norfolk . Wilts. their affairs were in fo unfettled a condition. Middlefex.

fuch . received the appellation of king of* Thefe two kingdoms were united in the Deiri ^ Perfon of Ethilfrid. the imperfect. who married and expelling her Acca. which is purely Saxon. 7. but it cannot be doubted that all the lowlands. as well as fome of the fouth-ealt counties of Scotland . and enabled the Northumbrians to carry on their conquefts over the Britons. ken in thofe countries. had totally changed its inhabitants. in Britain . BevcrJ. and he aifumed the crown under the title of king of Bernicia. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. from Woden. cufloms. The HEPTARCHY. the Heptarchy. except Wales and Cornwal. is a ftronger proof of this event. is uncertain . Nearly about the fame time. havq The language fpoefcaped the records of hiftory. brought over a reinforcement from Germany. grandfon of Ida. another Saxon prince. He entirely fubdued the the other princes county now called Northumberland. or feven Saxon kingdoms.8. the daughter of ^Ella brother Edwin. eflablifhed one of the moft powerful of the Saxon kingdoms by the title of Northumberland. and political inflitutions. v/hich are pbtruded on us by the Scottifh hiflorians. after a violent contefl of near a hundred and fifty years. made by the feveral Saxon adventurers. p. were peopled in a great meafure from Germany . was eflablifhed. than can be oppofed by -. and the greater part of Yorkfiiire. under the Roman doniinion. had made « T HUS Aim. having conquered Lancafliire. and the whole fouthern part of the illand. iElla. efpecially the eaft coafl of that country. of that nation. How far his dominions extended into the country now called Scotland. or rather fabulous annals. Britons. lanThe guage. the biihopric of Durham.25 . though the expeditions.

proved more deflruftive to both bitations. though they overran the fouthern provinces of the empire like a mighty torrent. and few revolutions more violent than that which they introduced. were obliged to folicit frefh fupplies from their own country . or . and gave no farther difturbance to the conquerors. the Britons. flill Though one prince feems d Gildas. the band of alliance was in a great meanatives. or were inflamed into fo violent an animofity againft the ancient inhabitants. i. efpecially to the vanquifhed. were tempted to make refiftance . to have been allowed. befides a great number of villages and country feats'*. the feveral fure diffolved among the princes of the Heptarchy. by whom they were now fubdued. parties. made fuch devaflations in the conquered territories. As the Saxons came over at intervals in feparate bodies. and a total exter- mination of the Britons became the fole expedient for providing a fettlement and fubfiftence to the new planters. but after the Britons were Ihut up in the barren counties of Cornwal and Wales. None of the other northern conquerors. Goths. however at firfl unwarlike. So long as the conteft was maintained with the Saxon princes preferved a union of counfels and interefls . The firil in- vaders from Germany. inflead of excluding other adventurers. Bedc. threw every thing tack into ancient barbarity .THE HEPTARCHY. and hoflilities being thereby prolonged. or Burgundians. and thofe few natives. Hence there have been found in hiftory few conquefts more ruinous than that of the Saxons . lib. the Franks. that they had built tvi^enty-eight confiderable cities within their province. Vandals. fuch advances towards arts and civil manners. But the fierce conquerors. who were not either maffacred or expelled their ha- were reduced to the moffc abje^Sl llavery. who muft fliare with them the fpoils of the ancient inhabitants.

and revolutions and diifenfions were unavoidable among a turbulent and military people . with the love of wonder. and. there is great difcouragement to a v/ritcr. which was the firit eflablifned. . and each ftate aded as if it had been independent. Wars. and with a propenfity to impofture vices almoil infeparable from their profeffion and manner of life. confidered the civil tranfadions as entirely fubordinate to the ecclefiaflical. The monks. his authority. and thefe events. added to the difficulty of carrying on at once the hiftory of feven independent kingdoms. lived remote from publick affairs. . and this author fcruples not to declare. and wholly feparate from the rell. to connect the events in fome tolerable meafure. and of the more remarkable beginning revolutions in each particular kingdom with that of Kent. The hiftory of that period abounds in names. But.a8 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. vv'e fhall give a fuccinct account of the fucceflions of kings. c or to have afTumed an afcendant over the whole. however intricate or confufed. HA P. bcfidcs partaking of the ignorance and barbarity which were then univerfal. great learning and vigorous imagination of Milton funk under the weight . but is extremely barren of events . ought now to become the objecls of our attention. that the lldrmilhes of kites or crows as much merited a particular narrative. ^ Milton in Kennct. arifmg from the uncertainty. if it ought ever to be deemed regular or legal. was extremely limited . who were the only annalifts during thcfe ages. therefore. that the moll profound or moll eloquent writer mufl defpair of rendering them either Even the inilruftive or entertaining to the reader. "were flrongly infected with credulity. or the events are related fo much without circumilances and caufes. however. as the confufed tranfadions and battles of the Saxon Heptarchy % In order. at lead barrennefs. of the accounts tranfmitted to us. p 50.

THE HEPTARCHY. excited jealoufy in all the f Chron. He was twice difcomfited in battle by Ceaulin. 21. but feems not to have poffeffed the military genius of that conqueror. and laying the foundations of a new kingdom. his fon revived the reputation of his family. All the Saxons. except alTociating with him his fon Ethelbert in the government. fucceeded his father. after a reign of twenty-two years. fecured from all hoflility with the Britons. in whofe time the Eaif. and obliged to yield the fuperiority in the Heptarchy to that ambitious monarch. feem to have much enfeebled the warlike genius of the Kentifh Saxons . in his firfl attempt to aggrandize his country. The inattivity of his predeceflbrs. which had languifhed for fome generations. His death. and diilinguiih his own name. Efcus was content to poiTefs in tranquillity the kingdom of Kent. Hengifl:. and by reducing the kingdom of Suffex to fubjeftion. was unfuccefsfur. Other . p. king of Wefiex . who performed nothing memorable during a reign of thirty-tvv^o years. which he left in 512 to his fon Oda.Saxons eftablidied their monarchy. made room for Hermenric in 534. and difmembered the provinces of EiTex and Middlefex from that of Kent. and Ethelbert. Ethei. in the kingdom of Kent . Sax. ilocked to theftandardofaElla. who firfl made way for the entrance of the Saxon arms into Britain. or new eftablifliments by arms. king of Suffex. who was carrying on I'uccefsful war againll the Britons. who fought either the fame of valour. The Kingdom of TJ^SCUS 29 KENT. that he might fecure the fucceilion in his family. who preferred no moderation in his vidory. and prevent fuch revolutions as are incident to a turbulent and barbarous monarchy.bert and thefituation of his country.

the rightful heir. except the king of Northumberland. and Ethelbert. But the mod memorable event which didin-^ guidied the reign of this great prince. and by a natural confequence. and Ethelbert fucceeded as well to his afcendant among the Saxon dates. as to his other ambitious projefts. not fupported by political inditutions like that of the Druids. Other princes. it feems to have cifive viftory ^ made and to have eadly refigned its place to the new dodrine promulgated to them. lib. was the introdudion of the Chridian religion among the Eng-* liih Saxons. they . that if they ob- tained the favour of this divinity by their ^[alour (for i H. *•_ ^ CHAP. and being founded on traditional tales received from their ancedors. Apprehenfive. The fuperdition of the Germans. He reduced all the princes. not reduced to any fydem.3© HISTORY OF ENGLAND. as rendered him little better than a tributary prince under his artful benefador. was of the groffed and mod barbarous kind . gious wordiip. gave him battle. of a dangerous league againft him. like that by which he himfelf had been enabled to overthrow Ceaulin. was regarded as the god of war. to a ftrift dependance upon him . and even eftablilhed himfelf by force on the throne of Mercia. he had the prudence to refign the kingdom of Mercia to Webba. the mod extenfive of the Saxon kingdoms. whom they deemed the ancedor of all their princes. They believed. however. particularly that of the Saxons. he gave Webba poffeffion of the crown on fuch conditions. who had firfl founded that monarchy. a. An aflbciation was formed againlt him . a!id obtained a de- Ceaulin died foon after . But governed ftill by ambition more than by juflice. the fon of Crida. and the chief objeft of their relilittle impreflion on its votaries. became their fupreme deity. Hunting. Woden. intruded with the command of the allies.

but which. were not overfond of communicating to their cruel invaders the dotlrine of eternal life and falvation. that they had images in their temples . mufl carry the air of the wildeft extravagance. that they pradifed facrifices believed firmly in fpells and inchantments and admitted in general a fyllem of doctrines which they held as facred. which had acquired the afcendant over all their brethren. when preached to them by fuch inveterate enemies . We We . which they found eftablillied in the empire . for would naturally Chriitian indifpofe receiving the faith.THE HEPTARCHY. as is objected to them by Gildas and Bede. if propounded to thofe who are not familiarthey lefs 31 made chap. which gratified at once the paflion of revenge and that of intemperance. however fubdued by arms. informed of this event. and it was impoffible but the Saxons. the ruling inclinations of barbarians. ized to it from their earliell infancy. and increafed their native ferocity againft the vanquished by their religious prejudices. and perhaps the Britons. they defpifed the dangers of war. But as a civilized people. like all other fuperftitions. The them conftant hollilities which the Saxons main- tained againft the Britons. radife. However limited In their views^ tivation they could not but have perceived a degree of cul- . account of the other virtues). they fiiould be admitted after their death into his hall and repofmg on couches. fhould fatiate themfelves with ale from the fkulls of their enemies whom Incited by this idea of pathey had flain in battle. that they adored the god of thunder. under the name of Thor . ftill maintain a fenfible fuperiority over barbarous and ignorant nations. that they worfliipped the fun and moon . mufl have regarded with fome degree of veneration a doctrine. know little of the other theological tenets of the Saxons : only learn that they were polytheifts . all the other northern conquerors of Europe had been already in- duced to embrace the Chriflian faith.

then Roman pontilf. of converting the Britifli Saxons. at that time in a private flation. in their trading voyages to Britain. cap. had bought of their mercenary parents.is obliged to flipulate. 1. II. nnnting. means of introducing Chrifti- Ethelbert. in his father's lifetime. the only daughter of Caribert. a conceffion not difficult to be obtained from the idolatrous Saxons'. that Gregory. began to entertain hopes of cffecling a projeft. ihe had been very afliduous in her devotional exercifes. Gregory afked to what country h I Greg of Tours. which he himfelf. had obferved in the market-place of Rome. had fo well paved the way for the reception of the Chriflian doftrine. v/hom the Roman merchants. lib. the conqueror of Gaul . beyond what the/ themfelves poffefled and it was natural for them to yield to that fuperior knowledge. before he mounted the papal throne.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. that the princefs lliould enjoy the free exercife of her religion . had once embraced. Her popularity in the court. king of Parish one of the defcendants of Clovis. 25. by which the inhabitants of the Chriflian kingdoms were even at that time diftinguiflied. tlvatlon in the fouthern countries . had married Bertha. 729. Brompton. Bfde. that this prelate. It happened. Bertha brought over a French bifhop to the court of Canterbury . firnamcd the Great. and her influence over Ethelbert. they . p. 2. Struck with the beauty of their fair complexions and blooming countenances. lib. had fupported the credit of her faith by an irreproachable conduft. lib. but before he was admitted to this alliance. might long have failed of producing any conliderable effect. cnp z6. 9. fome Saxon youth expofed to fale. and had employed every art of infniuation and addrefs to reconcile her huiband to her religious principles. and being zealous for the propagation of her religion. as well as zeal. he w. had not a favourable thefe caufes But incident prepared the anity into Kent.

T II E HEPTARC I^ Y. terrified with the dangers which might ^ Bede. lib. p 91. he de- termined to undertake. Vol. great. a diftrict of Northumberland Dc'iri ! replied he. pofed his defign and he was obliged. . he was informed. before Gregory. he had not tafte or genius fufficient to comprehend. a miffion into Britain . fing in their country. D attend . But what is the name of the Icing of that province ? He was told it wds j^lla gx Alia Alleluiay cried he We miijl endeavour that the praifes : HA P. that is good I Tbcy are called to the mercy of God from his anger ^ De ira. 2. he pitched on Auguftine. fent. that they ought more properly to be denominated a?i^e!s : It were a pity that the Prince of Darknefs Ihoidd enjoy fo fair a prey. had ever carried to greater excefs an intemperate zeal againfl the former religion. ^ he rephed. :? i of God he allufions. to lay afide all farther that pious purpofe controverfy between the Pagans and the Chriftians was not entirely cooled in that age . and having obtained the Pope's approbation. as well as The from the flyle of his compofitions. for the prethoughts of executing ''. I. and that fo beautiful a frontifpiece fhould cover a mind deflitute of internal grace and righteoufnefs. He had waged war with all the precious monuments of the ancients. But his he prepared for that perilous journey : popularity at unwilHng to home was fo expofe him . i. and even with their writings . Cone. Moved by thefe which appeared to him fo happy. Ambitious to diflinguifn his pontificate by the converfion of the Britifh Saxons. Thefe inilfionarieD. op- fuch dangers. and being told they were Jjigles. cap. and no pontiff. and fent him with forty aifociates to preach the gofpel in this ifland. himfelf. 33 ihcy belonged . that it was Deiri. as appears from the drain of his own wit. Spell. that the to Romans. Enof their proquiring farther concerning the name vince. a Roman monk. which.

who flill fpoke the fame language with the Saxons . by means of his interpreters. and crave his permiffion to defift from the undertaking. 56. cap. p. advifed them to chufe fome interpreters from among the Franks. " are fair . attend their propofing a people. i. Hunting. 5. on 597 ". Brompton. Cone.34 G HA HISTORY OF ENGLAND. lib. i. " Higden. Parker Antiq. p. Polychron. 23. Epift. p. 25. *« caufc- . 61. Bede. that undertaking ". flopped fome time in France. <c promifes. left fpells or enchantments might be employed agalnft him by priefts. in a great meafure. cap." replied Ethelbert. Brit. of new do£lrine to fo fierce a whofe language they were ignorant. Chron. Apprehenfive. 33. o Spell. and a kingdom ia heaven without end. already well-difpofed towards the Chriftian faith. Ethelbert. Chron. ^ Bede. 8a. lib.. p. Thorn. Sax. W. affigned him a habitation in the ifle of Thanet . who had at this time ufurped the fovereign power in France. owing the fuccefs of ' . though ftained with every vice of treachery and cruelty. This princefs. 9. but be' Bede. if he would be perfuaded ta " ^ Your words and receive that falutary dodrine. however. and promifed him eternal joys above. 1759. his arrival in Kent. lib. In the year found the danger much lefs than he had apprehended. 25. delivered to him the tenets of the Chriftian faith. who brought an unknown worfhip from a diftant country. Augustine. he had the precaution to receive them in the open alr^ where he believed the force of their magic would be more eafily diffipated ° » Here Auguftine. I. lib. But Gregory exhorted them to perfevere in their purpofe. and fent back Auguftine to lay the hazards and difficulties before the Pope. p. and recommending them to the good offices of queen Brune** haut. 729. cap. Eccl. either poiTefled or pretended great zeal for the caufe and Gregory acknowledged that to her friendly affiftance was. lib. lib. »" Greg. epift. and foon after admitted him to a conference. $. H. p.

i. * lib. and by the declared by the aufterity of his : favour of the court. j. to remain here in peace . Influenced by thefe motives. 26. and feeing now a profpe£l of fuccefs. to aifume the appearance of the greatefl lenity : He told Ethelbert. as their anceftors had ever done in their moft fanguinary triumphs. Hunting. a6. 729. them. he wrought for their converlion ". ' ' 35 caufe they are tirely yield to new and uncertain. H. 45. Hunting. I and my anceftors have fo long main- ' ' You are welcome. Gregory p. as it appears. Ibid. Sedc. ^ Bede. lib D 2 wrote . proceeded with redoubled zeal to preach the gofpel to the Kentifli Saxons. and relinquifli the principles ' which tained. which. cap. vidlories. folely. ' and mofl fplendid cap. I will fupply ' you with all neceffaries.cap. had great influence with his fubjefts . and permit you to deliver ' your dodlrine to my fubjeds^.THE HEPTARCHY. it was pretended. however. numbers of the Kentifh men were baptized . H. lib. He attrafted their attention manners. and as you have undertaken fo ' long a journey. but he employed no force to bring them over to the new doctrine. by the fevcre penances to which he fubjeded himfelf. that the fervice of Chrill mufl be entirely voluntary. and the King himfelf was perfuaded His example to fubmit to that rite of Chrifllanity. 3. by a courfe of life which appeared fo contrary to nature. for what ' you believe to be for our advantage. he procuredmore eafily their belief of miracles. Auguftine thought proper. and that no violence ought ever to be ufed in propagating fo falutary a dodrine ^ The intelligence received of thefe fpiritual conquefts afforded great joy to the Romans ." Augustine. Brompton. I cannot en- chap. who now exulted as much in thofe peaceful trophies. lib. in the commencement of his million. 3. by the abftiAnd nence and felf-denial which he pradifed having excited their wonder. encouraged by this favourable reception.

Befides other queries. Hozu foon a ??ian might e^iter the church. 732. Spell. p. . lib. in ' : ' Bede. by every expedient of exhortation. " Cede. Immediately. which it is not material here to relate. or receive the facrament. There are fome other queftions and replies ilill more indecent and more ridiletter to Etlielbert. cap. terror. Auguftine alked. he was not without fm : But in all cafes it was requifite for him. after having had commerce with his ivife ? It was rephed. if necefl'ary. which the milhonary nad put concerning the government of the new church of Kent. to exert rigour againll the worlhip of idols. S7. even after iifing thefe precautions. Cone p. The pontiff alfo anfwered fome queflions. and to build up the good work of holinefs. to participate immediately of the facred duties ". or corredion A doclrine more fuitable to that age. i. merely for the fake of propagating his fpecies. that no ilfue could ever come from fuch marriages . 27. and to the ufual papal maxims.z. How foon a hiifband might have commerce u'ith his luife after her delivery ? Not till flie had given fuck to her child . lib. Whether coiifin-gcnnnns 7night be allo'wed to marry ? Gregory anfwered. j. and he therefore prohibited them. cap. but that experience had Ihewn. that that liberty had indeed been formerly granted by the Roman law . after informrng him that the e-nd of the world was approaching. than the tolerating principles which Augulline had thought it prudent to inculcate. a pradice to which Gregory exhorts all women. p. Auguftine alked. JVhether a ivoraan pregnant might he hapt'ifid ? Gregory anfwered. 53» 593 &c* Spell. Cone. he exhorted him to difplay his zeal in the converfioil of his fubjecls.36 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. that. that he law no objection. or communicated. Brompton. to purge himfelf by prayer and ablution . blandifhment. Howfoon after birth the child might receive baptifm ? It was anthe fwered. A P. before he entered the church. X culous. and he ought not. I. unlefs he had approached her without defire. 86. c II vnote a * which.

lib. archbifhop of Canterbury. had been habituated Thcfe political Augufline afks.facra myjleria celebrare? Gregory anfwers this learned queltioci non debet . Augufline afks. 89. an ecckfiam intrare ei licet. . when they found it celebrated in a place which they were accuftomed to revere. 83. appears that Grefympathy of manners it than men of more refined underflandings. And as the Pagans practifed facrifices. for making a progrefs with the ignorant and barbarous Saxons.Bede. communioiiis facramenta perciperc ? Gre^' gory anfwers. ^4. epift. The more to facilitate the reception of Chriflianity. from Rome y. ^H. 71. would be allured to frequent the Chriftian worlhip. fumiturjaudandaejl. by many learned ^ diftin<5tions. 9. a badge of ecclefiaftical honour. p. Epifl. ijib. lib. Greg. tpift. gory and his mifTionary. were better calculated. Cone. Epifl. 9. on Chriftian feftivals. Spell. p 23. lib. but not to defl:roy the altars themfelves becaufe the people. and received the pall. Si mulier merflrua confuetudine teneiur. proud with the fuccefs of his million. feemed to think himfelf entitled to extend his authori'ty over the bifhops of Gaul. -vd cor(>us Domini quilibet accipere i<akat Jit. Gregory alfo advifed him not to be too much elated with his gift of working miracles ^ . i. 57 And. he was not unacquainted with the arts of Augufline was confecrated governing mankind. he alfo exhorted the miflionary to perfuade them. lib. on the whole. Spell. aut facra. c>o. and to indulge them. Hunting. was endowed by Gregory with authority over all the Britifli churches. and feafted with the priefts on their offerings.Jionem. J. and as AugulHne.THEHEPTARCHY. if have any influence. Rede. cap. Cone.qU!e per fomnum I'el. that notv»ithfl:anding his ignorance and prejudices.obiberi. Gregory enjoined Augufline to remove the idols from the Heathen altars. p. Greg. Si poji illi'. i. felves in thofe cheerful entertainments to which they compliances ihew. he faid. Sant^ communionis }7?jJ1erium in tifdem diebus percipere Si autem ex veneratione magna percipere nonprap. y P 3 him. the Pope informed ". ftfacerdos foletaccidere. Sax. culous '^. Chron. to kill their cattle in the neighbourhood of the church. 30.

had already departed the kingdom ^ . He himfelf and beneficial to his governed the Mngdom of Kent fifty 1 years . before he ihould entirely abandon his dignity. He appeared before that prince . was in every refpe6l glorious to people. in order to efcape the mortification of preaching the gofpel without fruit to the infidels. and begat a con- The marriage of Ethelbert with much more his embracing Chriftianity. cap. Malm. « Wilkins charge. 5. and d)dng in 6 6. lib. him. the prince of the apoflles. Eadbald. cap. that they lay entirely without the bounds of his jurifdidion % Bertha. i. <i p. when Laurentius.ripes. which he had received. a. left the fucceflion to his feduced by a paffion for his mother-in-law. This prince. . made one effort to reclaim the King. Leges Sax. that he had received . Mellitus and Juftus. ^Bede. and tended to reclaim them from their grofs ignorance and barbarity in M^hich all the Saxon tribes had been hitherto involved ^ Ethelbert alfo enaded % with the confent of the dates of his kingdom. fhowed his body all torn with bruifes and fi. 10. and his reign. Peter. the fucceifor of Auguftine. and throwing off his veflments. 27. nexion of his fubjedls with the French. which permitted not thcfe inceftuous marriages His whole people immediately returned with him to idolatry. 13. Itahans. Eadbald. and other nations on the continent. a body of laws.this chaftifement from St. lib. Laurentius.38 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and was prepared to return to France. : b Will. deferted for fome time the Chrillian faith. and feverely reproving him for his intention to defert his fon. found the Chriftian worfhip wholly abandoned. Bcde. was told by Laurentius. who had appeared to him in a vifion. p. wondering that any man fhould have dared to treat in that manner a perfon of his rank. the firil written laws promulgated by any of the northern conquerors. who had been confecrated bi/hops of London and Rochefter.

The bloody precaution of Egbert could not fix the crown on the head of his fon Edric. Domnona. p.THE HEPTARCHY. 5. in the adminiftration of the government. lib. . Edric. and his contempt for reliques=. fome lands of Thanet. by Em- ma. had recourfe to Edil. Lothaire. or influenced by feme other motive. and left the crown to Egbert his fon. the dilpoiTefied prince. a French throne. who was defeated and flain. f 6. his fon. in order to fecure the power in his family. Ercombert. fons of Erminfrid. Higden. not- withflanding the prevalence of Chrift ianity. of the Idngdom wach.p. though the younger fon. brother of the deceafed prince. Broinpion. who reigned nine years. D 4 Lothaire . Sax. princefs. his concurrence in the murder of his coufms. He reigned twenty-four years . Eadbald reached not the fame or authority of his father. This prince is renowned for his encouragement of learning but infamous for putting t© death his two coufm-germans. had inflifted on 29 p. eBede.i'S. 11. Chron. He is for eflabiilhing found means to mount the celebrated by Bede for two exploits. charge. the faft of Lent in his kingdom. a city of Tufcany. fought a battle Vv^ith his uncle. and afterwards died in Lucca. 739. p. Richard fled into Germany. and being fupported by that prince. had hitherto been tolerated by the two preceding monarchs. Mulm. he divorced himfelf from his mother-in law. The on ecclefiallical writers praife him for in his bellowing his fifter. Erminfrid and Ercombert. took polfefTioii the ifle and. and for utterly extirpating idolatry which.p. he aflbciated with him Richard. Wiliiam of Malmeibury afcribes Lothaire's bad fortune to two crimes. his uncle.c?. after a reign of twenty-five years 5 leaving two fons. where flie founded a monaftery. e Will. him thefe vifible marks of C H a '• Whether Eadbald was (truck with his difpleafure \ the miracle. and ' : returned to the profefTion of Chriflianity His whole people returned with him. for afhftance . and died in 640. •. king of Sullex.

fucceffively mounted the throne. after a reign of thirty-two years '. king of Weffex. and Alric. who was llain in a Ikirmiih ^. to attack the kingdom. which happened in 794. flate into confufion.40 HISTORY LoTHAiRE OF ENGLAND. the royal family of Kent was extinguifhed . the daughter of ^lla. had united all the counties north of Humber into one mo« narchy. Cuthred. threw the tions . obtained poflelUon of the crown. ir„ torle^ . his brother. who diffolved the Saxon Heptarchy. gave a fhort breathingr time to that kingdom. king of WeiTex. jj. with his brother Mollo. faction began to prevail among the nobility . and expelled her infant brother. Edric his fucUpon the death of the latter. only two. k Will. Malmef. reigned eleven years. ceffor. Ethelbert. and united the feve* ral kingdoms under his dominion. Thefe invaders committed great de-i vaftations in Kent but the death of Mollo. and every fadious leader who could entertain hopes of afcending the throne. But as the fucceffion had been of late fo much disjointed by revolu- and ufurpations. which invited Cedwalla. eighteen And after a troublefome and precarious reign. ^ : - The Kingdom Delfrid. fix years . and. He alfo fpread the terror . Edwin. and acquired a great afcendant in the Heptarchy. Egbert who firft fucceeded. lib. having married Acca. Eadbert. Widred. an illegitimate branch of the royal family. which happened in 686. brother to the king of Mercia. of NORTHUMBERLAND. expelled by Egbert. i. i. After the death of the laif. Sax. 5. king of Deiri. Higden. Widred reftored the affairs of Kent . Baldred. i and by p. king of Bernicia. reigned but two years . he was. of the Saxon his vic- arms to h the neighbouring people lib. in the year 723. Chron. left the crown to his pofterity. his defcendants. p. cap.

p. the Britons marched out with all their forces to engage him . apud Spell. wandered fropi place to place in continual danger from the attempts of Adelfrid . and they were attended by a body of 1250 monks from the monaftery of Bangor. Redwald. that only fifty efcaped with their Hves ''\ The Britons. xyas ftrongly folicited by the king of Northumberland to kill or deliver up his guefl Rich prefents were promifed him if he woulcj comply . and received at lafl protection in the court of Redwald. and it contained two thouiand one hundred monks. 2. that thefe priefls had come to pray againfl him : l/jen are they as much our enemies laid he. torles over the Scots 41 and Pids. 3. he lived in inquietude on account of young Edwin. . W. ^' who intend tojight againfi us ' .Angles . where his engaging and gallant deportment procured him general elteem and affe6tion. Notwithstanding Adelfrid's fuccefs in war. aiid w^ar denounced againft him in cafe of that there : his refufal. and entirely demoiiihed the monaflery . however.* And he immediately fent a detachment. cap. cap. as thofe CHAP. made was a mile's diflance from one gate of it to another. king of the Eafl. Adelfrid enquiring the purpofe of this unul'ual ap^ pearance. 779. extended on all fides the bounds of his dominions. P lib. a building fo extenfive. and did fuch execution. Malmcf. Bede. who are faid to have been there jnaintained by their own labour ". 1 After rejeding feveral meffages of this p. Brompton. received a total defeat : Chefter was obliged to furrender : And Adelfrid. aflonifhed at this event. xi^.THE HEPTARCHY. i. was told. whom he had unjuflly difpoffeffed of the crown oi This prince. Deiri. lib. Cont:. himfelf mafter of Bangor. now grown to man's eflate. who flood at a fmall diftance from tlie field of battle. Having laid fiege to Chefter. as well as Wellli. purfuing his victory. in order to encourage the combatants by their prefcnce and exhortations. ^ kind. z. Trivet. who fell upon them.

were carand Edwin obtained poireffion ried into Scotland of the -crown of Northumberland. who had fled to them °. kind. after avenging himfelf by the His own fons. lib. CHAP. 27. embracing more generous refolutions. ^_ _ interefl began to yield to the motives of and he retained the laft ambaflador. cap. engaged the queen on his fide . and thought. and fought a battle with Adelfrid in which that monarch was defeated and killed. Bfompton. Eanfrid. till he fhould come to a refolution in a cafe of fuch imEdwin. 2. P Bede. flrift o W. it were better to die. plexity. before that prince was aware of his intention. thought it fafeft to prevent Adelfrid. and fhe effeftually reprefented to her hulband the infamy of delivering up to certain deftruclion their royal gueft. death of Regner. both by his influence over the other kingdoms % and by the and jealous enemies . ij. cf . lib. Edwin was the greatefl prince of the Heptarchy that age. Ofwald. . There is a remarkable inftance. 3. and diilinguiflied himfelf. and to attack him while he was yet unprepared for defence. i. yet infants.^3 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Malmef. his generafity . and it was a common faying. He reclaimed his fubjefts from the licentious life to which they had been accuftomed . lib. Hunting. without any danger of violence or robbery. and Ofwy. p. Bcde. p. He marched fuddenly with an army into the kingdom of Northumberland. than prolong a life fo much expofed to the perfecutions of his powerful rival. H. with his other accomphfhrnents. Q Chron. m execution of juffice in his own dominions. that during his reign a woman or child might openly carry every where a purfe of gold. for protedion againft his cruel Redwald. cap. This confidence in Redwald*s honour and friendfhip. Sax. informed of his friend's perportance. tranfmitted to us. was yet determined at all hazards to remain in Eafh-Anglia . 3. that if the protection of that court failed him. 781. fon of Redwald p.

while he refided among them. King of Kent. though on a precarious footing. married Ethelburga. from a lenfe of gratitude towards his benefador. i. But Edwin. lib. and having put him to death. emulating the glory of her mother Bertha. Eaft-Angles confpired againft Redwald. Lilla. it even wounded Edwin But before the alfafTui could renew his blow. of the afFeftion borne him bv his fervants. Maimer. and having no other means of defence. drew his dagger. carried Pauliinus. was his enemy . I'he affaffin having obtained admittance. Cuichelme. their king .THE HEPTARCHY. he was difpatched by the : 43. a learned biftiop. flie ufed every reafon to perfuade the king to embrace it. and rufhed upon the king. CHAP. of her own religion. feeing his mafter's danger. and he employed one Eumer for that criminal purpofe. under the protedlion of the Northumbrian The monarch . which was pufhed with fuch violence. by pretending to dehver a mcf-. lib 3. that. » H. the daughter of Ethelbert. an ofiicer of his army. they offered their crown to Edwin. fage from Cuichelme. but finding himlelf unable to maintain open war againft fo gallant and powerful a prince. hefitated on the propofal j but promifed to examine * Gul. 3. the . interpofed with his own body between the king and Eumer*s dagger. who had been the inftrument for converting her huft)and and his people to Chriftianity. of whofe valour and capacity they had had experience. after piercing Lilla. cap. along with her * . Edwin. This princefs. he determined to ufe treachery againft him. Hunting. after his acceftion to the crown. like a prudent prince. the fon of Redwald . king's attendants. and that prince preferved his authority. obhged them to fubmit to Earpv/old. and befides ftipulating a toleration for the exercife Edwin. which was readily granted her. king of WelTex.

cap ^ lij}. in order to revolve alone that important queftion . ? lib. cap. 5. retired into France to king Dagobert^ where they died % * Bede. 9. cap. which he had fo long worfhipped. and not finding themfelves in fafety there. from Scotland. 2. that he was willing to be . the inheritance of his family but to which the fons of Edwin had a preferable title. lib. by whom he was trea- cheroufly flajn. which Eanfrid. and Casdwalla. the elder -. lib. Sax. Bede. after a ferious and long enquiry. The younger fon. 5n a great battle which he fought againft Penda. idolatry '^. lib. by Osfrid. 29. divided the monarchy of Northumberland. a. Brompton. 9. lib. and. fon of Adelfrid. Chron. converted ^ Accordingly he held feveral conferences with Paullinus . I. the that prince had united in his perfon. p. being converted after led the way in jL public conference with Paullinus. cap. foundations of that doctrine '• CHAP. Weft. Math. \V. cap. the grandfon of Edwin. his paternal kingdom : Ofric. Malmef. king^of Mercia. and was forward in making this atonement for his pafl: and declared. they were moved by another flriking example. the if he found them fatlsfactory. 114. Ofwald and Ofwy. Edwin's coufm-german. king of the Britons \ That event. 13. retired frequently from company. This able prince perifhed with his fon. declared in favour of the Chriftian religion " : The people foon after imitated his example. » " Bede. a. Eanfrid.44 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Iligden. r. iurviving fon. and took poffefrion of Bernicia. lib. the high-prieft. OSRIC^ . 30. fought protection in Kent. 3. deftroying the images. Befides the authority and influence of the king. Osfrid. 3. cap. ^ Bede. Vufcfrsea. p. fled to Penda. «. canvafl'ed the arguments propounded with the wifeft of his counfellors . Malmef. eftablifhed himfelf in De'iri. with Yfii. returned with his brothers. Coifi. which happened in the forty-eighth year of Edwin's age and feventeenth of his reign y.

was murdered by Kenred his kinfman. and after him Celwulph the fon of Kenred. 4^ CHAP. cap. Ofric. who perifhed in battle againft the Pifts. next mounted thq throne. Ijb. the Queen Dowager. thought proper to retire with EthelBoth thefe burga. the Briton . . the fecond. particularly the curing of a fick horfe. the brother the treachery of that prince. . 3. and reftored the Chriitian religi(m in his dominions. king of Mercia. ^^^ verted them. and the whole people feeni teturned to paganifm fnice Paullinus. a boy of eight years of age. by Ofwald. the lad vigorous efVort which the Britons made againft the Saxons. * Bede. perifhed by a like fate. the firil in battle againfl Csedwalla. refufed to violate her vow of chaftity. He gained a bloody and well-difputed battle againd Csedwalla . who to have returned with them was the iirft archbifhop of York. which he governed for nineteen years . which the latter relinquifhed in the year . into Kent. His fon Egfrid fucceeded him . united again the kingdom of Northumberland in the year 634. by putting to death Ofwin.THE HEPTARCHY. without leaving any children. jind was fucceeded by his brother Ofwy . OsRic. after a reign of eleven years. Northumbrian kings peri (lied foon after. and Eanfrld of Bernicia. his fon. acquired polTeffion of the kingdom. a. This prince. who eflablifhed himfelf in the government of the whole Northumbrian kingdom. and who had con. of Eanfrid of the race of Bernicia. the lall king of the race of Deiri. his wife. that his reliques wrought miracles. king of Deiri. becaufe Adelthrid. the fon of Ofric. his natural brother. after enjoying the crown only a year. Ofwald is much celebrated for his fanftity and charity by the Monkifh hiftorians and they pretend. Alfred. and he left it to Ofred. which had approached the place of his interment ^ He died in battle againft Penda. who.

46 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. which was violent. retired into a monaflery. a prince of the blood . tianity. king of Welfex. the founder of the monarchy. was foon after expelled by his fubjefts. was llain in a fedition. underwent a like fate. the brother of Ailred. 73^3 in favour of Eadbert his coufin-german. After Ethelbert*s death an univerfal anarchy prevailed in Northumberland . his nephew. after a fhort reign of a year. After his death. Ethelrcd. having fucceeded in his defign upon the throne. The Kingdom 'T^HE memorable. Sigebert. feized the crown. the next king. brought him back to her reli^on . like that of mod of the ' Saxon princes that did not early retire into mo- nafteries. and his place was filled by Ofred. who. The authority of Edwin. chery of Ailred. fon of Eadbert. abdicated the crown. Celwold. of EAST. finally impofed upon them. who was an idolatrefs. engaged him to take this ftep : But foon after. his wife. and he was found unable to refiit thofe allurements which had feduced the wifefl of mankind. the fon of Mollo. and great-grandfon of Uffa. and Mollo. the fourth king. who was not of the royal He perifhed by the treafamily. I- CHAP. kingdom contains nothing hlftory of this except the converfion of Earpwold. were well prepared for fubjection to a foreign yoke . a year after his acceffion to the crown . was depofed and llain by the people. who.ANG LI A. lofl all attachment to their government and princes. and Ofwolf. and half-brother. which Egbert. another fon of Mollo. whofe death was equally tragical with that of almofl all his predeceffors. his fucceifor. his fucceifor. by fo many fatal revolutions. reftorcd Chrif- . and the people having. king of Northumberland. made way for Ethelbert. who had been educated in France. imitating his predeceiTor. on whom that prince entirely depended. and Ailred.

if not the moft powerkingdom of the Heptarchy. his kinfman. and after his death. thenceforth united with that of Ofta. by his injuftice and violence. all the largeft. and Annas. to hear a long beadroll of barbarous names. three 8 . we fhall The Kingdom of MERCIA. Ethelred. Elfwold. the lad of was treacheroully murdered by Offa. Annas. king of Mercia. Egric. being placed on the throne by Ethelbert. as relate prefently. by the influence of the Kentifh monarch. the fon of Crida. as well as to Wales. place. or refleftion. and introduced learning among the EaflSome pretend that he founded the uniAngles. governed his paternal dominions by a precarious authority . rendered himfelf equally odious to his own fubjefts and to ftrangers. to be more particular in relating the tranfaclions of tianity. verfity of Cambridge. and his temerity and reftlefs difpofition were found nowife frontiers abated by time. expelled. Egric. king of Kent. and as M its "ERCIA. He engaged in continual hoftilities againfl all the neighbouring flates . comprethe middle counties of England j hended extended to thofe of all the other fix kingdoms. Ceorl. it received its name from that circumflance. I' 47 chap. preferred to hi!> fon Penda. Beorne. and. Sigebert. was. or rather fome fchools in that It is almoft impoiTible. ment can it give the reader. * What inftruftion or entertainthe Eafl-Angles. and obfcurely filled the throne of that kingdom? Ethelbert. in the year 792. and quite needlefs. and his ftatc was thefe princes. Wibba. Ethelbert. founder of the monarchy. wha fucceiTively murdered. whofe turbulent character appeared danPenda was thus fifty years gerous to that prince. experience.THE HEPTARCHY. or inherited from each other. ful. Aldulf. of age before he mounted the throne . Ethelbert^ Ethelwald.

who had invaded his dominions . that he was treacheroufiy miiiderecl queen. After a profperous reign of thirty years. ^l^ J him. by Alwy. his brother j and this prince. the fon of Ethelred . he paid him a fum of money as a compenfation for the lofs of his brother. after having reduced to dependence the kingdoms of EfTex and Eafl-Anglia. of compofing all animofities with Egfrid. i> Hugo Candidas. freed the world from this fanguinary tyrant. in converting her hufband and his fubje£ts to that religion. and (he employed her influence with fuccefs. king of Northumberland. This princefs was educated in. who. hb. The place of Ceolred was fupplied by Ethelbald. having defeated and flain him in a decifive battle. Thus the fair-fex have had the merit of introducing the Chrillian doctrine into all the mod confiderable kingdoms of the Saxon Heptarchy. by Ills « JScde. by uhofe perfualion he had embraced Chriftiaiiity j but this account of the matter is tound in that hilt&rian alone. pafTed his life there in penance and devotion. great-grand-nephew to Penda. and'. brother to Ofwald. though a lover of peace. and making a pilgrimage to Rome. Befides making a fuccefsful expedition into Kent. fliowed himfelf not unfit for military enterprizco. Wolf here. his fon. whofe daughter he had efpoufed. as did alfo Edwin and Ofwald^ the two greateft princes that had reigned over Nor- thumberland. 4. His Peada died a violent death ^ fon. and he flew in battle Elfwin. fon of XVolfhere. periflied fucceflively battle againfl rrt CHAP. he refigned the crown to Kendred. the Chrillian faith.48 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and retired into the monaflery of Bardney''. three kings of Eafl-Anglia. 5. mounted the throne of Mercia in 6^^. the brother of that prince. Oiwy. being flain p. . he repulfed Egfrid. fays. Defirous. fucceeded to the government . and lived under the protedion of Ofwy. Peada. At lad. he left the crown to his brother Ethelred. however. Kendred returned the prefent of the crown to Ceolred.

beftowed rich donations on the cathedral of Hereford. 776. p. Vol. and his violent feizing of that kingdom.THE HEPTARCHY. 30S. 59. was fucceeded by OfFa. E fovereign . had paid his addrelTes to Elfrida. who abhorred her father's treachery. This prince. ^ p. I. king of Kent. he was feized by OfFa. 49 brother. fucceeded in his defign of fubduing that kingdom % The perfidious prince. who mounted the throne in 755 ^. defirous of reeftabHfhing his charafter in the world. Cone. where his great power and riches could not fail of procuring him the papal abfolution. The better to ingratiate himfelf with the i I Chron. king of the Eafl. having extinguifhed the royal family. and even made a rant and fuperflitious age. Spel. 750.Angles. - Brompton. p. Brompton. who efcaped into their own country. another In a mutiny. Sax. and was fuccefsful in his warHke enterprifes againft Lothaire. OfFa. had fome great quahties. and fecretly beheaded And though Elfrida. and was invited wuth all his retinue to Hereford. and reduced his kingdom to a flate of degained a viftory over the latter at Benfmgton in Oxfordfhire . had time to give warning to the Eafl-Anglian nobility. the daughter of OfFa. 751. who Is faid to have poffefTed great merit. together with that of Glouceflcr. p. annexed both to his dominions. and perhaps of appeafmg the remorfes of his own confcience. and pradlifed all the monkifh devotion fo much efleemed in that igno- gave the tenth of his goods to the church ^ . and conquering that county. : : : pendence He paid great court to the clergy. 753. king of Weflex. He defeated the former in a bloody battle at Otford upon the Darent. by Eawa. But all thefe fuCcefles were ftained by his treacherous murder of Ethelbert. He pilgrimage to Rome. who was a degree more remote from Penda. in order to folemnize the nuptials Amidft the joy and feftivity of thefe entertainments. and Kenwulph. This young prince.

cap. 4. 312. cap. 3 in . » In- gulph. Offa. ^ fovereign pontiff. W. 4. ^ Dupin. declares himfelf at a lofs '' to deterthis prince mine whether the merits or crimes of preponderated. i. and even became his preceptor in the fciences. the adoptive. was. at his defire. Malmefbury. i p. than the God "". be denominated natural. in an age very barren of that ornament. chap. piety. Sax. who maintained. 230. could. Offa died. Malmef. pence a year. That emperor being a great lover of learning and learned men. that Jefua Chrift. Offa. that he might oppofe his learning to the herefy of Felix. 4. ^ ' CHAP. This herefy was condemned f> Cone. cent. lib. lifh hiftorians. as diftant princes at that time had ufually little communication with each other. 65. feigning to be directed by a vifion from heaven. fon of e Spel. the martvr. 5. more properly. 8. Higden. was afterwards claimed as a tribute by the Roman pontiff. confidered in his human nature. 5. lib. 310. that the emperor Charlemagne entered into an alliance and friendfhip with him . Carrying his hypocrify flill far ther. in 794 K This prince was become in the Heptarchy. after a reign of thirtyfo confiderable nine years.50 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.acTiificent moMoved by all thefe afts of naflery in that place '. and endowed a m. who received great honours from Charlemagne. bifliop of Urgil in Catalonia . One of the bell of the old Eng*" . was commonly denominated and though conferred at firil as Peter's pence a gift. of thirty. ^ Lib. he engaged to pay him a yearU donation for the fupport of an Englifli college at| Rome % and in order to raife the fum. Alban. p. being afterwards levied on all England. he impofedl the tax of a penny on each houfe poffeffed. The chief reafon why he had at firfl defired the company of Alcuin. p. a clergyman much celebrated for his knowledge. fent him over Alctrin. This impofition. difcovered at Veiulam the reliques of St. i. a circumft ance which did honour to C)ffa . Chron.

p :]6. 7. in poifeilion of the crown of that kingdom.Angles Ludican. r See Speed's Defcrlptlon o/H^aks. prifoner. leaving Cuthred. : "J. and found every thing in the utmofl confunon. The reign of this ufurper^ who was not of the royal family. Qiiendrade.THE ["in H E PTA R C H Y. Erkinv^^in. * ^n^'ulph. all The PCingdom 'T' of ESSEX. a minor . " OfTa. could not withftand the fortune of Egbert.onths " . p. in that chap. ^ which were agitated age. and conSuch were the queftions filling of 300 hilltops. This prince waged war againd Kent . was fliort and unfortunate He was defeated by the WePii-Saxonsj and killed by his own fubjefts. he cut off his hands^ and put out his eyes . 51 the council of Francfort. underwent the fame fate''. .ilph.pton. his fucceiTor. his own brother. whofe crown his predeceflbr. 8. it is very imSleda fucceeded to his father. 6. Kenelm. drew a ramfouth foa near "riftcl. 7. in order to proteft his country from Wales. p. was dethroned by Beornulf. E 2 fon. who had entertained the ambitious views of alTuming the government p. when he made way for Kenulph. and made way for his Heptarchy and the hidory of jperfeft. Egfrith fucceeded to his father Oifa. Alur. held in 794. But fhe was fupplantcd by her uncle. a defcendant of the royal family. p. and Wiglaff. He left his fon. Kenulph was killed in an infurrection of the EaftAnglians. and taking Egbert the king.-. but furvlved him only five m. ingulph. who was miirdered the fame year by his fifter. but of the v/ifefb and greateih princes ". two years after. to t!ie » Ingi. the founder of the monarcliy . Ceolulf . Offa. 1' part or ditch of a hundred miics in lengthy fromBaljiigwerke in Fliutfiiire. p. and vvhich em- ^"""^^ ployed the attention not only of cloiilered fchoiars. who united the Saxon kingdoms into one great monarchy. the Eafl. who mounted this unliable throne. figure In the HIS kingdom made no great . Beverl. had ufurped. who. Broir.

of challity. relapfed into idolatry. Sax. reigned thirty-eight years . are Sigebert the little. The names of the other princes who reigned fuccefiively in Eflex.. diftri- buted by Mellitus. daughter to Penda. ' Lib. . : The Kingdom of SUSSEX.. fubmitttd to the victorious arms of Egbert. Hunting. his lone: reig-n who is chiefly re- markable for of feventv-fix years. who ended his His fucceflbr. lib. and his death made way for Sigeric. Silife in a pilgrimage to Rome. lib. left iElla. op Eede. the cirown to his fon. 6. a Mercian princefs. and flmt himfelf up during the reft of his life in a cloifter. gered. his fuccclfor. To fhew the rude manner of living in that age. 2. p.. was perfuaded by that prince to embrace His fons and conjunft fucthe Chriftian faith \ eeffors. Sebert. notwithftanding his marriage with Kenefvvitha. 5. the bifliop. Sexted and Seward. being nephew to Ethelbert. by the conceifion of the Mercian princes . " Miilmcf. Offa. But on his refufmg them. unlefs they would fubmit to be baptized. that thefe two kings exfon. Selred. more imperlecl than that of Elfex.52 HISTORV of ENGLAND. at the communion ". 7J3. Cifla. who. Bromptoii. 738. ' Chrcn. unable to defend his kingdom. SigThis lafl prince having made a vow heri. they expelled him their dominions. p. fmalleft in 1 "" HE hiftory of this is kingdom. the founder of the monarchy.. " H. prefTed great defire to eat the white bread. Slgebert the good. Bede tells us '. Swithelm. a. and were foon after llain in a battle againft the Weft-Saxons. went in pilg-rimage to Rome. I Durincc . king of Kent. Switherd hrft acquired the crown. i cap. and reduced it to dependence under Mercia'"'. and was the The failure of which threw laft of the royal line the kingdom into great confufion. the ftili the Heptarchy. who reflored Chriftianity.

fought many fuccefsful and fome unfuccefsful battles againfl: the natives . p. but could only prevail on Ceadwalla to fufpend it till they fhould be baptized. was fl:ill more ambitious and enterprifmg than his predecefibrs j and. During his time. who was the fon and fucceflbr of Kenric. Cerdic. and his fon. Adelwalch. ried . Car- Brompton. Ber£thun and Audhun. E 3. abbot of Retford oppofed the order for this execution . : met with the Britons. refifted fome time the violence of the Weft-Saxons . were murdered by him. carried to the greateft height among this tribe. two noblemen of character. 53 almofl into C the South-Saxons fell H A p. by means of thefe hoftilities. Kenric. who were now enured to arms. but their oppofition ferved only to prolong the miferies of their country . who. was fubdued in battle by Ceadwalla. yielded not tamely their poflfefllons to thofe invaders. 800. and who began his reign in 560. common to all the Saxons. falling into the hand of the conqueror. and the fubduing of this The kingdom was the firft flep which the Welt-Saxons made towards acquiring the fole monarchy of England '% The Kingdom of W E S S E Xfvval- T HE kingdom lowed up all of Weflex. was. he added a great part of the counties of great refiftance on efl:abhfhment And Devon and Somerfet * to his other dominions. by waging continual war againfl the Britons. Saxon ftates.THE HEPTARCHY. and the martial fpirit. the founder of the monarchy. and was flain in the poiTefTed were adion leaving two infant fons. . and know the names of the princes who of this titular fovereignty. '' a total dependence we fcarcely on the kingdom of Weflex . which finally the other its firfl. the lafl of them. Ceauiin. king of Weflex.

governed jointly the kingdom. through the perfuafion of Ofwald. king of Kent . and had. He entirely fubdiied the kingdom of SufTex. which happened two years after. cefsful under the conduft of Ethelbert.ent till her death.54 ried HISTORY or ENGLAND.. and who had attained a great afcendant in the Heptarchy. till the expulfion of the latter in 591. Sax. warlike. who governed nine Ceodwalla. was feized with a fit of devotion bellowed feveral enfiowments on the church j and made a pilgrimage . He made inroads into Kent but mxCt with refiftance from Widred. which happened in 611. coming terrible to all. Efcwin then peaceably nity^". Bt'vevl. 94. left the fucceflion fo much diiputed. and the death of the former in 593. acquired the crown Chron. and annexed it to his own dominions. made way for Cealric. 22. iz. now fallen into contempt from his misfortunes. Kenwalch next fucceeded to the monarchy. p. Chron. -. his ovv'n fubjefts ^'. p. Sax. lib. p. he provoked a general conThis alliance proved fucfederacy againft him. 41. his fons. who proved fuccefsful againft Mollo. made way for Kentwin. the king. who had lofl the affeclions of along by the tide by his violent difpofition. his widow. who had married his daughter. . 15. p. was and died in exile and mifery. brother to Ceodwalla. y z * Higdenjiib. Bedfj cap. his fucceflbr. he invaded the other Saxon (tates in his neighbourhood. AUu". Kynegils inThis prince embraced Chrifliaherited the crov/n. of fuccefs. 4. after a ihort reign of two 3'ears. but proved a great prince. and Ceaulin. Chion. Ceodwalla. a woman of fpirit ^. and flew him in a (kirmifli. Sax. by whofs death. he was enterprifmg. throne without oppofition. mounted not the years. expelled the throne Cuichelme and Cuthwin. and be. 5. and dying in 672. kept pofleflion of the governm. and fuccefsful. that Sexburga. tired with wars and bloodflied. that is. king of Northumberland. tQ . to whom fucceeded Ceobald in 593. at laft. according to the ideas of thofe times . and.

He Somerfet . WelTex had always been princes of the blood. and dying foon after. encouraged marriages and aUiances between them and his ancient fubjeds. death king of Mercia. left by will the fuccellion to Adelard. He allowed the proprietors to retain poflellion of their lands. his kinfmanj who goti 4 yernecj . His made way for Sigebert. The reign of this prince was diftinguiflied by a great viftory which he obtained. his long reign of thirty-feven years may be regarded as one of the moil glorious and mofl profperous of the Heptarchy. Ofwald. flmt himfelf up in a cloifter. who was his remote kinfman But this deftination did not take place without fome difficulty. he was fucceeded by his coufm. the title of Adelard was not any farther difputed . ^89. and in the year 741. his own. took arms againft Adelard . where he received baptifm. In the dechne of his -age he made a pilgrimage to Rome and after his return. : Though his general. luable ones of juftice. certained . Ina. and though he was difturbed by fome infurredlons at home. therefore. 45 Rome. his queen. and lying much under fhe influence of Ethelburga. by means of Edelhun. inherited the military vir- tues of Ceodwaila. having no children of royal family. her brother. and. and havmade \yar upon the Britons in ing finally fubdued that province. and gave them the privilege of being governed by Thel'e laws he augmented and althe fame laws. policy. a prince more nearly allied tp the crown. the order of fuccefTion ha4 and a more remote prince had been far from exaft often found means to mount the throne. the kings of . he treated the vanquiflied with a humanity hitherto unknown to the S^xon conquerors.THE to H£ P TA R CH Y. and dkd in CHAPI. but he being fuppreffed. over Ethelbald. the founder of the monarchy. where he died. defcended from Cerdic. and added to them the more va- prudence. in preference to one defcended from a nearer branch of the Ina. his fuccellbr. Cudred.

lib. accompanied with fome reprehenfions for the paft. lowers. Mahnef. The nobility and people of the neighbourhood. lib. gave him many falutary counfels for his future condudt. in the night-time.5& HISTORY OF ENGLAND. was fortunate in many expeditions againfl the Britons of Cornwal . But thefe were fo much refented by the ungrateful prince. brother to Offa. i. Maimef. by Kynehard and his fol- and after making a vigorous refiflance. in his ftead^ and dethroned him. . woman who lived at Merton in Surry. he was forfaken by all the world . and put every one to the fword who had been engaged in that criminal enterprife. crowning Cenulph duke Cumbran. though remotely defcended from the royal family . who inftantly took revenge upon him for the murder of life that he confpired againft the his mafter^ obtained the crown on the expulfion of Sigebert. but he enjoyed not that dignity without in•> Brithric next Higden. was murdered with all his attendants. he was on a fudden invironed. lib. quietude. 5. he hovered on the frontiers. rifmg next day in arms. that his people rofe in an infurre6lion. vemed fo ill. This event happened in 784. was at laft difcovered by a fervant of Cumbran's. gave him difturbance . a. king of Mercia ". The exiled prince found a refuge with . but afterwards lofl fome reputation by his ill fuccefs againft Kynehard alfo. governor of Hampfhire who. cap. and though expelled the kingdom. that he might add new obligations to Sigebert. W. obtained pofTeiHon of the government. cap. <= W. who had having fecretly retired. and fkulking about in the wilds and forells. the depofed Sigebert. 2. took revenge on Kynehard for the flaughter of their king. whither Cenulph. and watched an opportunity for attacking The king had an intrigue with a young his rival. i. and treacheroufly murdered him. of his proteftor. After this infamous aclion.

and becaufe he had acquired. natural daughter of Offa. Hunting. the king drank of the fatal cup along : ^ Chron. make he learned to pohfli the rudenefs and barbarity of the Saxon character His early misfortunes thus proved of (ingular advantage to him. both becaufe he feemed by his birth better entided to the crown. as Malmefbury obferves \ were eminent both for valour and civility above all the weftern nations. f Lib. who gave great jealoufy to Brithric. ^^ H. where he was well received by Charlemagne. with . equally infamous for cruelty and for incontiHaving great influence over her hufband. p. and where this expedient failed. Eoppa. and ferving in the armies of that prince. 16. to an eminent degree. She had mixed a cup of poifon for a young nobleman. nence. by his C H A brother Ingild. . the moft able and mod generous that had appeared in Europe during feveral ages. from whom fprung Egbert a young man of the moft promifmg hopes. Sax. the afFedlions of the people. who. 4. fhe fcrupled not being herfelf adive in traiterous attempts againfl: them. eap. had ^^^begot Eta. had married Eadburga. quietude. ' 57 P. king of Mercia. fenfible of his danger from the fufpicions of ''. II. king of WefTex. It was not long ere Egbert had opportunities of difplaying his natural and acquired talents. who died before that prince. nephew to king Ina. he acquired thofe accompliflmients. ihe often infl:igated him to deltroy fuch of the nobility as were obnoxious to her . a profligate woman. Egbert. father to Alchmond. Brithric. And familiarizing himfelf to the manners of the French. By living in the court.THE HEPTARCHY. unfortunately. lib. who had acquired her hufband's friendfliip. and had on that account become the objedi: of her jealoufy : But. the reigning prince. withdrew into France ^ . 1. which afterwards enabled him to Brithric. fecretly fuch a fhining figure on the throne.

and the opinion of merit attending the prefer vation of chaftity even in a married ftate. an exa£l rule of fucceiTion was either unknown or not flrittly obferved . p. D. C HA P. dered Eadburga fo odious. p. lib. and who enhanced their authority by claiming a pedigree from Woden. 3. fufpicionsj and confpiracies. and whofe death alone could give him entire fecurity in From this fatal caufe. gave them for fome time no diflurbance. Broinpton. joined to her other crimes. Weft. which had formerly been confined to the princes of the blood alone. that flie was obliged to fly into France . Chrou. were now diffufed ftates. Chron. ex edit. together with the admiration of the monadic life. 65. p. and rather chofe to turn his arms againfl the Britons in Cornwal. king of Mercia. his poffeffion of the throne. Camdeni. The . the fole B'Higden. Sax. and thence the reigning prince was continually agitated with jealoufy againfl all the princes of the blood. Soe. in order to afcend the throne of his ancedors ^. 152. whom he flill confidered as rivals. Sax. prince. though invited by this favourable circum(lance to make attempts on the neighbouring Saxons. whence Egbert was at the fame time recalled by the nobility.58 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ^vjth and foon after expired ^. He attained that dignity in the laft year of the eighth century. among all the nobility in the feveral Saxon defcendant of thofe firfl Egbert was conquerors who fubdued Britain. In the kingdoms of the Heptarchy. 5. his favourite. ^ p. and the emulations. i M. A. £01. This ren- tragical incident. But that -the fupreme divinity of their anceflors. Afler. the royal families had been entirely extinguiflied in all the kingdoms except that of Wefiex . whom he defeated in feveral battles \ He was recalled from the conqueft of that country by an invafion made upon his dominions by Bernulf. in vita Alfredi.

the Mercian Idng. his elded fon'' . which. had very nearly attained the abfolute fovercignty in They had reduced the Eafl. and threatened the heart of theii: dominions . from their hatred to the Mercian government. The kingdom of ElTex was conquered with equal facihty j and the Eafl. 8. againft them. while he himfelf exercifed the real powers of fovereignty "'. and eflabliflied tributary princes in Northumberland the kingdoms of Kent and Eifex. obtained a complete victory. Ingulph. was defeated and llain . 7. he allowed Wiglef. who advanced into the centre of the Mercian territories. Whilft he himfelf. foon made himfelf mafter of that country. who marched. he fent an army into Kent. and two years after. their countryman. and craved the protedionof Bernulf. tempted him to carry : 59 The chap. and by the great flaughter which he made of them in their flight. met with the fame fate. 10. lib. his fucceifor. 3. army againft the invaders . commanded by Ethel wolph. the tributary king. and encountering them at Eilandum in Wiltfliire. gave a mortal blow to the power of the Mercians. much inferior in extent to Mercia. to retain the title of king. B» lib. 3. ^ Ethelwerd. and no flate of any confequence remained but that of WefTex. was fupported folsly by Egbert led his the great quaHties of its fovereign. Ludican. before the accefTion of Egbert. immediately rofe in arms. and probably exercifed with tyranny. which had been eflablillied over them by treachery and violence.TH& HEPTARCHY. p. m . a. In order to engage them more eafily to fubmillion. \ Ibid.Angles. The anarchy which prcr vailed in Northumberland. entered their country on the fide of Oxfordfhire. cap. in pror fecution of his victory. and expelling Baldred. cap. Egbert'. was involved in anarchy . 3. Mercians. and made eafy conquefts over a difpirited and divided people.Angles the Heptarchy under fubjedion. Thefe infurredions and calamities facilitated the enterprifes of Egbert.

and fecure againfl foreign invafion. The Saxons. p. were forward. Even Chriflianity. and the fortunate arms and prudent policy of Egbert at lafl €fFe£led. however. and the other fubordinate kingdoms feemed on his firfl appearance. jufwillingly to fhare the . Thus were united all the kingdoms of the Heptarchy in one great ftate. ftrudive . ignorance. His territories were nearly of the fame extent with what is now properly called England and a favourable profpe£i: was afforded to the Anglo-Saxons. and fwore allegiance to him Egbert.6o HISTORY flill OF ENGLAND. arms . CHAP. . . who fubmitted to his authority. were now incorporated in his empire . 71. it carried along with it a great mixture of credulity and fuperdition. as he had done to Mercia and Eaft-xlnglia. Sax. and was dependenfon him. Kent. " IK'J- . feem not as vet to have been much improved beyond their German anceflors. As they received that doftrine through the corrupted channels of Rome. what had been fd. flill allowed as their fovereign. humanity. though it opened the way to connexions between them and the more poHfhed flates of Europe. or foftening their barbarous manners. near four hundred years after the firfl arrival of the Saxons in Britain . to fend fame fate. equally de" Chron. cither in arts. polfefled of tranquillity within itfelf. who paid him tribute. This great event happened in the year 827°.often attempted in vain by fo many princes". knowledge. the power of dealing a king. though they had been fo long fettled in the illand. of eflablifhing a civilized monarchy. and Mercia. and the Inhabitants. power. farther his vidorious refifl his deputies. civility. and defirous of poiTefling unable to fome eftabiifhed form of government. to Northumberland. had not hitherto been very effeftual in banifhing their tice. or obedience to the laws. which had fuccefiively afpired to general dominion. Northumberland.

Bedae Epift. therefore. ad E^berr. being extremely impoverifhed by continual benefadions to the church. after the firft Hiiffionaries. or. aiTallination. and fhowing him '^. lib. Thefe abufes were coir-mon to all tlie European churches . 33. Epiltola^ iJedff ad Egbert. They contribute:!. preferring the fecurity and .^. ferviiity to the monks. the 1 Bede. witli Tome remains of the farmer civiii'y. the ancient natives. fo inherent in all the Saxon tribes. and an abjecb and illiberal devotion ^ The reverence for the clergy had been carried to fuch a height. For feveial ages they were almo(t all Romans. wherever a perfon appeared in a facerdotal habit. were appeafed. made fome atonement tor tliein by otiier advanta^e:^ which they rendered fof iety. ^ reverence towards faints and rellques feems to have almofl fupplanted the adoration of the Supreme BeMonadic obfervances were efleemed more ing. and retained not even fufHcient influence to fupport their government'. in other word. that. murder. all marks of profound re- fpeft. and they preferved the R-oman language and la'As. and Gaul. But the priefts in the Heptai chy. not by amendment of life. but Spain. valued themfelves chiefly on endov/ing monafleries. ftru6llve to the underftanding 6r and to morals. Anothep. to which the ftates of their kingdoms had weakly affented. were wholly Saxotrs. The feveral kings too. and the more robufl vices. cap. lib. could bellow no rewards on valour or military fervices. 3. received every word he utterred as the moft facred oracle Even the military virtues. lloth of the cloifler to the tumults and glory of Vv^ar. s6. meritorious than the a6tive virtues : The knowledge of natural caufes was neglefted from the univerfal belief of miraculous interpofitions and judgments Bounty to the church atoned for every violence againft fociety : And the remorfes for cruelty. P piieils in Italy. The CHAP. of which they affumed the government ". little to the improyenient of the fociety in knowledge or the aris. ' " Ibid. and almoft as ignorant and barba rous as the laity. treachery. cap. but by penances.THE HEPTARCHY. . 5. began to be negiefted and the nobility. the people flocked around ^'^ him . though on the highway.

grimages to Rome were reprefented as the mofl meritorious afts of devotion. c^g w Apjencwx fxid. . 7. Higden. 10. 108. perpetually from that endlefs mint of fuperftition. " p. not in proportion to his civil and military virtues. advanced every day in his encroachments on the independence of the Engliili churches. edit. and magnified by lying miracles invented in convents. the fole prelate of the Northumbrian kingdom. 5. receiving their religion from Roman monks. 109. numb. Cone. which had abridged his diocefe by the erection of fome new Agatho. lo. New reliques. abdicating their crowns. 1722. encouraged by this blindnefs and fubmiffive difpcfition of the people. operated on the aftoniflied minds of the multitude. had condu61ed all ecclefiaflical government by their domeftic fynods and councils^: But the Saxons. was the fuperftitious attachment to Rome. ex Bede. . bifhop of Lindisferne. The fovereign pontiff. The Britonsy having never acknov/Iedged any fubordination to the Roman pontiff. lib. numb. increafed this fubjeQion in the eighth century. 5. and the gradual fubjeOiion of the kingdom to a foreign jurifdidion. CHAP. c. by his making an appeal to Rome againfl the decifions of an Enghfli fynod. the only hiftorians of thofe ages. and were naturally led Pilto regard it as the capital of their religion. Not only noblemen and ladies of rank undertook this tedious journey " but kings themfclves. to iJede. and his fuperftitious reverence for Rome. Spelm. the pope. were taught at the fame time a profound reverence for that fee. but to his devoted attachment towards their order. inconvenience which attended thi^ corrupt fpecies of Chriftianity.62 iiiSTORY OF ENGLAND. readily embraced bifhoprics ^^ this precedent of an appeal to his court j and Wil•^ And Append. to Bede. every prince has attained the eulogies of the monks. fought for a fecure paffport to heaven at the feet of the fent Another Roman pontiff. Wilfrid. lib.

Peter. but the form given to this tonfure w^as different in the former priefts alfo from what was pradifed in the latter. that St. and their difciples. to whofe cuilody the keys of heaven w-ere entrufted. made great impreliion on the people during leveral ages . 63 though the haughtiefl and mod HA ^ P. tirely and en- worthy of thofe ignorant and barbarous ages. § 24. the Saxons. which depended on a complicated confiderAnd it ation of the courfe of the fun and moon happened that the miilionaries. produced general k had madefome atonement The difputes excited in Britain were of the moft ridiculous kind. had followed a different calendar from that v/hich was obferved at Rome in : the ap-e when AuQ-ufline converted of all the Saxons. as they admitted not like the others. would certainly refufe admittance to every one who This fhould be wanting in refpecl to his fucceiTor. conceit. kixurious pre. _^ the imaginations of men was. but befides the ufual avidity of men for power and riches. The Romans. The great topic by which Wilfrid confounded frid. wdio had converted the Scots and Britons. Co. in* EJdius vita Vilfr. frivolous controverfies in theology were engendered by it. There were fome intricacies. The Scots and Britons pleaded the antiquity of their ufages . well fuited to vulgar conceptions. which were fo much the more fatal. in adjufting the day of keeping Ealler . The the Chriftian churches were accuflomed to fliave part of their head . was thus able to lay the foundation of this papal pretenfion. Had this abject fupeiflition peace and tranquillity. obferved by all the Chriftian churches. having obtained with the people the charafter of fandity.c late of his age ". of any final determination from eftablifhed poiTeffion. and has not even at prefent lofl all influence in the catholic countries. for the ills attending it .THE HEPTARCHY. filled .

which comprehended both the day of the year and age of the moon. but by the entire prevalence of the Romifh ritual over the Scotch and Britifli''. not by men's difcovering the folly of it.lib. cap. kingdom . and becaufe they fhaved the fore-part of their head from ear to ear. be- caufe they celebrated Eafler on the very day of the Sunday. that the tonfure of a univerfality of theirs. they affirmed that once in feven years they concurred with the Jews in the time of celebrating that feflival^ : And that they might recommend their own form of tonfure. *> §24lih» J. 21. That Eaflcf mufl neceflarily be kept by a rule. inftead of making that tonfure on the crown of the head. was a point undifputed But the Romans : and Saxons full called their antagonifts fchifmatics . so. 19.' lib.lib * 2. they refufed all communion together. excited fuch animofity between the Britifli and Romifh priefts. a. Bede. and in a circular form. 5. 22. that day on a der to render their antagonifts odious. was agreed by all . ^ Bede. priefl could not be omitted without the utmoit impiety. both with the court of Rome and with all the fouthern Saxons. cap. § 12. Eddius. In orin if fell moon March. without any regard to that reprefentation% Thefe controverfies had. cap. cap. 16. that. as it was called. and each regarded his opponent as no better than a Pagans The difpute lafted more than a century \ and was at laft finilhed. 4. Eddiiis. Bede. they maintained.6^ fifled HISTORY on the OF ENGLAND. inflead of waiting till the Sunday following . 2. bifhop of Landisferne. by expelling the quartodeciman fchifm. which would have been too great an eifort for human reafon to accomplilh. from the Northumbrian y Bede. acquired great merit. inftead of concurring in their endeavours to convert the idolatrous Saxons. from the beginning. that it imitated fymbolically the crown of thorns worn by Chrift in his paffion . whereas the other form was invented by Simon Magus. Wilfrid.

called. a progrefs with thefe idolaters But they had not paid any fpecies of worfhip or addrefs to images . afts. Conc» vol. and curfes and anathematizes them to eternity ^ Saxons. 172. Vol. p. oppofition to thefe heretics. Ibid. in thelites. p. and that the unity of the perfon implied pot any unity in the confcioufnefs '. into which the neighbourhood of the c H A Scots had formerly introduced it''. unacquainted with the ecclefiaftical hiftory of thofe ages. * Eddius. where was accepted and ratified the decree of the Lateran council. confiding of all the bifliops in Britain'' . in the year 680. 6/ p- Theodore. and this abufe never prevailed among Chriftians. though the divine and human nature in Chrifl made but one perfon. 171. 25. till it received the fandion of the fecond council of Nice. abominable. and no one. The decree of the Lateran council calls the Monothelites impious. had admitted the ufe of images. .THE HEPTARCHY. cap. from the firil introdu6lion of Chriftianity among them. fummoned by Martin againft the herefy of the MonoThe council and fynod maintained. 168. kingdom. and fentiments. p. Ibid. wicked. and even diabolical all . wills. and perhaps that religion. that. 173. a fynod at Hatfield. : The ^ Bede. I. without fome of thofe exterior ornaments. i. execrable. 3. f <1 Spell. § 12. could imagine the height of zeal and violence with which it was then inculcated. had not made fo quick. yet had they different inclinations. This opinion it feems foniewhat difficult to comprehend . archbifhop of Canterbury. 174. lib.

had been induced by bigotry to exercife great feverlties upon the Pagan Saxons in G ermany. language wjs every where nearly the fame. union alfo in government opened to them the agreeable profpecl of future tranquillity . emperor Charlemagne. and the fuperior nobility of his birth. though united by fo recent a conquefl. committed the mcft barbarous ravages upon them. all and religious . Ethdwclf Ethered Ethelbald and Ethelbcrt Alfred the Great-^'^'^Edivard the Elder- Atheljia7i Edmund the Edred — " Edwy Edgar- Edivard Martyr. during fome centilries. who.-|-^HE Heptarchy. and at laft reduced them to grievous fervitude. EGBERT.%6 HISTORY OF ENGLAN0» CHAP. the vigour of his adminiftration. and as the race of the ancient kings was totally extincl in lavt^s. whom he fubdued j and befides often ra3 The vaging . or of reftor- Kingdoms Their ing their former independent governments. their cuftoms. feemed to be J[ firmly cemented into one flate under Egbert j and of the the inhabitants of the feveral provinces had loft all dcfire of revolting from that monarch. by the fplendour of his victories. though naturally generous and humane. that they would henceforth A become formidable to their neighbours. who feemed to merit it. than be ex- But thefe pofed to their inroads and devaftations. Egbert II. CHAP. and it appeared more probable. inftitutions civil the fubjefted ftates. flattering views were foon overcaft by the appearance of the Danes. . the people readily transferred their allegiance to a prince. kept the Anglo-Saxons in perpetual inquietude.

they made no diftindion in their hoflilities betweeA the French and Englifh kingdoms. and who were funk into a fuperftition which had become odious to the Danes and ancient Saxons. by the moft rigorous edids. made its way among the Britiih which had eafily Saxons by infinua- tion and addrefs. F 2 . and had obliged them. 64. and afforded fubfiftence to thofe numerous inhabitants with which the northern countries were now overburdened 5. h Chrcn. who had relaxed their mihtary inftitutions. which were expofed by the degeneracy and diffenfions of Charleniagne's pofterity . they were readily rec€ived among them . and when the magiftrate of the place queilioned them concerning their entere Ypod. and being there known under the general name of Normans. of thefe Pagans had fled northward into Jutland. 414. Their firfl appearance in this ifland was in the year j'by ^. and being able. which both promifed revenge on the haughty conqueror. they became the terror of all the maritime and even of the inland countries. p. appeared fhocking to their German brethren. \vhich they received from their northern fituation. e^ HA p. he had in c cool blood decimated all the inhabitants for their revolts. prife. when Brithric reigned in Weffex. They invaded the provinces of France. by fudden inroads. Neuftiia. with a view of learning the ftate of the country . to make a feeming compliance with the . They were alfo tempted to vifit England in their frequent excurfions . A fmall body of them landed in that kingdom. when impofed on them by the violence of Charlemagne and the more generous and warlike . _ 1 Chriflian doftrine. V^ging their country with fire -and fword.EGBERT. p. Sax. That religion. to make great progrefs over a people who were not defended by any naval force. and they foon ftimulated the natives to concur in enterprifes. Meeting there with a people of fmiilar manners. in order to efcape the fury of his perfecutions.

7z. Sav. and defended itfelf more by temporary expedients than by any regular plan of adminiilration. but their Ihips S32. thefe pirates pillaged a monaftery . and having pillaged it. 2. and the remainder of them put to the fword. the Danes landed in the Ifle of Shepey-. t. they maintained the poft which they had taken. and at . While England remained in this Hate of anxiety. Chron. efcaped with impunity'^. Sax. efcaped into their own country. who alone was able to provide effectually againil this new evil. p. tunately died j and left the government to his fon Ethel wolf. pert a vigorous refiftance from that they this muft ex- warlike prince. they entered into an alliance Avith the Britons of Cornwal .. c ^. Having learned by experience. being much damaged by Charm-outh in Dorfetfliire. 72. Ibid. Egbert. Sax.^.^^. «" p. thence made good their retreat to their fliips '. ' p- 66 AIuv. and landing two years after in that countrv. when they difembarked from thirty-five fliips. lib.^^^ and fumnioned them to appear before the ^"^g' ^^^ account for their intentions. and their leader flain in a fkirmifli. p. they were at lafl defeated by the inhabitants. Five years after Egbert had eftablifhed his monarchy over England. The next alarm was given to Northumberland in the year 794' when a body of . but were met at Hengefdown ' by Egbert. Reverl. cap. a Itorm. HAP.68 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. i Chron. and flying to their (hips. prife. and totally defeated'". Ethdward. . unfor- 838. The battle was bloody but though the Danes loft great numbers. and were encountered by Egbert. toS- ^ Chron. made an inroad with their confederates into the county of Devon . They were not fo fortunate in their next year's enterprife. they killed him.

3.E T H E L WO L F. Hunting. and he bought it with the lofs A . they haflened to their fhips. o Cliron. and ran eafdy operations. as the continual terror of the Danilh invafleet of fions prevented all domeftic diffenfion. governing a convent than a kingdom". and having formed an entrenchment round them. P Chron. Kent. or rather roads into England Ikirmifhes. governor of the neighbouring country". and fought battles. HI S prince had neither the abilities nor the vigour of his father and was better quahficd for . If the military force of the county were affembled (for there was no time for troops to march . 73. apbut were repulfed with lofs peared at Southampton by Wolfhere. routed another band which had difembarked at Portfmouth . the new conquered provinces ofEflex. and carrying off They avoided coming to a general their booty. 3. Next year the Danes made feveral inof his life p. j^Ethelhelm. but he obtained the vidory after a furious engagement. cap. and dehvering over to his ekleft fon. Athelftan. in Eaft-Anglia and Lindefey and Kent where. 5. lib. a. though they were fometimes repulfed and defeated. lib. of committing fpoil upon the country. '» 2. confiding of thirty-three fail. governor of DorfetIhire. lib. cap. But no inconveniencies feem to have arifen from this partition . Malmef. and quickly difappeared. andSuflex. Sax. Wm. 73. Sax. which they guarded with part of their number. and carrying off the inhabitants and cattle and goods. Ethehvard. p. the remainder fcattered themfelves every where. The fame year. thefe ravagers. which was not fuited to their plan of Their veflels were fmall. He began his reign with making a partition of his dominions. engagement.' 69 ETHELWOLF. where they drew them afhore. p. F 3 from . they always obtained their end. H. up the creeks and rivers .

3. Every feafon of the year was dangerous . 3. Every part of England was held in continual alarm . and the inhabitants of one county durfl not give afTiftance to thofe of another. to take up winterquarters in England . Cliron. lao. veiTelSj . II ' . ventured.an could efteem himfelf a moment in fafety. Hunt. roufed themfelves with a vigour proportioned to the exigency. or they betook themfelves to their velTels fuddenly invaded fome diftant quarter. cap. King Athelftan attacked another at fea near Sandv/ich. mora military than the Britons. and the abfence of the enemy was no reafon why any m. which was not prepared for their reception. how^ever. as with univerfal fubje^lion.7© HISTORY OF ENGLAND. These incurfions had now become almoft annual fctting and when the Danes. and receiving in the fpring a ilrong reinforcement of their countrymen in 350 feemed But the A ^ Alured Beyerl. fought a battle with one body of the Danes at Wiganburgh'. Englifli. Simeon Dunelm. lib. p. AlTcrius^p. Ceorle. and fail. 5. Sax. and the priefts and monks. who had been commonly fpared in the domeftic quarrels of the Heptarchy. All orders of men were involved in this calamity . ' H. funk nine of their fhips. from a diftance)^ the C H^A. a few centuries before. ^ EtheUvard. to continue their ravages with imj punity. and put the reft to fxight '. whom. P. governor of Devonfhire. and put them to route with great flaughter. p. 74. body of them. for the firft time. p. alike encouraged by their fucceffes againft France as well as England (for both king- doms were 85 1 • expofed to this dreadful calamity). they had treated with like violence. were the chief objeds on which the Danifli idolaters exercifed their rage and animofity. lib. left their own families and property fhould in the mean time be expofed by their abfence to the fury of thefe barbarous ravagers''. Danes either were able to re- pulfe them. a. invaded the to threaten laft in fo it numerous a body. 108.

Ethelwolf. They removed thence to the Ifle of Shepey . daughter of the emperor Charles the Bald . ^ Aflerius. Chron. W O L F. Malmef. iiiveibo Mancus. and favourite fon.76. This unfettled ftate of England hindered not Ethelwolf from making a pilgrimage to Rome . and laid every place wafte around them. iQloflary. ther extend their devaftation and ravages.ancufes a year to that fee . gave them battit? at Okely. P 4 His . then only fix years of age \ there a twelvemonth in exercifes or devotion . put to ties of London and Canterbury flight Brichtric. whither he carried his fourth. lib. he niet with an oppofition which he little looked for. The Danes ftill maintained their fettle ment in the Ifle of Thanet . and killed both the governors. " •. a third to made '^ In his return home. a perpetual grant of three hundred m. another thofe of St. they finally repulfed the aiTailants. he they .. a. prefents to the more diflinguiihed ecclefiaftics. that they might f^ir-. liBefides giving berality to the church of Rome. 5. though defeated in the beginning of the action. and carrying with him his fccond fon. who now governed Mercia under the title of King. p-overnors of Kent and Surrev. A mancus See Spelman's cap. he mar^ ried Judith.E T H E L veflels. marched againft them at the head of th^ Vv^eilS axons . . Sax. Peter's. Ethelbald. one third to fupport the lamps of St. and Jtailed not in that molt eflential part of devotion. where they took up their winter-quarters. yj advanced from the lile of Tiianet. p. where they had fbtioned themfelves . cured but a fhort refpite to the Engliih. CHAP. they marched into the heart of Surrey. . the pope himfelf '^. Paul's. and gained This advantage proa bloody vidory over them. and being attacked by i^alher and Huda. lib. impelled by the urgency of the danger. burnt the >ciand havin<j. "| ^ 853. 2. but on his landing in England. Hunt. was about the weight of our prefent half crown " W. 5. He palled Alfred.

and inculcating the moft abfurd and moft interefted doctrines. he dehvered over to Ethelbald the fovereignty of the weflern. that . a. and taking to himfelf the eaftern part. 3. he fummoned the ftates of the whole kingdom. they found no obftacle in their reafon or Not content with the donations of underftanding. his fecond. formed. * Aflerius. which it required time and addrefs to overcome. a. on the chui'ch. they infifted. The people were divided between the two princes and a bloody civil war. from the contrary interefts of the laity. Immediately after. appeared inevitable when Ethelwolf had the facility to yield to the greater part of his fon's pretenfions. being dead Ethelbald. days of ignorance. p. with an oppofition. as well as the moft expofed". land made them by the Saxon princes and nobles.72 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. the projed of excluding his father from a throne. and with temporary oblations from the devotion of the people. Matth. that the moral part only of that law was obligatory on Chriftians. made rapid advances in the acquifition of power and grandeur . I lib. p. W. though they fometimes met. under the Jewifti law. . joined to all the other calamities under which the Englifh laboured. However little verfed in the fcriptures. in concert with many of the nobles. they had caft a wilhful eye on a vaft revenue. a tenth of all the produce of land was conferred on the priefthood and forgetting what they themfelves taught. who had aflumed the government. by in The thofe a facred and indefeafible title. i 8. cap. Weft. ecclefiaftics. that. . and with the fame facihty conferred a perpetual and important donation eldeft His fon. . Malm. which they claimed as belonging to them. Athelftaii. which his weaknefs and fiiperllition feem to have rendered him fo ill-qualified to fill. . they had been able to difcover. He made with him a partition of the kingdom . which was always at that time efteemed the lead confiderable.

Chron. p. 2. p. making that the throne. M.p. 17. cap. 158. 77. and pretended to draw the tenth of all induflry. that this 75 donation conveyed a perpetual property. 132. archbifhop of Canterbury. 3. lib. 5^. fuperflitious prince filled and when the people. 861. Alur. inherent by divine right in thole vi^ho officiated at During fome centuries. Ingulf. p. 8. <5 Aflerius. 2 spell. they negleded the ordinary means of fafety the prefent defperate extremity. p. when a weak. fopra beneficii ecclefiaftici. and terrified with the fea'r of future invafions. were fufceptible of any impreffion which bore the appearance of religion*^. vol. c b Parker. 3. V/eft. that the revenues of the church fhould be exin and agreed. from the general tenor of thefe difcourfes. wages of labourers. the vv^hole fcope the altar. they ventured farther than they were warranted even by the Levitical law. X675. Selden's Hift. 51. even empted from all burthens. </j. near two centuries before ^. that the clergy were entitled to the tithe of the profits made by courteThough zans in the exercife of their profeffion ^ pariffies had been inftituted in England by Honorius. Sax. p. Colon. a68. Malmef. i. II.cap. that all the practical parts of Chriflianity were comprifed in the exad and faithful payment of tithes to the clergy \ Encouraged by their fuccefs in inculcating thefe doctrines. edit. . z. 76. c. ingulf. of fermons and homilies was directed to this purpofe . p. Cone. y Padre PaoTo. that. ^ Padre Paolo. CHAP. p. z. p.ETHELWOLF. the ecclefiaflics had never yet been able to "^ get poifeffion of the tithes: acquifition their loifes They therefore feized the prefent favourable opportunity of . and pay of foldiers . So meritorious was this conoeffion deemed by the Engliih. of Tithes. fome canonifts went fo far as to affirm. Ethehvardjlib. W. Bevti-l. merchandize. and one would have imagined. p. though impofed for national defence andfecurity''. nay. difcouraged by from the Danes. trufting entirely to fupernatural affiftance.

but moved by the remonftrances of Switliun. more anxious for their prefent fafety than for the commoii interefl. behaved himfelf. rpTHELBERT landing of the Danes in the reign of Ethered was among the Eaft-Angles. unexpectedly broke into Kent. and by his will he fhared England between his two elded fons. and com-* mitted great outrages. in a but were there defeated. Ethelbald was a profligate TJpTHELWOLF ?6o. the wefl being afligned to the former the eaft to the latter.74 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. his brother. his manner more worthy of his birth and ftation. during his whole reign. was fucceeded by his brother •*--' Ethered. and Ethelbert. having deceived the Engliih by a treaty. Alfred. body alfo of thefe pirates. ETHELBALD «57 and ETHELBERT. Ethelbald and Ethelbert . The kingdom. no His tranquillity from thofe Danifh irruptions. who. who made an inroad and a reign of five years. enjoyed. was jftill infeded by the Danes. A E 866.. during . lived only two years after mak* ""^ ing this grant . however. entered into a feparate treaty with the The firfl enemy j . gave great offence to the people . who were quartered in the Ifle of Thanet. fucceeding to the government. feconded enterprifes . THE RED. facked Winchefler. he was at lafl prevailed on to divorce her. and generoufly facriiiced to the public good all refentment which he might entertain on account of his being excluded by Ethered from a large patrimony which had been left him by his father. bifhop of Winchefler. mother-in-law. who. prince and marrying Judith. him in all his younger brother. though he defended himfelf with bravery. His reign was fiiort .

and penetrating into Mercia. 8. ihut themfelves up in their garrifon but quickly making thence an irruption. they took up iheir winter-quarters at Nottingham. his hereditary ing off their dependence fubjeds. particularly on the monafleries. and furnifhed them with hones. and that prince. obliged the enemy to diflodge. conducing a great army to Nottingham. hi an aftion. they now ventured. 79. adion . with the Wefl-Saxons alone. w^hom they afterwards murdered in ^cool blood . p. allowed them not to remain long in thofe quarters They broke into Eaft-Anglia. at^ tended by Alfred. They there feized the city of York . they routed the WeftSaxons. and by the fuperiority which they had acquired in arms. their incurfions. and committing the mod barbarous ravages on the people. p. The Mercians. The next flation of the Danes was at Reading . Their refilefs difpofition.berland. defeated and took prifoner Edmund. Chron. defirous of fhak- on Ethered.i.E T H E R E D. An f AfTcr. to leave the feacoaft. The Danes. final fubjeftion. and to retreat into Northum. The Mercians. under the . applied to Ethered and that prince.command of Hinguar and liubba. was obliged to march againfl the enemy. Sax. and obliged them to raife the fiege. by afiifling the common enemy. wirli his brother Alfred. . they gave the Eaft-Angles caufe to regret the temporary relief which they had obtained. 6. and defended it againfl Oibricht and iElla. the king of that country. refufed to join him v/ith their forces. being defeated . who pcEncouraged by thefe fuccelfes. which enabled them to make an irruption by land into the kingdom of Northumberland. whence they infefted the neighbouring country by : 870. where they riflied 75 in the affault ^ threatened for fuccour the kingdom with a in this extremity. and their avidity for plunder. enemy. two Northumbrian princes.

i. rather than of his grandeur. was afcribed by the monks to the piety of that monarch. p. till prayers fliould be finiiheds: But as he afterwards obtained the victory. and Ethered. hAfier. who was now twenty-two years of age. thefe confufions. on his return home. vol. W. 7. p. / 2. had ^ fred the royal unftion . mofl difficult times. %ji.^ time hearing maf?. he faved his country Ethelwolf. even in that Alage. 139. p. whether prognofticating his future greatnefs from the appearances of his pregnant genius. Malm. was furrounded by the enemy in difadvantageous ground . year after his return with Alfred from again fent the . to the right of conferring kingdoms. Malm. the . his faruin and fubverfion. 3. 125.. in the beginning of the day. Ingulf. W. cap. I. utter the gave very early marks of thofe virtues and fliining talents. where the Danes were more fuccefsful . Alfred. lib. ^^J}^. Simeon Dunelm. Leo III. p. lao. and left the inheritance of his cares and misfortunes. by which. This battle who was at that Another battle of Alton did not terminate the war was a little after fought at Bafmg . young prince thither with a numerous retinue and a report being fpread of the king's death.. to his brother. cap. Alfred advancing with one divifion of the army. where the Englifh. gave Al- Rome.. Ethered died of a wound which he had received in an action with the Danes . Anglia Sacra.p. fred. not the danger of Alfred. ALFRED. foon after enfued at Afton in Berkfliire. refufed to march to his alTiflance. 205. action CHAP. 'T^ HIS great prince during the from ther. and being reinforced by a new army from their own country. became every day more ^Afler. they became : Amidft every day more terrible to the Englilh. 869. or willing to pretend.^e HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Simeon Dundm. a. p. were in danger of a total defeat. the pope. lib. 2. this fuccefs.

He had fcarcely burled his brother. he fhook off his literary indolence.C dulged in all youthful plcafures. and ftimulated by his own ardent inclination. 7. 167. p. who had feized \¥ilton. he foon learned to read thofe compofitions . Weft. Encouraged by the queen. 5. when he was yet totally ignorant of His genius was the lowefl elements of literature. in order to oppofe the Danes. and directed his Abforbed in thefe elegant purgenerous viev/s. leded and he had already reached his twelfth year. but being in his education . the obje£l of his father's affedions . he was much neg- jy HA '^* P. k Afler. Simeon Dunelm. p. which is fometimes able to make a confiderable progrefs even among barbarians. but by his purfuing the victory too far. gained at lirfl an advantage. Their lofs. firft roufed by the recital of Saxon poems. fearing Alfred would receive daily reinforcement from his fubchildren. in which he me. a circumflance which had great authority with the Anglo-Saxons as by the vows of the whole nation. and were exercifmg their ufual ravages on the countries around. p. in the action was fo confiderable. je£ts. p. expanded thofe noble and elevated fentiments which he had received from nature *. . the fuperiority of the enemy's numbers prevailed. however. luits. p. i Afler. as well '. He marched againft them with the few troops v/hich he could affemble on a fudden : and giving them battle. 1 Ibid. called to the throne. but being in. and the urgency of public affairs. in preference to his brother's by the will of his father. M. and recovered them the day. when he was obliged to take the field. in which the queen took delight and this fpecies of erudition. . that. he regarded his acceffion to royalty rather as an objed of regret than of triumph ^ . and exerted himfelf in the defence of his people.t with authors that better prompted his heroic fpirit.ALFRED. 22. izi. and proceeded thence to acquire the knowledge of the Latin tongue.

Sax. but. and the lafl who bore the of King in Mercia.78 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. they laid the whole country defolate with fire and fword. Ethehvard. a country which they hjid already reduced to ruin and defolation. in a quarter where they expeded to find it without defence j and fixing their ftation at Repton in Derbyfhire. ^^^^^ jeds. their chieftain % marched into Northumberland. He was brother-in-law to title Alfred. a Chron. . 83. whence they came over this year diflodged in the enfuinc: fummer. and feized Were- m Afler. A new fwarm of Danes under three princes. where they fixed their quarters . 4. ' 8. by prefents of money. and flying to Rome. and having firfl joined their countrymen at Repton. and proniifed to depart the kingdom. Burrhed. cap. Chron. in whofe territories London was fuuated. whom no force could refift. they were content to ftipulate for a fafe re-^ treat. they foon found the n.eceflity of feparating. Ofcital. who from all 875. ham. they fuddenly turned back upon Mercia. in order to provide for their fubfiitence. Wefl-Saxons were now the only remaining power in England . ' CHAP. and Amund . defpairing of fuccefs againfl an enemy. p. and engaged them. part of them took quarters at Cambridge. and though fupported by the vigour and abilities of Alfred. 4. and no treaties bind. p. king of Mercia. to remove to Lindefey in Lincoln-^ ihire . Finding therefore no objeftin that place. made a new them. For that purpofe they were conduced to London^ and allowed to take up winter quarters there . they immediately fet themfelves to the committing of fpoil on the neighbouring country. Guthrum. 1 lib. Burrhed. either for their rapine or violence. The quarters invaded them. under the command of Haldene. they were unable to fuflain the eiforts of thofe ravagers. carelefs of their engagements. abandoned his kingdom. Part of them. took ftipulation with llielter in a cloifler"'. 8a. Sax. p.

'8. The Saxon Chron. p. But while he was expecting the execution of this treaty. pgi. He hearkened however to new propofals of peace . p. the very centre of C That prince fo Itraightened Alfred's dominions. Alfred. not that he expeded they would pay any veneration to the reliques . p. fays nine ^Afier. and Was fatisfied to ftipulate with them. which it feemed the interefl of the Danes themfelves to fulfil. 104. in HA p. without feeking any pretence. equally greedy of fpoil and daughter. he heard that another body had landed. The prince collefted new forces. and reduced them to the utnioft extremity. their impiety would infallibly drav/ down upon them the vengeance of Heaven. and itipulated to depart his country. but he hoped.ALFRED. ^^^ come to a treaty with him. and exerted fuch vigour. by . that they would fettle England and would not permit the entrance of more ravagers into the kingdom. that he fought in one year eight battles with the enemy p. and having collefted all the fcattered troops of their conntrymen. little apprehenfive of the danger. Beverl. that. Sa. the county of Uorfct. But the Danes. Aiur. marched wellward and took poiTeffion of Exeter. own p Ibitf. them in thefe quarters. had furprifed Chippenham. had difembarked among them j they believed themfelves abandoned o Affer. that they were content to -j^ ham. This lad incident quite broke the fpirit of the Saxons. a new band. fuddenly. and having put it to route. Jaattiss. fell upon Alfred's army . obhged them to fwcar upon the holy of the treaty ' . if they now violated reliques to the obfervance this oath. Finding that. and reduced them to defpair. and were exercifmg their ufual ravages all around them. erted in their defence . then a confiderable town. after all the miferable havoc which they had undergone in their perfons and in their property after all the vigorous actions which they had exfomewhere in '^. well acquainted with their ufual perfidy.

p. « p. and though it was long preferved by popular tradition contains nothing memorable in itfelf. M. whofe thoughts were otherwife engaged. which has been recorded by all the hiftorians. and retired into Wales. finding her cakes all burnt. or fled beyond fea Others fubmitted to the conquerors. to and to feek flielter. in hopes of appeafmg their fury by a fervile obeAnd every man's attention being now endience ^ grofled in concern for his own prefervation. 84. ^^' C HA by Heaven to deflrudion. and lived fome time in the houfe of a neatherd. neglected this injundion . rated the king very feverely.8o HISTORY OF ENGLAND* p. their coun- and their liberties. and obferving him one day bufy by the fire-fide. . that he always feemed very well pleafed to eat her warm cakes. *Afler. the condition of her royal guefl . more in defence of their prince. Affcr. and delivered over to thofe fwarms of robbers. Sax. though he was thus negligent in toafting them \ 'Chron. flie delired him to take care of fome cakes which were toafting. There paifed here an incident. habit. 170. in trimming his bow and arrovv's. on her return. But Alfred. from the purfuit and fury of his He concealed himfelf under a peafant*s enemies. in the meaneft difguifes. and upbraided him. By . 9. except fo far as every circumftance is interefting. and the good woman. Alurcd Beverl. who had been entrufted with the care of fome of his cows '. Weft. which the fertile north Some thus inceffantly poured forth againft them. p. while fhe was emi.difmifs fcrvants. 9. ployed elfewhere in other domeftic affairs. p. p. who fummoned them to make under his conduft one : effort try. which attends fo much virtue and dignity reduced to fuch dif^ The wife of the neat-herd was ignorant of trefs. left their country. Alfred himfelf was ob- liged to relinquifh the his enfigns of his dignity. no one would hearken to the exhortations of the king. loj.

. he procured themconfolation by revenge. a. fire. more important vidories might at length attend his valour. and it now ^thelingay. and from fmall fuccefles. a6. Si degrees. Ethelwardj Mb. and laid fiege to the caftle of Kinwith. killed Hubba lib himfelf. but ilot unaftive. who often felt the vigour of his arm. of firm ground and building a habitation on them. I. D. had taken fhelter there. 4. and (laughter. p. In£. the news of a pro-* and called him to Hubba. coUeded fome of and retired into the centre of a bog. O gat . a place fituated Oddune. the his enemy become more retainers. He fubfifted himfelf and his followers by the plunder which he acquired. near the mouth of the fmall river Tau. over Wales. " Chron. and Malm. p. and taking them unprepared. formed by the flagnating waters of the Thone and He here found two acres Parret. but knew not from what quarter the blow came. he opened their minds to hope. rendered himfelf fecure by its fortifications. had landed in Devoniliire from twenty-three veffels. 4. when his ears.ulf. he determhied. that. to prevent the necefTity of fubmitting He made a fudden fally to the barbarous enemy. cap. earl of Devonihire. Sax. purfued them %vith great llaughter. and ftill more by the unknown and inacceilible roads which led to it. on the Danes before fun-rifing . 4. and even with water. Vol. and by the forefts and moraffes with which This place he called it was every way environed. He thence made fre- quent and unexpected fallies upon the Danes. 85. Alfredj as he found the fearch of c HA P. bears the name of Athelney. he put them to rout. by fome vigorous blow.. with his followers. or the Ille of Nobles " . cap. . notwithilanding his prefent low condition. W. Alfred lay here concealed. during a twelvemonth fperous event reached the field. and being ill fupplied with provifions.A t 'tiv F R E remifs. in Somerfeifhire. the Dane. having fpread de- vaflation.

a. or urge them to any attempt. and got poffeflioii movements. mufic and facetious humours. at Brixton. who had hoped to put an end to their calamities When by fervile fubmifTion. in their prefent defpondency. by its different Alfred obferved this fymptom of fuccefsful refillance in his fubje6ls. and was even introduced to the tent of Guthrum.f52 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. he left his retreat . pointed day. For this purpofe he entered their camp under the difguife of a harper. 4. Malm. might. and theip diflblute wafting of what they gained by rapine and Encouraged by thefe favourable appearviolence. Abbas Rieval. or enchanted llandard. where he remained fome days''. On his appearance. lib. Sax. p. he refolved to infpecl. on the borders of Selwood foreft ^ The Englifh. He remarked the fupine fecurity of the Danes. their contempt of the Englifh. that he met with a welcome reception . ? W. 105. they received him with Ihouts w AfTer. p. p. as the Danes beUeved. p. and to judge of the probability of fuccefs. the fituation of the enemy. P. now found the infolence and rapine of the conqueror more intolerable than all paft fatigues and dangers and at the ap. which. ^^: 3 . prognofticated. ^ Afler. himfelf. Sax. Alnred Beverl. p. 85. ances. and fummoned them to a rendezvous. p. 39^. 2 Chrou. the good or bad fuccefs of any enterprife *. Chron. if unfortunate. their negligence in foraging and plundering. cap. prove fatal. in which the Danes put great confidence ^4 It contained the figure of a raven. their prince. lo. they joyfully reforted to their prince. which had been inwoven by the three fifters of Hinguar and Hubba with many magical incantations. 10. but before he would afiemble them in arms. ^^' c HA of the famous Rcafen. attended by their warlike followers. 84. he fecretly fent emiffaries to the moll conliderable of his fubjects. which. and paffed unfufpefted through He fo entertained them with his every quarter.

and the exhaufted condition of the country. The Danes. whom they had -lonp. with veice and looks exprefling his confidence of fuccefs. 128. notwithftanding their fuperiority of number. whom they confidered as totally fubdued. from mortal enemies. of applaufe" and could not fatlate their eyes with C the fight of this beloved monarch. where the ftantly Danes were -encamped . He inconduced them to Eddington. p. 354. G z poratc . and of their inclination to incor. and who now. ^^' ^ Afler. 105. called them to liberty and to vengeance. Chron. He knew that the kingdoms of Eafl-Anglia and Northumberland were totally defolated by the frequent inroads of the Danes. Sax.regarded as dead. 83 H A p. he directed his attack againft the mod unguarded quarter of the enemy. was befieged by Alfred in a fortified camp to which they fled . made but a faint refiftance. they could no longer fubfift by plunder . Alured Bevcrl. and even formed a fcheme for converting them. when. 10. 85. by fettling there Guthrum and his followers. p. and that they might ferve him as a rampart againft any future incur fions of their countrymen. He hoped that the new planters would at laft betake themfelves to induftry. their lives . The king. with their prince. he required. The remainder of the routed army. they had recourfe to the clemency of the victor. p. p. that they Ihould give him one pledge of their fubmifllon.' p. But before he ratified thefe mild conditions with the Danes. no lefs generous than brave. by reafon of his re^ fiftance. Simeon Punelm. gave them. but being reduced to extremity by want and hunger. and ftill more afloniflied to hear that Alfred was at their head. and taking advantage of his previous knowledge of the place. put to flight with great flaughter. and he now propofed to repeople them. into faithful fubjefts and confederates.ALFRED. and offered to fubmit on any conditions. Abbas Rieval. and were foon. furprifed to fee an army of Engliili.

which had been fhaken by fo many violent convulfions . W. who bore the title of Earl : And though the Danes. and were thence called the Fif or FiveThe more turbulent and unquiet made burghers.9^ niSTb^Y OF "* fion to Chriflianity ^. or conference. Malm. cap. The king anfwered for Guthrum at the font. more properly than his grandfather Egbert. Stamford. the fole monarch of the Englifh (for fo the Saxons were now univerfally called). an expedition into France under the command of Haflings . He was. 4. and . 85. p.his CHAP. Alfred was not for fome years infefted by the inroads of thofe Barbarians \ The king employed this interval of tranquillity in reftoring order to the flate. in compof- ing the minds of men to induftry and juilice . were for fome time ruled immediately by their own princes* they all acknowledged a fubordination to Alfred^ b * Chron. were diilributed into the five cities of Derby. becaufe the kingdom of Mercia was at lait incorporated in his flate. and without much inflruclion. and in providing againft the return of like calamities. IngvUf. Lincoln. z- * Affer. 10. p. army. ENGLAN15. except by a fliort incurfion of Danes. Leicefter. and was governed by Ethelbert his brother-in-law. had S2o. z6. porate with the Engllfli. or argument. p. p. 90. but fuddenly retreated to their fhips on finding the country in a pofture of defence. Sax. Sax. which were difperfed in Mercia. « AflTer. and. who peopled Eaft-Anglia and Northumberland. who failed up the Thames and landed at Fulham. lib. Chroii. p. and Nottingham. by declaring their convcp- Guthrum. and received him as his adopted fon ". gave him the name of Athelflan. The fuccefs of this expedient feemed to correThe greater part of the fpond to Alfred's hopes no averfion to the propofal : peaceably in their new quarters : Some fmaller bodies of the fame nation. they were all admitted to baptifm. ii» S and . in efta- Danes fettled '' blilhing civil and military inflitutions .

Hearne. p. than a fuiiicient number was affembled to oppole them. M- Dunelm. eftablifhed a regular militia for the defence of the kingdom. 5 p. 1709. 9. The fine for the murder of a Dane was the fame with that for the murder of an Englifhman . and he left a fufficient number at home. edit. he re-^ quired another part to take the field on any alarm. p. Spelman's p. p. 15. which he built at proper places ^ . and trained his fubjeds in the f iVfler. and put them entirely on a like footing in the adminiflration both of civil and criminal juftice. The king. p. took care to provide hiriifelf with a naval force ^ which. Brompton. and who afterwards took their turn in military fervice ^ The whole kingdom was like one great garrifon . Weft. Alfred gave the fame laws to the Danes and Englifli. 93. He increafed the (hipping of his kingdom both in nuniber and flrength. 179. 147.c . the great fymbol of equality in thofe ages. 18. had hitherto been totally neglected by the Englifh. II. M. edit. life Ingulf. is As equa. was to meet them on their own element. particularly London ^. fenfible that the proper method of oppoling an enemy. p. 88. though the mofl natural defence of an iiland. who made incurfions by fea. 171. and to affemble at ftated places of rendezvous . ii p. Sax. and the Danes could no fooner appear in one place. 92. which had been deflroyed by the Danes in the reign of Ethelwolf. But Alfred. Chron. p. Sax. trelfes. 27. p. He ordained that all his people Ihould be armed and he alTigned them a regular rotation of registered .. after rebuilding the ruined cities. iji. G 3 praclicejt . Simeon Allured Beverl. p. and fubmittcd iity SS to his fuperior authority. s Afler. who were employed in the cultivation of the land. duty without leaving the other quarters defencelefs or difarmed '. of Alfred.Welt. he diftributed part into the caftles and for. Chroii. AlVer. li A P among fubjeds the great fource of concord. p. h 106. 2i2.ALFRED. ex.

as well of failing. Chron. 17S. alarm of this defcent. whorn^' . commanding a fleet of eighty fail. and fortifying Milton in Kent. p. and efcaped not. on by the coaftj which was generally their frequent ravages. n. on the the defence of foldiers. and to purfue them in all their incurfions. than by the reiiil"ance of the inhabitants. entered the Thames. warlike engines. with which England had fo often 893. at the But Alfred. become defolate they were encountered by the Enghfii fleet in their retreat . himfelf. appeared off the coail of Kent v^^ith a fleet of 330 fail. the famous Danlfh chief. and to commit the firfl: mod deftruftive ravages. But at laft Haftings. been infcfted '. by furprife. 87. the penalty of the diforders which they had committed. Sax. as well as with expert feamen. difembark practice. p. maintained a fuperiority over thofe fmaller bands. of naval adion. both along the fea-coaft and the Loire and Seine. began to fpread his forces over the country. but paid. during fome years. as formerly. by their total deftruftion. Well. 86. and feized the fort of Apuldore. 1 Afler. p. more by the defoladon which he himfelf had occafioned. both Frifians and Engliih (for Alfred fuppHed the defeds of his own fubjects by engaging able foreigners in his fervice). He diilributed his armed veilels in proper ftations round the ifland. manner Alfred repelled feveral inroads of thefe piratical Danes. in fafeiy and tranquillity. by abandoning their booty. havi'ig ravaged all the provinces of France. Though the Danes might fuddenly. The greater part of the enemy difembarkcd in the RoHafliings ther.86 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and was fure to meet the Danifli fhips either before or after they had landed their troops. and maintained his kingdom. and b-^ing obliged to quit that country. A fleet of a hundred and twenty fnips of war was ffaand being provided with tioned upon the coaft In this .. head of a feled band of M. flew to his people. as CHAP.

ra AflTer. were cut oif by the Englilh " and thefe pirates. : Unfortunat£i. " Chron. fhook off the authority of Alfred. rjj. and thofe refllefs tribes. with an intention of marching towards the Thames. '^. 91. Mailings at the fame time. p. All draggling parties. p. and appeared before Exeter in the wefl of England. 93. where they entrenched themfelves. and obliged to fubiifl by the plunder which they had brought from France. was now dead j was alfo Guthred. and yielding to their inveterate habits of war and depredation embarked on board two hundred and forty velTels. which carried them up the Colne to Merfey in Effex. whom the king had appointed governor of the Northumbrians . 93.y as for the Englifh. Sax. found themfelves cooped up in their fortifications.ALFRED. p. or love of plunder. the Danes at Apuldore rofe fuddenly from their encampment. " Ibid. inftead of increafing their fpoil. took poifefTion of Bamfiete. 9* C 4 pofmg . thering to him the armed militia from all appeared in the field with a force fuperior to the enemy. whom neceflity. and chafed the runaways on board their fhips. Flor. which mufl in the end prove ruinous to them. Wigorn p. where he haflily threw up fortifications for his defence againft the power of Alfred. q Ibid. 19. Tired of this fituation. and gaquarters. Guthrum. and probably by concert. put them to rout °. made a like movement j and deferting Milton. who encounefcaped not tered them at Farnham. broke intp rebellion. whom he always kept about his perfon 87 ^ •. Sax. and palTmg over into EfTex But they the vigilance of Alfred. p. p. feized all their horfes and baggage. had drawn to a diftance from their chief encampment. near tlie Ifle of Canvey in the fame county p . being no longer reflrained by the authority of their princes. and being encouraged by the appearance of fo great a body of their countrymen. p Chron. Alfred lofi not a moment in op prince of the Eafl-Anglian Danes.

advanced into the inland country. and were difcouraged from attempting any oth^r . 94. 596. enterprife. p. overpowered the garrifon. The piratical Danes willingly followed in an excurfion any profperous leader who gave them hopes of booty but were not fo eafily induced to relinquifti their enterprife. carried oft" the wife and two fons of Haftings \ Alfred generoufly fpared thefe captives . " Cliron. fufficed here. 96. Wigorn* p. G H pofing this new enemy. Thefe ravagers failing next to SulTex. p. 179. ' s ibid. attacked the enemy's entrenchments at Bamflete. M. p. Weft. Meanwhile. and having done great execution upon them. hav^ ing united their force under the command of Haftings. Having left fome forces at London to make head againft Haftings and the he marched fuddenly to the weft''. and even reftored them to Haftings ".88 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. he had not entirely fubdued or expelled the invaders. in which many of them were killed. p. p 93. M. A P. or fubmit to return. feized and fortified Shobury at the mouth of the Thames . and made fpoil of all around them . But though the king had thus honourably rid himfeif of this dangerous enemy. Sax. into their native country. but the order which Alfred had every where eftablifhed. and * Chron. for the defence of the place and the rebels meeting with a new repulfe. the Danifh invaders in EfTex. purfued them to their fhips with great flaughter. The Englifti army left in London. having . baffled and without plunder. 178. Great numbers of them. Sax. but foon had reafon to repent of their temerity. and fome of their ihips taken % were obliged to put again to fea. other Danes. Flor. on condition that he ftiould depart the kingdom. began to plunder the country near Chichefter . Weft. and falling on the rebels before they were aware. without his prefence. affifted by a body of the citizens. after the departure of Haftings.

Sax. and fwifter. and longer. every . p. f. they attacked Leicefter with fuccefs. they CHAP. p. where they exercifed piracy. having eaten their own horfes. y Chron.ALFRED. Flnr. than thofe of the Northumbrians . marched along the river. Sax. This freebooter. The king here furrounded them with the whole force of his dominions''' and as he had now a certain profpedl of victory. under the command of Sigefert. ftilj purfued by the vigilance of Alfred . and having many of them periflied with hunger". p. and fwifter. The fmall remains of them either difperfed themfelves among their countrymen in Northumberland and Eafl-Angha^. and falling upon them. he took twenty of their fhips . >'. the common enemies of mankind. 94. The well-timed feverity of this execution. a confiderable body made their efcape Thefe roved about for fome time in England. he reiblved to having left 89 a garrifon there. than thofe of the Englifh . /96. and then fled to Quatford. ther with the excellent poilure of defence eftablifhed y Chron. that. had framed veflels of a new conftrudion. by building velfels Hill higher. » Ibid. they made a defperate fally upon the truft and though the greater number fell in the aclion. M. defended themfelves in Hartford. 179. and having tried all the prifoners at Winchefter. higher. well acquainted with Alfred's naval preparations. but the king loon difcovered his fuperior Ikill. togeEnglifli. or had recourfe again to the fea. a Northumbrian. where they were finally broken and fubdued. but rather to mafter his enemies by famine than alfault. and prepared for their defence. 97. he hanged them as pirates. They were re^ duced to fuch extremities. and longer. p 95. being reinforced by fome Welfli. ' . they threw up entrenchments. till to Boddington in the county of Glocefter where. Weft. « Ibid. Wigorn. nothing to chance. while they were exercifmg their ravages in the weft. '*• they came .

when he died. than in hopes of ever feeing it really exifting So happily were all his virti. in the vi^ go\ir of his age and the full ftrength of his faculties. p.go HISTORY OF ENGLAND. « p. made anew the mod. trn parts of the iiland. eftablifhed his fovereignty over the fouth- $01. 13. p. rather as a fiction of their imagination. and fo powerfully did each prevent the other from exceeding its proper boundaries I He knew how to reconcile the mofl enterprifmg fpirit with the coolefl moderation .ies tempered together. the mofl fevere jufHce with the gentlefl lenity . over them alfo a viceroy of their own nation The Welfh acknowledged his authority . from the Englifh channel to the frontiers of Scotland . in which he defervedly attained the appellation of Alfred the Great. and the title of Founder of the Englifh monarchy. u ader the denomination of a fage or wife man. The Eafl-Anglian andNorthumbrian Danes. without eftablilhing ^. ^Q. p. philofophers have been fond of delineating. by prudence and juftice and vaall lour. I^* CHAT. after a glorious reign of twenty-nine years and a half". which. humble fubmiffions to him and he thought it prudent to take them under his immediate government. ^ Afler. zii Chron. an4 . reflored full tranquillity in England. both In private and public life. and this great prince had now. on the fir ft appearance of Alfred upon their frontiers. 598. fojuftly were : they blended . Wigorn. every where. Sax. the greatefl vigour in commanding with the mofl peril*cl affability of deportment' j the highefl capacity * Flor. and provided for the future fecurity of the govern- ment. AfTcr.. He feems indeed to be the model of that perfed cha. The merit of this prince.» Tafter. may "with advantage be fet in oppofition to that of any monarch or citizen which the annals of any age or any nation can prefent to us. the moft obflinate perfeverance with the eafiefl flexibility .

p. deprived him of hiftorians worthy wifli to to tranfmit his fee fame to pofterity . being accuftomed to live by plunder. Fortune aione. were become incapable of induftry . feem chiefly as if defir- to challenge our applaufe. ous that fo bright a production of her (kill fhould be fet in the fairell light. and were not more particular in our account of his inftitutions for the execution of juftice. ^nd with more particular flrokes. as a man. and who. engaging. His civil and. it is impoffible he could be entirely exempted. and inclination for fcience.^ recjuifite to fupply their necefTities. and of his zeal for the encouragement of arts and fciences. Though the great armies of the Danes were broken. vigour of limbs. ^ talents for adion.ALFRED. with the 91 mofl fhining CHAP. y. had beftowed on him every bodily accomplifhment. Alfred had fubdued. from which. even beyond what fd. which were calculated to perpetuate its mifery. with a pleafmg. being more rare among princes. as well as more ufeful. But we fliould give but an imperfeft idea of Alfred's merit. After The Eng- « AlTer. that the former. m . dignity of fhape and air. that we may at lead perceive fome of thofe fmall fpecks and bleniifhes. the country was full of fiiraggling troops of that nation. Nature alfo. and had fettled or expelled the Danes. were v/e to confine our narration to his military exploits.military virtues ^\ are almoft equally the objects of our admiration excepting only. and thrown into diforders. indulged themfelves in committing violence. defolated by the ravages of thofe barbarians. and we him delineated in more lively colours. and open countenance ^. who. by throwing him into that barbarous age. from the natural ferocity of their manners. he found the kingdom in the mod wretched condition .

and there detained till his trial. headbourg. under the name of a tithing.gi HISTORY OF ENGLAND. the borfholder. had Ihaken off all bands of government . who did not regifttjr himfelf in fome tithing. the criminal was committed to prifon. who. houfeholders were formed into one corporation. with two other members When of . gence by thefe continued depredations. the borfliolder and decennary became liable to enquiry. And no man could chang<i his habitation. ties . or fribourg. the borfholder was fummoned to anfwer for him . Every or borfliolder. without a warrant or certificate from the borfholder of the tithing to which he formerly belonged. betook themfelves next day and. reduced to the moft extreme indiIT CHAP. and over Ten neighbouring one perfon. either before or after finding fureties. joined the robbers in pillaging and ruining their fellow* (:itizens. and even of his guefts.efTary that the vigilance and activity of Alfred fhould provide a remedy. and his clearing himfelf. if they lived above three days in his houfe. decennary. Every houfeholder was ^nfwerable for the behaviour of his family and flaves. thefe counties he fubdivided into hundreds and the hundreds into tlthings. and were expofed to the penalties of law. and thofe who ha4 been plundered to-day. from defpair. and if he were not willing to be furety for his appearance. If he fled. Thirty-one days Wfre allowed them for producing the criminal j mid if the time elapfed without their being able to find him. was appointed to prefide. Ufh themfelvcs. called a tithingman. were anfwerable for each other's conduct. Thefe were the evils for which it was nec. That he might render the execution of juftice ftriO: and regular. whom any perfon In any tithing or decennary was guilty of a crime. man was puniflied as an outlaw. he divided all England into counto the like diforderly life.

the decennary was compelled by fine to make fatisfadion to the By king. cap. Their meB Leges apud Wilkins. the caufe was brought before the hundred. care to temper thefe rigours by other inftitutions favourable to the freedom of the citizens . the Edw. and which was regularly affembled once in four weeks f for St. : of frank-pledges. with fuch a ftrict confinement in their habitation. In affairs of greater moment. or in controverfies arifing between members of different decennaries. to fwear that his decennary was free from all privity both of the crime committed. thod . but it was well calculated to reduce that fierce and licentious people under the falutary But Alfred took reftraint of law and government. and. in appeals from the decennary. ries received the Such a regular difbibution of the people. or a hundred families of freemen. "• gether with three chief members of the three neighbouring decennaries (making twelve in all). cap. Leg. Edw. according to the degree of the offence ^ this inftitution every man was obliged from his own intereft to keep a watchful eye over the conduct of his neighbours and was in a manner furety for the behaviour of thofe who were placed under the divi» fion to which he belonged Whence thefe decenna^ . deciding of caufes^. and it might perhaps be regarded as deftruftive of liberty and commerce in a poliflied ftate . was obliged to appear. 2. fholder fummoned together his whole decennary to affift him in deciding any leiTer difference which occurred among the members of this fmall community. which confifted of ten decennaries. ao. and of the efcape of the cri» If the borftiolder could not find fuch a minal* number to anfwer for their innocence. may not be neceffary in times when men are more enured to obedience and juftice . 302. chap.A L F R E 15' 93 to- of the decennary. and nothing could be more popular and liberal than his name The borplan for the adminiflration of juftice. p.

h Foedus Alfred. having fworn. and confided of the free> holders of the county. together with the hun. appointed alfo a fheriff in each county. an iftftitution. p. 47. fenfible that this conjunction of powers ren-rdered the nobility dangerous and independent. p. proceeded to the ex- of that caufe why:h was fubmitted to And befide thefe monthly meet-. after Michaelmas and Eafter. and its court ferved both for the fupport of military difcipline. 58. and for the adminiftration amination of civil juilice \ The next fuperior court to that of the hundred was the county. the ancient Germans. 117. this court. and the beft calculated for the prefervation of liberty and the adminiitration of juilice. whence a hundred was fometimes called a wapentake. but Alfred.court. 3. who enjoyed a co-ordinate authority with the former in the judicial and Gothurn. Ethelr. » Spflman. LL. and the deciding of fuch controverfies as arofe between men Formerly. cap. ^ 4. in 'voce Wapentake. The people. admirable in itfelf. dreder. apud Wilkins. there was an annual meeting. alTembled there in arms . function. p. Leg.94 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. the alderman of different hundreds. s-pud Willdns. ^^- CHAP. in imitation of their anceflors. Twelve freeholders were chofen who. the corredion of abufes in magiflrates. who poflefled an equal vote The bifhop prefidcd in in the decifion of caufes. a. thod of decifion defer ves to he noted. or prefiding magiftrate of that divifion. together with the alderman . poflefled both the civil and military authority . appointed for a more general infpedlion of the police of the dillricl . and the obliging of every perfon to ihew the decennary in which he was regiftered. and the proper object of the court was the receiving of appeals from the hundreds and decennaries. cap. for the enquiry into crimes. ings of the hundred. which met twice a year. to' adminider impartial juilice''. Ethelftani.their jurifdidion. Williins. . that ever was devifed by the wit of man. as being the* origin of juries .

p. which. fenfible of the equity and great talents of Alfred. of thele caufes' . 18. function'*. to the praftice of the other northern. P. p. 594. p. whom make room for more worthy fucceffors. p. 355. BroiTipton. . Wigoin. 870. <i P. he was foon overwhelmed with appeals from all parts He was indefatigable in the dilpatch of England. it. p. till their death fhould all the earls. have his nobility inflructed in letters and the law": He chofe the earls and iheriffs from among the men mod: celebrated for probity and know^ledge: He puniflied feverely all malverfation in office " : And he removed he found unequal to the truftP. o Le Miroir p. in default of juftice. de tarchy. 1 Afier. a city which he himfelf had repaired and beautified. he refolvcd to obviate the inconvenience. p. and as the people. Juftice. His office alfo impovvered him to guard ^ rhe rights of the crown in the county. >" "^ Ibid. ao.ALFRED. The better to guide the magiflrates In the admi- framed a body of laws . 93 il A. 594. He appointed regular meetings of the ftates of England twice a year in London'' . ao. There lay an appeal. S14. front all tbefe courts to the king himfelf in council . p. conquerors. The fiminlftration of juftice. which in that age formed no contemptible part of the public revenue. ferved long as the bafis of Englifh jurifprudence. Afler. by corretting the ignorance or corruption of the inferior magifHe took care to trates. and is generally deemed the origin of what is denominated the common law^. Le Miroir de Jultice. Abbas Rieval. Flor. Flor Wigorn. placed their chief confidence in him. and to the Saxon laws during the Hep'' Ingulf. though now loft. but hnding that his time mull be entirely engrolled by this branch of duty. Alfred larity of thefe inftitutions to the cuftoms of the ancient Germans. from which it arofe "'. and to levy the tines impofed . allowing only fome of the more elderly to ferve by a deputy. and which he thus rendered the capital of the kingdom. 2. chap.

that it was juft the Englifh ihould for ever remain as free as their own thoughts*. felf complains. the care of Alfred for the encouragement of learning among his fubjefts. their libraries burnt j and thus the only feats of erudition Alfred himin thofe ages were totally fubverted. that Alfred. * Affen m . lib. c HA P. and from the ravages of the Danes The monafleries w^ere de{Iroyed.. and executing the inftitutions which he found previoufly eitabliilied* But. II. fuch fuccefs attarchy. by way of bravado. tended his legiflation. 4. j. that every thing bore fuddenly a new face in England Robberies and iniquities of all kinds were repreffed by the punifhment or reformation of the criminals'^ And fo ex: was the general police.JilSTORY OF ENGLAND. from regarding Alfred as the fole author of this plan of government and leads us rathet to think. prevents us . act . that. p. cap. golden bracelets near the highways and no man dared to touch them*. and tended to reclaim the Englifh from their former diffolute and ferocious manners But the king was guided in this purfuit. When he came to the throne. than by his natural bent and propenfity towards letters. Malmcf. and very few thefe Yet. like a wife man. hung up. he found the nation funk into the groffeft ignorance and barbarifm. the monks butchered or difperfed. and it is a memorable fentiment prefeived in his will. that on his accelTion he knew not cne perfon. »7. on the whole. amidil rigours : : f Ingulf. though not in every individual . he contented himfelf with reforming. « W. proceeding from the continued diforders in the government. was another ufeful branch of his legiflation. As good morals and knowledge are almoft infeparable. it is faid. extending. this great prince preferved the mod facred regard to the liberty of his people . of juftice. in every age. lefs by political views. fouth of the Thames. who could fo much as interpret the Latin fervice .

See H- Hunt. at lead repaired. land or more to fend their children to fchool for their inftruftion . W. Ingulf. 12. 20. p. A. p. io2j. But mod other in the difpatch of bufmefs . I. effeftual expedient. when the geometry of dialling. he made ufe of burning tapers of equal length. But this prince invited over the moil celebrated fcholars from all parts of Europe he eflabliflied fchools every where for the inflruction of his people . and endowed it with many privileges. 4. Waverl. He ufually divided his time into three equal portions: One was employed in fleep. And by fuch a regular diftribution of his time. H and . D. 13. D. and an* the refeclion of his body by diet and exercife .in A. the univerfity of Oxford.ALFRED. and immunities . were totally unknown. fought in perfon in fifty-fix battles by fea A hyde contained land fufficient to employ one plough. which is ftill extant. even reached that pitch of erudition. for the encouragement of learning. 4. to fee a great change in the face of affairs . this martial hero. " a third in ftudy who lib. notwithftanding the multiplicity and urgency of his affairs. p. he enjoined by law all freeholders pofTelTed of tWo hydes " of In tlie northern parts. cap. 1008. and the conftant alTiduity with which. which he fixed in lanthorns "^ . and devotion . it Gervafe of Tilbury fays. 97 who had chap. he founded. under his patronage. employed by Alfred. lib. he congratulates himfelf on the progrefs w^iich learning. and that he might more exactly meafure the hours. Malm. had : already made the in England. commonly contained about 100 acres. ^ Afler. Annal. though he often laboured under great bodily infirmities ^. before his death. an expedient fuited to that rude age. 17. was his own example. and in a work of his. and the mechanifm of clocks and watches. 6.870. Vol. a. he employed himfelf in the purfuits of knowledge. he gave preferment both in church and ftate to fuch only as had made fome proficiency And by all thefe expedients he had in knowledge the fatisfadion. revenues. w Afler.

former compofitiona of that kind. from all quarters. Alfred endeavoured to convey his morality by apologues. made the oband land ''. c H A no extraotdJnary length. which have a more fenfible. apophthegms. (lories. parables. p. which had been defolatcd by the ravages of the Danes S He introduced and encouraged manufactures of all kinds . 20. induitrious foreigners to repeople his country. Meanv\'HIle. and to acquire riches by propagating ''. Biompton. in more fortunate ages. are not much fufceptible of fpeculative inftruftion. 13. Flor. among his fubjedis. though not a clofer. W. p. Malm. ii. 814. legiflator. and of Boethius concerning the confolation of philofophy ^. at all times. cap. couched in poetry . and no inventor or improver of any ingenious art did he fuffer to go unrewarded He prompted men of activity to betake themfelves to navigation.588. thus to lead the way to his people in the purfuits of literature. p. and befides propagating. this prince was not negligent in encouraging the vulgar and mechanical arts. which he found in the Saxon tongue % he exercifed his genius in inventing works of a like nature % as well as in tranflating from the Greek the He alfo gave Saxon tranfelegant fables of il^fop. have. and politician. y «* W. 4. Wigoin. and even to compofe more books. AlTcr. Sensible that the people. Malm. p. efpecially when their underflandings are obflrucled by igno- rance and bad education. « Afler. connexion with the interefts of focietv. 4 p. lib. 'j ^ Spclmat>j cap.98 HISTORY OF ENGLANfD. warrior. 4. c AITer.355. Induflry . Abbas Rieval. p. to puih commerce into the mofl remote countries. lib. p. p. was able. to acquire more knowledge. 124. And he deemed it nowil'e derogatory from his other great characters of fovereign. He invited. lations of Orofms's and Bede's hlftories . during a life of ject of their uninterrupted induflry. 13. than mofl (tudious men^ though bleJTed with the greatell leilure and application.

being the hrft of that name who fat on the Englifh throne. lefs reftrained by law or juftice. three fons and three daughters* that magne The el deft father's Edmund. from which Both living and dead. brother . in an age when men. fucceeded to his power . caftles. convulfions. Alfred had. his coufm-german. VV. lib. Malmef. . their inquietude. Even the elegancies of palaces. found immediately on his acceffion. in his lifetime. died without ilTue. Alalone they could arife. had no aliment for talents. but wars. j. own fubjefts. by his wife. and palTes by the appellation of Edward the Elder. the Elder.ALFRED. lib. were expofed. a feventh portion of his own revenue for maintain- ^ ing a number of workmen. Malrnef. Edward. induftry 99 among their fellow-citizens. He fct apart CHAP. cap. fon of king Ethelbert. rapine. fred was regarded by foreigners. z- f W. by feeing thofe produdions of the peaceful arts. Malmef. g lib. and as one of the wifefl and bed that ever adorned the annals of any nation. The fecond. Ethelwald. as the greateft prince after Charle- had appeared in Europe during feveral ages. W. Hoveden. cap. Ethelfwitha. his father's paftion for letters. the elder infurredions. a fpecimen of that turbulent life to which all princes. a. « AfFer. 4. and monafteries ^ life were brought to him from the Mediterranean and the Indies and his fubje^ls. daughter of a Mercian earl. The third. cap. p. EDWARD '"PHIS prince. were taught to refpefl: the virtues of juftice and induftry. and even all individuals. no lefs than by his *" . and Hved a private life. 2. 901* who equalled his father in military though inferior to him in knowledge and erudition ^. 4. inherited fon. and depredation. whom he conftantly employed in rebuilding the ruined cities. Ethelward. H ?. and lefs occupied by induftry. 20.

who was determined that his preparations Ihould not be fruitlefs. Hunting. they retired with their booty. Srix.i^o HISTORY OF ENGLAND. booty. where he feemed determined to defend himfelf to the laft extremity. however. Sax. made an incurfion into the counties of Gloliefter. would on the intelligence of that great his pretenfions '. and loaded with them. and retaliated the injuries which the inhabitants had committed. But when the king approached the town with a great army. conduced his forces into Eaft-Anglia.J32. The event did not difappoint his expetStations : The Northumbrians declared for him'' . ^ Chron. was able to approach them. went beyond fea. Edward.. C'hvon. Sac. p. p. by fpreading the like devaftation among Satiated vv^ith revenge. pretence or opportunity of rebellion. and Ethelwald having thus connected his interefls with the Danifli tribes. Ethelwald. made his efcape. loo. " ' Ibid. St. lib. and who were impatient of peace. and fled firfl into Normandy. 100. 352. 5. Oxford. p. 99. he gave orders to retire : But the authorityprince's death. Hunting. wald. who had all'embled an army. he excited the hopes of all thofe who had been accuftomed to fubThe Eaft-Angliaa nil by rapine and violence '. and arming his partizans.p. de Burgo. H. who Danes joined his party were feated in the heart of Mereia. too. leize the firfl: *. .100. Petri H. ^ Chron. and the Englilh found that fhev were aeain menaced with thofe convulfions. before the king. and Wilts .. and to wait the iffue of CHAP. lib. infifted on a preferable title". . and having exercifed^ their ravages in thefe places. p. brother of Alfred. headed by Ethellately refcued them. Chron. Abb. of . began to put themfelves in motion . %x. from which the valour and policy of Alfred had fo The rebels. and colleding a body of thefe freebooters. p. took pofleffion of Winbourne. p.5. then into Northumberland where he hoped that the people who had been recently fubdued by Alfred. having the profped of certain deftruttion. The Five-burgers.

p. ventured. which was feeble in peace. greedy of more fpoil. The Danes aflaulted the Kentifh men. by that of Ethelwald. » Chron. the Five-burgers. but met and to take up their quarters in Bury. the reft of Edward's reign was a fcene of continued and fuccefsful aftion againft the Northumbrians. m Chron.EDWARD THE ELDER. 83a. this event. with fo vigorous a refiflance. and the Kentifh men. In order to reftore England to fuch a flate of tranquillity as it was then capable of attaining.Angles. and among -the reft. Brompton. Brompton. anxious to fecure their own property. Edward. Weft. that. put them to rout. thoifgh they gained the field of battle. gerous a competitor. p. ^^• loi of thofe ancient kings. chap. This difobedience proved in the iiTue fortunate to Edward. they thought the opportunity favourable. p. made peace on advantageous terms with the Eaft. nought was wanting but the fubjedion of the Northumbrians. who. freed from the fear of fo danaftion "*. 102- All Sax. and concluding. <:ontrary to repeated orders. recovered all the booty. Matth. 181. hoping that when his flhips appeared on their coaft. they bought thdt advantage by the lofs of their bravefl leaders. p. loi. continually infefled the bowels of the kingdom. was not much better eftabliflied in the field .832. H 3 an4 . in order to divert the force of thefe enemies. prepared a fleet to attack them by fea . than greedy to commit fpoil on their enemy . and purfued them with great ilaughter into their own country. and entered Edward's territories with all The king. aflifled by the fcattered Danes in Mercia.Angles ". who periflied in the The king. to ftay behind him. they muft at leaft remain at home. the Eaft. who was prepared againft their forces. and provide for But the Northumbrians were lefs their defence. that the chief flrength of the Englifh was embarked on board the fleet. Sax. p. attacked them on their return at Tetenhall in the county of Stafford.

towns of Cheiter. p. Huntingdon. 6or. but becaufe fire deemed all domeftic occupations unworthy of her mafculine and ambitious fpirit \ She died before her brother . p. 182. p. the dominions of that province : Several tribes of the Britons were fubjedted by him . Wigornq p. after her huiband's death. In all thefe fortunate atchievements he was afTifted by the activity and prudence of his filler Ethelfleda. increafed their of the Picts. Sax. Weft. Chron. The Saxon Chronicle •^ Chron. fixe$ . no. 28. during the remainder of his reign. their king. Brompton. and who. a^ Chron. He fought two fignal battles at Ternsford and Maldon ". had. Ingulf. and Edward. refufed afterwards all commerce with her hufband . 5. earl of Mercia. and the foreign Danes. and obliged him to retire with his followers into France. Warwick. and forced them to fwear allegiance to hini : He expelled the two rival princes of Northumberland. took upon himfelf the immediate government of Mercia. p. Higden. retained the government of that province. were neverthelefs obliged to give him marks of fubmiffion P. during the reign of Egbert. Cherbury. He fortified the CHAP. Eddeibury. Towcefter. He fubdued the Eail-Angles. p. which before had bpen entrvifled to the authority of a governor '. W.' cap. Reginald and Sidroc. Nor was he lefs provident in putting his kingdom in a pofture of defence. p. He vanquifhed Thurketill. as was final fubjeclion power by the common in that age. and Colchefter. not from any weak fuperftition. p. under the conduct of Kenneth. 411. and eyen the Scots.10? HISTORY OF ENGLAND. J 10. for the prefent. who was widow of Ethelbert. who had been reduced to extremity in child-bed. Tlor. P lib. Sax. Sax. 831. who. than vigorous in aifauking the enemy. io8. p. who invaded him from Normandy and Britanny. Matth. and acquired. Hoveden. Maldon. Buckingham. This princefs. a6i. Malmef. a great Danifh chief. in quefl: of fpoil and adventures.

was thence encouraged to enter into a confpiracy againft him. Some prevailed his acceffion and Alfred. and yet hope to eicape the immediate vengeance of Heaven. being of an . than he fell into convulfions. that no one could prefume to give a falfe oath in his prefence. who forged them.- time«. H 4 if . either confcious of his innocence. and in order to juftify himfelf. ATHELSTAN. contained fuch fuperior fanftity. whofe perfon. as * Page no. *HE flain in this prince's birth was not. were of too tender the throne years to rule a nation fo dilcontents. him from much expofed both on to fo- reign invafion and to domeftic convuliions. The king accepted of the condition. being feized upon without any certain proof. or to their artifice. who. who then filled the papal chair. of ^vhich three days after he expired. ' : 103 of this prince in His kingdom chap. or neglefting the fuperftition to which he appealed. deemed fo confiderable as exclude and Athelftan. But no fooner had he pronounced the fatal words. his natural fon. but it is faid. firmly denied the confpiracy imputed to him . Alfred. The king. he offered to fwear to his innocence before the pope. and Alfred was conducted to Rome . J^' devolved to Athelftan. ftrong fufpicions. to in thofe 9^. he ventured to make the oath required of him. where. as well as of a capacity. may impute either to the invention of monks. it was fuppofed. age. a nobleman of confiderable power. before John. according to the degree of credit he is difpofed to give them. though legitimate. fitted for government. who found means of making them real. however. This incident is related by hiftorians with circumftances which the reader. obtained the preference to Edward's younger children.A T H E L fixes the death S T A 925 N.

a Danifli nobleman. Vv^ith in a twelvemonth after and his two fons by a for-r mer marriage. Spell. refenting Conftantine*s behaviour. 5. The Scottifh prince. that mo-- and the former took fhelter in Ireland. Cone p. it now fully afcerand made a prefent of ' . by providing againft the infurredions of the Danes. he thought it prudent to confer on Sithric. Athelftan. and ravaging the country with impunity *. 407. Malm. -than he endeavoured to give lecurity to the government. » W. cap. He marched into Northumberland . Editha. * W. he gave Godfrid warning to make his efcape and that fugitive. iii. The dominion of Athelltan was no fooner eflabliflied over his Englilh fubjects. at laft promifed to deliver up his gueft but fecretly detefting this trea^ chery. founding pretenfions on their father's elevation. fecure that no doubts would ever thenceforth be entertained concerning the juflice of his proceedings. he reduced the Scots to fnch diftrefs. 6. that their king was . Hoveden. the title of King/ and to attach him to his interefts. aflumed the fo. and even menaced by Athelftan. from any farther anxiety. lib. p. 354. lib. Sithric died the fource of dangerous confequences. But this policy proved by accident in marriage. Malm. Hunting. 2. vereignty without waiting for Athelftan's confent. who then enjoyed the crown of that kingdom. entered Scotland with an army . after fubfifling by piracy for fom. Anlaf and Godfrid. by the power of . confifcated his eftate. Chron. lib. which had created fo much difturbance to his predecelfors. protedion from Conftantine. a. 422- H. as the latter did in Scotland where he received. p. however. dur^ ing fome time. continually folicited.104 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. by his death.e years. freed the king. and finding that the inhabitants bore impatience the Engliih yoke. p. "= . They narch v/ere foon expelled . content . Sax. by giving him his fifter. if CHAP^^' the guilt of the confpirator were to the monariery of Malinefbury tained. ^'^ 6. cap.

than that ©four prefent chancellor. 422. (Irenuoufly deny the faQ:. feem more worthy . land. and entirely fubdue Scotland. cap. as wholly to lay afide the military character ^. that the latter prince. by making fubmifaffert ^. But thofe annals. fo uncertain and imperfect in themfelves. who had collefted a great body of Danifli pirates. who were power of Athelltan And : terrified at all the growing thefe allies concert an irruption with a great Athelltan. 21a.. collefting his forces. Anglia the Sacra. See Spellman in voce Cancellar'ws. p. He entered into a confederacy with Anlaf. that Conftantine The Englifli hiftorians did homage to Athelflan for hi$ and they add. * Hoveden. the Scotch hiflorians. replied. or to the pohcy of that prince. whom he found hovering in the Irilh feas . whether he owed crown the retaining of to the moderation of Athelltan. who efteemed the humiliation of an enemy a greater acquifition than the fubjeftion of a difcontented and mutinous people. i. met the Northumberland. content to preferve his crown. v ^ enemy near Brunfbury in feated them in a general engagement. 6. Therb . CoNSTANTiNE. being urged by his courtiers to pufh the prefent favourable opportunity. the Engliih chancellor : For in thofe turbulent ages no one was fo much occupied in civil employments. who was unwilling to employ all his advantages againft him.p. who. made by army into Eng- This vi6tory was chiefly afcribed to the valour of Turketul. kingdom of his belief. without having any more knowledge of the matter. thought the behaviour of the Englilh monarch than of gratitude. and with fome object of refentment more an Wellh princes. 2. when national prepofTeffions and aniniofities have place: And on that account. enemy. The Malmef. office of chancellor among Anglo-Saxons refembled more that of a fecretary of flate. that it was more glorious to confer than conquer kingdoms ^. vol.A T H E L fions to the S T A N. lib. lofe all credit. and de- W.

a circumftance not unworthy of notice. having played before that prince and his nobles during their repaft. But a foldier in Athclftan's camp. He removed his ftation in the camp . on the approach of the KngHlh army. He gave fuch fatiffaction to the foldiers. had been ftruck with fome fui'picion on the firfl appearance of the minftrel . The llratagem was for the prefent attended with like fuccefs. he occupied by his train that very place which had been left vacant by the is . I lis prudence kept him from refufmg the prefent . and employing the artifice formerly praclifed by Alfred againft the Danes. who blamed him for not fooner giving him information. with regard to the tranfaclions of this war. while he fancied that he was unefpied by all the world. to bury it. who flocked about him. after fuch an inftance of his criminal conduct. but his pride determined him. which he forefaw might be attended with important confequences. and Anlaf. Anlaf. that he might have feized his enemy. on his departure. having praifed the generofity of the foldier's principles. lafl adion as a full proof of Aniaf's difguife . reflected on the incident. and was engaged by cuHe regarded this riofity to obferve all his motions. and he immediately carried the intelligence to Athelftan. he could never have pardoned himfelf the treachery of betraying and ruining his ancient mafter and that Athelftan himfelf. was difmifled with a handfome reward. would have had equal reafon to diftruft his allegiance. he entered the enemy's camp in the habit of a minftrel. that. There . and as a bifhop arrived that evening with a reinforcement of troops (for the ecclefiaftics were then no lefs warlike than the civil magiftrates). But the foldier told him. who had formerly ferved under Anlaf.io6 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. as he had formerly fworn fealty to Anlaf. that they introduced him to the king's tent . Athelftan. thought that he could not venture too much to enfure a fortunate event . which hiftorians relate.

than ing direftly to the place where he had left the king's : The H A. z. II. put the billiop to death before he had tinie tQ prepare for his defence ^ feveral Danlfh and Welfli princes in Brunibury . a relioion which the Englifh Danes had frequently profeffed. p. met with difturblay- ^^u ance from the refllefs Northumbrians. to difficulties. p.A T H E L the king's removal. lib. badge . he fo overawed the rebels. and was fucceeded by Ed. 114. and haftenfallen. After this fuccefs. EDMUND. 107 precaution of Athelftan C For no fooner had darknefs Anlaf broke into the camp. cap. but w. Ingulf. 857. p. Glocefler in the Year 941 % after a prince died at reign of lixteen years. Sax. "pDMUND. they offered to embrace Chriftianify . and which it required fonie liberality of mind in that age to have devifed: That a merchant. for that very reafon. Malmef. ihould be adThis mitted to the rank of a thane or gentleman. Athelftan enjoyed his crown in and he is regarded as one of the tranquillity He ableil and mod active of thofe ancient princes. that they endeavoured to appeafe him by the mod humble In order to give him the furer pledge fubmiiTions \ of their obedience. they regarded as a ^ W. a. ^yas found prudent S T A N. Broinpton. 6. d W. on his acceffion. ^63. who in wait for every opportunity of breaking into re- But marching fuddenly with his forces into their country. lib. chron. when reduced HIgdcn. 839. remarkable law. and Conilaniine and Anthe action of fell ^ There made laf their efcape with difliculty. 29. leaving the greater part of their army on the field of battle. b BroraptotJ. p. which was calculated for paifed a the encouragement of commerce. tent. who had made three long fea-voyages on his own account. c p. Malmtf. 7.hich. cap. mund his legitimate brother. bellion. p.

were never entirely fubdued. becaufe it was always found. he remarked. and Edmund left in the fixth year of the king's reign. Edred.log HISTORY OF ENGLAND. whofe temper. but fo young. yet was his reign fliort. and feifed him by the hair But the ruffian. and fhook vourable opportunity little CHAP. who. . One day as he was foiemnizing a feftival in the county of Glocefter. Edmund was young when he came to the crown. Enraged at this infolence. and introduced the rebellious or foreign Danes into the heart of the kingdom. that Leolf. he ordered him to leave the room but on his refufmg to obey. and protect the north from all future incurfions of the Danes. as his death was violent. and gave Edmund a wound. had yet the boldnefs to enter the hall where he himfelf dined. a notorious robber. on condition that he lliould do him homage for it. as thofe of his prcdeceffors. though frequently quelled. that they took advantage of every com motion. and conferred that territory on Malcolm king of Scotland. 'T^HE reign of this prince. the king. ^^' off as foon as a fa- offered. ufed the precaution of removing the Five-burgers from the tov^^xHS of Mercia. drew his dagger. that they were incapable of governing the kingdom . was promoted to the throne. nor . and his brother. badge of fervltude. puflied to extremity. of which he immediately expired. male iffue. Edmund. and to fit at table with his attendants. was difturbed by the rebellions and Incurfions of the Northumbrian Danes. was inflamed by this additional infult. He alfo conquered Cum- berland from the Britons . whom he had fentenced to baniihment. trufling "" to their fincerity in this forced fubmiflion. This event happened in the year 946. in which they had been allowed to fettle . leaped on him himfelf. D R E D. naturally choleric. : E $46.

From the introduction of Chriftianity among the Saxons. they made him their wonted fubmiffions . king of Scotland. and had blindly delivered over his conicience to the guidance of Durtftan. the Danes lafted no longer than the prefent terror. by the donations of the princes and nobles . they broke into a new rebellion. tt^ HOT had ever paid a fincere allegiance to the crown of England. this churchman imported into England a new order of monks.E D R E 0. under the appearance of fanctity. and placed over them an Englifh governor. there had been monafteries in England and thefe eftablifliments had extremely multiplied. nor unfit for active life. now inftruded by experience. and who covered. took greater precautions againft their future revoltHe fixed Enghfh garrifons in their moft confiderable towns . the moft Taking adviolent and moft iniblent ambition. and fupprefs any infurreclion on its nrft appearance. who much changed the ftate of ecclefiaftical affairs. and were again fubdued : But the king. obliged them to renew their oaths of allegiance . whofe 8 fuperili'T . to renew his homage for the lands \yhich he held in England. He obliged alfo Malcolm. and he The obedience of ftraight retired with his forces. Dunftan. who might watch all their motions. as a vantage of the implicit confidence repofed in him by the king. though not unwarllke. and the king having wafted the country with hre and to punilhment of their rebellion. Provoked at the devaftations of Edred. lay under the influence of the loweft fuperftitlon. fword. Edred. but on Edred's appearance with an army. on their firft eftabhfliment. the moft violent commotions. and even reduced by neceffity to fubfift on plunder. commonly called St. whom he advanced to the higheft offices. abbot of Glaftenbury. The acceffion of a new king feenied chap? ^^' them a favourable opportunity for Ihaking oil the yoke . and excited.

91. with^' out quitting the convent. p. and depriving them of every other objeft of ambition. and were both intermingled in fome degree with the world. knew no other expedient for Appealing the Deity than a profufe liberality towards the ecclefiaftics. and were permitted to rear families. carrying tification. 91. farther theplaufible principles of mor- feciuded themfelves entirelv world. But a miftaken piety had produced in Italy a new fpecies of monks ealied Benedictines . they never could be fiibjeded to flridl dif* that flavery under their cipline. pontiff. Chroji.no CHA ^'" HISTOHY p. which fuperilition at firft engreedily embraced and promoted by 8 p.apu'. O'F EN^GLAND. p. torn. z. But the monks had hitherto been a fpecies of fecular priefts. that fo long as the monks were indulged in marriage.434. tices from the and made a Thefe prac- and principles. carious life.'ere The Roman the policy of the court of Rome. fiiperftltion. p. p. . renounced all claim to liberty. MS. merit of the mofl inviolable chaftity. with unceafmg induflry. the grandeur of their own order* He was ienfible. perceived that the celibacy of the clergy alone could break oif entirely their connexion with the civil power. who. ^Conc. who was making every day great advances towards an abfolute fovereignty over the ecclefiaftics. -v^ho lived after the manner of the prefent canons or prebendaries. torn. 9a. derived from their ignorance and pre-* and increafed by remorfes for th^ crimes into which they were fo frequently betrayed. gendered. Thev were em" ployed in the education of youth : They had the difpofal of their own time and induftry : They were not fubjeded to the rigid rules of an order : They had made no vows of implicit obedience to their fuperiors ': And they ftill retained the choice. or reduced to ^ f Ofberne. Wint. either of a married or a iingle life ^. 1645. Wharton's notes to Angliii Sacra. fuperiors. z. See Gervafe. v.1 Spell. engage them to promote. and endeavoured to render themfelves ufeful to it. Ofbcrne in Anglia Sricm.

was determined to reduce them under ftrid rules of obedience. which were. and the pope undertook to make all the clergy throughout the weftern world renounce at once the privilege of but at the fame marriage A. have retarded the execution of that bold fcheme during the courfe of near three centuries. iflued from Rome. As the bifhops and parochial clergy lived apart with their families. therefore. and : the inclinations of the priefts. which generally encourage devotion. that this mafterllroke of art ihould have met with violent contradidlon. D. and began to form attempts towards a like innovation in England. unavoidable in the ancient eftablifliments. time an undertaking the moft difficult of any. a ready and zealous Celibacy. being now placed in this fmgular oppofition. began to be exobedience. fortunate policy . fliould. he had already fpread over the fouthern countries of Europe the fevere laws of the monaftic life. fmce he had the ftrongeft propenfities of human nature to encounter. notwithftanding the continued efforts of Rome. and found. tolled. of reforming abufes. in fome degree. that the fame connexions with the female fex. therefore. I arifing . the hopes of fuccefs with them were fainter. having caft his eye on the monks as the bafis of his authoritv. and that the Interefls of the hierarchy. Under pretence. marriage was much lefs plaufible. It is no wonder. The favourable opportunity offered itfelf (and It was greedily feized).E D R E fuperiors. and the pretence for making them renounce But the pope. which was requifite to procure to the C H A "• mandates. and were more connected with the world. Ill p. were here unfavourable to the fuccefs of his project. and to break off all their other ties which might interfere with his fpiritual policy. to procure them the credit of fandity by an appearance of the moft rigid mortification. as the indlfpenfable duty of priefts . therefore.

Matth. and he held bim there. and the violent impetuous charatler of Dunflan. by running into an oppofite extreme. of England . He was. p. was one day more earneft than ufual in his temptations . and it enfured '' to Dunftan a reputation which no real piety. have ever procured him with the people. Supported . 96. his ardent ambition prompted him to repair his indifcretions. WciV. then archbifliop of Canterbury. which being believed by himfelf and his ftupid votaries. p. and that his head was filled with chimeras.112 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. arlfmg from the weak fuperftltion of Edred.95. it is tranfmitted to poflerity by one who. It is probable. He fancied that the devil. ^ Oiberne. that he could neither fland ered in it. This till notable exploit v/as ferioufly credited and extolled by the public . that his brain became gradually crazed by thefe folitary occupations. among the people. > Ofberne. however. He fecluded himfelf entirely from the world . till that malignant fpirit made the whole neighbourhood refound with his bellowings. he framed a cell fo fmall. provoked at his importunity^ feized him by the nofe with a pair of red-hot pincers. p- 187. k Ofberne. reprefented to that prince as a man of licentious manners ^ : And finding his fortune blalled by thefe fufpicions.97. nor ftretch out his limbs during his repofe . as he put his head into the cell . had betaken himfelf to the ecclefiaftical life. and he here employed himfelf perpetually either in devotion or in manual labour '. procured him the general character of fanftity c HA P. much could. confidering the age in which he lived. DuNSTAN was born of noble parents in the weft. lefs virtue. Dunflan. and had acquired fome character in the court of Edmund. p. even in the moft enlightened period. may pafs for a writer of fome elegance . among the frequent vifits which he paid him. and being educated under his uncle Aldhelm.

was once fully eftablifhed. p. as made him not only the director of that prince's confcience. minds of men were already well prepared The praifes of an inviolable for this innovation. Cone. the chara(!:ter obtained in his re. who had fuccrown. he profeiTed himfelf a partizan of the rigid monaftic rules . 45%. and being thus poflefTed both of power at court. who tion. and after introducing that reformation into the convents of Glallenbury and Abingdon. and of credit with the populace. he was enabled to attempt with fuccefs the mod arduous enterprifes. and gained fuch an afcendant over Edred. He was placed at the head of the treafury'. Wallingford. loz.C H^A p. I the . 113 11. The monks knew how to avail themfelves of all thefe popular topics. Finding that his advancement had been owing to the opinion of his aufterity. Spell. as was from fufficient td atone for the greateft enormities. 541. but his counfellor in the moil momentous affairs of government. pollution the altar fhould be clear of this and when the doctrine of tranfubflantiain"". p. p. They affected the greateft aufterity of life and manners : which was now creeping (trains ' They indulged themfelves of devotion They inveighed : in the highefl bitterly againft ""' Ofberne. he endeavoured to renceeded to the der it univerfal in the kiriQ-dom. officiated at .E Supported by treat. Vol. chaflity had been carried to the higheft extravagance by fome of the firfl preachers of Chriftianity among The pleafures of love had been reprethe Saxons : The fented as incompatible with Chriftian perfeftion all : And a total abftinence fex was deemed fuch a commerce with the meritorious penance. i. Dunflan appeared again in the world . The confequence feemed natural. the reverence to the real body of Chriil in the eucharifl bellowed on this argument an additional force and influence. that thofe. D R E D. I. and to fet off their own character to the bed advantage. at leaft. vol.

and their wives : : received the name of concubine ^ or other The fecular probrious appellation. at the time of his accefiion. by the moil material difor rather the moft frivolous Since is is it is a juft remark. the vices and pretended luxury of the age They were particularly vehement againft the diflblute lives of the fecular clergy. n Chron. <> II. defended themfelves with vigour. that the more affinity there between theological their animofity. lib. and pofother hand. their partifan. at the commencement of his reign. and was even endowed. who expired after a reign of nine years ". : CHAP. 5SJ. p. The people were thrown into agitation . according to authentic accounts. 336. which was confiderable. whofe rage neither the graces of the body nor virtues of the mind could mitigate.114 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Hunting. his nephew Edwy. excited more opclergy. "p DWY. He left children . and few inftances occur of more violent diifenfions. Sax. was fomewhat retarded by the death of Edred. been engaged in a controverfy with the monks. 115. numerous and rich. who were feifed of the ecclefiaflical dignities. parties. with the moft promifmg virtues". their rivals Every inftance of libertlnifm in any individual of that order was reprefented as a general corruption And where other topics of defamation were wanting. the greater commonly become The progrefs of the monks. and endeavoured to retaliate upon their adverfaries. EDWY. had he not unhappily. fon of Edmund. and . was'not above was poflelTed of the moft amiable figure. 5. but as they were infants. He would have been the favourite of his people. p. on the ferences in religion. their marriage became a fure fubject of inveftive. was placed on the throne. fixteen or feventeen years of age.

^ Ibid. his nobility hall. puflied him back. Malmef. I 3 in . though flie was within the degrees of affinity prohiAs the au fieri ty. 2. 'which they exercifed againit his perfon and dignity during his fliort and mifortuTliere was a beautiful princcfs of the liate reign. unrelenting vengeance. and in that privacy gave reins to his fondnefs tov/ards his wife. over whom he ha4 archbifliop gained an abfolute afcendant. made them particularly violent on '5. called Elgiva. Dunflan conjectured the reafon of the king's retreat and carrying along with him Odo. and the remonflrances of the more dignified ecclefiaftics''. lib. 54». Edwy them . apartment. and tearing him from her arms. attracted by fofter pleafures. contrary to the advice of his graveil counfellors. who had made imprefiTion on the tender heart of Edwy . royal blood. on that account. cap. of Canterbury. » Wallingford. War was therefore declared between the king and the monks . affe6led bited by the canon law by the monks. 7.E D and who have purfucd W his Y. P W. p. and as he was of an age when the force of the paiTions firfl begins to be felt. he had ventured. upbraided Edwy with his lafcivioufnefs. from the example of their German anceflors. he burfl into the . this occafion. determined not to fecond their project of expelling the fecukrs from all the convents. 115 memory with the fame C nA P. and the former foon found reafon to repent his provoking fuch dangerous enemies. On the day of his coronation. had become habitual to the Englifh' when Edwy. which. to efpoufe her. which was only moderately checked by the prefence of her mother. entertained a ftrong prepof- fefTion againfl and feemed. were affembled in a great and were indulging themfelves in that riot and diforder. retired into the queen*s apartment. and of pofiefling themfelves of thofe rich eftablifhments. probably beflowed on the queen the mofl opprobrious epithet that can be applied to her fex.

: : : to ftill more outrageous afts of violence againfl the Archbiiliop OJo fent into the palace a party of foldiers. P. Weft. t. '^Ofbtinit. 105. p Z^. p. 425. into the banquet of the nobles'.ii6 C HISTORY OF ENGLAND. as he affirmed by orders of the late king. returned into England.6. order to deflroy that fatal beauty which had feduced Edwy. v/hom flie flill re'j^arded as her huiband ""'•' . 112. they carried her by force into Ireland. awaited the unhappy Elgiva. and having even obliterated the fears with which Odo had hoped to deface her beauty. m \ « W. Gervafe. p 83. and having burned her face with a red-hot iron. vvho feized the queen . hands of a party. and the molt cruel death was requifite to iatiate their vengeance. which was pronounced by Odo and a cataflrophe. vain to refiil. was obliged to confent to his divorce. That amiable princefs. lib. Maimer. p. Hill more difmal.'. ii. Nothing but her death could now give fecurity to Odo and the monks . M. p. Edwy. But DunItan's cabal was not unaftive during his abfence They filled the public with high panegyrics on his fanclity They exclaimed againfl the impiety of the king and queen And having poifoned the minds of the people by thefe declamations. whom the primate had fent to intercept her. and was flying to the embraces of the kine. being cured of her wounds. 7. 195. and banilhed him the kingdom. Ofberne. H A manner. they proceeded in a difgraceful . though young. he accufed him of malverfation in his office. Se was hamflringed . and oppofed by the prejudices of the people. *" Hoveden. found an opportunity of taking revenge for this public infult. p. and when file fell into the | . in royal authority. He queftioned Dunflan concerning the adminiflration of the treafury during the reign of his predeceffor' and when that minifter refufed to give any account of money expended. 542. t cap. there Fdwy finding It in to remain in perpetual exile". Alur. expired . Walliiigford. Beverl p. 1644.

p. 3 one . Gervafe. and took upon him the go« He was firft: vernnient of Edgar and his party. p. * See note [B] at the end of the volume.. 425. 1646. A p. I Brompton. but his death. Ofberne. Ofberne. : *^. p. 605. Dunftan returned into England. bellion againft their fovereign . the younger brother of Edwy. and his reign is I Flor. which happened foon after. on Odo's death. ^ V Chron. Sax. a boy of thirteen years of age. foon difcovered an excellent capain the adminiftration of affairs . blinded with fuperftition. 863. p. p. in that of Canterbury ^ of all which he long kept poifeffion. That it might not be doubtful at whole iniHgation this revolt was -undertaken. Northumberland. p. and is one of thofe numerous faints of the fame ftamp who difgrace the Romifii calendar. characler of a man of piety J3unilan was even canonized . they foon put him in polfeilion of Mercia. Meanv/hiie the unhappy Edwy was excommunicated % and purfued with unrelenting vengeance. and chafed Edwy into the fouthern counties. 109. and gave Edgar peaceable poffeffion of the government . Wallingford.. i^ Wigorn.. and the violent expulfion of Brithelm. li 117 expired a few days after at Glocefler in the mod C acute torments \ Tphi Englilli. then in that of inftalled in the fee London % and. 84. and having placed Edgar at their head. p. EaftAnglia .E D W Y. H S prince. p. 117. his fuccellbr. exchiimed that the misfortunes of Edwy and his confort were a juil judgement for their diiTolute contempt of the They even proceeded to reecclefialHcal ftatutes. inftead of being fhocked with this inhumanity. Odo is tranfmitted to us by the monks under the. 1645. who mounted the throne in fiich early youth. of Worcefter. freed his enemies from all farther inquietude. E ^T^ •city ^ D G A P. SA4- Kovcden.

p. 432. H. p. dei). * See note [C] at the end of the volume. John the Baptiil. and having purpofed to go by water to the abbey of St. had not his power been fo well eflabliflicd as to deprive his fuperiority to a great height. The foreign Danes dared not to approach a country which appeared in fuch a pofture of defence : The domeftic Danes favv^ inevitable deflruclion to be the confequence of their tumults and infurredions: The neighbouring fovereigns. He built and fupported a powerful navy j and that he might retain the feamen in the praftice of their duty. in order to keep the mutinous North- and to repel the inroads of the Scots. of the Ifle of Man. he made the wifeil preparations againft in- vaders : And by this vigour and forefight he was enabled. to indulge his indination towards peace. without any danger of fuffering infults. . 356. = Spcl!. 265 ^ W. he obliged eight of his tributary princes to row him in a barge upon the Dee The Englifli hiflorians are fond of mentioning the name of Kenneth III. Avhich he quartered in the north. enemies of all hopes of fhaking it. z. and ordered them to make. p. from time to time. lib.t refiding once at Cheiler. lib. the king of Scotland. of the Ork- neys. He carried and might have excited an univerfal combination ac:ainil him. '^ap. kinr^. . '' umbrians dable armament to his enemies. and aKvays prefent a formiin fubjeclion. one of the moO: fortunate that we meet with in the ancient Engliih hiilory. Malmtf. He fliowed no averfion to war . among the number The Scottifk hiflorians either deny the facl.406. : ^ Iligden. Cone. and to employ himfelf in fupporting and improving the internal government of his kingdom. Huntuig. It is faid. 5. 8. he ftaticned three fquadrons off the coail. king of Scots.iiS HISTORY OF ENGLAND. He maintained a body of difciplined troops . tha. the princes of Wales. and even of Ireland % were reduced to pay fubmiffion to fo formidable a monarch. or alfert that their his ''. Hcyep. the circuit of his dominions *. CHAP.

Malmef. that they always adted in concert. 864. which. was the paying of court to Dun flan and the monks. in that of Winchefter ^ . (. and to place Ethelwold. g Gervafe. king. another of them. p. hunting. 1646. one of his creatures . he confulted thefe prelates in the adminidration of all ecclefiallical. Edgar fummoned a general council of the prelates and the the heads of the religious orders. 27. In order to complete the great work of placing all canons of the monafleries " .EDGAR. did him homage. Malmef. cap. he allowed Dunflan to refign the fee of Worceller into the hands of Ofwald. the dominions which he held in England. and though the vigour of his own genius prevented him from being implicitly guided by them. p. lib 2. ^ new order of monks in all the convents. de jBuv^o. = ' Hoveilcn. W. p. Abb. their negligence in attending the exercife of their fun6i:ion . Olberne. 118. and united their influence in preferving the peace and tranquillity of the kingdom. but for if 119 CHAP. Brompton. He here inveighed againll the diflblute lives of the fecular clergy . Wi. p. the king and the bifliops found fuch advantages in their mutual agreement.42s» 4^0. St. Hovedert. I 4 Ih . Chron. had acquired an afcendant over the people. who had at firlt placed him on the throne. Saxt p.iorn. p. their mixing with the laity in the pleafures of gaming.o6. and their openly living with concubines. of thorns . 425. lib. 112. 8. 2. dancing. W. and even in that of many civil affairs . Chron. and who.117. maintained no longer any refemblance to the crown. a. by which it is commonly fuppofed he meant their wives. by their pretenfions to fuperior fanftity and purity of manners.%. Flor. ever he acknowledged himfelf a vaflal to Edgar. not tor his crown. p. Petri p. He favoured their fcheme for difpolTefling the fecular the chief But he beflowed preferment on none but their partizans . the fmallnefs of their tonfure. and preferved public peace. and fmg^ ing . cap. means by which Edgar maintained his authority. it is probable. 7.

manners could be p. We torians. to ufe fliarper and more vigorous remedies and conjoining your fpiritual authority with the civil povv'er. then turned himfelf to Dunflan the primate. fQ . and '^ fixed a perpetual fund for the fup- " '' port of religion ? And are all our pious endeavours now frudrated by the diiTolute hves of the priefts ^ Not : that I throw any blame on you : veighed (c But it now behoves you . he thus addrefled him ** you. Cone. p. both here and in the hif- and as that order of men are commonly reilrained by the decency conveyed in general terms it is . 476. it was not long before the monks prevailed. in the fupport of religion and religious : CHAP. He ^^- *' houfes. of their character.^20 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. built churches. all the convents. 477j 478. that the declamations againll all the fecular clergy are. of all others. VtThen did you call for fupplies. the moli grateful to my " Maker. 361. who told me that thefe cha'' ** rities Vv'ere. difficult to believe that the complamts J^ againft their diiTolute Spell. to purge effedually the temple of God from thieves *' and intruders \" It is eafy to imagine. Dunitan. whom he fuppofed to look down from heaven with indi^rnation a^ainft " It is all thofe enormities. may remark. which I refufed you ? Was my affiftance ever wanting to the poor ? Did I deny fupport and eflablifhments to *' the clergy and the convents ? Did I not hearken " to your inftrudlions. 360. and in the name of kingEdred. all *^ You were my counfellor and affiftant in my fchemes You were the director of my : : *' *' *' confcience To you I was obedient in all things. and eftablifned their new difcipline in almofl . by whofe advice I founded mo'• naileries. that this harangue had the defired effect: and that. when the king and prelates thus concurred with the popular prejudices. and expended my trea*' fure. Abbas Rieval.

had no idea of any moral or religious merit. a very ancient hiftorian. like a true pohtician. howi Chron. fo univerfally juil as is 121 It is pretended. but unBut der that of a great faint and a man of virtue. lib. as we are told by Ingulf. by which. and reprefenting the moll innocent liberties. the policy of the court of Rome. thereby prepared the way for the encreafe of their own power and . . 149. nothing could more betray both his hypocrify in inthey affumed privileges '. 8. engage the monks to fupport royal authority during his own reign. though they might. and violated every law. except chaflity and obedience. in- Edgar. than the ufual tenour of his conduct. cap. proved afterwards dangerous to his fucceffors. to ufarp the eledion of their own abbot And he admitted their forgeries of ancient charters. Seldeni Spicileg- ad Eadm. He feconded fluence. from the pretended grant of former kings. more pro- CHAP. praifes to which he feems to have been juflly entitled. not only connived at his enormities. and immunities These merits of Edgar have procured him the and he is tranfhigheft panegyrics from the monks mitted to us. in bellowing fuch eulogies on his piety. many . ii8. which. Malmef. and the interefted fpirit of his partifans.EDGAR. in granting to fome monafteries an exemption from epifcopal jurifdiction : He allowed the convents. a. 157. bable that the monks paid court to the populace by an affected auderity of Hfe . and he even concurred with the prevailing party indulged them in pretenfions. ever. taken by the other clergy as great and unpardonable enormities. Hiftory. p. and gave difturbance to the whole civil power. Yet thofe very monks. .W. even thofe of royal foundation. but loaded him with the greatefl praifes. veighing againft the licentioufnefs of the fecular clergy. however. who. Sax. when. human and divine.complied with. p. II. which was licentious to the highefl degree. not only under the characiler of a confummate ftatefman and an adive prince.

p. ordcreci . who. has preferved fome inflances of his amours. Ihe thought it would be eafier. 262. As he had not leifure to employ courtfliip or addrefs for attaining his purpofe. from which. over mankind TiiERE was another miltrefs of Edgar's. but being well acquainted with the impetuofity of the king's temper. as well as fafer. manded by Dunftan .c. with whom he firft formed a connexion by a kind of accident. Cor.122 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. a nun. and determined not to diftiopour her daughter and her family by compliance . Olberne. and der fired that the young lady might be allowed to pafs that very night with him. was loaded with calumnies. i n. by hypocrify and cabal. and he refolved by any expedient to gratify It. p. and that he might reconcile himfelf to the church. p. to deceive than refufe him. was expelled his kingdom. as from a fpecimen. and to deprive himfelf fo long of that vain ornament : A punifiiment very unequal to that which had been inflicted on the unfortunate Edwy. 267. he lodged in the houfe of a nobleman. cap. cnflamed him at firft fight with the higheft defire . 481. declared the violence of his paffion. p. he went diredily to her mother. The mother was a woman of virtue. and even committed violence on For this act of facrilege he was repriher perfon ^. SptU. Diceto. but to abftain from wearing his crown during feven years. ' Hidden. 265. 3. by force. Ofbernc. She his ^yill j but fecretly feigned therefore a fubmiiljon to ftrid:eft fenfe ! ^ W. and has been reprefented to us under the moft odious colours. we may form a conjecture of the reft. 457. faw his queen treated with fnigular barbarity. ever^ CHAP. carried off Editha. Such is the afcendant which may be attained. being endowed with all the graces of perfon and behaviour. Palling one day by Andover. Malmef. 8. whofe daughter. for a marriage which in the ' Edgar could only deferve the name of irregular. he was obliged not to feparate from his miftrels. ^. broke into a convem. lib. p.

found his curiofity excited by the frequent panegyrics which he heard of Elfrida . introduced to the young lady. to obtain poifeffion of her on honourable terms. if he found her charms anfwerable to their fame. him his marriage with circumftances of his marriage with this ladywere more fmgular and more criminal. found general report indifferent to . his love was till transferred to . lib z. EU became his favourite miftrefs and main- tained her ^fcendant over Elfrida"'. but Edgar. and to bring him a certain account Athelwold. who had no referve in his pleafures. of the maid). the damfel. flie had filled all England Edgar himfelf. earl of Devonfhire . on account of her fraud fieda . to pay them a vifit. made probably but a faint refiftance . Higdep. and the return of light difcovered the deceit to Edgar. and employed force and entreaElfleda (fox that was the name ties to detain her. Ele had pafTed a night fo much to his fatisfaction. Avith the reputation of her beauty. when of the beauty of their daughter. before (hould be retired to reft. c?. and whofe love to his bed-fellow was rather enflamed by enjoyment. and had never appeared at court. ^ 123 P. ^ W. and reiieding on her noble birth. and to the love with which. and though fhe had been educated in the country. Elfrida was daughter and heir of Olgar.2.EDGAR. The who was no accounts of this nature. refufed his confent. to . his favourite precaution. before he made any advances to her parents. to order that nobleman. agreeably to the injunftions of her miftrefs. dav-break.p. after all the company In the morning. fiie had nov/ infpired the king. offered to retire . Malmef. fhe hoped. to c H A ^' ileal into the king's bed. trufting to her own charms. p. that he expreflcd fne no difpleafure with the old lady . on fome pretence. He communicated his intenbut ufed the tion to earl Athelwold. ©rdered a waiting-maid. of no dlfagreeable figure. he refolved. 26S.

not only exhorted him to execute his purpofe^ but forwarded his fuccefs by his recommendations to the parents of Elfrida . and that her charms. would. and doubted not to obtain his. Dreading. and beinj^ aduated to facri- ^^' by the to the moll: vehement love. he triift took an opportunity. he determined fice to this new paffion his fidelity to his mailer. of turning again the converfation on Elfrida: He remarked. diverted the king from his purpofe. be an advantageous match for him. that the riches alone. he was determined to make propofals in his own behalf to the earl of Devonihire. after fome interval. and might. he could not forbear reflecling that fhe would. would have been overlooked in a woman of inferior flation. far from being anywife extraordinary. and told him. as well as the young Edgar. make him fufficient compenfation for the If the king. When he had. be able to make againfl him. therefore. A P.124 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. c II to have fallen fhort of the truth . and repofed in him. by her birth and riches. He returned to Edgar. and Athelvvold was foon made happy in the poffefiion of his miftrefs. The violent pailion of Athelwold had rendered him blind to the neceflary confequences which muH attend his conduft. on the whole. pleafed lady's confent to the marriage. as on others. but before he would execute vengeance on Athelwold 's treachery. had been the ground of the admiration paid her. and the advantages which the numerous enemies that always purfue a royal favourite. any illufion with regard to her beauty. and high quality ofElfrida. by this deceit. however. the detection of the artifice. gave his approbation. that though the parentage and fortune of the lady had not produced on him. he employed every pretence for detaining Elfrida in the country. with an expedient for eftabhfhlng his favourite's for- tune. and for keeping her at a diftance from Edgar. homelinefs of her perfon. he refolved to fatisfy himfelf with his own . Edgar was foon informed of the truth . by its means.

2. Wigorn. p. of which her hufband's artifice had bereaved her. and feducing Athelwold into a wood. She appeared before the king with all the advantages which the richefl attire and the modengaging airs could bellow upon her. which are remarked by allured hiftorians. vifit to fettle all England We are told that they imported the vices of their refpedive countries. however. 5. p. to conceal from Edgar. 866.EDGAR. Brompton. 8. to Athelwold for a paffion which had deprived her of a crown . that fatal beauty which had feduced him from fidelity to his friend. 356. p. and knowing the force of her own charms. 865. Hunting. own eyes of the certainty and full extent of his guilt. Higden. Sax. we mufi: mention two circumftances. . that he intended to pay him a vilit in and be introduced to the acquaintance of his new-married wife . buted . and A the! wold. that he might the better prepare his caftle. flie did not defpair even yet of reaching that dignity. c-chron. I 606 H. p. on pretence of hunting. and begged her. Malm. and (he excited at once in his bofom the higheft love towards herfelf. and contri" W. lib. by every circumftance of drefs and behaviour. He told him. and had be- trayed him into fo many falfehoods. though nothing was farther from She deemed herfelf little beholden her intentions. 125 c HA ^^• p. p. 1 he reputation of Edgar his court in . p. Biompton. and foon after publicly efpoufed Elfrida ". p. Flor. and the moft furious dcfire of revenge He knew. Hoveden. to difagainil her hufband. 268. Before we conclude our account of this reign. 426. Elfrida pro- mifed compliance. the whole matter to Elfrida . 865. number of forei(j:ners to and he gave them encouragement a great ". He then diicovered every thing for his reception. cap. 116. il" fhe had any regard either to her own honour or his hfe. lib. he dabbed him with his own hand. only craved leave to go before him a few hours. as he could not refufe the honour. femble thefe pafiions .

1 W. Malmef. fo highly and often fo injiidiciouily extolled.i:6 HISTORY OF ENCLANI>. He was fucceeded Edgar by Edward. cap. and v/hen he found that all that efcaped him had taken fhelter in the mountains and forelts of Wales. her . had a fon. He took great pains in hunting and purfuing thofe ravenous animals . the Martyr. did not preferve them as this But from barbarity and treachery. 83S. the vices. TT H E fucceflion of this prince. and as flie had polibfTed great credit with P W. lib. whom he had by his firfl marriage with the daughter of earl Ordmer. whom ilie attempted to raife to the throne: She affirmed that Edgar's marriage with the mother of Edward was expofed to infuperable objections . feven vears old. cap. EDWARD 5^5. Maimer lib. that the animal has been no ''. Brompton. Elfrida. greatell of all and the mofl incident to a rude uncultivated people. U. and to cure them of thofe illiberal prejudices and ruftic manners to which iflanders are. he changed the tribute of mo2iey impofed on the Welili princes by Athelftan. p. did not take place without much difficulty and oppofition. 6. remarkable incident of this reign was the extirpation of wolves from England. biited to corrupt the fimple manners of the natives ^i iimplfcity of manners. Another more feen in this illand. This advantage was attained by the induftrious policy of Edgar. often fubjeft. 2. as it tended to enlarge their views. and in the thirty-third of his age. 2. his ftep-mother. we ought perhaps to deem their acquaintance with foreisfners rather an advanta^re . his predeceflbr into an annual tribute of three hundred heads of wolves . who was only fif- teen years of age at his father's death. which produced fuch diligence in hunting them. Ethelred. died after a reign of fixteen years.

which. a. fubmitted to him^ It was of great importance to Dunftan and the monks. p. " p. which mufl enlarge her authority. Dunftan. expelled the new orders of monks from all the monafteries which lay within his jurifdiclion " . over he had already acquired a great afcendant ^ and he was determined to execute the will cf Edgar in his favour. duke of Mercia. 607.C But the fans. p. who wifhed to fupport them their caufe : partifans in in the pof- auOn the firft intelligence of Edgar's death. p. 123. her hulljanJ. 3 abb . 9. according to the practice of thofe times. cap. 427. Wigoin. llie had found means to acquire parti. Chron. but Elfwin. Alfere. whofe charafter of fanftity had given him the highefl credit with the people. p. 4x7. with- out farther difpute. 3. protected them within their territories. Malmef. a. confided partly of ecclefiaftical members. and Brithnot. p. 113. The principal nobihty. He was appointed fucceflbr by the will of his father ": He was approaching to man's eftate. 3. exedit. cap. and probably put her in poflefition of the regency : Above all. and mfcrht foon be able to take into his own hands the reins of government : 127 ii A P. lib. Eadmer. duke of Eafc-Anglia. 870. and of the Hoveden. thority. who feconded all her pretenfions. to place on the throne a king favourable to The fecular clergy had llill England. "^W. lib. 427. SelHoveden. 9. partly of the lay nobility. prince at Kingllon and crov/ned the young and the vv-^hole kingdom.EDWARD THE MARTYR. deni. Sax. p. there were fummoned feveral fynods. dread- ing the imperious temper of Elfrlda. Bioinptcn. p. The monks were feffion ecclefiailical * of the convents. W. « Ofberne. duke of the Eaft-Saxons. flor. Eadmer. were averfe to her fon's government. and infilled upon the execution of the late laws enaded in their favour. p. Dunflan refolutely anointed . whom To cut ofr all oppofite pretenfions. had efpoufed the caufe of Edward. In order to fettle this controverfv. Malm. Hoveden. title of Edward was fupported by many advantages.

p. 1647. cap. that they proceeded no another fynod. p.128 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Edward lived four years after his acceffion. 5. and that the beam. Gervafe. Malmef lib. 2. p. p. and a great number of the members were eiIt was remarked. p. v/as the only one that did not fmk under the weight of the aflembly y. rofe up and informed the audience. Gcivafe. 9. or having been fo fortunate as to obtain. and could not be oppofed without impiety ^ But the miracle performed in the third fynod was ftill more alarming The floor of the hall in which the affembly met funk of a fudden. p. that Dunflan had that day prevented the king from attending the fynod. lib. lib. 1647. ther bruifed or killed by the fall. cap. 112. St. by their pretended aulteritles. or probably fo overawed by the populace. inflead of begetting any fufpicion of contrivance. ^ W. 269. contrar)^ to the fecret wiilies. their miracles were more credited by In one fynod. Maimer. p. W. that he had that inftant received an immediate revelation in behalf of the monks : The afl'embly was fo aftonilljed at this intelligence. 2. 427. P. Abb. were regarded as thefureft proof of the immediate interpofition of Providence. H. y Chron. Ifovcden. Petri de Buroo. and there paffed nothing memorable during his reign. 124. Hunting. 269. thoughj as It appears. 2. lib. In : ^ W. if not the declared inclination. Dunftan finding the majority of \^otes againfl him.607. 357. Malmcf. 870 Flor. Wigorn. p. and informed the members that the eftablifhment of the monks was founded on the will of heaven. p. 9* p. Brompton. p. in behalf of thofe favourites of heaven. His I . able CHA to prevail In thefe aflemblies . But thefe circumftances. Brompton. Higden. 39. a voice ifliied from the crucifix. Sax. farther in their deliberations. on which his own chair flood. the populace. Ofberne. of the leading men in the nation ^ They had more invention in forging miracles : to fupport their caufe . Chron. the cha- racter of piety. p 870 Higden. cap. 9.

his body was found. his foot fluck in the ftirrup. put fpurs to his horfe . by all her hypocrify or remorfes. a fervant of Elfrida approached him. and they gave him the appellation of martyr. but could never. The prince. and he was dragged along by his unruly horfe till he expired Being tracked by the blood. he was incapable of entertaining Though his ftepany fufpicion againfl others. finding himfelf wounded. and even exprefled. and as his own intentions were always pure. and performed many penances.EDWARD THE ills IVIARTYR. though norant ages. but becoming faint by lofs of blood j he fell from the faddle. and gave him a ftab behind. p. fo eafily deluded in thofe ig'^ « Chi-on. After he had mounted his horfe. mother had oppofed his fucceflion. begat Elfrida buik or opinion. 1*his Voiin£^ prince was endowed with the mofl amiable innocence of manners . on all occafions. Sax. recover the good opinion any religious principle of the public. ]^ . and was privately interred at Wareham by his fervants. that they believed miracles to be wrought at his tomb . in order to atone for her guilt . VoL. and he thereby prefented her with the opportunity which (he had long wifhed for. unattended by any of his retinue. tzg death alone was memorable and tragical ^. he always fhowed her marks of regard. ^ fuch compaffion among the people.r. the moft tender affeftion towards his broHe was hunting one day in Dorfetfhire and ther. he took the opportunity of paying her a vifit. ahd had raifed a party in favour of her own fon. he defired fome liquor to be brought him : While he was holding the cup to his head. The youth and innocence of this prince. though his murder had no connexion with his tragical death. where Elfrida refided. t?4. with . monafteries. being led by the chafe near Corfe-caflle.





Settlemeyit of the Normans Canute Hay- old Harefoot



Edzvard the






^_ '___^

freedom which England had fo long cn]o)^td. from the depredations of the Danes, feems to have proceeded, partly from the eftablifhments which that piratical nation had obtained in the north of France, and which employed all their fuperfiuous hands to people and maintain them ; pi^rtly from the vigour and warlike fpirit of a long
race of Englifh princes,
in a pofture of defence



preferved the


by fea and land, and

prevented or repelled every attempt of the invaders. But a new generation of men being now fprung up in the northern regions, who could no longer difburthen themfeives on Normandy ; the Engliih had reafon to dread that the Danes would again vifit an ifland to which they were invited, both by the memory of their paft fucceffes, and by the expectation of afTiftance from their countrymen, who, though long eftablifhed in the kingdom, were not yet thoroughly incorporated with the natives, nor had entirely forgotten their inveterate habits of war and depredation. And as the reigning prince was a minor, and even when he attained to man's eftate, never difcovered either courage or capacity fufficlent to govern his ov/n fubjecls, much lefs to repel a formidable enemy, the people might juftly apprehend the worft calamities from fo dangerous a crilis. The Danes, before they durll attempt any Important enterprlfe againll England, made an Inconfiderable

£ T
fiJerable defcent


E L R E D.


by way of trial and having landed from feven vefTels near Southampton, they ravaged the country, enriched themfelves by fpoil, and departed with impunity. Six years after, they made a like attempt in the weft, and met with like luccefs.



invaders, having

now found

affairs in


very different fituation, from that in which they formerly appeared, encouraged their countrymen to affemble a greater force, and to hope for more confiderable advantages. They landed in Effex, under the command of two leaders and having defeated and llain at Maldon, Brithnot, duke of that county, who ventured, with a fmall body, to attack them, they fpread their devaftations over all the neighbouring provinces. In this extremity, Ethelred, to whom hiPtorians give the epithet of the Unready inffead of roufmg his people to defend with courap-e


hearkened to &Iie advice of Siricius, archbifhop of Canterbury, which AVas feconded by many of the degenerate nobility ; and paying the enemy the fum of ten thoufand pounds, he bribed them to depart the kingdom. This fliameful expedient was attended witli the fucThe Danes next cefs which might be expeded. year appeared off the eaftern coaff, in hopes of fubduing a people who defended themfelvcG by their money, which invited affailants, inltead of their But the Englifh, fenarms, which repelled them.
their property,

honour and

of their


had, in the interval, affembled

in a great council,

and had determined

to collect at


a fleet

able to give battle to


enemy *


though that judicious meafure failed of fuccefs, from t\e. treachery of Alfric duke of Mercia, whofe name is infamous in the annals of that age, by the calamities which his repeated perfidy brought upon his

This nobleman had,

in 983, fucceeded

to his father, Alfere,

in that extenfive



Chron.Sax. p. 126.










but being deprived of it two years after, and hanifiied the kingdom, he was obHged to employ all his intiigue, and all his power, which was too grear for a fubjecl, to be rellored to his country, and reinftated in his authority. Having had experience of tlie credit and malevolence of his enemies, he thenceforth traded for fecurity, not to his fervices, or to the affeclions of his fellow-citizens, but to the influence which he had obtained over his vaifals, and to the public calamities, which he thought muft, in every revolution, render his alliftance neceflarv. Having fixed this refolution, he determined to prevent ail fuch fuccelfes as might eftabliOi the royal authority, or render his own fituation dependant or precarious. As the Engliih had formed the plan of furrounding and deflroying the Danilh fleet in harbour, he privately informed the enemy of their danger ; and when they put to fea, in confequence of this intelligence, he deferted to them, v/ith the fquadron under his command, the night before the engagement, and thereby difappointed all the efforts of his countrymen \ Ethelred, enraged at his periidy, feized his fon Alfgar, and ordered his eyes to be put out But fuch was the power of Alfric, that

he again forced himfelf into authority ; and though he had given this fpecimen of his character, and received this grievous provocation, it was found neceifary to entruft him anew with the government of Mercia. This conduQ: of the court, which in all its circumftances is fo barbarous, weak, and imprudent, both merited and prognofticated the moil grievous


The northern
ful defcent


now well

acquainted with

the defencelefs condition of England,

under the command of Denmark, and Olave king of Norvv^ay ; and faihng up the Humber, fpread on all fides their deftrudive

made a powerSweyn king of


Chron. Six. Chron. S.ix.

p. 127.
p. 12S.

W. Malm. p. 62. W. Malm. p. 6».

liigden, p. 270.

^m ™



E T H E L R E D.


Lindefey was laid waftc ; Banbury was c Ti A p. dcih-oyed ; and all tiie Northumbrians, though J^'^ uioitly of Uaniih defcent, were conllrained cither 10 join the invaders, or to fuifer under their depredapowerful army was affembled to oppofc tions. the Danes, and a general adion enfued ; but the


from the cowurdice or treachery of their three leaders, all of them men of Daniib race, Frena, Frithegilt, and Godwin, who gave the example of a Ihameful llight to the troops under their command. Encouraged by this fuccefs, and ftill more by the contempt which it infpired for tlicir enemy, the

were deferted

in the battle,

pirates ventured to attack the centre of the



and entering the Thames in ninety-four veffels, laid liege to London, and threatened it with total deflruclion. But the citizens, alarmed at the danger, and firmly united among themfelves, made a bolder defence than the cowardice of the nobility and gentry gave the invaders reafon to apprehend and the



fuffering the




finally frulf rated in their attempt.

In order to

revenge themfelves, they laid wafte ElTex, Suffex, and Hampfliire ; and having there procured horfes, they were thereby enabled to fpread, through the more inland counties, the fury of their depredations. In this extremity, Ethelred and his nobles had recourfe to the former expedient ; and fending ambaifadors to the two northern kings, they promifed them fubfiflence and tribute, on condition they would, for the prefent, put an end to their ravages, and foon after depart the kingdom. Sweyn and Olave agreed to the terms, and peaceably took up

quarters at Southampton, where the fum of pounds was paid to them. Olave even made a journey to Andover, where Ethelred refixteen thoufand

and he received the rite of confirmation from ; Englidi biihops, as well as many rich prefents the

tVom the king.


here promifed that he would K. 3 never



c H A

never more


the Englifh territories; and hefaith-


engagement. This prmce receives the appellation of St. Clave from the church of Rome; and, notvvithffcanding the general prefumption which lies either againfh the underftanding or morals of every orxC who in thofe ignorant ages was dignified with that title, he feems to have been a man of merit and of virtue. Sv/eyn, though lefs fcrupulous than Olave, v/as conftrained, upon the departure of the Norv/egian prince, to evacuate alfo the kingdom with all his followers. This compofition brought only a fliort interval to the miferies of the Englilh. The Daniih pirates appeared foon after in the Severne; and having committed fpoil in Wales, as well as in Cornwal and Devonfhire, they failed round to the fouth coalf, and entering the Tamar, completed the devaftation They then returned to the of thefe two counties. Briftol channel ; and penetrating into the country
fully fulfilled the


by the Avon, fpread themfelves over all that neighbourhood, and carried fire and fword even into Dorfetfhire. They next changed the feat of war ; and after ravaging the Ifie of Wight, they entered the Thames and Medway, and laid fiege to Rochefter, where they defeated the Kentifh-men in a pitched After this viftory, the whole province of battle. Kent was made a fcene of flaughter, fire, and deextremity of thefe miferies forced the Englilh into counfels for common defence both by fea and land ; b :t the weaknefs of the king, the divifions among the nobility, the treachery of fome, the cowardice of others, the want of concert in all, fruflrated every endeavour : Their fleets and armies either came too late to attack the enemy, or were repulfed with diflionour ; and the people were thus equally ruined by refinance or by fubmillion. The Englilh therefore, dcftitute both of prudence and unanimity in council., of courage and conduct in the field, had recourfe to the fame weak expedient








which by experience they had already found fo in- C HA PThey offered the Danes to buy peace, by ^^^^^^J,^^ effedtual paying them a large fum of money. Thefe ravagers rofe continually in their demands ; and now required the payment of 24,000 pounds, to which the Eng*. fo mean and imprudent as to fubmit lifii were The departure of the Danes procured them another fliort interval of repofe, which they enjoyed, as if it were to be perpetual, without making any effedual
preparations f


more vigorous refinance upon


next return of the enemy.

Besides receiving this fum, the Danes were engaged by another motive to depart a kingdom which
appeared fo

in a fituation to refill their efforts


They were

invited over by their



mandy, who at this time were hard preiled arms of Robert king of France, and who found

Norby the

defend the fettlement which, with fo much advantage to themfelves and glory to their nation, they had made in that country. It is probable alfo, that Ethelred, obferving the clofe connexions thus maintained among all the Danes, hov/ever divided in government or fituation, was defirous of forming an alliance with that formidable people For this purpofe, being now a widov/er, he made
his addreifes to







of Normandy, and he foon fucceeded in his negociation. The princefs came over this year to England, and was married to Ethelred ^ In the end of the ninth, and beginning of the tenth century, when the north, not yet exhaufled by that



multitude of people, or rather nations, which




fucceffively emitted,


forth a


race, not

and ravagers, who infefled the countries poffeffed by her once warlike fons lived RoUo, a petty prince or chieftain of Denmark, whofe valour and abilities
of conquerors,

before, but of pirates



Hoveden, p


Chron. Mailr. p 153.


H. Hunt.

p snj.

Higden, p 271.






cH ^

foon engaged the attention of his countrymen. He was expofed in his youth to the jealoufy of the king of Denmark, Avho attacked his fmall but independent principahty ; and who, being foiled in every

had recourfe at laft to perfidy for effecting his purpofe, which he had often attempted in vain by force of arms " He lulled Rollo into fecurity byan infidious peace ; and falling fuddenly upon him, murdered his brother and his bravefl officers, and



to fly for fafety into Scandinavia.


induced partly by aifeftion to their prince, partly by the opprellions of the Danifli monarch, ranged themfelves under his
of his ancient fubjefts,
flandard, and offered to follow



in every enter-

Rollo, inilead of attempting to recover his paternal dominions, where he muft expeft a vigor-,

ous refiftance from the Danes, determined to purfue an eafier, but more important undertaking, and to make his fortune, in imitation of his countrymen, by pillaging the richer and more fouthern coads of Europe. He collefted a body of troops, which, like that of all thole ravagers, was compofed of Norwegians, Swedes, Frifians, Danes, and adventurers of all nations, who, being accuflomed to. a roving unfettled Ufe, took delight in nothing but war and plunder. His reputation brought him affociates





and a


pretended to have appeared to him in his which, according to his interpretation of it, prognodicated the greateff fucceifes, proved alfo a pov/er-^ fui incentive \vith thofe ignorant and fuperftitiou^ people ^. The firfl attempt made by Rollo was on England, near the end of Alfred's reign when that great monarch, having fettled Guthrum and his followers in Ealt-Anglia, and others of thofe freebooters ill Northumberland, and having reilored peace to his

which he fleep, and

Dudo, ex


p. 71.

p. 70, 71.

fap. ?, 3.



Gul. Gemtticcnis, lib.4. Gul. Gem. in epilt. ad Gul. Conq.





harafied country, had eflahlifhed the moft excellent pTiilitary as well y.s civil inllitutlons among the Engr


no advantage* could be gained over fuch a people, governed by

The prudent Dane,

finding that

iuch a prince, foon turned his enterprifes againfl France, which he found more expofed to his in" roads ; and during the reigns of Eudes, an ufurpcr, and of Charles the Simple, a weak prince, he committed the moil deftruftive ravages both on the Inr

land and maritime provinces of that kingdom. The French, having no means of defence againit a leader, who united all the valour of his countrymen with the policy of more civilized nations, were obliged to fubmit to the expedient praclifed by Alfred,

fome of thofe provinces which they had depopulated by their arms The reafon why the Danes for m.any years purfued mealures fo diiferent from thofe which had been embraced by the Goths, Vandals, Franks, Burgundians, Lombards, and other northern conquerors, was the great dilference in the method of attack which w^as pradifed by thefe feveral nations, and to which the nature pf their refpeftive fituaand
to olfer the invaders a fettlement in

tions neceflarily confined
living in



latter tribes,

by land an inland country, made upon the Roman empire ; and when they entered far into the frontiers, they were obliged to carry along with them their wives and families, whom they had no hopes of foon revifiting, aaid who could not otherwife participate of their plunder. This

circumftance quickly made them think of forcing a fettlement in the provinces which they had overrun ; and thefe barbarians, fpreading themfelves over the country, found an intered in protetling the property ^nd induftry of the people whom they had fubdued.

^ut the Danes and

J^^orwegians, invited



Gul, Gemet.

lib. 3.



p. 82.






maritime fituation, and obliged to maintain themfelves in their uncultivated country by fifning, had acquired fome experience of navigation ; and in their military excurfions purlued the method praclifed againil the Roman empire by the more early Saxons ;

They made

defcents in fmall bodies


their ihips,

or rather boats, and ravaging the coafls, returned with the booty to their families, v/hom they could not conveniently carry along with them in thofe ha-

zardous enterprifes. But when they increafed their armaments, made incurfions into the inland countries, and found it fafe to remain longer in the midfl of the enfeebled enemy, they had been accuftomed to crowd their velTels with their wives and children ; and having no longer any temptation to return to their own country, they willingly embraced an opportunity of fettling in the warm chmates and culf tivated fields of the fouth. Affairs were in this fituation with Rollo and his followers, when Charles propofed to relinquifli to them part of the province formerly called Neuftria, and to purcbafe peace on thefe hard conditions. After all the terms were fully fettled, there appeared only one circumftance fhocking to the haughty Dane He was required to do homage to Charles for this province, and to put himfelf in that humiliating poilure impofed on vaifals by the rites of the feudal He long refufed to fubmit to this indignity; law. but being unwilling to lofe fuch important advantages for a mere ceremony, he made a facrifice of
his pride to his intereft,

in form, the vaffal

and acknowledged himfelf, of the French monarch 2. Charles

gave him his daughter Gifla in marriage and, that he might bind him fafter to his interelts, made him a donation of a confiderable territory, befides that which he was obliged to furrender to him by his fliWhen fome of the French nobles inpulations.

Ypod. Neuft.

p. 417,






formed him, that in return for fo generous a pre- ^ fent, it was expecled that he fhould throw himfelf at the king's feet, and make fuitable acknowledgments Rollo rephed, that he would rather for his bounty and it was with fome dii'Hculty £jt.cline the prefent they could perluade him to make that compliment by one of his captains. The Dane, commifTioned

^^ ^*


for this purpofe, full of indignation at the order, and defpifmg fo unwarlike a prince, caught Charles

by the

and pretending to carry it to his mouth, that he might kifs it, overthrew hin'« before all his The French, fenfible of their prefent courtiers. wcaknefs, found it prudent to overlook this infult ^. RoLLOj vi'ho was now in the decline of hfe, and V'as tired of wars and depredations, applied himfelf, with mature counfels, to the fettlement of his newacquired territory, wh:ch was thenceforth called Normandy ; and he parcelled it out among his capHe followed, in this partition, tains and followers the cuftoms of the feudal law, which was then unifoot,

verfally ellablilhed in the fouthern countries of


rope, and which fuited the peculiar circumllances He treated the French fubjefts, who of that age.

fubmitted to him, with mildnefs and judice ; he reclaimed his ancient follow rs from their ferocious violence ; he eftabliflied law and order throughout his {late ; and after a life fpent in tumults and ravages, he died peaceably in a good old age, and
left his


to his pofterity


fucceeded him, governed the and, during that time, dutchy twenty-five years the Norm^ans were thoroughly intermingled with the French, had acquired their language, had imitated their manners, and had made fuch progrefs towards cultivation, that, on the death of William, his fon Richard, though a minor '', inherited his dofure proof that the Normans Vv'ere aiminions :





Gul. Gcmet.

lib. 2.

cap. 17.


Gul. Gemet.

lib. z. lib.

cap. i^^

30, 21.

Qrder. VitaliSj p. 455.

Gul. Gemet.

4. cap. i.


that they debauched the wives and daughters of the Englifh. fenfible of that fuperiority. ^ Wallingfoul p. changed their clothes frequently . 547- invaders. This wai> the duke who c:ave his filter Emma in marriage to Ethelred king of England. in the year 996 . The Danes had been eftabliflied during a longer period in England than in France . Thefe raercenaries had attained to fuch a height of luxury. had rendered themfelves fo agreeable to the fair fex. The . that they retained all their ancient ferocity. But what mofl provoked the inhabitants was. particularly Athelftan and Edgar. P. and difhonoured many families. and valued them^ felves only ou their national character of military ^ bravery. had been accuftomed to keep in pay bodies of Danifh troops. recent as well as more ancient atchievements of their countrymen tended to fup^ port this idea and the Englifh princes. and though the fmiilarity of their original language to that of the Saxons. p. Vitalis. and who thereby fonned conne«btions with a country which his pofterity was fo foon after deftined to fubdue. . 459. was fucceeded by his fon of the fame name. bathed themfelves once a week. invited them to a more early coalition with the natives. Richard. after a long reign of fifty-four years. and was not wholly fuflained by the abilities of the fovereign. as well as by their military chara61:er. and committed many violences upon the inhabitants. that inflead of defending theni againll ^ Qrdev. and by all thefe arts of effeminacy. that they combed their hair once a day. they had hitherto found fo little example of civilized manners among the Englifli. according to the old Enghlli writers "". which was eighty-five years after the firit eftabllilnnent of the Normans in France.14© HISTORY OF ENGLAND. who were quartered about the country. C HA ready fomewJiat advanced in civility. and that their government could now red fccure on its laws and civil inftitutions.

excited by ib malfacre many injuries. appeared off the wcllern coafl:. feized and condemned to death by Ethelred. fiRerto the king of Denmark. Never was prophecy better fulfilled. * Sec note [D] at the end of the volum-e.^!^^ The aniniofity flragghng parties of that nation. Secret orders were dilpatched to commence . that her murder would foon be avenged by the total ruin of the Eng: >^o\. and never loo-j. Brice. who w^anted but a presence for invading the Engliili. between the inhabitants of Enghfli and Danifh race had. and threatened to take full revenge for the flaughter of their countrymen. by the advice of Edric-^ earl of Wilts. foreign Danes. a Norman. rifen to a great when Ethch'cd. did barbarous policy prove more fatal to the authors. was. and had embraced Chriftianity. This unhappy princefs foretold. tiie exe- ioo?» cation every where on the fame day and the feitival of St. w'ho had been made governor by' They began to fpread ch'e intereft of queen Emma. and to dflociate thenifels^es with all ^_. Exeter fell firft into from the negligence or treachery of earl Hugh. diffinguifhed not betw^een innocence and guilt. and itimulated by example. after feeing her hufoand and children butchered before her face. 13. fanclified by authority. which fell on a Sunday. was It is needlefs to repeat the chofen for that purpofe. fpared neither fex nor age. accounts tranfmitted concerning the barbarity of this The rage of the populace. 141 were ever ready to betray tliciil to the C II A P. embraced the cruel reiblution of maffacring the latter.£ T H E L R E i'lv. their . from thefe repeated injuries. Sweyn and his Danes. Even Gunilda. flicy D. from a poHcy incident to height weak princes. in the agonies of defpair.idcrs. who had married earl Paling. and was net fatiared without the tortures as well as death of the unhappy victims. their hands. throughout all his dominions *« . lifli nation. the day on which the Danes ufually bathed themfclves.

!}'_. who was intruded with the to CHAP. was reduced to the utmoft and at laft fubmitted to the infamy of defolation purchafmg a precarious peace from the enemy. fe-gning ficknefs.600 hides in England. haraffed by the fruitlefs expeditions of its own forces. and difpirited. in the command A ^^'c*?' wafted by the Danes. The caralry was 30. refufed againft the Danes. fucceeded Alfric. Confequently the fhip* equipped muft be 785. animofities. A cefs were difappointed by the diffenfions of the nobility. and thofe of 310 hides to When equip a fhip for the defence of the coaft. Edric had impelled his brother Brightric to prefer an accufation of treafon againft Wolfnorth. well . of the Englifli armies. law was made.450 men. command. by the payment of 30. factions. There were 243. traitor than he. which muft have confifted of near eight hundred veffels ". hfn. a greater duft. fenfible what outrages they muft now expect from their barbarous and offended enemy. ordering the proprietors of eight hides of land to provide each a horfeman and a complete fuit of armour . But all thefe preparations were fruflrated by the treachery of duke Alfric.142 History of England. this navy was affembled. proceeding partly from the bad feafons. and lead the army and w^ho. in the government of Mercia. governor of Suffex. added to all the other miferies of the inhabitants. which they had reafon foon to expecl. The country. affembleJ more early. till it was by his fatal mifconAlfric foon after aieJ . all hopes of its fuc. and that nobleman. The Enghlli endeavoured to employ this interval in making preparations againfl the return of the Danes. great famine. partly from the decay of agriculture. at lall dilTipated. and made an appearance of vigorous refiftance. anJ in greater numbers than ufudl. and Edric. the father and of the famous earl Godwin •.000 pounds. their devaftatlons over the country j when the Eng« <. who had married the king's daughter. and had acquired a total afcendant over him.

was the bafe and imprudent one of buying a new peace from the Danes. found no means of fafety but in A i'. but proved fatal. The imbecility of the king was little capable of repairing this milfortune The treachery of Edric fruftrated every plan for future defence . This meafure did not even bring them that fhort interval of repofe which they had expected from it. the devaftation of the open country . by the payment of 48. or none M^as carried into execution. but his fhips being fliattered in a tempefl. It is almoft impoilible. The broken and disjointed narration of the ancient hiftorians is here well adapted to the nature of the v/ar. and ilranded on the coaft. difconcerted. ^^^' deferting with twenty fliips to the Danes. which was conducted by fuch fuddcn inroads as would have been dang^erous even to an united and well-Q[overned kingdom. and were cils at lafl terrified from aiTembHng their forces for the defence of their ovv'n province. levied a new contri- General counbut either no refolution was icn. continued their Qe^^flations and hoftilities . taken. . were fummoned . he was fuddenly attacked by Wolfnorth. and divided. The governors of one province refufed to march to the aififtance of another. was at lad fcattered into its feveral harbours. to re: late particularly all the miferies to which the Englifli were thenceforth expofed. the appe^irance of the enemy in every quarter of the kingdom . or would be tedious. Brightric purfued him with a fleet of eighty fail .E T H E L R E D.000 pounds. where nothing but a general confternation and mutual diffidence and diffenfion prevailed. ri 143 well acquainted with the malevolence as well as c power of his enemy. difregarding all engagements. The Danes. difcouraged. and the Englifh navy. And the only expedient in which theEnglilh agreed. their cruel diligence in difcovering any corner which had not been ranfacked by their former violence. and all his veffels were burnt and deftroyed. We hear of nothing but the facking and burning of towns .

his unhappy guefts with a generolity that does honour to his Joi4 memory. muroered the archbiHiop of Canterbury. being now tutored bv exnerience.144 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and intimating their hopes that. \ p. where he murdered them . and in a vifit v hich was paid her. by prince Edmond. and Richard received her two fons Alfred and Edward. gular beauty and merit . indolence^ cowardice. invited Ethelred to return to them. fwearing allegiance to him. Edric. and credulity. while Ethelred participated in the infamy of the aftion^ by confifcating their eitates. fent over a deputation to Normandy. during her confinement. notwithflanding his repeated treafons. . as to inftil into the king jealoufies of Sigefert and Moi-car. and thrufting into a convent She was a woman of finthe widow of Sigefcr'. which had fo often exHis fonpofed him to the infults of his enemies. king had not been above fix weeks in Normandy. whd expired at Gainfboroughj before he had time to new-acquired dominions. two of the Edric allured them into chitf nobles of Mercia his houfe. he would avoid all thofe errors which had been attended with fuch misfortunes to himfelf and to his people. and on his refuming the government. eltablifli himfelf in his The Englilli prelates and nobility. taking advantage of this event. and the Engli(h nobihty found no other refource than that of fubmitting every where to the Danifh monarch. when he heard of the death of Sweyn.:. : The the . C H }^^' ioi3' contribution of 8000 pounds upon the county of Kent alone . in-law. he difcovered the fame incapacity. who had refufed to countenance this exaction. fled into Normandy^ whither he had fent before him queen Emma. retained fuch infiuence at court. But the mifconduft of Ethelred was incurable . exprefling a defire of being again governed by their native prince. and deliverEthelred^ ing him hoftages for their fidelityi equally afraid of the violence of the enemy and the treachery of his own fubjeds.

deprived of all regular fupplies to maintain his foldiers. and Somerfet . and he then openly deferted to Canute with forty veiTels. was obliged to commit equal ravages with thofe which were praclifed by the Danes and after making fome fruitlefs expeditions into the north. and loon after married her without the cou- _^^^ fent of his fluher. that thofe vafl preparations became. : He prince Edmond and duke Edric. where an army was affembled againfl him. by delivering him into the hands of his enemies. He was obliged. I. he found means to difperfe the army . was in a condition to give battle to the enemy. NoTwiTHsTANDiKo this mlsfortune. he continued his depredations along the fouthern coafl He even broke into the counties of Dorfet. to make a voyage to Denmark . inefFedual for the defence of the Idngdom. pretending ficknefs. they were fo difcouraged. an enemy no lefs terrible than the prince from whom death had fo lately ravaged the eaftern coaft with mercilefs fury. and put afliore all the Englilh hollages at Sandwich. the fon and fuccetTor of Sweyn. Wilts. Edmond was not difconcerted . which had fubmitted entirely to Canute's Vol. after having cut off their hands and nofes. that he reieafed her from the convent. under the command of delivered them. The army called aloud for their fovereign to march at their head againfl the Danes . Meanwhile the EngJifh found in Canute.E T lunt H E L R E D. Edmond. The . by the neceiiity of his affairs. but alTembling all the force of England. flie 145 Tvich fo vio- the klng*s elded fon. infpired him chap. L power. ^ an affection. but returning foon after. but really from apprehenfions that they : ^^'J* . latter fdll and after Continued his perfidious machinations endeavouring in vain to get the prince into his power. that he had lofc all confidence in them He remained at London. . The king had had fuch frequent experience of perfidy among his fubjeds.intended to buy their peace. and on his refufal to take the field.

army and to employ them againft the After meeting with fome fuccefs at Giilingham. who were commanded by Canute and Edric. than to lead his inllantly into the field. upon Ethelred's death. were immediately. having cut off the head of one Ofnier. the fate of his crov/n . to the laft extremity. the fmall remains of Enghih Hberty. ioi6. He here found every thing in confufion by the after death of the king. though Edmond. Among treachery the the other misfortunes of the Eng- and difaffeftion among nobility had creeped in and Edmond and prelates . but not to raife it from that abyfs of mifery into which it had already fallen. Fortune. who fuccecded him. he oflered battle to the enemy. that it was time to fly And for. Alfred and Edward. and Edwy. conveyed into Normandy by queen Emma. declared for him but Edric. fixed it 'on a fpear. ED 'TpHlS from M O N D IRONSIDE. polleffed courage and abilities fufficient to have prevented his country from finking into thofe calamities. and called aloud to the Englifii. in the beginning of the day. common enemy. P°^'^^' ^^ retired to London. took off his helmet and Ihcwed Imnfelf to them. behold! the head of their fovereign. whom Canute afterwards murdered. and at Scoerfton. His two fons by the fecond marriage. He left two fons by his firfl marriage. his name of Ironfide hardy valour. whofe countenance refembled that of Edmond. in one general engagement.h6 ^ ^11^ ^' history of ENGLAND. lifli. he prepared himfelf to decide. . found no better expedient for flopping the farther progrefs of thefe fatal evils. determined there to <„„^^I^^ maintain. Edmond. in the county of Glocefter. troops. carried it through the ranks in triumph. who received the prince. who expired an unhappy and inglorious reign of thirty-five years. obferving the conflernation of the .

and as Edniond was well acpower. was ready to take advantage of the minority of Edwin and Edward. the two fons of Edmond. he was again in a condition to difpute the the Danifh and Englifli nobility. where Edric. CAN 'HE ^: Englifli. occafioned the total defeat of the Englifli. adive and brave himfelf. to give him a conbattle foon after fiderable command in the army. who thereby made way for the fuccelTion of Canute the Dane to the crown of England. which he had entirely fubdued The fouthern parts wGre left to Edmond. L 2 fhowed . J47 thf m. This prince furvived the treaty about a month He was murdered at Oxford by two of his treaty. 'oi7' unable to defend their country. expeft nothing but total fubjedion from Canute. U T E. and to divide the kingfield when Canute referyed to himfelf the northern divifion. after his death. the utmofl he could gain by his adivity and Edric valour was to leave the victory undecided. followed by a great flaughter The indefatigable Edmond. howof the nobility. enfued at Affington in EiTex . flying in the beginning of the day. who had bqen who was commonly fo little fcrupulous. notwithlianding the repeated periidy of the man. obliged their kings to come to a compromife. who. and at the head of a great force. conhfting of Mejcia^ Eaft-An9:]ia. under lo active and brave a prince as Edmondj could.ED MOND I RON S I D E. and maintain their independency. Yet this conqueror. him . had . and probably knew no A ever. quainted with his other of the chief nobility in whom he could repofe more confidence. equally haraiTed with thole convulfions. now took a furer method to ruin him j by pretending to defert to CHAP. chamberlains. : dom between them by : accomplices of Edric. and Northumberland. ftill refources : Affembling a new army at Glocefter. he was obliged.

Yric of Northumberland. in order to fix the fuccelTion of the kingdom.14^ HISTORY OF feNGLAND. by beft owing on them the moft extenfive governplaufible piretences • ments and jurifdiftions. Margaret. but fenfible that he fhould render himfelf extremely odious if he ordered them to be difpatched in England. nerous to comply with the requefl . fupported by the great power of Canute. to free him by their death from all farThe Swedifli monarch was too gether anxiety. he fent them to Solomon king of Hungary. He created ThurkjH earl or duke of Eaft-Anglia (for thefe titles were then nearly of the fame import). in marriage to Edward the younger brother . in the treaty of Glocefter. whom he defired. but the Englifi-r prince dying without iflue. by protecting the young princes. who retired into a convent. daughter of the Emperor Henry If. but being afraid of drawing on himfelf a quarrel with Canute. The elder Edwin was afterwards married to the filter of the king of Hungary . and flie bore him Edgar Atheling. i . fent them abroad to his ally the king of Sweden. jealous of the two princes. Agatha. determined the dates immediately to put the Banifli monarch in poifeffion of the government. himfelf anxious to cover his injuftice under : CHAP. and Chriftina. though he had reached the great point of hi& ambition. He here fuborned fome nobles to depofe that. Canute. to be educated in his^ court. in cafe of Edmond's death. fucceffbr to his dominions. Canute. and to gratify the chief of the nobility. after. or tutor to his children (for hiftorians vary in this particular) : And that evidence. in obtaining poiTefTion of theEnglifh crown. as foon as they arrived at his court. it had been verbally agreed either to name Canute.wards queen of Scotland. Solomon gave his fifterin-law. mowed ^^^* Before he feized the dominions of the EngHih princes. was obliged at iirll to make great facri•2-fices to -it . he fummoned a general affembly of the ftates.

a wife prince. The Danes were gradually incorporated with his new fubjeds . L 3 tain . having had the affurance to reproach him with his fervices. befides n. But feizing afterwards a favourable opportunity. 72. And even the traitor Edric. by a flri<^ execution of law. on whofe fidelity he could not rely. on account of the affection which it had borne to Ed- mond. from political motives.ooo pounds which he levied on London alone. Canute alfo found himfelf obliged. kind. felf 149 and Edric of Mercia adminiftration . and whom he hated on account of their difloyalty to their native prince.CANUTE. p. Canute diverted the courfe of the Thames. he expelled Tliurkill and Yric from their governments.000 pounds. and by that means brought his fliips above iondon bridge. in the be- ginning of his reign. in order to reward his Danifh followers : He exacted from them at one time the fum of 72. like it Denmark fpare : as many of his followers as he could fafely He reftored the : fiffembly of the ftates tice Saxon cufloms in a general He made no diflindtion be- tween Danes and Englifh in the diflribution of jufAnd he took care. was determined that the Englifh. In one of thefe fieges. now deprived of all their dangerous leaders. fhould be reconciled to the Danifh yoke. referving only to him- CHAP. a fuitable reward for his multiplied acts of perfidy and the : rebellion. and both were glad to ob^ : ° W. was condemned to be executed. to protect the lives and properties of all his people. to load the people with heavy taxes. and his body to be thrown into the Thames . and the refiftance which Danifh power in two obflinate rigours were imputed to . But thefe neceflity and Canute. of Weflex. by the juftice and impartiality of his adminiflration. Malm. to muI6t feverely that city. He fent back to had made to the fieges °. He was probably willing. and banifhed them the kingdom He put to death many of the Englifh nobility.

by the fame means. a man of valour and abihties. Six. and who had already formed connexions with them: And thus Canute. he paid his ad? queen £mma.T50 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 73. p. 151. Canute^ . the condreffes to . was. fidence of his own fubjedls 'J. who were protefted and fupported by their uncle. p»Ji7i. The Norman prince did not long furvive the marriage of Emma . had. befides fecuring by this marriage the aUiance of Normandy. 7j. In order to acto the throne of their anceflors quire the friendthip of the duke. Richard duke of Normandy. was fucceeded by his brother Ro-* bert. in their fierce conteil for power. were pleafed to find at court a fovereign. and though the navy was difperfed by a ftorm. tain a little refpite CHAP. though they difapproved of her efpoufmg the mortal enemy of her former hufband and his family. Malmef. gradually acquired. p. experienced fuch fatal confequences. whom he fhould have by that marriage. The Englifh. in poifefiion of the crown of England. except with regard to Alfred and Edward. from thofe multiplied calamities from which the one. W. 1 W. no lefs than the other. p. removal of Edmond*s children into fo dif. regarded by Canute as the greateil fecurity to his government : He had no farther anxiety. next to their death. Malmef. where file was foon after married to Canute p. P Chron. in order to reftore the Englilh princes . Canute faw the danger to which he was expofed from the enmity of fo warlike a people as the Normans. Iligdeii. to whom they were accuftomed. Richard even fitted out a great The armament. filler of that prince and promifed that he would leave the children. and fent over Emmia to England. and he left the inheritance of the dutchy to his eldefl fon of the fame name. Richard complied with his demand. who dying a year after him without children. tant a country as Hungary.

Canutf. that he belfowed his daughter in marriage upon Godwin. drove them from their trenches. in order to refill the attacks of the king of Sweden and he carried along with him a great . Iff. which he made afterwards to Denmark.Canute. and obtained a decifive victory over Next morning. Canute attacked Norway. he felt the unfatisfadory nature of all human enjoyments and. having fettled his power in England be. to make the obje£l of its attention. whether fatiated by profperity. : : Swedifh camp «>a2. he began to cad his viev/ towards that future exigence.. camp endrely abandoned. attained the utmofl Having leifure from wars and height of grandeur intrigues. . by his conquefls and valour. which it is fo natural for the human mind. and with the manner of obtaining it. Unfortunately the fpirit which prevailed in. made a voyage to ll 151 A P. threw them into diforder. laid the foundation of that immenfe fortune which he acquired to his family. In another voyage. kept polTeffion of his kingdom till the death of that prince. purfued his advantage. He had now. gaining to himfelf the friendfliip of his fovereign.c yond all danger of a revolution. equally weary of the glories and turmoils of this life. or difgufted with adverfity. This nobleman had here an opportunity of performing a fervice. that age gave a wrong L 4 direclion to his de- voiion: . . and expelling the juft but unwarlike Olaus. Denmark. feeinor the Enp-lifli them. which he was obliged fuddenly to feize. He was Rationed next the and obfcrving a favourable opportunity. he attacked the enemy in the night. and treated him ever after with entire confidence and regard.CANUTE. body of the Engliili. and. imagined that thofe difuffefted troops had deferted to the enemy He was agreeably furprifed to find that they were at that time engaged in purfuit of the difcomfited Swedes. He was fo pleafed with his fuccefs. by which he both reconciled the king's mind to the Englifli nation. under the command of earl Godwin.

. fovereign of Denmark and Norway. and to obey the voice of him who was lord of the He feigned to fit fome time In expectation ocean. the 3 C^f . of their fubmillion but when the fea ftill advanced towards him. and began to wafh him with its billows. where he refided a confiderable time : Befides obtaining from the pope fome privileges for the Englilh fchool eredted there. day in admiration of his grandeur. and he bellowed Inflead of revenues for the fupport of chantries ?it Ailington and other places . hp gained. ordered his chnir to be fet on and as the the fea-iliore. making compenfation to thoffe whom he had injured by his former ads of violence. the affections of his fubjeds. and mofl powerful monarch of his time. he endowed monafr teriesj he enriched the ecclefiaftics. monarch. he engaged all the princes. and that power rcfidcd with one [peing aione. that every creature in the univerfe was feeble and iiTipotent. no lefs than by his equitable and politic adminiflration. in whofe hands were all the elements greatefl . as w^ell as of England. age to Rome. a tribute which is liberally paid even to the meaned and weakeft Some of his flatterers breaking out one princes. he commanded them to retire. he employed himfelf entirely in thofe exerpifes of piety which the monks reprefented as the moll meritorious. in a good meafvire. where he appointed prayers to be fald for the fouls of thofe who h^d there fallen ii^ He even undertook a pilgrimbattle againfl him. By this fpirit cf devotion. . to defift from thofe heavy impofitions and tolls v/hich they were accuflomed to exa6l from the Englilh pilgrims.152 HISTORY votion : OF ENGLAND. through whofe dominions he v/as obliged to pafs. and remarked to them. c HA P. Canute. could not fail of meeting with adulation from his courtiers. while the tide was rihng w^aters approached. it is faid. he turned to his courtiers. He built churches. exclaimed that Upon which the every thing was poffible for him.

Thus far ^^. but Malcolm refufed compliance. was an expediDuring tion againft Malcolm. commonly called Dcimgelt j becaufe the revenue had been employed. which contained a fecret reproach on his own condu6t. but IVIalcclm. and the king of Scotland foon found that the fceptre was in very diiierent hands from thofe of the feeble and irrefolute Ethelred. fhould make the fubmiiftons re• who quired. a tax of a iliilling a hide had It was been impofed on all th^ lands of England. Upon Canute's appearing on the frontiers with a formidable army. 153 could fay to the ocean. The only memorable action which Canute per. Ethelred. nor pay others for refifting them. Canute was not of a temper to bear this infult . told him. king of Scotland. that ^s he was always able to repulfe the Danes by hjs own power. Canute. the reigji of Ethelred.an pride and ambition. and v/ho could level ». Malcolm agreed that his grandfon and heir. whom he put in poSeHion of Cumberland. after his acceffion. on pretence that he owed homage to thofe princes only who inherited that kingdom by right of bloo^. or jn making preparations againft the inroads of that hoftile nation. undertook an expedition againft Cumberland . That monarch had required that the fame tax ftiould be paid by Cumberland which was held by the Scots .I'^iU formed after his return iTorn Rome. but though he committed ravages upon the country.„i--y--^-^ with his nod the moil towering piles of hurr. he could never bring l\Xalcolm to a temper inore humble or fubmifTive. either in buying peace with the Danes. fummoned the Scottifli king to acknowledge him-felf a vaffal for Cumberland to the crown of England . offended at this reply. Duncan. and no farther . he would neither fubmit to buy peace of his enemies. cf nature. and that the heirs of Scotland fliould al- ways .CANUTE.^'^* Jkalt ihou go. ^ warlike prince.^.

C H themfelves vafifals to England for ^^^- '^~' Canute terprife. was at that : : time in England. whether he found it neceffary to proceed by force or intrigue in infuring his fuccelTion. the mod powerful nobleman s in the kingdom.-p. he had either confidered himfelf as releafed from that engagement by the death of Richard. Swe3m. p. was crowned in Norway Hardicannte. who. or efteemed it dangerous to leave an unfettled and newly conquered kingdom in the hands of fo young a prince as Hardicanute : He therefore appointed. ways acknowledge that province '. which might be equally ufeful. Harold fucceifor This prince was befides prefent to maintain his claim he was favoured by all the Danes . X02S' 'T^HO UGH Canute. Hardicailute had the fuffrages of the Englifli. chvoji. who was of the fame marriage with Sweyn. leaving three fons. wliom Emma had born him. he was favoured by the articles of treaty with the duke of Normandy . 7^- . i54» W. whom he had by his fail marriage with Alfwen^ daughter of the earl ot iiampfhire. on account of his being born among them of qiieen Emma. Sax. pafled four years in peace after this en' and he died at Shaftlbury .154 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and Hardicanute. Malm p. his party was efpoufed by earl God- win. 74. and above all. Harold. duke of Normandy. On the other hand. regarded him as their countryman . in his treaty with Richard. by his will. to the crown. and he got immediately poflefllon of his father*s treafures. A P. had ftipulatcd that his children by EmmaOiouId fucceed to the crown of Eng-? land. Sweyn. the chief feat W. HAROLD H A R E F O O T. efpecially in the province > of Weffex. was in poifeliion of Denmark Harold. Malm.

jiS. 7. p. Flor. fled beyond fea. Abbas Rieval.H ARO LD . p. B. 39. who much power and face of affairs foon wore a melancholy afpect. Mailr. he himfelf was taken prifoner. the former into * But H. to their flate mother of fo the feemed to be placed in a fpiendor at Winchefler. but when he had reached Guilford. ALairs were iikely to terminate in a civil war when. gladly embraced the opportunity of paying a vifit. p. he wasfet upon by Godwin's vafl'als. 4. while the polfelTion of the fouth fliould remain to Hardicanute . Wigom. and till that prince Ihould appear and take poiTeflion of his dominions. Math. zjj. all the provinces north of the Thames. a compromife was made . p.the Holy Land. Ypod. . 11. Kigdcn. p. p. and it was agreed that Plarcld fliould enjoy. 209. '438. Earl Godwin gained by the arts of Harold. yet a minor. Cliron Si.onipton» Gul. p. cap. with a Meanwhile Robert. together with London. and he was conduced to the monaftery of Ely. his eyes were put out. 179. Emma. 374. 155 of the ancient Englifli. p. Beverl. Normandy. rctri de Durgo. Sim. Ncufler. apprifed of the fate which was awaiting them. Alfred and Edward. p. Alur. lib. 935. thefe two tyrants laid a plan for the deftrudion of the Enghfh Alfred was invited to London by Harold princes.u- Ciiron. 156. 622. who prohad been mifed to efpoufe the daughter of that nobleman . of Normandy. who found no longer any countenance or protedion in that country. p. Dun. Duke numerous retinue. Hoveden. and while the treaty was yet a fecret. 366. 365. Weft. the two Englifii princes. with many profeffions of friendfliip . p. and eftabli(l?ed her authority over her fon's Iharc of the partition. Gem. died In a pilgrimage to . HAR E FOO T. and being fucceeded by a fon. Hunt. where he died foon after \ Edward and Emma. about fix hundred of his train were murdered in the moll cruel manner. p. Emma fixed her refidence at Winchefler. by the interpofition of the nobility of both parties.

or Canute the Hardy.^^^. during a reign of four years. abandoned and he had determined. and left the fucceffion open to his brother. he had afifembled a fleet of fixty fail. the fion. took poflef- without refiflance. . he ordered his body to be dug up. 1039. triumphing in his bloody policy. and to be thrown Into the Thames : And when it was found by fome iiilicrmen. had not his pretenfions . fo long in by remaining fhare in Denmark. that.. He was fo enraged at Harold. He died on the 14th of April. While Ha- . who gave lb bad a fpecimen of his character. . where he was received in triumph. and for the cruel treatment of his brother Alfred. TT ARDIC ANUTE. and was preparing to make a defcent on England. what he had loft. HARDICANUTE. either by his own negligence. of all the dominions affigned is to his brother. to recover by arms._V^ rold. before Harold's death. and acknowledged Idng without oppolition.156 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. when intelligence of his brother's death induced him to fail immediately to neceiiity of his affairs. he had been deprived of his the partition of the kingdom. The firft a6t of Hardicanute's government afforded his fubje^LS a bad prognoftic of his future tondmSl:. for depriving him of his fhare of the kingdom. though. by this prince. in an impotent defire of revenge againft the dead. that is the robuft (for he too chiefly known by his bodily accomplifhmcnts). or by the pretence of paying a vifit to the queen dowager in Flanders. Normandy. This the only memorable a(Stion performed. is. latter into Flanders. little regretted or efteemed by his fubjects .035. CHAP. On London. Hardicanutq. and whofe bodily accompliihments alone are known to us by his appellation of Harefooi^ which he acquired from his agility in running and walking.

made him a : a p. he foon loft the affedions of the nation by his mifcondud J but nothing appeared more grievous to them. rowed by fourfcore men. :ind to be thrown again into the But it was tiHied up a fecond time. over by the Idng. and were armed and clothed in the moft fumptuous Hardicanute. fubmitted to be his inftrument in that unnatural and brutal aftion. pleafed W'ith the fplendor of this fpedlacle. immediately on his appearance. colleftors. who wore each of them a gold bracelet on his arm. in order to appeafe the king. quickly forgot his brother's murder 5 and on Godwin's fwearing that he was innocent of the critne. vile and infolent. duke of Northumberland. The to execute his menaces with the utmofl rigour. and ordered three noblemen.H A R D fifhermen. and demanded juilice for that crime. I C A N U T E. he ordered it c again to be dug up. They- . equally ferinterred with great fecrecy. by dilplaying this rage againfl Harold's memory. and then river Godwin. 11 157 and buried in London. Siward. duke of Mercia. he allowed him to be acquitted. had been called over by the vov/s of the Englifli. before his accefiion. The In Worcefter difcontents ran high in many places the populace role. and perhaps he hoped. enraged at this oppofition. magnificent prefent of a galley v/ith a gilt Hern. than his renewing the impofition of Danegelt. preferred an accufation againfh Godwin for the murder of Alfred. That nobleman knew that he v/as univerfally believed to have been an accomplice in the barbarity exercifed on Alfred. and Leofric. Though Hardicanute. and obliging the nation to pay a great fum of money to manner. fwore vengeance againft the city. Godwin. to juflify himfeif from having had any participation in But prince Edward being invited his counfels. and put to death two of the the fleet : king. duke of Vx'^eflex. and that he was on that account obnoxious to Hardicanute . III. v/eighing fixteen ounces. Godwin. which brought him from Denmark.

fo little accuftomcd to obferve a regular order in the fucceffion of their monarchs. opportunity for recovering and for fhaking off the Danilh yoke. faw a favourable. without a leader. durfl not oppofe the united voice of the nation. and the prefent occafion muff haftily be embraced . by their interceffion. Englifli. Kardicanute died in two years after his acceffion. and de-* be plundered by their foldiers . whom they confined in a fmail ifland of the Severn. They were in liver it fire to the city. notwith- This violent llanding his robuil conftitution. EDWARD i04Ti the Confessor. All delays might be dangerous . till. while the Danes. none of that race prefented himfelf^ nor any whom the Danes could fuppoit as fucceifor to the throne* Prince Edward was fortunately at court on his brother*s demife . the eldeft fon of Canute. afloniilied at the prefent incident. at the nuptials of a Danilh lord. and obtain the pardon of the fupplicants. appeared a fufficient reafon for their exclufion to a people like the Enghfh. on the death of Hardicanute. their "-J^HE liberty. and anxious only for their perfonal fafety. called Bevery. which he had honoured with his prefence* His ufual habits of intemperance were fo well known. and though the defcendants of Ed«» mond Ironfide were the true heirs of the Saxon family. that. yet their abfence in fo remote a country as Hungary. without concert. they were able to appeale the king. obliged to to fet c K A p.158 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. up government was of fhort duration. his fudden death gave as little furprife as it did forrow to his fubjeds. But . of Norway. king der which they had fo long laboured. was abfent j and as the two lail kings had died without iffue. unSweyn. but they faved the lives of the inhabitants.

as they had already On the. efpecially amidft thofe fudden opportunities which always attended a revolution of government. and concur in re-fo and which he might believe Godwin. fhould promife to marry his daughter Edithaj and having fortified himlelf by this alliance. and in whom he. But their common friends here interpofed . had the moft reafon to dread. fforing liberty to their native countr)^ : . concurrence of circumflances In favour ©f Edward. fubfilled a declared animofity between Edward and Godwin. either feized or neglecled. commonly prove decifive. the credit of that nobleman lay chiefly in Wefiex. and which. from . be fmcerely pardoned. there grievous opprellions. as a pledge of his fmcere reconciliation. There were oppcfite reaibns which divided men's hopes and fears with regard to Godwin's condu(!:1. which was almoft entirely inhabited by Englilh It was therefore prefumed. whofe power. alliances. line. and reprefenting the necelTity of their good correfpondencc. only ftipulated that Edward. that he would fecond the wifhes of that this : 159 But people in refforing the Saxon the Danes. deep an offence as could never. other hand. gave him a great influence at all times. as well as felt. on account of Alfred's murder. might have failed of its effed. and abilities. on account of any fubfequent merits. with every demonflration of dut\ and aSedion. The . humbling they. The Eno-lirn were unanimous and zealous in their refolutions . On the one hand. had his fuccefiion been oppofed by Godwin.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. obliged them to lay afide all jealoufy and rancour. and prepared every meafure for fecuring the fuccefTion to Edward. he fummoned a general coun 1 at Giliingham. the Danes were divided and difpirited Any fmall oppofition which appeared in this affembly was brov*' -beaten and fupprcifed and Edward was crowned king. of which the latter had publicly been accufed by the prince.

met not with very general dlfHe had hitherto lived on indifferent approbation. foon reconciled the latter to his adminiflratlonjand the diflinc- The tion between the two nations gradually difeppeared. who had obtained large grants from the late kings. and as the lofs fell chiefly on the Danes. that they inflituted an annual feflival for celebrating that great event . but the king. nation that this a£l of violence was become abfo* lutely necelfary •. the Englifh they fpolce nearly the fame The Danes v/ere interfperfed with m of the provinces . which might awaken pail animofities . and it was obferved i0 fome countries even to the time of Spellman ". by the mildnefs of his charader. any powerful invafion from thence. for fome years.pt which is com* monly attended with the mdft dangerous confe* The poverty of the crown convinced the quences. though expofed to fome more cenfure. was not deftroyed by the firft a£l: of his adminiftration. on account of their fer-^ vices in fubduing the kingdom. however. they differed little in their manners and laws . domeftic diifenfions in Denmark prevented.Q. and as the Norman conqueft. in verbo Hocday. The popularity which Edward enjoyed on his acceffion. was at firft attended with fome infult and violence a. n Spell. language.i6o HISTORY OF ENGLAND. an attem. of their prefent deliverthem.ain{l the Danes . the Englifh were rather pleafed to fee them reduced to their primiThe king's feverity alfo towards his tive poverty. the queen-dowager. GloiTary. p. which enfued foon after. upon this fignal and decifive advantage. his reluming all the grants of his mod immediate predecelfors . t HA triumph of the Englifh. terms . reduced both nations to equal fubje8:ion. ance made fuch imprelTion on the minds of the Englifh. there is no farther mention in hiftory of any difference between The joy. their countrymen. mother.

i6i chap. and always regarded Hardicanute as her favourite. . i. over nine burning plough lliares. I. and had contraded many intimacies with the natives of that countrv. was not. in a monadery at Winchefter . had made her entirely indifferent to the memory of Ethelred. cuftoms. Vol. The ftudy of the French tongue became general among the w Anglia Sacra. p. fhe alfo gave the preference to her children of the fecond bed. y Ingulf. vol. p. fafhionable in the kingdom. and alfo of her jultifying herfelf by treading barefoot. terms with that princefs . as well as an affeftion for their manwith ners \ The court of England was foon filled Normans. by the acceffion of Edward. He confined her. and were propagated and believed from the filly wonder of poll erity \ The Englifh flattered themfelves that. ^ Higden. that as the fuperior qualities of Canute. p. foon rendered their language. and of a criminal correfpondence with the bifliop of Wincheiler. but they foon found that this evil was not yet entirely removed. 62. difpleafed to her dripped by Edward of immenfe treafures which flie had amaffed. and his better treatment of her. 337. order. 277. and laws. without fee receiving any hurt. they were delivered for ever from the dominion of foreigners . the nation. during the remainder of her life. and by a degree of cultivation fa« perior to that which was attained by the Engliili In thofe ages. The king had been educated in Normandy . M people. being diftinguiflied both by the favour of Edward. were the inventions of the monkifh hiftorians. in general. but carried his rigour againft her no farther.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. The Umie reafons had probably made her unpopular in England and though her benefactions to the monks obtained her the favour of that : . The flories of his accufmg her of a participation in her fon Alfred's murder. who. he accufed her of iiegleding him and his brother during their adverfc fortune ^ He remarked.

?©. contributed render it Hill more dangerous.Sax. was duke of Eait-Anglia. Dorchefter and London. and Hereford And Llarold. was promoted to the fee of Canterbury y. and at the fame time governor of Eflex. of which his abilities rendered him not unv/orthy. Edv/ard's animofity againll him was grounded on perfonal as v/ell as political confiderations. were created bifliops oi Robert. and as the haughty temper of Godwin made him often forget the refped due to his prince. The great authority of this family was fupported by immenfe pofleflions and powerful alliances and the abilities. as well as ambition. and always enjoved the higheil favour of his mailer. 6a. made him confer almoll all the civil and military employuients on the natives. and entertainments : Even the lawyers employed a foreign language in and papers'' But above all. p. ^ W. and excited the jealoufy of the Engliili. equipage. who had formerly been the king's chaplains. Sweyn. befldes being duke or earl of Weffex. Berks.j6^ people. or his want of authoritv. they a great innuence on pubhc atlairs. . And though the king's prudence. two Normans. p. had the counties of Kent and SulTex annexed to his government. His eldefl fon. to prince of greater capacity and vigour than Edward would A have found it difficult to fupport the dignity of the crown under fuch circumllances . a Norman alfo.Malm. the church felt the influence and dominion of thofe ftrangers Ulf and William. of Godwin himfelf. The courtiers aftecled to imitate that na- tion in their drels. Glocefler. on recent as well as more ancient in* Ingulf. poifefl'ed the fame authority in the counties of Oxford. his fecond fon. This powerful nobleman. 3 juries. : . y Chron. the ecclefialiical their deeds : preferments fell often to the fliare of the Normans and had as the latter poifefred fecretly Edward's conhdence. p. particularly of Earl Godwin^. history of ENGLAND. i6i.

p. Higdcn. though poffefled of many amiable accomplifliments. he abflained from all commerce of love with her . during the her huiband. Chron. Wykes. p. was to complain of the influence of the Normans in the government . could never acquire the confidence and aifeclion of It is even pretended that. : » Chron.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. M p. Thom. the daughter of GodA^in * . and greatly contributed to his acquiring the title of faint and confeifor^ moil popular pretence on which Godwin could ground his diffaffedion to the king and his adminiftration. Sax. 366. being refufed entrance to a lodging which had been affigned him. and fuch was the abfurd admiration paid to an inviolable chaftity during thofe ages. a tumult enfued near twenty perfons were killed on each fide . Edward's hatred of the father was transferred to that princefs. *> W. AbbasRieval. p So. 221. and Euftace. juries. the count and his train took arms. p. and murdered the wounded townfman . 277. and in the conteft he wounded the mafler of the houfe. 21. in The CHAP. that his conduft in this particular is highly king. The inhabitants revenged this infult by the death of the flranger . attempted to make his way by force. paffed by Dover in his return One of his train. 3 difpleafed . was obliged to fave his life by flight from the fury of the populace. He hurried immediately to court. vol. whole courfe of her life. Euilace. and Editha. and a declared oppofition had thence arifen between him and thefe faIt was not long before this animofity vourites. Malm. p. Matth. broke into aftion. and complained of the ufage he had met with The king entered zealoufly into the quarrel. Weft. 241. but this alliance became a frelh fource of enmity between them. 157. and was highly : The . i. 377. 163 puiTuance of his engagemcnts. having paid a vifit to the king. had indeed married Editha. count of Bologne. ^^^' ^ . p. being overpowered by numbers. io4?» celebrated by the monkifli hiilorians. Anglia Sacra.

who thought the king * * Chron. p. He gave orders to whofe government Dover lay. p. refufed obedience. he fecretly aiTembled a great army. Malm. in : "=. W. duke of Northumberland. Chioij. 279. Sax. win. have felt fo fenfibly the infolence and animofity of his people. ihould. p. with fuch of their followers as they could aifemble on a fudden . faw the neceflity of exerting the royal authority. Malm. and endeavoured to throw the whole blame of the riot on Edward. to make him feel the utmoft effects of his refentment. the count of BolognCj-and his retinue touched in fo fenfible a point. 81. two powerful noblemen. they ilTued orders for mudering all the forces within their refpeftive governments. vi^hofe jealoufy of Godwin's greatnefs. and for marching them without delay to the defence of the king's perfon and authority. as well as their duty to the crown. 163. entirely ii . made preparations for his own defence. W. while Godwin. Edward. engaged them to defend They haftened to him the king in this extremity. and finding the danger much greater than they had at firft apprehended. and was approaching the attack on Edward. without any military force. endeavoured to gain time by negociation . as hebeHeved. difpleafed that a ftranger of fuch diftindion. 163. and ''. CHAP III. 81. and pleafed to embark in a caufe where it was likely he Ihould be fupported by his countrymen. who refided. SriX. whom he had invited over to his court. The earl. duke of Mercia. without any juft caufe. p. without fufpicion. perceiving a rupture to be unavoidable. at Glocefter Edward applied for protedion to Siward. and to punifh the inBut Godwin.164 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. who defired habitants for the crime rather to encourage than reprefs the popular difcontents againft foreigners. Higden. or rather for an if pretence of repreffing fome diforders on the Welfli frontier. Under king. p. to repair immediately to the place. and Leofric. meanwhile. and he threatened God- Godwin. he perfifted in his difobedience.

having manned them with his fol- hire fhips within his M 3 lowers. their fafety . fell into the fnare . and not fenfible that he oudit to have no farther referve after he had o proceeded fo far. feemed now to be totally fupplanted and overthrown. they were obliged to diiband the remains of their forces.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. His army was now fo confiderable. . he loft the favourable opportunity of rendering himfelf mafter of the government. and who was willing to fave appearances. and they haftened iVom all quarters to defend him from the prefent danger. gave protection to Godwin and his three fons. . though they had no high idea of Edward's vigour and capacity. bore him great affection on account of his humanity. he fummoned a great council to judge of the rebellion of Godwin and his fons. juftice. Sweyn. and marching to London. Harold and Leofwin. The and earl of Flanders permitted him ajid to purchafe harbours Godwin. they offered to come to London. and Tofti the latter of whom had married the daughter of that prince . took fhelter in Ireland. : on too firm a bafis. two other of his fons. earl of Flanders. adherents perfift in rebellion. ' . and make new efforts for his 1052 re-eftablifnment. Baldwin. 165 chap. and have recourfe to flight. The EngHfh. Gurth. not to occafion fi:j^ed But Godwin had his authority farther difturbances. Thefe noblemen pretended at firft that they were willing to (land their trial but having in vain endeavoured to make their entirely in his power. The elfates of the father and fons were conlifcated Their governments were given to others Queen Editha was confined in a monaftery at Warewel And the greatnels of this family. provided they might receive hoftages for This propofal being rejecled. both foreign and domeflic. and piety. that he ventured to take the field . and he was too ftrongly fupportcd by alliances. once fo formidable. as well as the long race of their native kings from whom he was deicended .

the prefent danger of a civil war was obviated. expefting this event. with a fquadron which that nobleman had collected in Ireland. threw every thing into confufion. the authority of the crown was confiderably impaired. but trial. and that the primate and all the foreigners ihould be baniflied By this treaty. He put to fea immediately. P. all nations. and his country. that he fliould give hoftages for his good behaviour. 186. which had fo long been fubject to his government. Reinforced by great numbers from all quarters. he feized all the Ihips ?. where he was joined by Harold. p. : himfelf by a fair and open for his more eafy admillion. many of whom favoured Godwin's pretenfions. his family. againil the tyranny of foreigners. while Godwin. The king alone feemed reiblute to defend himfelf to the hill extremity but the interpofition of the Englifli nobility. and the fleet to go to decay . c HA ^^^- lowers. to affifl him in procuring juflice to himfelf. allowed the feamen to difband. and failed to the lile of Wight. and appearing before London. made his retreat into the Flemilh bours \ The Englifh court. and with freebooters of fea. allured by the fent fecurity. 166. put to and attempted to make a defcent at Sandwich. pearance. He was now maflier of the fea . who difclaimed . fenfible that 5 Simt Dun. s Ibid. or rather entirely annihilated. all intentions of ofteiino. ^ harpre- and deftitute of all vigorous counfels. r Cliron. made Edward hearken to terms of accommodation . much fuperior to that of the enemy and the earl haftily. and entering every harbour in the fouthern coaft. p. he entered the Thames . and the feigned humility of the earl. Edward. The king.i66 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and fummoned his followers in thofe counties. violence to his fovereiirn. kept his men in readinefs for aftion. before their ap. he . had equipped a confiderable fleet. informed of his preparations. Sax. defireci and only to juftify paved the way It was ftipuIateJ.

and naturally produced faction. a phice of great power. duke o£ Mercia. before the banifliment of Harold. lent them over to his kinhnan. M 4 This . to the inThe king who had not creafe ot his authority. but being proteded by Griffith. Kent. who had married his daughter. he acgreater fubjedicni *. and gaining every day new partifans by his bounty and affability. of raifmg him a rival in the family of Eeofric. oppofe his progrefs.Anglia. a:"id in the oliice of fteward of the houlhold. ^ * See note [£] at the end of the volume. . young duke ot Norniiindy. as well as by the power of his father Leofric. By a modefl and gentle demeanor. and in virtue. and from reducing Edward to flill was fucceeded in the government of Welfex. among nobles of fucli mighty and independent authority. and therefore a more dangerous manner. and was fuperior to him in addrefs. and Effex. fufficient vigour directly to knew of no other expedient than that hazardous one. Godwin's death. which happened foon while he was fitting at table with the king. 94S. he had not power ages in fiiflicicnt to feciire i6hofl. who was acluated by an ambition equal to that of his father. which. had belonged to the latter noBut this policy. whofe fon Algar was invePced with the government of Eaft. Brompton. in infinuation. parties. Algar was foon after expelled his government by the intrigues and power of Harold .C IT Godwin's A P. prevented him from farther eftabhlhing the authority which he had acquired. he proceeded in a more filent. '' arid was rehiitated in the government ofEaft-Anglia. He quired the good-will of Edward at lead foftened that hatred which the prince had fo long borne his family . he obliged Harold to fubmit to an accommodation. the after. p. and even civil broils. prince of Wales. SulTex. of balancing oppofite bleman. Enghmd. required a more fteady hand to manage it than that of Edward. by his fon Harold.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR.

Oft)erne. the proteftion of this diftreifed family He marched an army into Scotland and having defeated and killed Macbeth in battle. and banifhed him the kingdom And though that nobleman made a freih irruption into Eaft-Anglia with an army of Norwegians. it proved in the iifue : : : . but poffeffed not the genius requifite for governing a country fo turbulent. •in the a6tion with Macbeth. Siward. Malm. and ufurped the crown. taking advantage of Leofric's death. he reftored Malcolm to the throne of his anceftors ^ This fervice. brought a great acceifion to the authority of Siward in the north but as he had loft his eldeft fon. his death foon freed Harold from the pretenfions of fo danEdward. p. Tke death of Siward. and over-ran the country. embraced. king of Scotthe reign of Edvx^ard. not content with curbing the king's authority. 1715. 115. 443. was indeed advanced to the government of Mercia . which happened foon after. fatal .i68 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. by Edward's orders. the elded fon of Algar. w^as wholly loft. p. p. Chron. his fon and heir. whofe daughter was married to Duncan. expelled -^Igar anew. made the way dill more open to the ambition of that nobleman. Siward. 79. and the influence of Harold greatly preponderated. powerful nobleman. into England . carried ftill farther his pellilent ambition He put his fovereign to death . 158. and fo much infefted by the inMacbeth. a trigues and animofities of the great. duke of Northumberland. edit. was a prince of a gentle difpofition. but the balance which the king defired to eftiablilh between thofe potent families. h W. by his fuccefsful conduct in the only foreign enterprife undertaken during Duncan. added to his former connections with the royal family of Scotland. land. had acquired honour to England. Mailr. chafed Malcolm Kenmore. . and nearly allied to the crown. p. : ^^55- This peace was not of long duration Harold. gerous a rival. Iloveden. Buchanan. befides his other merits.

p. too young to be entrufled with the government of Northumberland and Harold's influence obtained his that dukedom for own brother Tofti. fatal to his family. fon of his elder brother. he ordered his fervants to clothe him in a complete fuit of armour . royal . that the great power and ambition of Harold had tempted him to think of obtaining polTeffion of the throne on the firll vacancy. and the only remaining heir of the Saxon line. whofe king. and he could not. made him averfe to the fucceflion of his fon . think of an encreafe of grandeur to a family which had rifen on the ruins of arrival. Edgar. to invite over his nephew. Margaret and Chriftina .EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. with a fpear in his hand. out with cares and infirmities. and having no iffue himfelf. but his death. ^'^ peared. the only one worthy of a warrior. without extreme reluctance. 169 His fecond fon. declared that in that pofture. on his father's death. which difcover high fenfe of honour. and fitting ereO: on the couch. on account of his youth and inexperience. and that Edgar. came to England with his children. lie fent a deputation to Hungary. He faw. began to think of appointing a fuccelfor to the kingdom. martial difpofition. ap. That prince.C H A. Edward. The now worn crown would have been eafy and undifputed. furnamed Atheling. When he found his own death ap- proaching. Walthoef. When intelligence and his was brought him of till Ofberne's death he was inconfolable he heard that the \vound was received in the his fon bread. There are two circumftanccs his related of Siward. felt himfelf far advanced in the decline of life . he would patiently await the fatal moment. was very unfit to oppofe the pretenfions of fo popular and enterprifing a rival The animofity which he had long borne to earl Godwin. and that he had behaved with great gallantry in the aftion. which happened a few days after his fucceflion to the threw the king into new difficulties.

This . daughter of a tanner in Falaife ^. p. as the only perfon whofe power. nine years of age. 910. which had taken place of the pilgrimages to Rome. whom. p. Neuft. could fupport any deftination which he might make in his favour. 68. Malm. Before his departure. royal authority. and Mdiich. as he had no legitimate iifue. p. 95. ^^^' had contributed ening of the Saxon line. much to the weakuncertainty he fe- this eye towards his kinfman. the more would Robert exult in facrificing them to what he imagined to be his religious duty. a fafliionable acl of devotion. p. fo murder of Alfred. ^ Brompton. by the CHAP. William. to the exclufion of Harold and his family '. as it was attended with more difficulty and danger. This famous prince was natural fon of Robert duke of Normandy. Ypod. and was very early eflablillied in. he to his dominions could not but forefee the great inconveniencies which mull: attend this journey. and probably the more important they were. appeared to them more meritorious. cretly cafl his feemed to have While he was but fet him at fo great a diflance. he engaged them to fvvear allegiance to his natural fon. and the power of the French monarch : But all thefe confiderations were furmounted by the prevailing zeal for pilgrimages ™ . by Harlotta.lyo HISTORY OF ENGLAND. !^ i W. and carried thofe religi- ous adventurers to the hrft fources of Chriflianity. and reputation. the claims of other branches of the ducal family. and this fettlement of his fucceffion j arifmg from the perpetual turbulency of '. his father had refolved to underthat grandeur his birth from which take a pilgrimage to Jerufalem . to leave fuccelTor As he was a prudent prince. in cafe he fhould die in the pilgrimage. and which. the great. In his brother. he aifembled the ftates of the dutchy . William duke of Normandy. and capacity. and informing them of his defign. he intended. « Ingulf. 452.

Gemet. and Henry I. freed that fituation. who had originally ac quired his fettlement in fo violent and invidious a manner. count of Britanny. and the young prince. 97. he regarded it as a fixed maxim. i. \Vhic. and who had long appeared formidable to The regency eftabhflied by Robert his fovereign °. p. 7. encountered great difficulties in fupporting the government under this complication of dangers . and by his He valour and conduct prevailed in every adtion. had apprehended. and againfl foreign invaders . oppofed hlmft*lf on all fides againft his rebellious fubjecls. advanced claims tu the dominion of the It ate . lib. obliged the French king to grant him peace on reafonable terms . CHAP. gave encouragement to his He friends. The natural feverltv of his temper appeared in a rigorous adminlftratlon of juftice . king of France. and ftruck a terror into his enemies. Alain. • r. great qualities. found But the himfelf reduced to a very low condition. 95. p. that anintiexibie condud was the firit duty of a fovereign. and having found the happy etfedts of this plan of government. and and deveilation ". Malm. and to fufpend their mutual animofities.h he fcon difplayed in the field and in the cabinet. broke out into perfonal animofities againfl each other. as he . when he came to maturity. Gal. W. count of Toni.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. thought the opportunity favourable for reducing the power of a vall'al. cap. he expelled all pretenders to the fovereign ty . Ths . died in his and the minority of his fon was atpilgrimage tended with all thofe dilbrders which were almoll 171 This prince. and made the whole country a fcene of war Roger. and he reduced his turbulent barons to pay fubmiffion to his authority. W. Malm. without which the laws in thofc ages became totally impotent. unavoidable in nobles. The licentious from the awe of fovereign authority.

had given William leifure to pay a vifit to the king of England during the time of Godwin's banifhment. Chron. had. 7. and he was the firil perfon that opened the mind of the But prince to entertain thofe ambitious hopes Edward. after a more open manner. received a commiflion to inform William of the king's intentions in his favour. On the return of Godwin. hadj in the mean time. p. P p. Ingulf. That prelate. favoured by the king's averfion to Godwin. and even to keep his purpofe iecret from all his minifters. an event which. The expulfion of the Norman favourites. from the age and infirmities of the king. '^. 65. Vitalis. proceeded. in increafmg his popularity. finding that the EngliHi would more eauly acquiefce in the reftoration of the Saxon line. and the tranquillity Chap. and his efleem of the duke. 441. and in preparing the way for his advancement on the fir ft vacancy . irrefolute and feeble in his purpofe. p. p.172 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. . perfuaded Edward to think of adopting William as his fucceffbr . 68. his prepolTellions for the Normans. made him refume his former intentions in though his averfavour of the duke of Normandy fion to hazardous enterprifes engaged him to poflpone the execution. therefore. Gul. invited his brother's defccndants from Hungary. in eftabiiihing his power. with a view of having them recognifed heirs 1 he death of his nephew. 279Order. inexperience and unpromifmg qualities of young Edgar. 31. before his departure. a counfel which wa. 157. and the to the crown. appeared Hoveden. p.. Mailr. ^ Ingulf. lib. meanwhile. Robert. p. archbifliop of Canterbury. Harold. and to the obligations which that prince owed to his family p. 492. which he had eftablifhed in his dominions. not . and he was received in a manner fuitable to the great reputation which he had acquired. cap. to the relation by which he was connected with Edward. Gemel. Higden.

and in order to effeO: his purpofe. which it was requifite for him previoufly to overcome. when reflored to his power and fortune. as has been related. who. Earl Godwin. By thefe topics. C H A III. He forefaw. that if he could once gain Harold. and Edward would meet with no farther obiiacle in executing the favourable intentions which his A he . and reprefented. with a numerous retinue. whom Edward. He reprefented. William was immediately fenfible of the importance of the incident. not very diftant. enforced by his great power.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. in favour of Edgar. his way to the throne of England would be open. and demanded an exorbitant fum for his ranfom. Harold found means to convey intelligence of his fituation to the duke of Normandy . though not aware of the duke's being his competitor. he immediately proceeded. Harold. to detain any longer thofe hoftages who had been required on the firfl compohng of civil difcords. either by favours or menaces. But there was ftill an obftacle. for greater fecurity. after fuch a uniform trial of his obedience. had configned to the cuftody of the duke of Normandy. that while he was proceeding to his court. was uneafy that fuch near re. he extorted the king's confent to releafe them . immediately detained him prifoner. his fteady duty to his prince. temped drove him on the territory of Guy count of Ponthieu. he had met with this harfli treatment from che mercenary diipofition of the count of Ponthieu. therefore. one fon and one grandfon. and the little neceffity there was. lations fhould be detained pri Toners in a foreign coun- and he was afraid lell WilHam fhould. being informed of his quality. had given hoflagcs for his good behaviour and among the reft. retain thefe pledges as a check on the ambition of any other pretender. to the king. 173 p. unfeigned fubmiffion to royal authority. try . in execution of a commiffion from the king of England. on his journey to 'Normandy.

and feconding the pretenlions of the duke of Normandy. and that nobleman. renounced all hopes of the crown for himfelf. to bind him fafter to his interelts. he promifed that the prefent grandeur of Harold's family. befides oftering him one of his daughters in marriage. on which Harold agreed to fwear. he took an opportunity of ftration of refpect difclofmg to to the him the to great fecret. he employed an artifice well-fuited to the ignorance and fuperltition of the age. AVilliam received him with every demon- and friendfliip . who conducted him to Roiien. of his pretentions will crown of England. he (hewed him the rehques. a meflenger to Guy. He fent. not daring to refufe fo great a prince. and when Harold had taken the oath.174- HISTORY OF ENGLAND. C H^A he had entertained in his behalf. required him to take an oath that he would fulfil his promifes . which fupported itfelf with difficulty under the jealoufy and hatred of Edward. if he refufed the demand. the reliques ot fome of the moft revered martyrs . . fo greatly him for he his Harold was furprifed .comply with his defire. in order to demand the liberty of his prifoner . he made profelfions of the utmofl gratitude in return for fo great an obligation . fliould receive new increafe from beholden to at a fucceifor. in delivering up the hoftages. and profeifed his fmcere intention of fupporting the will of Edward. and of the which Eddefired ward intended make in his favour. this declaration of the fliould duke but being fenfible that never recover his own liberty. p. much lefs that of his brother and nephew. and in order to render the oath more obligatory. and admonifiied him to obferve religioufly an engagement which had been ratified by fo tremendous a fanctiou. He the aliillance of Harold in perfefting that defign . and after fliowing himfelf difpofed to . He fecretly conveyed under the altar. William. who would be advancement. there^ fore. he feigned a compliance with William. put Harold into the hands of the Norman.

and was difmiffed with all the marks of '. Brompton. 460. to increafe the number of his partifans . and which. and to increafe the character might be native country which he had already attained. 947. 366. to revive their hatred of the Normans . they ufualiy made a hafiy retreat into their mountains. 354. Malm. had greatly diftinguifhed himfelf in thole incurfions and his name had become fo terrible to the Englifh. 459. though a lefs formidable enemy than the Danes. The HA P. by an oftentation of his power and influence. which had been extorted from him by fear. and were ready to feize the firft favourable opportunity of renewing their depredations. to deter the timorous Edward from executing his intended deftination in favour of William. if fulfilled. p. MS. . penes Carte. Fortune. 93. by which he was enabled to acquire general favour. than the fupprelTmg of fo dangerous an enemy.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. every art of popularity . He formed the plan of an expedition againfl Wales and having prepared fome lightarmed foot to purfue the natives into their faftnefl'es. that Harold found he could do nothino. C but dilfembling his concern. fomc . Hunt. and. 449. p. more acceptable to the public. H. and more honourable for himfelf. liintSlIon 175 Englifh nobleman was aftoniflied . attended with the fubjeclion of his He continued ftill to praftife to a foreign power. p. he renewed the fame profellions. and after committing fpoil on the low countries. the The reigning prince. threw two incidents in his way. had long been accuftomed to infeffc the weftern borders . lioyeden. Griffith. p. abilides. mutual confidence by the duke of Normandy. p. When Harold found himfelf at liberty. where they were fheltered from the purfuit of their enemies. f Wace. about this time. p. his ambition fuggefled cafuiftry fufficient to juftify to him the violation of an oath. of virtue and Welfti. to reconcile the minds of the Englilh to the idea of his fucceflion . W.

TosTi. Morcar and Edwin. and who were grandfons of the great duke Leofric. who was commiffioned by the king to reduce and chaftife the Northumbrians. rather than fuffer a renewal of thofe indignities to which it . being elected duke. and at lad reduced the enemy to fuch diftrefs. that they had been taught by their anceftors. made no intermiffion in his aflaults. and they were content to receive as their fovereigns.176 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and fent to Harold . well injullice. fome fcour the and him from his government. profecuted his advantages with vigour. in fome degree. advanced with aii army to oppofe Harold. and had taken the field. and no one. that the inhabitants rofe in rebellion. and a fquadron of fhips to attack the fea-coaft. were willing to fubmit to the king. had a6led with fuch cruelty and cavalry to CHAP. could fupport fuch tyranny without participating. beingof a violent tyrannical temper. not even a brother. He reprefented to Harold. whofe head they cut off. brother of this nobleman. Morcar. concurred in the infurreftion . but required a governor who would pay regard to their rights and privileges . determined to periih. chafed acquainted with the generous difpofition of the Enghfii commander. and the former. he employed at once all thefe forces againft the Welfh. The other incident was no lefs honourable to Harold. that the 8 they . accuflomed to a legal ad mini ft ration. in order to prevent their total dedrudion. Before the armies came to aftion. who had been created duke of Northumberland. two V/clfh noblemen appointed by Edward to rule over them. of the infamy attending Northumbrians. that death was preferable to fervitude. who poffefled great power in thofe parts. and regarding it as their birth-right. that. open country. that Tofti had behaved in a manner unworthy of the ftation to which he was advanced. two brothers. endeavoured to juftify his own condud:. they made a facrifice of their prince.

of long experience.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. the fole furviving heir. ceffary. and Edwin that of Mercia. Vol. ^^^J^^ prudent to abandon his brother's caufe . they had fo long been expofeJ . of mature age. of approved courage and abilities. that fmce it was nethe fuccefiion ported. procured Edwin. and by his intereft.. and they trufted that Harold. from which he himfelf. and William clearly perceived that he could no longer rely on the oaths and But promifes which he had extorted from him. to Tofli be eleded into the government of LVlercia. on account of the imbecility of Edgar. in his conduct towards the Northumbrians. he perfuaded him to pardon the Northumbrians. would effectually fccure minion and tyranny of foreigners. in his own go\'ernment. L i N with . married the fifter of that nobleman . to fet afide the royal family. He now openly afpired to and infifted. Vitalis. fo well fup- 177 CHAP. and took flicker in Flanders with earl Baldwin'. there was no one fo capable of filling the throne as a nobleman of great power. p. in a rage departed the kingdom. being a native of the kingdom. the Englifli nobleman was now in fuch a fituation. while he himfelf polTciTed the government of WefTex. and returning to Edward. had always kept at [o great This vigorous remcnftrance was aca diftciiice. given fuch a fpecimen of his moderation as had He gained him the aifections of his countrymen. on retlcftioni would not defend in another that violent conduct. that he deemed it no longef neceffary to diffemble. companied with fuch a detail of fads. By this marriage Harold broke all meafures with the duke of Normandy . that Harold foimd it ^ . * it againfl the do- Edward. 4'. He had. faw that almoft all England was engaged in his interefls . his farther-in-law. who.2. and He even to confirm Morcar in the government. the younger brother. by the confeflion of all. Morcar that of Northumberland. broken Order.

" Spelm. as well as the power. he took but feeble and irrefolute f teps for fecuring the fucceffion to the duke of Normandy *. to whom the monks gave the title of faint and confelfor. in verbo continued . he owed his profperity lefs to his own abilities than to the conjunctures of the times. employed in other enterprifes. faw the difficulties too great for him to encounter . attempted not thofe incurfions which had been fo troublefome to all his predecefifors. Though his reign was pt:aceable and fortunate. of thefe noblemen enabled them. The mofl commendable circumItance of Edward's government. which brought him to his grave. a body of laws. which he collefted from the laws of Ethelbcrt. and Alfred. on the fifth of January 1066. in the fixty-fifth year of his age. Ina. he was farprifed by ficknefs. and though his inveterate prepoiTeffions kept him from feconding the pretenliens Of Harold. was the lall of the Saxon line that ruled in England. * fee note [F] at the. The end of the volume.lyS HISTORY OF ENGLAND. while they were entrufied with authority. This prince. and twenty-fifth of his reign. c H with age and infirmities. This compilation. A P. for that purpole. to preferve domeftic peace and tranquillity. was long the object of affection to the Engliih . While he continued in this uncertainty. acquiefce under the government of Godwin and his ion Harold and the abilities. was his attention to the adminiftration of julfice. nation. and his compiling. and fatal to fomc The facility of his difpofition made him of them. The Danes. though nov/ loft (for the laws that pafs under Edward's name were compofed afterwards"). Edv/yvrd the Confelfor was the for the king's evil : firft that touched opinion of his fancticy procared belief to this cure among the people: His fuccelfors regarded it as a part of their Itate and It has been grandeur to uphold the fame opinion.

: feemiid joyfully to acquiefce in his elevation. and the new prince. '^ Pict. : N 2 brother . which appeared unanimous. zzi. Order. 196. p. : . willingly feconded his pretenfions. that Harold was regularly elected by the ftates Some. Brompton.Hunt. without waiting for the free deliberation of the dates. that HAROLD. p. W. ' January. by Aldred archbifhop of York. 436. torians fay. connefted with him by alliance or friendlhip. 210. on the day immediately fucceeding Edward's death. Ingulf. The whole nation fo well '- H AROLD had ^Tf^'^'5. The title of Edgar Atheling was fcarcely mentioned much lefs the claim of the duke of Normandy And Harold. prepared matters before the death of Edward. p. was. and the pradlice was c the prefent royal family. If any were averfe to this meaiure. p. p. fymptoms of danger which the king difcovered came from abroad. 957. who ob- HA ^^^• f- could no longer give amazement even to the populace. as if he had fucceeded by the moft undoubted hereditary title. that he immediately ftepped into the vacant throne and his accellion was attended with as little oppofition and difturbance. Vitalis. Knyghton. Neuft.EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. they were obliged to conceal their fentiments . and all the powerful nobility. 68. continued lirfl i^g down it to dropped by our time . Many of the hifp. Ypod. The citizens of London were his zealous partifans The bifliops and clergy had adopted his caufe . p. and from his own firfl The G. that Edward left him his fiicceflbr by will. alTembling his partifans. . Malm. p. 93.Weft. 2339. ferved. taking a general filence for confent. 492. or regularly fubmitting the question to their determination '^. and was attended with ridicule in the eyes of all men of underftanding. ^. crowned and anointed king. M. and founding his title on the fuppofed fuffrages of the people. received the crown from their hands. p.

^^^ who had which he had fuffered : He engaged the intereil of that family againft his broHe endeavoured to form intrigues with fomc ther of the difcontented nobles in England He fent his emifl'aries to Norway. either obligatory from the late king or the ftates of England. and had even voluntarily fworn to fupport {he duke's pretenfions. but The duke might give the better colour to his pretenfions. with which he was reproached. to make any tender of the fucceilion to the duke of Normandy . fubmitted to a voluntary banlfhment in Flanders. and if he. a private perfon. he fent an embaify to England. Enraged at the fuccefsful ambition of Harold.i8o HISTORY OF ENGLAND. had alfumed fo much authority. when he firft received Intelligence of Harold's intrigues and acceflion. he filled the court of Baldwin with complaints of the injuftice CHAP. as well as thofe of Tofti. Harold replied to the Norman ambafladors. upbraiding that prince with his breach of faith^ and fummonthat he Ing him to refign immediately poflelTion of the kingdom. he made the a journey to Normandy . brother Tofti. and : '= Order. who alone could difpofe of the crown. had been moved to the higheft pitch of indignation . that the oath. be regarded as That he had had no commiflion. for that reafon. his own wrongs. by his counfels and forces. the projected invafion of tion that m England ^. would. who had married Matilda^ revenge of another daughter of Baldwin. to which he himfelf had fallen a vidim. p. fecond. 49 jv It . and to excite their hopes of reaping advantage from the unfettled ftate : : of affairs that on the ufurpation of the new king And he might render the combination more formi: dable. of Normandy. in order to roufe to arms the freebooters of that kingdom. had been extorted by the well-grounded fear of violence. Vitalis. the oath was unlawful. and could never. in expefta- duke.

and he had previoufly fixed his refolution of making an attempt upon England. and Ihould prove himfelf totally unworthy of their favour. being once mafter of the field. N 3 . if he made any attempt by force of arms. He knew that it was entirely unprovided with fortified towns. had newly mounted a throne. would be in a condition to overrun the kingdom. during a period of near fifty years it would require time for its foldiers. enervated by long peace. He confidered that England. 222. and which was likely to totter under him by its own inftability. 5t i8i duty to feize the firft opportunity of c breaking it That he had obtained the crown by the unanimous fufFrages of the people. This anfwer was no other than William expefted . which he had -acquired by fadion. Confulting only his courage. y W. to learn difcipline. did he not (Irenuoufly maintain thofe national Hberties. Matth.HAROLD. Ihould experience the power of an united nation conducted by a prince. And with whofe protection they had entrufted him that the duke. though he had given proofs of vigour and bravery. who. 331. ever fmce the acceffion of Canute. 285. p. De fea. from which he had excluded a very ancient loyal family. and he faw only the circumftances which would facilitate his enterprife. had enjoyed profound and tranquillity. p. much more if fliaken by any violent external impulfe. And he hoped. his refentment. Aiigl. p. and his ambition. Weft. He faw that Harold. he overlooked all the difficulties infeparable from an attack on a great kingdom by fuch inferior force. . that the very circumftance of his crofling the riod to his life . was determined that the fame moment fhould put a pe- was his : : and to his government ^. fenfible of the obligations impofed on him by his royal dignity. and its generals experience. Higden. by which it could prolong the war but muft venture its whole fortune in one decifive adion againfl a veteran enemy. 99. incerto audore. Malm. p. Geft. who.

lib. befides exerting many afts of vigour under their prefent fovereign . fea. Gemet. would infpirit his foldiers by defpair. CHAP. that they expelled thofe foreigners. Germany. after fuch examples of fortune and valour. 30. cap. time attained to the higheft pitch of military glory Befides acquiring by arms fuch a noble territory in France. had at this arms. France. he might employ againfl England the flower of the military force which was difperfed in all the neighbouring flates. where he could be fupported by the whole force of his principality. 7. country. The lituation alfo of Europe infpired William with hopes. by the wonderful fucceifes. who were all of them vaflals in Normandy. that. few Norman adventurers in Italy had acquired fuch an afcendant not only over the kalians and Greeks. many of them banifhed for faction and rebellion. befides his brave Normans. by the progrefs of the feudal inflitutions. revived their ancient fame. quitting his own . they had long been all diflin- by valour among the European nations. were divided and fubdivided into many principalities and baronies . to be deterred from making an attack on a neighbouring country. and the mod A 2 Gul. in the other extremity of Europe. procured to themfelves ample eftablifliments.iS2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. excited the ambition of the haughty William . and leaving himfelf no hopes of retreat as it would afhonifh the enemy by the boldnefs of the enterprife. and the poffefTors. they had. and roufe them to fuflain the reputation of the guiflied Norman as The Normans. and the Low Countries. enjoying the civil ju- mofl hazardous exploits. but the Germans and Saracens. befides defending it aga'Inft continual attempts of the French monarch and all its neighbours. who difdained. and laid the foundation of the opulent kingdom of Naples and Sicily ^ Thefe enterprifes of men. 8 rifdidion . about this very time.

and in all alfemblies. his courage. tious of acquiring a reputation in had been ambithe court and in the armies of hofpitality Normandy. ' N 4 The . how little . and his abihad long maintained a pre-eminence among haughty chieftains . Entertained with that and courtefy which diltinguifhed the age. and being accuflomed to nothing from their infancy but recitals of the fuccefs attending wars and battles. and greedily attended to the profpefts of the fignal glory and elevation which he promifed them in return for tlieir concurrence in an expedition a'^ainft England. hence their impatience of peace and tranquilhty . or merely for fliow and entert^vinment. a£ted. in many refpefts. by lities. failure or fuccefs. which they heard fo much celebrated. whe- ther inftituted for civil to outfliine each other deliberations. as well as the right 183 of c it a p. and every one who dehis fired to fignalife himfelf by his addrefs in military exercifes. by their duty to age. and the feveral leaders. greedily embraced the moft hazardous enterprifes . as independent fovereigns. A military fpirit had uni- throughout Europe . one fuperior lord. and maintained their properties and privileges lefs by the authority of laws than by their ^'^• own force and valour.foever interefted in its William. arms. they were prompted by a natural ambition to imitate thofe adventures. for military expeditions. by the reputation of Itrength Hence their genius for chivalry and provv^efs. they had formed attachments with the prince. they defired to fpread their fame each beverfally dift'ufed itfelf yond his own diftrid . and by their connections with the great body of the community to which they belonged. whofe minds were elevated by their princely fituation. rifdiclion within themfelves.HAROLD. and which were fo much exaggerated by the credulity of the United. however loofely. thof*^ power. and hence their readinefs to embark in any dangerous enterprife. or his valour in action.

and fent his eldefl fon. The more grandeur the there appeared in the attempt. zealoufly feconded the duke's views. having dehred ailiftance. count of Britanny. and refolution.i84 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. he chofe this conjuncture for reviving his claim to Normandy itfelf. was his mortal enemy * In order to throve? a damp upon the duke's enterprife. to ferve un- der him with a body of five thoufand Britons. purfued not its interefls on this occafion with i'ufficient vigour Philip I. The counts of Anjou and of Flanders encouraged their fubjefts to engage in the expedition and even the court of France. which William owed to his perfonal valour and good conduct . initead of adopting the malignity. for the crown of England. the prudence of his predeceffor. b Gul. 7. 33. ^ Gul. 198. than in chufmg the mod veteran forces. Gemet. grandizement of fo dangerous a vaifal. and alfo for removing many obflacles which it was natural for him to expett in an undertaking. the reigning monarch. Besides thefe advantages.Pi<5iavenriSj p. dered . his fucceffor. with that of their vaflals and retainers ": And William found lefs difficulty in completing his levies. c^p. that in cafe of William's fuccefs againft England. : more it fuited their romantic fpirit The fame of the intended invafion was already dilfufed every where : Multitudes crowded to tender to the duke their fervice. and offered to do homage.the council. in which all his neighbours were fo deeply interefled. and he required. he was indebted to fortune for procuring him fome afFift^ ance. was a minor . and^yilliam. A. Alain Fergant. in cafe of his fuccefs. though it might juftly fear the ag-. Conan. lib. having communicated his projeft to. C H P. more properly fpeaking. and Hoel. was iiideed openly or^ . and in rejefting the offers of thofe who were impatient to acquire fame under fo renowned a leader. or. the poffeffion of that dutchy fliould devolve to him ^ But Conan died fuddenly after making this demand .

befides openly giving his vailals permiffion to embark in this expedi- tion. . was the pope. after an infenfible progrefs during feveral ages of darknels and ignorance. and to obtrude on his obfequious dif- motive to Alexander II. vasion of England whom William gained by liis negociations. though at firft converted by Romifh miffionaries. began now to lift his head openly above all the princes of Europe to alfume the office of a mediator. or even. '^. it was a fufficient c Gul. that he alone had made an appeal to his tribunal. which fo much engaged the attention of rope. the reigning pope. The all emperor. Henry IV. and forming a world within itfelf. p. 193. had . who had a mighty influence over the ancient barons. favoured under-hand his chap. his father-in-law. no lefs devout in their religious principles. but the ear! of Flanders.HAROLD. c'lered 185 to lay afide all thoughts of the enterprife . Pia. an arbiter. and fecretly bility 10 inlift encouraged the adventurous nounder the fiandard of the duke of Normandy. and there- by enabled him to employ his whole force in the inBut the moft important ally. though it had afterwards advanced fome farther fteps towards fubje6lion to Rome. The Roman pontiff. in the quarrels of the greateft monarchs . than valorous in their military enterprifes. That kingdom. ^"' levies. being at the head of the regency. It . and rendered him umpire of the difpute between him and Harold . to interpofe in all fecular affairs his dictates as fovereign laws ciples. promifeJ his protection to the Eudutchy of Nor- mandy during the abfence of the prince. entirely feparated from the ref^: of Europe. maintained ftill a confiderable independence in its ecclefiadical adminiilration . but there were other advantages which that pontiff forefaw mufl refult from the conqueft of England by the Norman arms. for embracing William's quarrel.

which William had to encounter in his preparations. and a ring with one of St. there appeared a reludance in many members. if fuccefsful in their enterprife. Odo bilhop of Baieux. he gradually engaged all of them to advance the fums demanded. endeavoured to bring * Baker. HA had hitherto proved inacceffible to thofe exorbitant claims which fupported the grandeur of the papacy. arofe from his ow^n The ftates of the dutchy fubjecls in Normandy. and to fet a precedent greatefl difficulty The of performing their military fervice at a didance from their own country. and fupplies being demanded for the intended enterprife. William's claim . and confhable of the dutchy.iU c HISTORY F. PeThus were all the ambition and ter's hairs in it violence of that invafion covered over fafely with the broad mantle of religion. denounced excommunication againll him and his adherents and the more to encourage the duke of Normandy in his enterprife. Every perfon. conferred feparately with the richeft individuals in the province . . as did the count of Mortaigne. and bring the Englifh churches to a nearer conformity with thofe of the He declared immediately in favour of continent. and efpecially William Fitz-Ofborne. The duke. edit. 22. p. both to grant funis fo much beyond the common meafure of taxes in that age. ''. he fent him a confccrated banner. which promifed fo much glory and advantage to their country. were alTembled at Liilebonne . that the French and Norman barons. pronounced Harold a perjured ufurper . when he himfelf was once engaged. finding it dangerous to follcit them in a body. over . might import into that country a more devoted reverence to the holy fee. count of Ereteiiil. Alexander therefore hoped. OF ENGLAND. The count of Longueville feconded him in this negociation . 1684. and beginning with thofe on whofe affedions he mofl relied.

cap. from the high names of nobility who engaged under the banners of the duke of Normandy. 34. Roger de Beaumont. and pointing to the oppofite fhore. the luftre of the arms. that he might encreafe the number of Harold's enemies. lib. king of Norway. Aimeri de Thouars. Camden. and after committing fome depredations on the fouth and eafl coafls. having collefted about fixty veffels in the ports of Flanders. Geoffrey de Rotrou. over others ftipulating . p. Hugh de Grantmefnil. and at lafl the ftates themfelves. after this that cedent. that there was the field. the duke. martial apj3earance. Introd. and difembarked the e While p. on which they mufl erect trophies to their name. ad Britann. and the accoutrements of both . Charles Martel. and was there joined by Halfagar.HAROLD. 2 Gibf. he failed to Northumberland. troops. to infefl the coafls of England. excited the inverate rancour of Tofti. who came over with a great armament of three hundred fail. and fix their eflabliih^ ments.7. Roger de Montgomery. the beauty and vigour of the horfes. called to them. voted conceffion Ihould be no prethat they would aflill their prince to the utmoft in his intended enterprife ^. but ab'^ve all. Tolli. William had now aflembled a fleet of 3000 veffels great and fmall ^ and had ieleded an army of 60. and Geolfiey Giffard ^ To thefe bold chieftains William held up the fpoils of England as the prize of their valour . Hugh d'Eftaples. The molf celebrated were Euftace count of Boulogne. 173. William de Warenne. ad edit. William d'Evreux. put to fea . in concert with Harold Halfagar.000 men from among thofe numerous fupphes which from every quarter folicited to be received The camp bore a fplendid yet a into his fervice. The combined fleets entered the Humber. and encouraged him. f^Gul. he was making thefe mighty preparations. Ordericus Vitalis. aia. Verliegan. Gemet. . from the difcipline of the men.

Harold. and as foon as he reached the enemy at Standford. the on of Northumberland. had employed every art of popularity to acquire the aifeftions of the public . This prince. give prince Olave.igj^ HISTORY OF ENGLAND. feat and flight of thefe two noblemen. that the Engliih found no reafon to repent the choice which they had made of a fovereign. fummer. from the great combination againft him. and all the barked but the winds proved long contrary. but the victory was deci7"'he action was bloody five Gil the fide of Harold. to extend their depredations ^^'^'^'"^^ wh^n Morcar earl and Edwin earl of Mercia. had prevented any dilbrdcr j wlien at lalt the wind became I favour- . and allow him to depart with twenty veflels. But he had fcarcely time to rejoice for this viftory. and he gave fo many proofs of an equitable and prudent adminiftration. informed of this defeat. together with the death of Tofli and Halfagar. king's brother-in- law. all fides CHAP. however. Even the Norvegian fleet fell into the hands of Harold . and the great care in fupplying them with provifions. ventured "I'he action ended in the deto give them battle. crown which had been conFerred upon him. of the Norvegians. aj. though he w^as not fenfible of the full extent of his danger. They flocked from all quarters to join his ftandard . ^^^- who began . detained them in that harboru*. mouth of thefmall river had been infl:antly emDive. he found himfelf in a condition to give them battle. and exprelied the utmoft ardour to fliow himfelf worthy of Sept. The authority. his libertv. of the duke. troops. when he received intelligence that the duke of Normandy was landed with a great army in the fouth of England. and ended in the total rout the . having haflily coliefted fome forces. the good difcipline maintained among the feamen and foldiers. The Norman early in the fleet and army had been at the aflfembled. and troops . haftened with an army to the protection of his people . vv^ho had the generofity to the fon of Halfagar.

and as this incident happened on the eve of the feaft of St. happened to ftumble and fall . which Harold had affembled. notwithftanding the pope's bcnediclion. Parilisy 185. €<lit. difcouraged by contrary winds and other accidents. inftantly changed.HAROLD. The duke himfelF. fet out with thegreateft alacrity: They met with no oppofuion on their palfage great fleet. as he leaped on fhore. the tutelar faint of Normandy. who defpifed real dangers. and the army quietly difembarked. at Pevenfey in Suifex. ^^^* and as the wind again proved contrary. in order to fupport drooping hopes. which. Michael. and which had cruifed all fummer off the lile of Wight. Paris. running to a neighbouring cottage. and enabled them to fail along the coafl c There were. ordered a proceflion to be made with the reliques of St. Matth. The joy and alacrity of William and his whole army was fo great. a. arrived. plucked fome thatch. that. Vitalis. had : A laid afide his preparation?^. 500. even when they hHigdcn^p. when the duke. OrJer. fancying they faw the hand of Heaven in all thefe concurring circumftance-o. were very fuband many of je6t to the dread of imaginary ones them began to mutiny. by calling aloud that he had taken polfeffion of the country. p. proceeding in great order. heard . 38$ hap.that they were nowife difcouraged. lome of them even to defert . anau 16^4. The Norman armament. and feveral velTels loft in this Ihort pafiage . but had the prefence of mind. Valori. as if giving him feizine of the kingdom. Valori \ and prayers Ihe wind to be faid for more favourable weather. favourable. the army began to imagine that Heaven had declared againit them. it is faid. p. And a foldier. their colours their . had been difmilfed. however. Thefe bold wa^iors. on his receiving falfe intelligence that William. they were deftined to certain deltruQion. without any material lofs. till they reached St. to turn the omen to his advantage. the foldiers. he prefented to his general.

and may be regarded as the immediate He loft many of his braveft officaufe of his ruin. that it would be better policy to prolong the war at leaft. fite for that prince to bring matters to a fpeedy deci- and put his whole fortune on the iflue of a battle. to reach this new invader but though he was reinforced at London and other places with frefti troops. Gurth. and lefs dangerous means of enfuring to himfelf the vidory That the Norman troops. beloved by his fubjecls. were allowed to languifli for want of action . ^raitened in provifions. . . by refufnig to diftribute the Norvegian Ipoils among them A conduct which was little agreeable but which his deto his ufual generofity of temper fire of fparing the people. c HA heard of Harold's great viftory over the Norveglans They feemed rather to wait with impatience the arrival of the enemy. who from fatigue and difcontent feHis brother cretly withdrew from their colours. P. had probably occafioned. in his own country. began to enand remonftrated tertain apprehenfions of the event with the king. . that the defperate fituation of the duke of Normandy made it requireft : . He urged to him. He haftened. in the war that impended over him from the duke of Normandy. Jbut that the king of England. : . and he difgufted'the cers and foldiers in the aftion . no refource in cafe of a difcomfiture. which is always the moft dangerous. a man of bravery and conduft. though great and honourable. to fpare his own perfon in the action. provided with every fupply. by quick marches. had proved in the main prejudicial to his interefls. on the other.4$o HISTORY OF ENGLAND. elated on the one hand with the higheft hopes. would fight to the laft extremity and being the flower of all the warriors of the continent. and feeing. if they were haraffed with fmall fkirmifhes. The victory of Harold. he found himfelf alfo weakened by the defer tion of his old foldiers. muft be regarded as formidable to the Englifh : That if their firft fire. had more certain. and fatigued with the bad weather fion.

but referve. in cafe of fome refource to the liberty and independence of the kingdom And that having once been fo unfortunate as to be conflrained to fwear. vv^heve they fixed their quarters. or to hold it of him in fealty. The . that their camp and fleet to Haflings. not his offer was rejefted with difdain to be behind with his enemy in vaunting. the Knglifh. fenfible of the imminent danger to which their properties. weather and deep roads during the winter feafon. or to fight him in Angle combat. and that upon the holy reliques. he refolved to give battle in perfon . : 191 chap. i Higden. if he thought it neceffary to hazard a battle. and William. He was he fent a meflage to the duke. or to fubmit their caufe to the arbitration of the pope. who had removed fo contident of fuccefs. who. Harold replied. fent him a meflage by fome monks. it were better that the command of the army fhould be entrufted to another. : " might give the foldiers more alTured hopes of a proiperous ilfue to the combat. promifing him a fum of money if he would depart the kingdom without effufion of blood But.HAROLD. : and That at leaft. all their diflerences '. that the God of battles would foon be the arbiter of : . not being bound by thofe difaftrous accidents. requiring him either to refign the kingdom. and for that purpofe he drew near to the Normans. he ought not to expofe his own perfon. p. which was approaching. were expofed from thofe rapacious invaders. as well as ftimulated by his native courage. 286. to fupport the pretenfions of the duke of Normandy. ^^ would haften from all quarters to would render his army invincible his aflillance. they mufl fall an eafy and a That if a general acbloodlefs prey to their enemy tion vvere delayed. Harold was deaf to all thefe remonflrances facred ties. as well as liberties. Elated with his pad profperity.

if they remitted in the lead their wonted prowefs. and would be decided in a fingle action That never army had greater motives for exerting a vigorous courage. and made them a fpeech fuitable to the occafion. p. The Englifh fpent the time in riot. the duke called together the moil confiderable of his commanders. in whofe hards alone lay the event of wars and battles And that a perjured ufurper. On the morning. Malm. they conquered a kingdom at one blow. and in prayer. the fea met them : in their re- and an ignominious death was the certain punilhment of their imprudent cowardice I'hat. would be ftruck with terror on their appearance. an enraged enemy ^ ^A ' The : hung upon treat. on the contrary. the whole fortune of the war now depended on their fwords. ^' f Englifh and Normans now prepared thenifelves for this important decifion . was very dif^^^' ferent in the two camps. He reprefented to them. 332. and jollity. : J^ W. cate . and in the other functions of their religion •".Angl p. on the night before the battle.192 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. their rear. was approaching . and confcious of his own breach of faith. and diforder .things. or the inevitable deftruftion which mull enfue upon their difcomfiture : That if their martial and veteran bands could once break thofe raw foldiers. whether they confidered the prize which would attend their victory. had given him juft caufe to hope for the favour of the Almighty. by his criminal condudt. and were juftly entitled to all its pofleflions as the reward of their prolperous valour : That. by collecting fo numerous and brave a hod. who had raflily dared to approach them. but the afpe£l of ^_ 34th Odo. he had enfured everv human means of conaueil and the cominander of the enemy. ana-' thematized by the fovereign pontiif. and would prognofti. the Normans in filence. DeGcft. 201. that the event which they and he had long willied for.

Du Cange's Qlofiary in verbo Cantilena Roiandi. 501. 368. Matth. and exprefled his refolution to conquer. led by Montgo. 201. p. in which he was inferior. Gul. advanced in order and with alacrity towards the enemy.pofed of braved battalions. p. a poll: which they had always claimed as their due The Londoners guarded the flandard: And the king himfelf. cate to himfelf that fate which his multiplied crimes 193 CHAP. and fmging the hymn or fong of Roland. that they firetched beyond the infantry. accompanied by his two valiant brothers. 1 H. Harold had feized the advantage of a rifing ground. placed himfelf at the head of his infantry. he refolved to (land upon the defenfive.combat. Higdeii. at whofe head he placed himfelf. ror. and having likewife drawn fonie trenches to fecure his flanks. when William. mery. band to the rehef of his difmayed forces. formed the third line . moving at ouce. confided of archers and light-armed infantry The his fecond. W'hich remained long undecided. 959. p.was com. and confufion was fpreading among the ranks. and flanked each wing of the army "*. but was received with equal valour by the Englifti j and after a furious . or to perifli in the aSion. Welt. army into three lines : The duke next divided his The firft. ^'"' had fo jullly merited '. the famous peer of Charlemagne ". and to avoid all adion with the cavalry.HAROLD. the former. The Kentifh men were placed in the van . Order Vital. difmounting. His : : Brompton. p. and hard preifed by the enemy. Gul. and ranged in clofe order His cavalry. He ordered the fignal of battle to be given . 201. heavy armed. p. haltened with a feleO.a86. 223. began firft to relax their vigour. Plifl. Malm p. overcome by the difficulty of the ground. and were fo difpofed. Gurth and Leofwin. Pift. " W. p. L O prefence . commanded by Martel. The firft attack of the Normans was defperate. who found himfelf on the brink of deftruftion. and the whole army. Hunt "" Vol. then to retreat .

but which feemed ad\ifal>le in bis defperate fituation. and fanguine in their hopes. and the cavalry make an affault upon their wings. he was totally undone He commanded his troops to make a haliy retreat. aided by the advantage of" ground. A P. he tried a flratagem. and animated by the example of their prince. fliould gall the enemy. and both of them purfue the advantage. and with redoubled courage. where.194 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. which was. and driven back to the hill. who. placed behind. the Encrlifh were and the duke. while he was combating with great bravery at the head of his men affailants. where. very delicate in its management. but even after this double advantage. c IT TTT prefence reflored • the • action . who. he flill found a great body of the Englifli. ordering his fecond line ta advance. they were able. Finding that the enemy. The artifice fuccccded againfl thofe unexperienced foldiers. to retire with lofs : obhged 1" precipitately followed the Normans into the plain. and to allure the enemy from their ground by the appearance of flight. The Englifli were repulfed with great Daughter. llill made a vigorous refiftance. maintaining themfelves in firm aiTay. William gave orders. while his archers. heated by the aftion. being rallied by the bravery of Harold. that at once the infantry /hould face about upon their purfuers. . and who were intent in defending themfelves againft the fwords and fpears of the he at lad prevailed Harold was flain by an arrow. renewed the attack with Irefh forces. who were expofed by the fitu'4cion of the ground. feemed determined to difpute the victory to the laff extremity. The duke tried the fame ftratag-em a fecond time with the o fame fuccefs . By this difpofition 3 HU J . which the furprife and terror of the enemy muil give them in that critical and decifive moment. and continue the combat. if he gained not a decifive victory. notwithftanding their lofs. He ordered his heavy armed infantry to make anaifault upon them . to maintain the poft.

gave ground on all fides. however. and which feemed worthy. fame fate And the Englifh. . to decide the fate of a mighty kingdom. But the appearance of the duke obliged them to feek their fafety by flight and darknefs faved them from any farther purfuit by the enemy. the great and decifive victory of Haftings. duke of Normandy. His two brothers fliared the : 195 CHAP. prepared to pu(h to the utmofl his advantage againit the divided. obtained fome revenge for the flaughter and dilhonour of the day. difcouraged by the fall of thofe princes. and by both commanders. O 2 . and was generoufly The Norreflored without ranfom to his mother. and were purfued with great daughter by the viclorious Normans. of the vanquifhed had (till the courage to turn upon their purfuers . and attacking them in deep and miry ground. : man army of battle without giving thanks to Heaven in the moft folemn manner for their victory : And the prince. difmayed. by the heroic valour difplayed by both armies. troops. A few troops. The dead body of Harold was brought to William. and difcomfited left not the field Englift. William had three horfes killed under him and there fell near fifteen thoufand men on the fide of the Normans The lofs was ftill more confiderable on that of the vanquifhed . after a battle which was fought from morning till funfet. '"' . Thus was gained by William.HAROLD. befides the death of the king and his two brothers. having refrefhed his.


and de* ftroyed every noble principle of fcience and virtue. were more guided by perfuafion than authority. The free conftitutions then eftablifhed. in the fubmif. previoufly to the irruption of thofe conquerors. The military defpotifm. TH E government which they paid to their princes. had funk the genius of men. accuftomed to independence and inured to arms. flill preferve an air of independence and legal adminiflration. The Anglo-Saxon Government and Manners. who eftablifhed all the _^*^ themfelves on the ruins of Rome. which diftinguifh the European nations j and if that part of fion . was unable to refill the vigorous efforts of a free and Europe.C '97 ] APPENDIX I. Firjt Saxon Government Succejjion of the kings The Wittenage?not The artjiocracy — The feveral orders of men-' Courts ofjujlice Criminal law Rules of proof Military force Public revenue Value of money Manners. O 3 the . and that of Appendix northern nations. and (hook off the bafe fervitude to arbitrary will and authority under which file had fo long laboured. was always extremely free . of the Germans. which had taken place in the Roman empire. as from a new epoch. and which. however impaired by the encroachments of fucceeding princes. and thofe fierce people. repeople kindled her ancient fpirit.

equity. the globc maintain ^^^* rirfl: Sax- The tiement rited Saxons. but preferved unaltered all their The language was civil and military inflltutions. mefit^^"^" joyed great . which. who fubducd Britain. would not be very ftrict in maintaining a regular fuc« . that an independent people. and a legal fine .it owes thefe planted by thofe generous barbarians. honour. It is eafy to imagine. obflinately new fetr retained that invaluable poiTeffion in their and they Imported their ancellors. they paid great regard to the roval familv. they were indeed tranfplanted into a new territory. and the fame picture of a fierce and bold liberty. and as the ftill poifeiled a very limited authority Saxons exterminated. his authority SiicceiTion of the depended more on his perfonal qualities than on his flatipn he was even fo far on a level with the people. and fuperlor to that paid for the life of a fubjecl. the manners and cuftomxs were wholly German . The chieftains (for fuch properly than kings or princes) fidered as the firft among the citizens .was levied upon his murderer. The king. was a fcnfible mark of his fubordination to the communitv. even the names of places.o commanded them in thofe military expeditions. and valour. fentiments of liberty. that a flated price was fixed for his head. pure Saxon . into this ifiand the fame inhe-r principles . though proportionate to his ftation. of independence. Though non^ . which is drawn by the mafterly pencil of Tacitus. fo far from being Invefled with arbitrary povv^er. as they enliberty in their own country. they either had no rule. more wh. was only con. £q little reiirained by law and cultivated by fclence. rather than fubdued. fuperlor to the reft of mankindj advantages chiefly to the feeds im.19S Appendix HISTORY OF ENGLAND. were almoft all affixed by the conquerors . which often remain while the tongue entirely changes. the ancient inhabitants. and afcribed to it an undiiputcd fuperiority. w^hich they had from they v/ere. or ceffion of their princes. will fuit thofe founders of the Englifh government.

would have been thought entitled ta O 4 th^ . as for enjoying the other. vv'ho are not fenfible of the general advantages attending a fixed rule. or the next prince of the blood. that fbciety. the young prince naturally Repped into the throne If he Vv'as a minor. however. was but feeble and imperfeft. by the fuliVages of the people. however obtained.APPENDIX noiic that v/as fleaciily obferved. or at Icaft the tacit acquiefcence of the people . But as there is a ma^ terial difference between govenjnient and private pofieflions. This is fo much the /Cafe in all barbarous monarchies. who. vvhich was once excluded. a people. had he potrefled the requifite years iand abilities. required the exprefs concurrence. that we cannot confiftently entertain any other notion of their government. mull retain a great influence on every which does not exclude it by the rennements it of a republican conllitution. but poifeiTion. If any king left a fon of an age and capacity fit for government. to fuppOi'e that the crown was confidcred as altogether elective . are apt to make great leaps in the fucceflion. and the idea of any right. by taking previous meafures with the leading men. and occurs fo often. and left the fceptre to his poller ity Any fovereign. and every man is not as much qualified for exercinng the one. and is fo much fortifxcd by the ufual rule in tranfmitting private pofTef-: : fions. L iii 199 filling the va. We are not. and frequently to pafs over the perfon. in the hiftory of the Anglo-Saxons. was more attended to than general princant throne . his uncle. vvas promoted to the government. and indeed the ordinary admimfLration of government. The idea of an hereditary fucceffion in authority is fo natural to men. was extremely apt to fecure their obedience. ciples. and that a regular plan was traced by the conllitution for Jupplying. every vacancy made by the demile of the firll magiflrate.Appendix and prefent convenience. had it greatly in his power to appoint his fucceffor : All thefe changes. in that emergency.

AfTer. which was aflcmbled once a year. : A the people. or affembly of the wife men (for that is the import of the term). times the prerogative of the king to aldermen. a contemporary writer. that Alfred depofed the ignorant aldermen. conquefl ^ But moft of thefe differences and changes. : Norman o We ftitution.^f-J^^>. that otir knowledge of the Anglo- motf' and antiquities is too imperfect to afford us means of determining. they can as little be regarded as wholly teflamentary. p. The dates by their fuffrage may fometimes eftablifli a fovereign but they more frequently recognife the perfon whom they find eltabliflied few great men take the lead . and in all the kingdoms. that at all times. all the prerogatives of the crown and privileges of the people. It is probable alfo. Edward . either eledive or hereditary . 49. overawed and influenced. and the reigning prince. in their place Yet the Laws of Edward the Con- fay exprefsly. Alfred. thefe monarchies are not. the fovereigiity. fpeaking. informs all us. and the flie- werechofenliy the freeholders in the folkmote. and appointed : men of more capacity feffor. know of one change. § 5 ritfs. that it was in earlyname the dukes. called a Wittenagemot. in the Saxon conThe Saxon Annals. that the conftitution might be fomewhat different in the different kingdoms of the Heptarchy. with certainty. with their caufes and effefts. and that it changed hiitory Saxon confiderably till during the courfe of fix centuries. legal fovereign. are unknown to us It only appears. not inconfiderable. earls. provided he be of the royal family. whofe confent was requifite for enacting laws and for ratifying the chief afts of public adminiftration. and where all the freeholders fwore allegiance to the king. and though the deftination of a prince may often be followed in appointing his fuccelTor. there was a national council.a county court. acquiefce in the government . inform us. palles undifputedly for the The Wit- It is confeffcd. that the heretoghs or dukes.i^t^ HISTORY OF ENGLAND. which elapfed from the the firft invafion of the Saxons. llriclly Thus.. ^. and fherifts of the counties. Ina.20O Appendix \^. The preambles to all the laws of Ethelbert. or of giving an exaft dehneation of that government.

this But who were the conftituent members of Wit- tenagemot has not been determined with certainty by antiquaries. Edgar. by which the church is totally fevered from the ftate. and that thofe dangerous principles. that the bifiiops and abbots P were an eflential partj and it is alfo evi- from the tenor of thofe ancient laws. and gave their confent to the public ftatutes. is not fo clearly afcertained by The matter the laws or the hiftory of that period. on that acdeceitful. the fides have become. but as our modern parties have chofen to divide on this point. or governors of counties. or wifemen. [G] at the end of the volume. q Gloff". . The . that thefe wites. 2ai Appendix Elder. See Note . would probably be of difficult difcuffion. in leaft they often fign the \xrbo /arliame fit um. that the Wittenagemot enaded ftatutes which regulated the ecclefiaftical as well as civil government. It is agreed. or men learned in the law popular fadlion aifert them to be reprefentatives of the boroughs. there is alfo mention of the wites. were the judges.A Bdward the P P E N D I X I. Athelflan. that dent. or what we now call the The commons. Wilkins paffim. the queftion has been difputed with the greater obftinacy. as a Component part of the Wittenagemot but who t/jefe were. But befides the prelates and alderiiien. and Edward the ConfefTor the laws of Canute. and the arguments on both count. more captious and Our mo- narchical faction maintain. though a kmd put this matter beyond controverfy. P Sometimes abbefles were admitted Spelm. . the aldermen. Ethelred. every where of a limited and legal government. Edmond. even were it examined impartially . were ad- mitted into this council. or jTipienfes.^t king's charters or grants. and carry proofs even thofe to of conqueror . v/ho after the Danifli times were often called earls *. were hitherto unknown to the Anglo-Saxons \ It alfo appears.

4. among the ancient Germans. where every citizen might. were fo fmall and fo poor. 5. The boroughs alfo. p. cptimaicsy magnates^ proceres . . ilrengtl. terms which feem to fuppofe an ariftocracy. Burgundians. tenants. The rians. &rc. 3. that. The members arc almofl always called the p-incipcs^ fatrapa. from the low flate of commerce. who remained longer barbarous and uncivilized than thofe tribes. the confent of all the members of the community was required in every important derity. would never think of conferring fuch an extraordinary privi- on trade and induflry. and flaves requires ftrong proof to convince us that they would admit any of a rank fo much inferior as the burgeffes. The commons had no fhare in the governments eftabliilied by the Franks. feem to expreiTioiis contradict the latter fuppofition. The milltaiy profefiion alone was honourable among all thofe conquerors : The warriors fubfifted by their pofieffions in land They became confiderable by their influence over And it their valTals. and the inhabitants lived in fuch dependence on the great men '. and to exclude the commons. ' Brady's Treatife of Englifli Boroughs.part of the national councils. that it feems nowife probable they would be admitted as a . but he fpeaks not of reprefentatives mentioned by the Romaic hiftorian. liberation . and we may are well to have known conclude that the Saxons. . retainers. to fliare with them in the legifiative autholege : : Tacitus indeed affirms. be aifembled upon any extraordinary emergency. could only have place in fmall tribes.202 Api endix HISTORY OF ENGLAND. without inconvenience. and other northern nations . after the difr After principalities became extenfive ference of property had formed diftinclions more important than thofe which arofe from perfonal and this ancient practice. employed by all ancient hifloin mentioning the Wittenagemot.

though Edgar gave the monks the election. may therefore conclude. period . and only referved to himfelf the ratification. excepting fome of the ecclefiaflics % were anciently appointed by the king. For as aldermen. and the abbots. or between four and five thoufand acres. Eddius. have been more limited in their number. without any eleftion. cap. by which it appears. had there been no other legiflative authority. all thefe. abbots. find a pafllige in an ancient author '. cap. lib. The landed property of England was probably in few hands during the »Saxon times .eafure abfolute. and to the practice of all the northern nations. Thij deftination was afterwards frequently violated . ^05 ^' and valour j we may conclude. from the Saxon Wittenagemot. contrary to the tenor of all the hiilorians. there is fome neceffity for fuppofing that this alTembly con- But of other members than the prelates. the royal power had been in a great m. that the Appendix national affemblies fiderable citizens. was the ellate requifite for entitling the pofieflbr to this honourable privilege. Elieniis. and compofed only of the more con- mud though we mud exclude the burgefles.APPENDIX jflrength I. that a perfon of fifted We We very noble birth. a writer f contemporary to the conqueft. as -weW as t>ilhops. Nor need we imagine that the public council would become diforderly or confufed by admitting fo great a multitude. that the more confiderable proprietors of land were. conftituent members of the national alTembly : There is reafon to think that forty hides. a. and the judges or privy council. as v/e learn ^rom. and confirmed by the king. The abbots in the monafteries of royal fonndation vftrt anciently named by the king . or commons. i|ilt. even one allied to the crown. were afterwards all appointed by the king . at leait during the latter part of that s Xh^i'c is fome reafon to think that the bifliops were fometimcs chofen by the Wittenagen^iot. i. 40. was not eileemed a princeps (the term ufually employed by ancient hiftorians when the Wittenagemot is mentioned) till he had acquired a fortune of that fimount. Ingulf.

and is faid to be half-king though the monarch himfelf was a And we find. • Hift. even if admitted to that alTembly. there was no danger of the afl'embly's becoming too numerous for the difpatch of the little bufmefs which was brought before The arif- them. but on family rights and pofleffions. Edwin. Siward. Leofric. that thofe great proprietors. would much augment their authority over their vafials and retainers. and we may therefore conclude. Hence the immeafurable power affumed by Harold. that whatever we may determine concerning the conftituent members of the Wittenagemot. after the abolition of the Heptarchy. and rendered themfelves quite neceifary in The two latter. who controlled the authority of the kings. with the king. and over of the neighbourhood. by the people. who is called alderman of all England. have hints given us in hiftorians. the Anglo-Saxon government. tend thofe public councils. Edall the inhabitants and Alfric. 387. that prince of valour and abilities ". . the legiflature refided. was become extremely arillocratical The royal authority was very limited . in the period preceding the Norman conqueft. on account of their joining a foreign enem}'^. There is one Athelftan mentioned in the reign of the king of that name. Morcar. Godwin. great . the people. in whom. who refided on their eftates. were of little or no weight and confideration. Ramtf § 3. not on popularity.2^4 Appendix period n_ . and in thefe alone. the ric. ftill preferved their power and influence . though detefled the government. that their authority was founded. when the king lived at a diftance And from the provinces. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. . of the : We great power and it riches of particular noblemen : could not but happen. p. in the latter Saxon times. : And as men had hardly any ambition to at- _ _ _. j^ jg Certain.

not daring to rely on the guardianfhip of the laws. and became in a manner hereditary in the families ^. juftice was commonly very ill adminiftered. and who afforded them. which took place. Brady has given us from Domefchieftain. The circumilances attending the invafions of the Danes would alfo ferve much to encreafe the power Thofe freebooters made and there was unexpeded inroads on all quarters a neceffity that each county fhould refift them by its own force. Dun. See alfo Sim. Z05. commonly augments the power of the crown . even to the difturbance of the government. protection from any infult or inHence we find. managed by the united efforts of the whole ftate. on the conmade Cofpatric earl of Northumberland. by the exjuftice by ftrangers. giving the reafon whyWilliam the Conqueror Nam ex materno fanErat etiim ex mat re Algitha. that a general war. contribute to encreafe it. fo averfe to commerce and the arts. "^ more than the king Roger Hoveden. even of towns. 2C5 Appt^ndix- great offices went from father to fon. and great oppreffion and violence feem to have prevailed. were obliged to devote themfelves to the fervice of whofe orders they followed. p. tracts which Dr. or the injury of their fellow-citizens. had placed themfelves under the clientffiip of fome particular nobleman. and under the conduft of its own nobiFor the fame reafon lity and its own magiftrates. and which bad already produced there its full effeci I himfelf. We fee in thofe inftances the fame tendency towards rendering offices hereditary. and fo little enured to induftry. in return. fays. . fome day. would. that almofl all the inhabitants. Men. Thefe diforders would be encreafed by the exorbitant power of the ariflocracy and of the principal nobility.A P P E N D I X I. tinent ' . . thofe private wars and inroads turned to the advantage of the aldermen and nobles. guine attinebat ad eum honor illius com! tat us. during a more early period. flia Utbredi comitis. in their turn. . Among that military and turbulent people. whofe patronage they purchafed by annual payments. and whom they were obliged to confider as their fovereign.

their . to contribute to his funeral charges. was fuppofed fo much to belong to his patron. they promife. own independent authority. as a compenfation for his lofs 5 in like manner as he paid a fine to the mailer for the murder of his Have ^. Men who were of a more confiderable rank. to give information to the fheriff. but not powerful enough. 5. each to fupport himfelf by his. he be negligent in prote&ing the perfon expofed to danger. y in the country. When any of the aifociates is murderc^d. or of duty to his fuperior. they are to profecute him for the fum at if : and ^ Brady's Treatife of Boroughs. binds himfelf to pay a meafure of honey. entered into formal confederacies with each other.) and which contains many particulars charadleriflical of the man- ners and cultoms of the times ^ All the aifociates are there faid to be gentlemen of Cambridgefhire . they engage to levy a fine of one pound upon him If the prefident of the fociety himfelf be wanting in this particular. befides flying to his fuccour. Edw. 3. &c. thougfl ' a freeman. and to attend at his interment . See Fref. "". OF even the legiilature .i>'. The cafe was the fame with the freemen 9j 10. and compofed a kind of feparate community. apud Ingulf. in whatever place he had appointed . and whoever is wanting in this lafl duty. and to be faithful to each other bury any of the afibciates who dies. hlmfelf. LL. unlefs he has the reafonable excufe of ficknefs. and if he refufe to pay it. they are to exad: eight pounds from the murderer . ai. § 8. and they fwear before the holy reliques to obferve their confederacy. Epift. 'Hickes has preferved a curious Saxon bond of this kind. to his Hift. Dr. which rendered itfelf formidable to all aggreiTors. which he calls a Sodalitium. p. and calls for the They promife to affiftance of his fellows. 5:c. he binds himfelf to pay one pound . A client. p. When any of the allociates is in danger. that his murderer was obliged by law to pay a line to the latter.2o6 Appendix HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Conf. 4. ^ Dt-fTcrt.

bifiiop. which they engage to pay for this lail olTence. robbers. v/hether voluntary or derived from blood The mod remote degree of propinquity was regarded An indelible memory of benefits was preferved Severe vengeance was taken for injuries. to revenge fuch as are committed. If any of the aiiociates kill any of his fellows in a like criminal manner. and from the afiidance of their friends or patrons. he mud pay eight pounds to the fociety. and the fine. when men lived in perpetual danger from enemies. he mud himfelf pay the: fine. they bind themfelvcs.any private engagements were : : : contracted in order to fupply its place. the half of that fum again if he be a Welfhnian. is a meafure of honey. never to eat or drink with him. On . and to prevent their giving abulive language to each other . befides pavingj the ufual fine to the relations of the deceafed. It is not to be doubted but a confederacy of this kind mud have been a great fourcc of friendlliip and attachment . to pay his fine : mark a-piece if the fine he 700 fliilHngs . or renounce the benefit of it In which cafe. As animofities were then more violent. the fociety are to contribute. and to procure men that fafety wdiich the laws and their own innocence were not alone able to infure to them. under the penalty of one pound. lefs if the perfon killed be a clown or ccorle . wilfully and without provocation. If any of the affociates who happens to be poor kill a man. or There are other regulations to proteft alderman. themfelves and their fervants from all injuries. expence. both from a point of honour.A their jolilt P P E N D I X I. 207 Appeiidi::. except in the prefencc of the king. by a certain proportion. and as the bed means of future fecurity : And the civil union being weak. m. and oppredors. But where any of the aflbciates kills a man. connexions were alfo more intimate. and received ^ A protedion chiefly from their perfonal valour.

former was always much regarded by all the German nations. both in going and returning.^. if not over the Hate. even in their moft barbarous ftate j and having little credit. and were of two kinds. Men guard themfelves at any price againft infults mufl: and injuries . and where they receive not protedion from the laws and magiftrate. excej)t they were notorious thieves and robbers. *> Spelm. The nobles were called thanes . were divided into three ranks of men. at leaft over many of the individuals. ferWe know vices. in thofe ages. The feve- Th£ German SaxoRS. they . and the flaves '. and to have received lands. 40. mediate caufe of tyranny. the great body even ot the free citizens. p.. they will feek it by fubmillion to fuperiors. really enjoyed much lefs true liberty than where the execution of the laws is the mod fevere. 4. and where fubjefts are reduced to the llrideft fubordination and dependence on the civil magiftrate. for which they paid rent.2o8 Appendix. Feus and Tenures. ty. and as as the nobility. could fcarcely burthen their eflates with much debt. notwithflanding the feeming liber^_^J\. the king's thanes and ter leffer thanes. Hift. The reafon is derived from the excefs itfelf of that liberty. or attendance in peace and war ^ of no title which railed any one to the rank of thane The except noble birth and the pofleflion of land. or rather Hcentioufnefs of the Anglo-Saxons. feem to have been dependent on the former . Saxon the commons had httle trade or induftry by which a Nithard. Security v/as provided by the Saxon laws to all members of the Wittenagemot. as the other nations of that rai orders continent. they brought over with them into Britain. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. On the whole. the This diftinction noble. the free. The lat- . lib. and by herding in fome private confederacy which acls under the diredion of And thus all anarchy is the ima powerful leader.

Though we are not informed of any of thefe circumflances by ancient hiftorians. v/ho had made three long fea-voyages on his own account. thefe two ranks of Appendix men. a hall.. that the law could never overcome the reigning prejudices . Vol. a circumftance fo fmgular made him be known and remarked j he became the objeQ: of envy. p. was entitled to the quality of thane and that of the fame prince. to all the nobles . and paying a large price for his fafety. even though they were not feparated by po. might remain long diftind. he would have great difficulty to defend what he had acquired . and the well-born thanes would entertain the higheft contempt for thofe legal and faditious ones. P The . 51. Titles of Honour. was raifed to the fame diflinftion ^ But the opportunities were fo few.^^-^. by which a ceorle or hufbandman. 71. the diftindion between noble and bafe blood would ftill be indelible .v. that could gradually mix with their fuperiorSj and infenfibly procure to themfelves honour and dillinftion. a kitchen.A P P E ND I X I. and the noble families continue many ages in opulence and fplen- There were no middle ranks of men. as well as of indignation. p. There are two . If by any extraordinary accident a mean perfon acdour. <= «l Seidell. . and a bell. tliat we may admit them as a neceflary and infallible to *= which feem calculated - confequence of the fituation of the kingdom during thofe ages. Wilkins. I. who had been able to purchafe five hides of land. flatutes among the Saxon law$ confound thofe different ranks of men that of Athelftan. quired riches. 209 they could accumulate riches. Wiikins. and he would find it impoffible to protect himfelf from oppreffion. and had a chapel.^ fitive laws. they are fo much founded on the nature of things. except by courting the patronage of fome great chieftain. by which a merchant.. 70. p.. by which a merdiant or ceorle could thus exalt himfelf above his rank.

Thefe are the mod: coniiderable he mentions. p. f Gul. even in France. They culti- vated the farms of the nobility or thanes. There were 'fix wards. Hertford 146. that the arts in general were much lefs advanced in England than in France . and. whereas the former confumed their immenfe fortunes in riot and hofpitality. &c. and the French or Norman. at the rate f five perfons to a family.. p. The account of them is extraded from Domefday book. 333.aio Appendix I- HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Brady's Treatife of Boroughs. was. Southampton 84. and five of thefe wards contained the Bumber of families here mentioned. were powerful enough to difturb the execution of the laws. which. which never was thoroughly united v»dth the reft. Pift.. Northampton 60. being the capital of the Weft Saxon monarchy. Warwick 225. Bath 64. we may judge of the authority acquired by the ariftocracy in Engnificent itately caflles . The lower rank of freemen were denominated ceorles among the Anglo-Saxons . 6. and was the capital of a great province. Exeter 315. earl When or houfeceorlesand retainers. ^ P. appear by Domefday-book to havtf been at the conqueil little better than villages ^ York itfelf. loa. may thence infer. p. was anciently a coniiderable city. contained then but 141 8 facities The Malmefbury tells us''. that the latter built magmilies'. Norwich contained 738 houfes. The fixthward was laid wafte. p. Angl. and We Godwin befieged the Confeffor in London. 3. makes about 7000 fouls. See alfo de Geft. and in mean houfes. where they were induftrious. though it was always the fecond. Canterbury 26a. at lead the third ^ city in England. and thereby conftrained his fovereign to accept of the conditions which he was pleafed to impofe upon him. See Brady of Boroughs. he fummoned from all parts his hufcarles. 10. a greater number of idle fervants and retainers lived about the great families and as thefe. that the great diftinftion between the Anglo-Saxon nobility. they were chiefly employed in huf- bandry : Whence a ceorle and a huibandman be- came e in a manner fynonymous terms. befides the archbifhop's palace.5. IpAvich 538. land. '( 3 ^^'^^y . for which Winchefler. 4. aio.

who were the property of their lords. and almofl impoffible. feem to have been the caufe of this great alteration with the Anglo-Saxons. vol. Spelm. Prifoners taken in battle. nobles.-er of the but flill more fo. but it is ilifiicult ti3 convert into modern t meafiires. who were tenants that could not be removed at pleafure. P 2 private . But the mofl numerous rank by far in the com- munity feems to have been the flaves or villains. P E N D I X I. were very few in comparifon.A P they paid rent . and flill more the focmen. and that the hulbandmen. For there is httle mention of leafes among the Anglo-Saxons The pride of the nobi: together with the general ignorance of v/riting. but alfo the power v/hich the It laws give them over their flaves and villains. that. The nobility not only poffefs the influence which always attends riches. 8. for a ariflocracy . p. Dr. This was not the cafe with the German nations. 9. &c. as far as we can colleft from the account given us by Tacitus. in The rents of farms were then chiefly paid kind '. and has become very common. § 70 Thefe laws it fixed the i-ents for a hide . and w^ere confequently incapable themfelves of pofl'eiling any property. then becomes difficult. p 471. the far greater part of the land w^as occupied by them. 211 Appendix: ^' and they feem to have been removeable at pleafure. and the depredations of the Danes. in all the counties of Eng- land. by right of war '. Brady afmres us. muft have rendered thofe contracts very rare. i. ^ his Ilift. Tngj. if the practice of flavery be admitted. LL. were then reduced to (lavery . ! LL. General Preface to apud. from a furvey of Domefday-book *'. Edg. Cone. naturally favours the pov. entirely at Great property in the the difpofal of their lords. efpecially if joined to an irregular admini' ftration of juftice. The perpetual wars in the Heptarchy. dition. 7. or carried oif in the frequent inroads. and became. § 14. and miifl: have kept the hulbandmen in a dependent conlity.

private man to remain altogether free and inde- pendent. . ^If. in parrior nobility. and could punilh. i. after the manner of the ancients. " 20. LL. p. which are at prefent to be met with in Poland. The power of a mailer over his flaves was not unlimited among the Anglo-Saxons. Cone. and was continued by the AngloSaxons ^. he paid a provided the Have died within a fine to the king day after the wound or blow Otherwife it paifed unpuuifhed '\ The felling of themfelves or children to llavery was always the practice among the German nations p. were two kinds of Haves among the Anglo-Saxons . and prsedial or ruflic. tect the lov/eft '" •^ Spelm Gloff. without appeal. 415. there were ftill confiderable remains of the ancient democracy. Thefe latter refembled the feffs. '_ . ^If. in verb. <it Conf. If a man beat out his llave*s eye or teeth. § 17- LL. GlofT. after the manner of the Germans "*. P § 12. Servus. in verb. as it was among their anceftors. The great lords and abbots among the AngloSaxons poffeiTed a criminal jurifdiclion within their territories. But though the general ftrain of the Anglo-Saxon government feems to have become ariftocratical. and fome parts of Germany.212 Appendix . and even fome degree of dignity. LL. f Ibid. and muft have procured robbers a fure protection on the lands of fuch noble: There . Denmark. vol. to the gentry or infeThe adminiftration of juftice. without the patronage of fome great lord. the Have recovered his liberty " If he killed him. Ldw. Iligden. lib.de Morib. § a6.'igemot ticular. 50. cap. : men Com-ts of Juftlce. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. any thieves or robbers whom they caught there ^ This inftitution muft have had a very contrary effedl to that which was intended. Tnx. Ha. Infangcntixfe. but might give fecurity. Germ. as did not fincerely mean to difcourage crimes and violence. which were not indeed fufficient to proof the people. t. § Tacit. houfehold flaves. Spclm. LL. 1 fi II.

eccleiiaftical as well as civil . Edw. 2. and the bifliop. and interpofe witla their opinion \ Where juftice was denied during three felTions by the hundred. p. which thus became a kind of regifter too fathe s LL. Any freeholder was fined who abfented himfelf thrice from thirds alfo. moft confiderable of thefe deeds were inferted in the blank leaves of the parifh Bible. bargains of fale concluded .3. The two thefe courts *. Canut. § 2. § 20- P 3 cre4 . and received appeals from the inferior courts. p. EtheUt. this perquifite formed a confiderable part of the profits belonging to his office. prefided over them '. there lay an appeal to the king's court " . the county or hundred court was the place where the mofl remarkable civil tranfadions were finifhed. p. The aldermen received a third of the fines levied in thofe courts ^ . 1^6. but this was not praclifed on flight occafions. LL. and as mofl of the punifh- ments were then pecuniary. Edg. VVilkins. and to reftrain the power of the nobles. As the extreme ignorance of the age made deeds and writings very rare. was well calculated to defend general liberty. and the county. 7. < p.Appendix dred. and the bifhop and alderman had no further authority than to keep order among the freeholders. They there decided all caufes. LL. llaves manumitted. in order to preferve the memory of them. pleading. § 17. apiid Wil- kins. Wilkins. DifTert. In the county courts. 77. P P E N D I X I. together with the alderman or earl. 136. without much ity. and fometimes. all the freeholders were aflembled twice a year. 431. » LL Wilkins. Edg. the hun. 8. w LL. 4> 5> 6. » LL. The affair was determined in a fummary manner. § 18. Conf. Hickes.A ticular. Here teftaments were promulgated. 78. 213 by the courts of the decennary. § 5. formal- or delay. made no contemptible part of the pubHc revenue. by a majority of voices . Epift. and prevent all future difputes. and then by the county court. Camit. or lliiremotes. which went to the king. for greater fecurity. p.

for which redrefs in it is difficult to In all vernments. and which regulated all the daily occurrences of life. their . would naturallv have begotten. be allov/ed that the Wittenagemot vv'as altogether compofed of the principal nobility. the county-courts. and the nation was lefs governed by laws than by cufloms.'ide bafis for the government. and the degree of it which prevails. who lived in fo fmiple a ner as the Anglo-Saxons. and were no contemptible checks on the ariftocracy.214 I. which admitted a great latitude of interpretation. as courts of juflice. But there is another power ftill more important than either the judicial or legiflative. Appendix cred to Among a people. by particular cuftoms. The Highlands Saxon government are difputed among hiftorians and antiquaries The extreme obfcurity of the fub: jecl. even though hdilon had never entered into the queftion. formed a v. But the great influence of the lords over y Hickes. The powers of all the members of the Anglothings. the power of injuring or ferving by immediate force and violence. entitled by law to every privilege of Britifli fubjecls j but it was not till very lately that the common people could in flift enjoy thefe privileges. Differt. manpower is aU where all the freeholders were admitted. be falfified. cannot be determined fo much by the public ftatutes. There were few or no taxes impofed by the ftates : There were few ftatutes enacted . v/here the execution of the laws is feeble. Though it fhould. to wit.thofe controverfies. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. It was not unufual to add to the deed an imprecation on all fuch as fhould be guilty of that crime -'. the judicial ways of greater importance than the legiflative. Epift. this povv'er naturally falls into the hands of the principal nobihty . and fometimes by the reafon and nature of of Scotland have long been. therefore. obtain extenfive go- by fmall incidents in hiftory.

of the monarchy. or any violence which he had fufFered They retaliated on the aggrelTor by like a6ls of violence and if he were protected. and the methods of proof ^^^' employed in all caufes. for his defence or vengeance. a tribe of the advanced beyond this fociety j and the right of private revenge Germans. muff conceive that the ancient Germans were little removed from the original Hate of nature The fecial confederacy among them was more martial than civil They had chiefly in view the means of : We : attack or defence againft public enemies. to revenge his death. the nation. appear fomewhat fmgular. This defcft in the political union drew much clofer the fult they were and the natural bravery fo equal. by the Anglo. during the period immediately preceding the conqueft. The Frifians. the loofe execution of the laws. as well as by a fenfe of common intereft. as was natural and ufual. had never wild and imperfect ftate of flill^ re^. that knot of particular confederacies An inupon any man was regarded by all his relations : and affociates as a common injury : They were bound by honour. the quarrel was fpread ftill wider. not thofe of protedion againft their fellow-citizens : Their pofTeiTions were fo ilender and . not expofed to great danger of the people made every man truft to himfelf. P 4.Cnmlnal Saxon courts of judicature.APPENDIX!. and bred endlefs diforders in : •. the clientfhip of the burghers. their flaves 215 and tenants. Appendix the total want of a middling rank of men. and are very different from thofe which prevail at the punifhments inflicted prefent Both among all civilized nations. the continued diforders and convulfions of the Itate j all thefe circumlfances evince that the Anglo-Saxon go* vernment became at laft extremely ariftocratical . the extent t^^J^^. and to his particular friends. confirm this inference or con-? jefture. and the events. by his own clan. jnained .

obliged the perfon maimed or injured. the chief property of thofe rude and uncultivated nations. 23. had made one ftep farther towards completing the pohtical or civil union. . the magiflrate had acquired a right of interpofmg in the He quarrel.. conceived himfelf to be injured by every injury done to any of his people . ' LL. that the \v\cc of 2 ^ the compofition was fixed tlie . and to fupprefs priyate animofities. and the relations of one killed. and of accommodating the difference.ii6 Appendix HISTORY OF ENGLAND. The magiflrate. tit. Germ. by the lofs which the aggrelTor fuffered It fatisfied their pride. That the accommodation of one quarrel might not be the fource of more. a. in the age of Tacitus. and their criminal juflice gradually im- proved and refined itfelf. this prefent was fixed and certain. by their acquifition of new property And thus general peace was for a mo-killed or injured. according to the rank of the perfon aggreflbr his relations and % as a and was commonly paid in cattle. mained among them unlimited and uncontrolled * But the other German nations. they made ftill another flep towards a more cultivated life. by the fubmiffion which it expreffed It diminilhed their regret for the lofs or injury of a kinfman. p. whofe office it was to guard public peace. and be-f fides the compenfation to the perfon who fuffered. JElf. A prefent of this kind gratified the revenge of the injured family. Tlie author fay-. which mult have been by the laws and interpofition of the magiflrate. de Morib. Frif. But when fome time German nations had been fettled in the provinces of the Roman empire. to accept of a prefent from the compenfation for the injury % and to drop all farther profecution of revenge. b Called by the Saxons m^glwta. Though it ftill continued to be an indifpenfable point of honour for every clan to revenge the death or injury of a member. § 27. LL. LL. 491. ^thelb. apud Lindenbrog. c Tacit. : : : ment reftored to the fociety the '.

may be judged of by the coUedion of ancient laws. during that time. e as the compenfation forhi^Iofs. when. When this idea. the murderer was alfo obliged to pay the mafter of a flave or vaffal a fum Manbote. The addition of thefe iu the ^rom what follows iaft words fame law. and people. his adverfary may detain him thirty days but is afterwards obliged to reflore him fafe to his kindred. This (hort abftracl contains the hiflory of the crife- minal jurifprudence of the northern nations for veral centuries. in Italics appears neceflfary fat ion. » The chief purport of thefe laws is not to prevent or entirely fupprefs private quarrels. he may do it for feven days without attacking him . The laws of Alfred enjoin. and as a reward for the pains which he had taken in accommodating the quarrel. during the period of the Anglo-Saxons. publifhed by Lambard and Wilkins. Gloff. Mankcf. which the legiilator knew to be impoffible.A P P E N D I X I. he thought himfelf entitled to ex. refolves to keep within his own houfe. <l Befides paying money to the relations of the deceafed and to the king. . 217 or to his family. that if any one know that his enemy or aggreilbr. when he reaped fuch immediate advantage from them . which is fo natural. and if the aggrelTor be willing. and be content with the co772pen. it was willingly received both by fovereign . This was called the See Spel. Fiedum. augmented the revenue of the king people were fenfible that he would be more vigilant in interpofmg with his good offices. as an atonement for the breach of peace. Vv^as once fuggefted.Appendix aft a line called the Fridvvit. . If he be ftrong enough to befiege him in his houfe. after doing him an injury. but only to regulate and moderate them. ajid his own lands % he fhall not fight him till he require compenfation for the injury. they were expofed to this additional penalty ". The ftate of England in this parti- cular. to furrender himfelf and his arms. in verb. befides com: penfation to the perfon injured. and that injuries would be lefs frequent. The numerous fines which were leAnd the vied.

he mull. he mull apply to the alderman fqr affiftthe alderman refufe aid. § 38. before he attack him. it is then lawful to fight him. and be ignorant that he was refolved to keep within his own lands. till after this . mentions the general mifery occafioned by the multiplicity of private feuds and battles .fr. : A flave may fight in his mafter's quarrel . Ina?. He ordains. Where the aflailant has not force fufficlent to befiege the criminal in his houfe. and he eftabiiflies feveral expedients for remedying this grievance. that if any one commit murder. A father jnay fight in his fon*s with any one. but on condition that they neither converfe with the criminal. and deliver up his arms in which cafe he may detain him thirty days But if he refufe to deliver up his arms. after renouncing him. that no man Ihould take revenge for an injury till he had firfl demande4 compenfation. C 9. danqd . require him to furrender himfelf prifoner. in the preamble to his laws. 43. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. nor fapply him with meat or other neccff'aries : if any of them. with the afliftance of his kindred. and are involved in the feud. the affailant muit have recourfe to the king : And he is not al- ance . If the criminal fly to the temple. pay within a twelvemonth the fine of his crime . he may. If any one meet with his enemy. and had been refufed it s. aflault lowed to the houfe. King Edmond.aiB Appendix fatioti. s LL. except with his maiter K It was enadled by king Ina. that fanc- tuary mufl not be violated. or give ajfifiance^ f him LL. receive him they are finable to the king. Wilkins. he fhall alone fuftain the deadly feud or quarrel with the kindred of the murdered perfon: His own kindred are free from the feud. If the kindred of the murdered perfon take revenge pn any but the criminal himfelf after he is abcm-f into their houfe. p. and if fupreme maglftrate has refufed afliftance. and if they abandon him. JE'.

by a public declaration. that his houfe fhall give no proteftion to murderers. 7a. all their • ceafcd. the price of the archbifnop's head was higher than that of the king's ^ Such refpeft was then paid to the ecclefiaCdcs It mull be underftood.000 thrifmas. any man might. Tit. much . '. By the laws of Kent. and were a ftep towards By the a more regular adminiftration of juflice. j>iiniih to contract and the feuds. Ibid. that ! that li where a perfon was unable or unwilhng § I.ill his Iriends ^ for murder fiiall never be remitted by the king j and that no criminal fhall be killed who flies to the church. and the king himfelf declares. or any of the king's towns ^ . Wilkins. p. no. Ibid. p Wilkins. law. and the kindred of the dekindred. p.npud Wilkins. a ceorle's 266. or his weregild. § a. till they have fatisfied the church by their penance.. : By the Mercian (hillings . n pay LL. as the punifhment of his cowardice ".A ironed by his P P E N D I X I. was by law 30. P LL. The method is appointed for tranfac]:ing this compofition in the fajne lav/ found di- These attempts of Edmond. Salic law. that of a a fheriff's 4000 bifliop's or alderman's 8000 . Elth?-edi. Edm. the . the prince's head was 15. Appendix and they are declared to be enemies to the king and the fine It is alfo ordained.000 thrifmas. The price of the king's head. and he was deprived of all right of fucceflion. as it was then called. § 4- i k Ibid ^ LL. 73. The price of near 1 300 pounds of prefent money. that . Thefe prices were fixed by the laws of the Angles. were contrary to the ancient fpirit of the northern barbarians. 63. a thane's or clergyman's 2000 . by making compenfation '". 71. the price that of a t>f a ceorle's head as was 200 thane's fix times of a king's fix times more °. p. Edm. 2x9 property is forfeited. ^ 7. exempt himfelf from his family quarrels But then he was confidered by the law as no longer belonging to the family . I to § 3.

216 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. * LL. committed by or. and by that curious monument above mentioned. 34. There is indeed a law of Alfred's. Ethclb. where the will of the fovereign is not implicitly find them among the ancient Greeks obeyed. he was put out of the proteclion of law. i. which makes wilful murder capital . By the laws of the fame prince. vol. The price of all kinds of wounds was likewife A wound of an inch long fixed by the Saxon laws under the hah". for . according to By the law of Ethelthe dignity of the perfon. p. § iz.ifTuTi. any one who committed adultery with hii neighbour's wife was obliged to pay him a fine. p. during the time of the Trojan war. kins. 126. § 4. They feem to be the neceflary progrefs of criminal jurifprudence among every free people. and appears in it is contradided by the praftice of all the other barbarous nations •. § ^^j_ g^e jiifp LL. 29. vol. bert. and the kindred of the deceafed had liberty to punilh him thought proper. p. and it probably remained without execution. bv that of the ancient Germans '. de Mor. was paid with one {hilling : One of a : like fize in. preferved by Hickes. and buy him another wife \ These inltitutions are not peculiar to the ancient Germans. p 366. 35. Ethelb. Carte. but this feems only to have : But no fuch diftinftion ' been an attempt of that great eflablifliing legiflator towards a better police in the kingdom. &c. JElf. the face two (hillings : Thirty Ihillings for the lofs of an ear. Some antiquarians have thought that thefe compenfations were only given for man-ilaughter. p. Tgc. There feems not to have been any difference made. that by wilful murder Alfred means a treacherous murder. It is probable. Wilhas no declared feud with another. of Saxon antiquity. i. and fo forth ^. ^^^^^ Appendix the fine. Introdiift. Wilkins. s ' Lindenbrogius.e who " LL. Germ. § ^v LL^ ^if_ § 3a. not for as they '^ wilful murder the laws . JElf. Compofitions We *i Tyrrel. a confpiracy againft the life of the king might be redeemed by a fine ". * LL.

and the law determined. the latter was obliged to Ihow the tracks out of it. An alehoufe too feems to have been confidered as a privileged place . apud Wilkins. 30. apud Wilkins. 4. was not capital. confiding of between feven and thirty-five perfons. p. p. 13. "^ robbers much dillurbed the peace of the country . Edg. . but none If any man could track his of them capital ^. 80. ^If. it was ordained that no man fhould fell or buy any thing above twenty-pence value. Canut. § 32. JEthelft. ^sapud Willdns. <» LL. " LL. & Eadm. § 16. Ethelr. was carried. except in open market . was to be called a turma^ or troop Any greater company was denominated an army ^ The puniihments for this crime were various. apud rz. § %. ^ LL. vailed among the Jews Theft and robbery were frequent among the Anglo-Saxons. p. LL. murder are mentioned in The Irifh. LL.A for P P E N D I X I. LL. only *". 1x0. z LL. knowing it impofTible to whatever Rebellion. y Exod. ^ 37. Inae. Wilkins. Wilkins. 103. who never had any connexions with the German nations. or before an alderman or bifhop. 5 12. Hloth. ^ LL. LL. and are called aTreivai/. Gangs of lately . § 12.xxi. LL. § c ibid. p. JEthelft. adopted the fame praftice till very and the price of a man's head was called among them his eric . § 10. ^ 12. Ethelredi. p. Wilkins. and every bargain of fale mufl be executed before witneffes ^. and Eadm. ''. Ethelredi. ftolen cattle into another's ground. as we learn from Sir John The fame cuftom feems alfo to have preDavis. or pay their : value ^. 29. Hloth. 221 Neftor's fpeech to Appendix Achilles in the ninth Iliad. but might be redeemed by a fum of moneys The legiflators. 63. that a tribe of banditti. If 1 17. In order to impofe fome check upon thefe crimes. p. excefs it impofed a higher fine on breaches of the peace committed in the king's court. » Tbid. and any quarrels that arofe there were more feverely punifhed than elfewhere to prevent all diforders. § 4.

. |-Jqj-^ crimes among the lingular. who employed moment the expedient of /wearing on extra-* : compurgators were in fom. which is nothing but a more enlarged and more cultivated reafoUj never fiouriflies to any degree. were lefs honourable in all engagements than their polterity. as they did not pretend to know any thing of the faft^ expreffed upon oath. and his oath was efteenied equivalent to whofe life A man the fix. Even fuperflition. and were obliged to number. have omitted thofe ineffectual fecuritiesi This general pronenefs to perjury was much encreafed by the ufual want of difcernment in judges^ who could not difcufs an intricate evidence. . n. manner of Anglo-Saxons appear If the . there is much more falfehood. 73. 55. See Wilkins. h Prctf.-s fixed eafy general rules for weighing the credibility of witnefTes. p. cap.222 Appendix HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and thefe ' E Sometimes the lav. is but a poor fupply for the defects in knov/ledge and education ^ every ordinary crofies and reliques. who. a. except w^here a good education becomes general . Hence the ridiculous pradice of obliging men to bring compurgators. among them. tit. cap. Nicol. and where men are in a rude : taught the pernicious confequences of vice^ treachery. Whatever we may imagine concerning the ufual truth andfmcerity of men who live and barbarous flate.__^^_^_^ Rule3 of lefs fo proof. who. and even perjury. Burgund. » LL. though more prevalent among ignorant nations. and though it was frequently drop. 45. each of whofe lives was only twenty fhillings. p. from experience. nor is founded on iteady principles of honour. the proofs were not and were alfo the natural refult of the fituapiinifliing q^ thofe people. than am^ong civilized nations Virtue. the teilimony of the witnefles ^. 34.e cafes multiplied to the number of three hundred ^ The practice alfo of fmgle combat was employed by moil nations on the continent as a remedy againft falfe evidence . and immorality. valued at that of all was eftimated at 120 counterbalanced fix ceorles. fliillings.Lomb lib. not weigh. ped. that they beheved the perfon ijpoke true Our European anceftors. LL. ad VVilldus.

He next took two pieces of wood. apud Lidenbrogium. and if he happened upon that which was marked with the figure of a crofs. LL. 23. The . p. he placed them on the altar. and he v/as attended by eleven compurgators. in which the party might challenge his adverfary. or the witneiTes. they were rather an improvement on the methods of which had formerly been practifed among thofc barbarous nations. Crux. he firil cleared himfelf by oath. After folemn prayers for the fuccefs of the experiment. not becaufe it wt. fays he. " Du Cange. 223 ped. 496. arofe from fuperflition. and which ftili prevailed among the Anglo-Saxons. or on fome celebrated reiique. it was con. the perfon was pronounced innoThis praftife. Lewis the Debonnaire. When any controverfy about a fact became too trial judges to unravel. or the judc^e himfelf^: And though thefe cuftoms were abfurd. guilty '". that is. Frifon. in his ftead.s uncertain. 6C1. See Desfpntaines and R-aumanoir. but left that facred figure. tit. apud Lidenb. and wrapping both up in wool.Appendix tinually revived from experience of the falfehood attending the tellimony of witnefies ^. The emperor.APPENDIX at lafl a fpecies I. p. took up one of the pieces of wood. or. was abolilhed by it in France. It became of jurifprudence : The cafes v/cre determined by law. if otherwife. they had recourfe to what they called the judgment of God . as it cent . one of which was marked with the fign of the crofs. crofs fliould be proftituted in of the commoa difputes and controverfies ^ ". fome unexperienced youth. from the oppofition of the clergy.cap. 1 14. in verb. lib 2. a prieft. One of them was intricate for thofe ignorant the decifion by the cro/s : It was praclifed in this manner : When a perfon was accufed of any crime. tit. ™ LL. prohibited that method of trial. Longob. ss. to fortune : Their methods of confulting this oracle were various.

and exorcifms ° . Lindenbrog. p. on examining it. and was not attended with thofe confequences of homage. was not certainly extended over all the landed property. . which is doubtful. innocent ^ It is difficult for us to conceive how any innocent perfon could ever efcape by the one trial. and other burthens. : Spelm. P LL. was produced . I p. 1299^. malfes. reliefs \ worfliip. if there appeared. The feudal law. It Appendix ordeal was another eflablifhed the Anglo-Saxons. The v. A confecrated cake. he was guilty. guilty The trial by cold ''. p.. in verb. which if the perfon could fwallow and digeft. or almofl entirely deftroyed the ancient Britons.224- HISTORY The trial I OF ENGLAND. innocent ^ Military force. fadings. which were infeparable from it in the kingdoms of the continent. Canute's laws. ' Spelra in verb. if other wife. of Tenures. Or^£<3/ Parker. But there was another ufage admirably calculated for allowing every criminal to efcape who had con: fidence enough to try it.e death of an alderman. * Speim. 156. the latter to the nobility. or carried the iron to a certain diflance j and his hand being wrapped up. among method oJT was praftifed by boiling water or red-hot iron. Corfned. Text. there was a payment made to the king of hi^ beft arms. * On tl-. or any criminal be convicted by the other. 1 Sometimes the perfon accufed walked barefoot over red-hot iron. if it had place at all among the Anglo-Saxons. '55. Ruflenf. he was pronounced called a corfned. and this \va3 called his heriot See JBut this was not of the nature of a relief. inveih-OiJea/ium. p. 2. \ (n). no marks of burning. p. water was different The perfon was thrown into confecrated water . if he fwam.ilue of thia heriot was fixed' by themfelves.'reater or lefler thane. they planted " Spelm. Parker. i'^. and the covering fealed for three days. after which the perfon accufed either took up a ftone funk in the water to a certain either i* depth. a [. As the Saxons expelled. if he funk. § 77.Inas. he was pronounced innocent . marriage. The former was appropriated to the common people . The water or iron was confecrated by many prayers.

-. Vol. i6. rer. England had fome military tenants. 256. any infurredion among the conThe trouble and expence of defend- ing the (late in England lay equally upon all the land . unlefs exempted by a particular charter '^. who were called Sithcun-men ^. no doubt. which were large and in the tolls and impofts which he probably levied at difcretion on the boroughs and fea-ports that lay within his demefnes. 340. 22$ themfelves in this ifland on the fame footing with Appendix their anceftors in Germany. Spelm. The revenue of the king feems to have confifled chiefly in his demefnes. p. 7. The ceorles or huibandmen vv^ere provided with arms.600 hides was called. p. w Spdm. and of building and fupporting bridges. The tr'moda necejjitas.195- Ibid. ^ i. domm. a The king greater number might be aflembled. or the confequently the ordinary military force of the kingdom confided of 48. as in the commencement of the feudal law in other countries of Europe.720 men . I. was infeparable from landed property. and were poffeffed only during pleafure. p. i.!*. and Craigius de jure feud. 17. Public re^ » Eradon de Acqu. Cone. though. Danegelt was a landand nobility . in ^ . He could not ahenate any part of the crown lands. ^. without the confent of the dates *. vol. even though it belonged to the church or monafleHes. lib.^^^^ for the feudal institutions % which v/ere calculated to maintain a kind of (landing army. and to other offices but thefe probably were not of great extent. of repairing highways.A P P E N D I X I. and it was ufual for every five hides to equip a man for the fervice. as it burthen of military expeditions. of feuds and tenures. Spdman dieg. always in readinefs to fupprefs quered people. * * Inae. cap. p. (^ tax . § 51. and fomid no occalion ^^^^^. y of feuds and tenures. . Cone. vol. And there were fome lands annexed to the office of aldermen. ^pelm. on extraordinary occafions. even to religious ufes. See more fuHy lib. and were obliged to take their turn in military duty\ There were computed to be 243.

128. <^ LL. § 40. a cow at four s. The fleece was twofifths of the value of the whole fheep ^ . Silk and cotton were quite unknown Linen was not much ufed. compared to commodities. p. J Ibid. or about thirty pounds of our A A ^ '^ Chron. &c. was eftimated at a Ihilling . were little acquainted with any clothing but what was made of wool. from the defeats in hufbandry. that is. Edw. together with a cow's paflure in fummer.eight fliillings in the five A : times the value of a fheep . we may compute that money was then near ten times of greater value. ^ LL. for Appendix tax of a fhilling a hide. p. §69. § 38. confequently a Saxon Hiilling was near a fifth heavier than ours. fifteen pence of our money.. p. prqfent . LL. much above its prefent eftimation . f' « Fleetwood's JE\f. As to the value of money in thofe times. was near three times the weight of our prefent money pound. horfe was valued at about thirty-fix fhillings of our money. ' Ibid. Chron. coined for fome centuries after the conqueft. Inx. and a Saxon penny near three times as heavy ^. The board wages of a child the firfl year was eight fliillings. as againfl thofe invaders ^ The Saxon There were likewife that which was money. 66. there are fome. 27. were not fo large as they are at prefent in England.^^^ for Value of by the dates % either payment of the fums exaded by the Danes. JjL. Inse. An ox was computed at fix forty. p. If we fuppofe that the cattle in that age. 8 § 12. and an ox's in winter K William of Malmefbury mentions it as a remarkable high price that William Rufus gave fifteen marks for a horfe. and the reafon probably was. man at three pounds '. Sax. s8. a mare a third lefs. Con.226 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. like the ancients. Pretiofum. Wilkins. or thirty Saxon fhillings ^ . or putting the kingdom in a pollure of defence pound. and pence in a fliilling'*. impofed ^J^.1%6. that the Saxons. fheep. though not very certain means of computation. by the laws of Athelftan.

prefent money'.





Between the years 900 and 1000,
a hide of land for about
1 1

Ednoth bought
of prefent

8 (hillings

This was little more than a an acre, which indeed appears to have been

money "".

the ufual price, as we may learn from other acpalfrey was fold for twelve fhillings counts ".


value of an ox in king Ethelred's time was between feven and eight (hilGervas of Tillings ; a cow about fix fliillings p. bury fays, that in Henry I.'s time, bread which

about the year 966




fuffice a

hundred men for a day was rated
a fhilling


of that age ; for it is three fhillings, or thought that, foon after the conqueft, a pound flerfheep was ling was divided into twenty iliillings : rated at a fhilling, and fo of other things in proporIn Athelftan's time a ram was valued at a tion. The tenants of {hilling, or four pence Saxon i. Shireburn were obliged, at their choice, to pay About 1232, the either fix pence, or four hens'. abbot of St. Albans, going on a journey, hired feven handfome flout horfes ; and agreed, if any of


them died on the road,
lings a piece of


pay the owner 30


our prefent money

remarked, that in all corn, efpecially wheat, being a fpecies of manufactory, that commodity always bore a higher price, compared to cattle, than it does in our times ^ The Saxon Chronicle tells us ", that in the reign of Edward the ConfefTor there was the mofl terrible famine ever known ; infomuch that a quarter of wheat rofe to fixty pennies, or fifteen fliillings of our preConfequently it was as dear as if it fent money. now cofl feven pounds ten ftiil lings. This much exceeds the great famine in the end of queen Elizabeth ; when a quarter of wheat was fold for four

be ancient times the raifmg of
It is








" Hift. Elienf.



• Ibid

p. 471.

P Wilkins, p. ia6.

i Ibid. p.

Monaft. Anglic, vol. ii. p. 538. Fleetwood, p. 83. 94. 96. 98.



" F, ij^.

C^ 2




as in

in this lafl period

was nearly of the-

fame value

our time. 1 hefe fevere famines arc a certain proof of bad hufbandry. On the whole, there are three things to be confidered, wherever a fum of money is mentioned in Firft, the change of denomination, ancient times. by which a pound has been reduced to the third part of its ancient weight in filver. Secondly, the change in value by the greater plenty of money, which has reduced the fame weight of filver to ten times lefs value, compared to commodities ; and confequently a pound flerling to the thirtieth part of the ancient value. Thirdly, the fewer people and lefs induflry, which were then to be found in every European kingdom. This circumftance made even the thirtieth part of the fum more difficult to levy, and caufed any fum to have more than thirty times greater weight and influence, both abroad and at home, than in our times ; in the fame manner that a fum, a hundred thoufand pounds, for inftance, is at prefent more difficult to levy in a fmall Hate, fuch as Bavaria, and can produce greater effe6ls on fuch a fmall community, than on England. This lafl difference is not eafy to be calculated But allowing that England has now fix times more indudry, and three times more people than it had at the conqueft,




reigns after that period,




that fuppofition to conceive, taking


together, every
fians, as if

fold above a

fum of money mentioned by hiflowere multiplied more than a hundred fum of the fame denomination at

In the Saxon times, land was divided equally among all the male children of the deceafed, according to the cuftom of Gavelkind. The pradice of entails is to be found in thofe times ". Land was chiefly of two kinds, bockland, or land held by


JElf. § 37.

apud Wilkins,

p. 43.










book or charter, which was regarded as full pro- Appendix perty, and defcended to the heirs of the poffefl'or ; ^J" and folkland, or the land held by the ceorles and
removeable at pleafure, and were indeed only tenants during the will of their





attempt which


find in

England to

from the civil jurifdiftion, was that law of Edgar, by which all difputes among the clergy were ordered to be carried before the billiop The penances were then very fevere j but as a man could buy them off with money, or might fubftitute others to perform them, they lay eafy upon the rich ^. With regard to the manners of the Anglo-Saxons we can fay little, but that thay were in general a rude
feparate the ecclefiaftical


uncultivated people, ignorant of letters,
in the mechanical arts,



to fubmiffion un-

der law and government, addifted to intemperance,

Their bed quality was their military courage, which yet was not fupported by difcipline or conduct. Their want of fidelity to the prince, or to any truft repofed in them, appears flrongly in the hiftory of their later period ; and




want of humanity

in all their hiftory.


notwithftanding the low (late of the arts in their own country, fpeak of them as barbarians, when they mention the invafion. made upon them by the duke of Normandy *. The conquell put the people in a fituation of receiving flowly from abroad the rudiments of fcience and cultivation, and of correding their rough and licen^


tious manners.

Wilkins. p. 83.

z Ibid. p. 96, 97.

Spelm, Cone. p.473«

Gul. Pift. p. 20Z.






Addicts //v /: (i..M/. SIr.'/'if. /'''•'• '-V"^-







Difcontents of the Rigours of the

Confeqiiences of the battle of

of the Englijh King*s return to Nonnandy Englijh Their infiirredions

Hajiwgs SuhmlJJlon Settletiient of the government

Ne%u infurreBions New rigours of the government Introduction of the Innovation in ecclefiafiical governfeudal law ment Infurredion of the Norman barons Revolt of prince RoDifpute about invejiitures The New forefi bert -Domefday book IVar with France Death and charader of
fVillia?n the



could exceed the confternatlon CPIAP. which feized the EngUfti, when they received ^ intelligence of the unfortunate battle of Haftings, 1066. the death of their king, the flaughter of their prin- Confe cipal nobility and of their bravefl warriors, and the S'e^battle rout and difperfion of the remainder. But though pf Haft^"^^* the lofs which they had fuftained in that fatal adion was confiderable, it might have been repaired by a great nation ; where the people were generally



armed, and where there refided fo many powerful noblemen in every province, who could have affembled their retainers, and have obliged the duke of Normandy to divide his army, and probably to wafte it in a variety of adions and rencounters. It was thus that the kingdom had formerly refifted, for many years, its invaders, and had been gradually IJLibdued, by the continued efforts of the Romans, Saxons, and Danes and equal difficulties might have been apprehended by William in this bold and C^ 4 hazardous


hazardous enterprlfe.


But there were feveral vices the Anglo-Saxon conftituticn, which rendered
defend their liberties The people had in a

difficult for the Englilli to

in fo critical an emergency.

great meafure loft all national pride and fpirit, by their recent and long fubjeftion to the Danes ; and as Canute had, in the courfe of his adminiftration, much abated .the rigours of conqueft, and had go-? verned them equitably by their own laws, they regarded with the lefs terror the ignominy of a foreign

yoke, and deemed the inconveniencies of fubmiihon iefs formidable than thofe of bloodfhed, war, and refiftance. Their attachment alfo to the ancient royal family had been much weakened, by their habits of fubmilfion to the Danilli princes, and by their late election of Harold, or their acquiefcence in his ufurpation. And as they had long been accuftomed to regard Edgar AtheHng, the only heir of the Saxon Hne, as unfit to govern them even in times of order and tranquillity they could entertain fmall hopes of his being able to repair fuch great lofles as they had fuftained, or to withftand the victorious arms of the duke of Normandy. That they might not, however, be altogether wanting to themlelves in this cxtrem-e neceffity, the Englilh took fome fteps towards adjufting their difiointed government, and uniting themfelves againfl the common enemy. The two potent earls, Edwin and Morcar, v/ho had fled to London with the remains of the broken army, took the lead on this occalion : In concert with Stigand, archbifhop of Canteibury, a man poileiTed of great authority and of ample revenues, they proclaimed Edgar, and enr deavoured to put the people in a poft ure of deience, and encourage them to refift the Normans ^. But the terror of the late defeat, and the near neighbourhood of the invaders, encreafed the confufion infe-f


Gul. Piftav.

p. aoj.


Vitalis, p, 502.


p. 449,


p. 3343.


parable from great revolutions


and every refoiutlon C H A

propofed was hafty, fluctuating, tumultuary ; difconcerted by fear or f^clion, ill planned, and v/orfe

to recover
his victory,

that his enemies

might have no



their confternation, or unite their

counfels, immediately put himfeif in motion after

an enterprife, which nothing but celerity and vigour could render finally fuccefsful. His hrll attempt was againit Romney, whofe inhabitants he feyerely punifned, on accouut of their cruel treatment of fome Norman feamen and foldiers, who had been carried thither by ftrefs of weather, or by a miflake in their courfe And forcfeeing that his conqucft of England might flili be attended with many difficulties and v^ith much oppofition, he deemed it neceilary, before he (hould advance farther into the country, to make himfeif malter of Dover, which would both fecure him a retreat in cafe of adverfe fortune, and allord him a fafe landing-place for fuch fupplies as might be reto profecute

and refolved

quifite for pufhing his advantages.


terror dif-

was fo great, that the garrifon of Dover, though numerous and well provided, immediately capitulated and as the Normans, rufiiing in to take polIefTion of the town, haftily fet fire to fome of the houfes, William, defirous to conciliate the minds of the Englifh by an appearance of lenity and juftice, made compenfation to the infufed


his victory at Haitings


habitants for their loifes


army, being much diftreffed with a dyfentery, was obliged to remain here eight days but the duke, on their recovery, advanced with quick marches, towards London, and by his approach encreafed the confufions which were already
lb prevalent

The Norman

in the Englilli counfels.



in particular,

whofe influence was great over

Gul. Piftav. p. 20^.




the people, began to declare in his favour

CHAP, ^i^V,

moft of the bifliops and dignified even then Frenchmen or Normans, the pope's bull, by which his enterprife was avowed and hallowed, was now openly infilled on as a reafon for general

and as clergymen were


fuperior learning of thofe prelates,

which, during the ConfefTor's reign, had raifed them above the ignorant Saxons, made their opinions be received with implicit faith ; and a young prince like Edgar, whofe capacity was deemed fo mean, was but ill qualified to refill the impreflion which they made on the minds of the people* repulfe body of Londoners received from five hunwhich a dred Norman horfe, renewed in the city the terror of the great defeat at Haftings ; the eafy fubmiffion of all the inhabitants of Kent was an additional difcouragement to them the burning of Southwark before their eyes, made them dread a hke fate to



and no man any longer entertained thoughts but of immediate fafety and of felf-prefervation. Even the earls Edwin and Morcar, in defpalr of making effectual refiftance, retired with their troops to their own provinces and the people






thenceforth difpofed themfelves unanimoully to yield to the vidor. As foon as he pafTed the Thames at

Wallingford, and reached Berkhamllead, Stigand the primate made fubmilTions to him: Before he came within fight of the city, all the chief nobility, and Edgar Atheiing himfelf, the new-elefted king, came into his ramp, and declared their intention of
yielding to his authority \



their throne,

They requefted him which they now confidered


vacant ; and declared to him, that as they had always been ruled by regal power, they defired to foL low, in this particular, the example of their anceftors, and knew of no one more worthy than himfelf to hold the reins of government ^

Hove»1en, p. 450.



p. 634.


Gul. Pift.

p. 105.

Ox-d. Vital, p. 503.


but as he was yet afraid to place entire confidence in the Londoners. : *". and to fecure his perfon and government Stigand was not much in the duke's favour. h Ibid.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. the bifhop of Coutance put the fame queflion to the latter . both becaufe he had intruded into the fee on the expulfion of Robert the Norman. and both being anfwered with acclamations ^. » Eadmer. Aldred. who were numerous and warhke. in a fhort fpeech. attended the duke on this occafion . p. at firft. to narch. p'503. in order to curb the inhabitants. Weftminfter abbey was the place appointed for that magnificent ceremony . 6. who was himfelf an ufurper. he meanwhile commanded fortreffes to te eredied. and conferred this honour on Aldred. was the great objed to which the duke's enterprife tended. and accepted of the crown which was tendered him. the mod confiderable of the nobility. k Gul. Aldred adminiftered to the duke the ufual coronation oath. both Englifh and Norman. pretending that the primate had obtained his pall in an irregular manner from pope Benedict IX. therefore. refufed to be confecrated by him. of preferving the offer the appearance of a legal adminifiration. Order. 205. a man equally refpe<5led for valour in the field and for prudence in council. afked the former whether they agreed to accept of William as their king. Orders were immediately iflued to prepare every thing for the ceremony of his coronation . ^^• ^^^^^""^-^ William. 235 Though chap. he feigned to deliberate on and being defirous. by which he bound himfelf to proted: the church. g a6th Dec. Pic'av. adminifler . remonftrating with him on the danger of delay in fo critical a conjunfture. and becaufe he poffeffed fuch influence and authority over the Englilh * . Vital. he laid afide all farther fcruples. he wifhed to obtain a more explicit and formal confent of the Englifh nation ^ But Aimar of Aquitain. p.as might be dangerous to a new-eftablifhed mothis . archbifhop of York.

conridering the circumftanccs of the times < •n Gill. fancied that the Englifh were offering violence to their duke and they immediately affaulted the populace. and it was with difficulty that William himfelf w^as able to appeafc . lity who had not attended his coronation. earl Coxo. were received into favour. ruflied out to fecure themfelves from the prefcnt danger .. in order to guard the church. p. even Edwin and Morcar. « Gul. Pid. ment^of the go- vcinment. and which continually encreafed during the reign of this prince. p 2c8. hearing the fhouts within. and were confirmed in the pofleflion of their eftates and digEvery thing bore the appearance of peace nities ". and tranquillity j and William had no other occuMalmeitury. thus polTefTed cf the throne The firnamed the Forefter. 206. who were placed without. and by an irregular election of the people. and this addition to the ufual 1 or. and fet fire to the neighbouring houfes. grand<-nephew to that Edric fo noted for his repeated afts of perfidy during the reigns of Ethelred and Edmond . Order. a man famous for bravery . full of apprehenfions. and pnt the crown upon his head '. patioA . The Norman foldiers. and to reprefs violence : He then anointed him. the tumult io(S7. Yitalis. f23's. both Englifh and Normans. adminliter juftice. The alarm was conveyed to the nobility who furrounded the prince . that he alfo promifed to govern the Normans and Engliih by equal laws . came and fwore fealty to him . p. retired from London to Berldng in ElTex . with the other principal noblemen of England. "". Pift. Order. and there received the fubmiflions of all the nobiEdric. by a pretended deftination of king Edward. Vitalis. but flill more by force ^^ aj-ms.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p. 271. 503.thfcems not improbabIe. king. earls of Mercia and Northumberland . p. 51-6. I'here appeared nothing but joy in the countenance of the fpedators : But in that very moment there burfl forth the llrongeft fymptoms of the jealoufy and animofity which prevailed between the nations.

and even during this violent revolution. who were foHcitous to gain the favour of their new fovereign. Sax. tion. i. the . P Ibid. o Gul. care was taken to give as Httle offence as poffible to the jealoufy of : : "'. and he ". joi. who had affifled him to mount the throne. This convent was freed by \\\yc\. 226. Gemet. where prayers had been put up for his fuccefs. and by this liberality gave them . 48a. had got pofleffion of the treafure of Harold. and for that of Harold. ^ Gul. p. now The Englifli monks found tailed of his bounty ^ him well difpofed to favour their order : And he built a new convent near Haftings.the infolence ofviclorv. he diflributed great fums among his troops. not. 20S. ferved as a lading memorial of his vidory He introduced into England that Ifrict execution of juftice for which hisadminiftration had been much celebrated in Normandy . him. Chron. p. All the accompanied with many valuable prefents confiderable monafteries and churches in France. p. 28S. p. 311. Diceto. Vital. from all epifcopal jurifdicp.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. and notwithrtandino. Monaft. his 237 pation than to give contentment to the foreigners C H a f.Picl>p. ao6. which he called Battle Abbey ^ and which. failed The ecclefiaflics. every diforder or opprellion met with rigorous punilhment ". Order. Paris. in return. 9. His army. on pretence of fupporting monks to pray for his own foul. Pidt. i Gul. and to ^^^^^^^^-^j new fubjeds. p. M. which was confiderable and being alfo fupplied with rich prefents from the opulent men in all parts of England. 189.Ang. Weft p. in particular. to exprefs his gratitude and devotion in the manner which was moff acceptable to them : He fent Harold's ftandard to the pope. both at home and had much forwarded his fuccefs. was governed with fevere difcipline . M. He hopes of obtaining eftablifliments at length thofe more durable his which they had expected from enterprife abroad. 312. who had fo readily lubmitted to 1067. torn. p.

in all his The king appeared folicitous ta an amicable manner. his great friend and benefactor. and he received many into favour who had carried arms againft him. not even towards No figns of Edgar Athel- ing. a matter which gave them fmall conThe better to reconcile his new fubjeds to cern. J067. amidfl this confidence and friendfhip which he expreffed for the Englifh. not the form of but the fucceffion only of their fovereigns. attentive to the firft fleps of their new fovereign. which overawed the people.238 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. not of the conqueror . whom he reprefented as an ufurper. the appearance of his clemency and jullice gained the appro- bation of the wife. already flruck with his military fame. whom William confirmed in the honours of earl of Oxford. and appeared defirous of replacing every thing on In his whole adminiflration ancient eflablifhments. He confirmed the liberties and immunities of London and the other cities of England . their government. and whom he affefted to treat with the highefl kindnefs. he bore the femblance of the lawful prince. the vanquiflied. the Normans and fubjefts the Englifh. as nephew to the Confeflbr. his authority. and of thofe who had fought in the battle of Haftings on the fide of that prince. William made a progrefs through fome parts of England . CHAP. he feemed willing to admit of every plaufible excufe for paft oppofition to his pretenfions. to which But he was .^^L^ unite. by intermarriages and alliances new who approached his and perfon were . t^. and befides a fplendid court and majeflic prefence.1 fenflble he had owed his advancement to fo- vereigu . and the Englifh began to flatter themfelves that they had changed. and flill to keep pofTeffion of the fword. fufpicion appeared. Though he confifcated the eftates of Harold. the king took care to place all real power in the hands of his Normans. the heir of the ancient royal family. conferred on him by Harold. received with affability and regard.

He beflowed the forfeited eftates on the moil eminent of his captains. who. of vigour and lenity. Stigand the primate.WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. this By and of William Fitz Ofberne. where he refided during fome time. the earls Edwin and Morcar. that he Nomaothought he might fafely revifit his native country. or for their ecclefiaflical and civil dignities. at lead of one who referved to himfelf. and by many powerful princes and nobles. were in reality hoftages for the fidehty of the nation. which appeared mod warUke and populous . the fon of the brave earl Siward. having contributed to his enterprife. the power of afluming that quartered chara<^er. and building citadels in that capital. eminent for the greatnefs of their fortunes and families.0^7. P- for commanding foldiers in all the kingdom. and enjoy the triumph and congratulation of his ancient fubje^s. Hereford. And thus. Waltheof. he of them. and the cities beft fituated He HA ^^. as well as in Winchefter. vereign authority. who. uncle to the king of France. King's rehe had fo foothed the minds of theEnglifh. whenever he pleafed. dy. while they ferved to grace his court by their prefence and magnificent retinues. were defirous of participating in the joy and advantages of its fuccefs. his mihtary inftitutions were thofe of a mailer and tyrant . Among were Edgar Atheling. and left no where any power able to refill or oppofe him. He left the adminiflration in the hands of his uterine brother. Norman mixture. Odo bifhop of Baieux. with others. That their authority might be expofed to lefs danger. while his civil adminillration carried the face of a legal magiftrate. His Englifh courtiers. He was vifited at the abbey of Fefcamp. ' 539 difarmed the city of Lon. out- vied . wiUing to inthefe gratiate themfelves with their new fovereign. however. and eflablllhed funds for the payment of his foldiers.C don and other places. March. he carried over with him all the moil confiderable nobility of England. by Rodulph.

upon . the fize and workmanfhip of their filver plate. The hiftorian above mentioned. envying their riches. who is a panegyrift of his mafter. an art in which the Englifh then excelled . -of all fpecies ofluxury plate mult have been the rareft. and was As the hiftorian chiefly on the Englifli more than twenty times more rare than at prefent. 9 * and grudging the reftraints impofed P. and highly celebrates the juftice and lenity of Odo*s and Fitz Ofberne's adminiftration ". » P. a Norman hiftorian % who was prefent. infills on the filver plate. impute the caufe chiefly to the Normans. who. ai2.*. hij panepyrfc magnificence fhows only howii>competent ajudgche was of the matter. it was impoffible altogether to prevent the infolence of the Normans . with more probabihty. 212. reigners with aftonifhment. throws the blame entirely on the fickle and mutinous difpofition of the Englifh. Silver was then often times the value. and he exprefles himfelf in fitch termsj as tend much to exalt our idea of the opulence and But though every thing cultivation of the people \ bore the face of joy and felf treated his feftivity. jj^ England affairs took (till a worfe turn during Difcontents and the abfence of the fovereign."' 240 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and William himgreat appearance new courtiers with DifcontlieEiigliilu ofkindnefs. every thing feemed to menace a revolution. * vied each other in equipages and entertainments and made a difplay of riches which ftruck the foWilliam of Poiftiers. defpifmg a people that had fo eafily fubmitted to the yoke. the coftlinefs of their embroideries. 211. hof-^ and tilities were already begun in many places . fpeaks with admiration of the beauty of their perfons. But other hiftorians. as rapid as that which had placed William on the throne. and the Englifh nobles derived little fatisfadion from thofe entertainments. complaints multiplied every where j fecret confpiracies were entered into againft the government . where they confidered themfelves as led in triumph by their oftentatious conqueror. and confequently.

while he detained all the principal nobility in Normandy. quire new confifcations and forfeitures.^-vU«^ 1067. that the chief reafon of this alteration in the fentiments of the Enghih. in order to revifit his own country. own rapine. great and vi(5torious Vital. who was alone able to curb the violence of his captains. on this enterprife "'.v. which remained in profound tranquillity. and to gratify thofe unbounded hopes which they had formed in entering. which rendered him impatient to difplay his pomp and It is magnificence among his ancient fubjeds. p. P. by which they expected to ac. Were w^ not affured of the folidity of his genius. K was . he found that he could neither fatisfy his rapacious captains. in lefs than three months after the conqueft of a great. . without farther exerting thd rights of conquefl. to provoke and allure them into infurrcctions. warlike. In order to have a pretext for this violence. that in fo extra- ordinary a ftep he was guided by a concealed policy j and that. and was not menaced by any of its neighbours and fhould fo long kave his jealous fubjefts at the mercy of an infolent and licentious army. and the good fenfe difplayed in all other circumflances of his condud:. than that this prince. muft-be afcribed to the departure of William.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. he endeavoured. while a w Order. It is evident. I. therefore more natural to believe. which he thought. indeed appears more flrange. fhould abfent himfelf. we might afcribe this meafure to a vain oftentation. and feizing the polTeffions of the Enghfh. army Vol. without difcovering his intentions. though he had thought proper at firft to allure the people to fubmillion by the femblance of a legal adminiflration. and Nothing to overawe the mutinies of the people. could never prove dangerous.. Upon them their 241 were defirous of provoking C HA. and turbulei\t nation. 507. nor fecure his unliable government.. to a rebellion.

p. being provoked at the depredations of fome Norman captains in his neighbourhood. and the quarrel was be" Oi:l. Edric the Foreder. count of Bologne.*^^ fo near to fupprefs any tumult or rebellion. Vital. was quartered in England. and began already to experience thofe iniults and injuries which a nation mud always expert.2+2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Weft. though without fuccefs. 4. A fecret confpiracy was entered into to perpetrate in one day a general maflacre of the Normans. and gave rife to thofe mutual jealoufies and animofities between them and the Normans. of their defen celefs condition. which were never appeafed till a long trafl of time had gradually united the two nations. p. p y liovcdcn. to repel force by force '. M. Sim. it fcarcely feems allowable. with their But though afllftance. and endeavoured. who had fird fubmitted to the Conqueror. the difalieftion was general among the F-nglifh. though too late.J0. that allows itfelf to be reduced to that abjcd fituation.^^^. thefe open hoftilities were not very confiderable. like that which had formerly been executed upon the Danes . on the garrifon of Dover *. i Gemet. Anglia Sacra. come . 245. and made them one people. two Welfh princes . j^^T whether we are to account for that meafure his policy. they made an attempt. CHAP. aa6. no ancient writer has afcribed this tyrannical pur1C67. it tions. and while he himfelf was Bat as . were the firfl that attempted to throw off the yoke . pofe to William. The inhabitants of Kent. and in confederacy with Euftace." from the king's vanity or from the immediate caufe of Englifli all was the calamities which the endured during this and the fubfequent reigns. who had alfo been dilgulled by the Normans. vol. p. z??^. p. formed an alliance with Blethyn and Rowallan. 508. Order. from conjecture aloncj to throw fuch an imputation upon Their in- him. Whofe poifeffions lay on the banks of the Severne. who Ijiad become fenfible.

king. lence and feverity of his temper made him incapable of feeling any remorfe in the execution of this tyrannical purpofe. |\ 117. or concealing themfelves . The and the vigorous meafures which he purfued. 450.WILLIAM THE CONQ_UEROR. Sax. to » Chron. '• who had been during arbitrarily expelled by the Normans be reflored to their eftates But at the fame time he impofed a general tax on the people. while it increafed the number of malcontents. and gave them the profpecl of new forfeitures and attainders. and the confifcation of their eflates. The king began to regard all his Englifh fubjecls as . or was more fully confirmed in the refolution of feizing their poifeflions. and which had ahvays been extremely odious to the nation \ As the vigilance of William overawed the malcontents. ^^' 'C0XO5 having defired him to head them in an infurreftion. D'lnelm. he intention. that the vailals of earl c H A p. Bcvcvl. This fa«ft is a full proof that the Normans had committed great injufticcj and were the real caule of the iufur- ^o^^- I'edions of the Engliih. and by his prefence. fidelity to William. come fo general 243 and national. put him to death as a traitor to his country. p. betrayed their guilt by flying. informed of thefe dangerous difcon.Dec. Sim. 6> tents. difconcerted all the fchemes of the confpirators. that of Danegelt. ^ Hovedcn. their infurreclions were more the refult of an impatient humour in the people. haflened over to England. R 2 regular . p. 19-. p. inveterate either irreclaimable enemies and thenceforth and em- braced. than of any his abfence. Such of them as had been more violent in their mutiny. and to enough to'conceal his preferve ftill fome appearance of art had juftice in his opprefTions. which had been abolifhed by the Confeflbr. 173. and of reducing them to Though the natural viothe moll abjeft llavery. He ordered all the Englifh. both enabled William to gratify farther the rapacity of his Norman captains. and finding him refolute in maintaining his 1067. A^ur.

foa of earl Gilbert. flill refided in Normandy. in order to prevent the rapacity and infolence of his folforgivenefs. Robert. y^^„^. mother to king Harold. : diery \ Githa efcaped with her treafures to Flanders. and to deliver hoftages for their obedience. He was here joined by his wife before vifited England. as an earnelt of that feverity which the rebels mull expect if they perfevered in their revolt ".244- History of England. and he fet guards on all the gates. fhe by the birth iiamedHenry. Richard. and met with like treatment And the king. threv/ themfelves at A the king's feet. the wifer and more confiderable citizens. and fupplicated his clemency and William was not dellitute of generofity. The malcontents of Cornwal imitated the example of Exeter. and furrendering at difcretion. which he put under the command of Baldwin. perfuaded the people to fubmit. and to be Matilda. and William. and William. inftigated by Githa. after. The king haftcned with his forces to chaftife this revolt and on his approach. were ftrengthened by the acceffion of the neighbouring inhabitants of Devonfliire and Corwal °. The inhabitants of Exeter. and betaking themfelves to arms. J Ibid. refufed to admit a Norman garrifon. who had not whom he now ordered Soon Aldred. to his family ? Order. returned to Winchefter. appearing before the walls. « crowned by archbifhop brought him an acceffion of a fourth fon.^^^L^^ unequal contefl. when his temper was not hardened either by He was prevailed on to pardon policy or pafTion the rebels. But* . regular confpiracy. fudden mutiny of the populace broke this agreement . His three elder fons. fenfible of the c HA P. The inhabitants were anew feized with terror. p. which could give them a rational hope of fuccefs againft the eflablifhed power of the Normans. ordered the eyes of one of the hoftages to be put out. 1068. and difperfed his army : into their quarters. Vital. whom he Ibid. jio. having built a citadel in that city.

and from Sweyn king of Denmark. p. thither the general attention. rendered the quarrel between them and the Normans abfolutcly incurable. on his accelllon. they fecretly fet upon them. R 3 and . therefore. . had. feemed intolerable to the natives and whereever they found the Normans. fides the general difcontent which had feized the Englifh. having changed his plan of adminiflration in England from clemency to rigour. induced that nobleman and his brother to concur with their incenfed countrymen. and thefe potent noblemen. from their nephew Blethyn prince of North Wales. if he gained one family. from Malcolm king of BeScotland. and gratified their vengeance by the flaughter of their But an infurreftion in the north drew enemies. and the injuries committed and fuffered on both fides. 511. added to fo many other reafons of difguft. or. The infolence of vicdifperfed throughout the kingtorious mafters. . he gave him aiji abfolute denial " j and this difappointment. flipulated for foreign fuccours. the two earls were incited to this revolt by William. Edwin and Morcar appeared at the head of this rebellion . while he enraged the whole nation. the difcontents of his EngHfti fubjeds augmented daily . and feemed to threaten more important confcqucnces. When Edwin. dom. C H both in pubhc and domeftic Hfe. promifed his but either he had daughter in marriage to Edwin never feriouily intended to perform this engagement. liam knew the importance of celerity in Wilquelling an infurredion. But p. Vital. before they took arms. fupported by fuch powerful leaders^ •= Older. renewed his applications. in order to infure them private injuries. though the king appeared thus fortunate. for the recovery of their ancient liberties. feparate or aflembled in fmail bodies.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. he thought it was to little purpole. and to make one general effort 245 A. to his interefts.

and that of Nottingham. . . except a fmall reinforcement from Wales s . he advanced by great journies to the north. Archil. without refiftance. h Ibid. whom they had hoped to gain by their fubmiiTions. Rigours of the Norvernmcnt. but having recourfe to the clemency of the victor. away their lands to his foreign adventurers. He obferved religioufly the terms which he had granted to the former. deftitute of all fupport. or were joined by any of the foreign fuccours which they expefted. and gave . whom he pretended to fpare. and in pofielfion of the military power. and the two earls found no means of fafety. Thefe. of th e people . A The Englifli {truftion were now fenfible •. ^ _ ^ io63. eibid. '_ CHAP.246 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. He reached York before the rebels were in any condition for refiftance. On his march he gave orders to fortify the caftle of Warwic. was very different from that which fell to the fhare of their followers. 511. another Norman captain ^. planted throughout the whole country. i Ibid. Vital. that their final de- was intended and that inftead of a fovcrelgn. and having his troops always in readinefs. made with Malcolm. imitated their example. and ready to fall. nor were the fo agreeable to the wiflies '' and people. whenever he ffiould think peace which he proper to command their ruin. left Edwin and Morcar. able to make any farther refiftance. who did him homage for Cumberland. thus deferted by their leaders. they had tamely furrendered themfelves. a potent nobleman in thofe parts. But the treatment which William gave the chiefs. which he committed to the cuftody of "William Peverell. to a tyrant and a conf Order. 4 queror. and delivered his fon as a hoflage for his fidelity . fceined at the fame time to deprive them of all profpeft of foreign ailiflance '. p. of which he left Henry de Beaumont governor. and allowed them for the prefent to keep poifeffion of their eftates but he extended the rigours of his confifcations over the latter.

or of returning on a favourable opportunity to of their native liberties Edgar Athehng himfelf. 247 Though the early confifcation of Harold's . with an intention of paffing their lives abroad free from oppreffion. •t Order. M. . 225. hoped that they fhould thenceforth enjoy. and acts of violence. a powerful Northumbrian. the fubfequent proofs of their animofity and refentment had made them the object of hatred and they were now deprived of every expedient by which they could hope to make themfelves either regarded or beloved by their fovcreign. The eafy fubmiffion of the kingdom on its firft invafion had expofed the natives to contempt . who were ignorant of his pretenfions. R 4 with . without moleftation. ImprelTed with the fenfe of this difmal fituation. excufed on account of the and thofe who were urgent neceffities of the prince not involved in the prefent ruin. that no Englilhman poifefTed his confidence. But the fucceffive other families convinced them. attainders. ill re- llrained. however contrary to the ancient Saxon laws. p. or command whom or authority. 4. 508. Paris. Weft. '^ being inflided on men who had never fworn fealty to the duke of Normandy. Dun. p. p. as the neceifary refult of this deftruclive plan of ad- miniftration. M. and they foredeftru6lion of fo many faw new forfeitures. their followers might feem iniquitous . was perfuaded by Cofpatric. a rigorous difcipline could have but was entruited with any and that the ftrangers. They obferved. Vital. and' who only fought in defence of the government which they themfelves had eftabliihed in their own country : Yet were thefe rigours. were encouraged in their infolence and tyranny againil them. Sim. 197. many Englifhmen fled into foreign countries. to efcape alTift their friends in the recovery ''.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. queror. CHAP. that the king intended to rely entirely on the fupport and afleftions of foreigners . dreading the infidious carefles of AVilliam. p. ^^^^^ io6S pofleffions and their dignities.

51Z.. was not Ion? before they found occupation for Godwin. But William's bounty fail of alluring many new adventurers into his fervice . and Humphry de Teliol. and the rage of the vanquifhed Englifh ferved only to excite the attention of the king and could not thofe warlike. partly in hopes of employing them againfl the growing power of William. from Dermot and other princes of . having met with a kind reception. Hugh de Grentmefnil.^. Wcw illfurrectjons. While fions... fought a retreat in Ireland where.!. and menaced them with ftill more bloody effeds of the public refentment. though entrufted with great commands. and which he pu: A nifhed by the confifcation of all their poffeflions in to his foUov/ers England ^. ^ ^^ ^' 1068. 1069. they began to wilh again for the tranquillity and fecurity of their native couritry.. Edtheir prowefs and military condudt. with him into Scotland v. and Magnus. Maigaret and Chriftina.^ country. mortd. immediately after the defeat at Hafcings..?48 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.^. had. the EngHfli fuffered under thefe oppref- • even the foreigners were not much at their eafe . and fome others imitated their example defertion which was highly refented by the king.chiefs. Vitali. he gave great countenance to all the Englifli exiles. and he carried thither his two fiilers. They were well received by Malcolm. . 'to and keep them in readinefs re- fupprefs every j-p • commencement of domeilic bellion or foreign invanon.that • • -. who foon after efpoufed Margaret the eldefl filler and partly with a view of ilrengthcning his kingdom by the accefTion of fo many {Irangers. i Citier. three fons of Harold. Many of and laid the foundation of them fettled there families which after\v'ards made a figure in that .^ p. but finding themlelves furrounded on all hands by enraged enemies. defired to be dilmifl'ed the fervice .. . . country. who took every advantage againfl them..

M. p. and he was accompanied by Harold and Canute. eafily perfuaded the warlike and difcontented Northumbrians to join the infurredtion. Anglia Sacra. partly from the hopes which they gave of Scottifh fuccours. p. p. rlfmg in arms. that he might better provide for the defence pf the citadel of York. p. 513. more impatient of the Northumbrians had attacked Robert de Comyn. partly from their authority in thofe parts. flew Robert Fitz-Richard their governor " fallen into the . *9 lay . 146. Paris. Vital. 116. and befieged the in the caftle William Mallet. and brought along with him Cofpatrick. who was appointed governor of Durham and gaining the advantage over him from his negligence. they put him to death in that city. Vital. and other leaders. Sim. Bearne. ral ^_ . ready to oppofe them and being defeated in feveral actions. country. ' j 1069. Merlefwain. and Wales. fet fire to fome houfes which ' Gul. Edgar Atheling appeared from Scotland. where The utmoft confufion. 250. at the head of fome foreign troops. This fuccefs animated the inhabitants of York. and roufe the indignation of the Englifh againft their haughty conquerors. fon of the count of Britanny. on whom the - command now devolved. Dun. Gemet. Chron. 249 CHAP. Waltheof. The efforts of the Normans were now had diredled to the north. Danifh troops landed from 300 vefTels brother to king Sweyn. p. with feven hundred of his followers '". p. Order. and to return . 450. would at once commence holHlities. and they hoped that all the exiles from Denmark. p. they were obliged to retreat to their fliips. who. 512.WILLIAM THE CONQ_UEROR. 51a. Siward. they projefted an invafion on England. afTiiled by forces from thefe fevecountries. was entrufled with the command of thefe forces. AdeHn. Vital. de Mailr. with great affairs lofs to Ireland '. who. Mallet. Order. n Qrder. Ofberne. 5. They landed in Devonfliire but found Brian. A little : after. Scotland. »" vol. Hovecfen. 198.i. p. two fons of that monarch. p.

. p. 451. p. feemed determined to make by concert one great effort for the recovery of their liberties. The flames. which they carried by aflault and the garrifon. and for the expulfion of their oppreflbrs. afllfl:ance of the WelQi. aided by the Danes. s Order. p Ingulf. laid liege to Shrewflbury. : c HAP. the Ifle and taking flicker in of Ely. he tried before his approach to weaken the enemy. Vital. Chron.513.7. which from the memory of William's clemency ftill remained Edric the Foreflier.. celebrated for valour. merfet and Dorfet rofe in arms. fpreading into the neighbouring ftreets. whom he regarded as the m-ofl: formidable. by detaching the Danes from them . and he engaged Ofberne.$b HISTORY OF ENGLAND. a nobleman in Eaft-Anglia. . and by offering him the liberty Order. Abb. 71. The EngHfli. of confufion. This fuccefs proved a fignal to many other parts of England. was put to the fword without mercy °. and aflaulted Montacute the Norman governor . while the inhabitants of Cornwal and Devon inverted Exeter. X069. took advantage of the confufion to attack the caftle.'. and made head againlf earl Brient and Fitz-Ofberne. every where repenting their former eafy fubmiffion.o. and animating them with the profpeft of new contifcations and forfeitures. Hoveden. afiembled his forces. Joining policy to force. Herelay contiguous . amidfl: this fcene William. St.^. calling in the faithful to him. who commanded in thofe quarters '^.514.alcontents. undifmaved he marched againfl: the rebels in the north. p. Petri de Burgo. and whofe defeat he knew would fl:rike a terror into all the other m. by large prefents. to the number of 3000 men. ^33. p.affembled his followers. reduced the whole city to aflies The enraged inhabitants. ri. ward. but this expedient proved the Im.» of . mediate caufe of his dedruftion. Vital. made inroads on all the neighbour- The Englifli in the counties of Soing country p. and gave the people an opportunity of iliowing their malevolence to the Normans.

p. houfes . to retire. p 174. St. hardened againfl all compaflion towards the people . Knyghton. H. compelled by neceffity. and he fcrupled no meafure. i. which was foon after followed by fome degree of trufl: and faMalcolm. Brompton. Sim. was conftrained to retire and all the Englifh rebels in other parts. Abb. p. 966. Abb. Ingulf. p. 103. which feemed requifite to fupport his plan of tyrannical adminiftration.069. p. vol. p. confederates. Paris. Sioi. and received forgivenefs. fought again a retreat in Scotland from the purfuit of his enemies. •who kept in his faftneffes. St. CofpatrIck alf(i. ftill But from the feemlnn: clemency of William towards artifice. without committlng farther hoflilities. . p. and as William knew how to efteem valour even in an enemy. ^ Chron. M. .Hunt. in defpair of fuccefs. 104. p. and left the Normans undifputed mafters of the kingdom. however violent or fevere. was allured with this appearance of clemency .45'Chron. 47. was received into favour. and even in veiled with the earldom of Northumberland. 5. which for the extent of fixty miles between the Humber and the Tees ^ The p. Dun. 702. 199. s Hoveden. p. ^^1^^ . coming too late to fupport his vour. except Hereward. fubmitted to the Conqueror. Sax. Malmef. Senfible of the reftlefs difpofition of the Northumbrians. PetrideBurgo. Edgar Atheling. Petri deBurgo. p. Waltheof. p. 451. made his peace with the king. 79. i°70' the Englifh leaders proceeded only from his : or (VQurs of efleem of individuals His heart was vernment. Hoveden. Chron. with his followers. atonement for his infurre61ion. p. Anglia Sacra. 199. who long defended York with great courage.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. Dun. p.. and he fertile lies r iffued orders for laying entirely wafle that country. he determined to incapacitate the go- them ever after from giving difturbance. difperfed themfelves. 369. p. that nobleman had no reafon to repent of this confidence ^ Even Edric. Malmef. 2344. and paying a fum of money as an -251 of plundering the fea-coaft. 47. into Denmark '. chap.

more or lefs. had involved the bulk ment. infurrections The of the. in the guilt of treafon . the inflruments of hull»andry deflroyed . Vital. '^ H.3704 * See note [HI at the end of the volume. . with the utmofl: rigour. It was crime fufficient in an EngliHiman to be opulent. William.-. but their eltates were confifcatedj and either annexed to the royal de^ mefnes. from a reludance to abandon their ancient habitations. or powerful j and the policy of guilt againfl. p. and the inhabitants compelled either to feek for a fubfiftence in the foiithern parts of Scotland. they perifhed mifcrably in the woods from cold and hunger. devoted to deflruction. or if they lingered in England. finding himfelf entirely mafter of a people who had given him fuch fenfible proofs ot their impotent rage and animofity. it is eafy to would be and that obferved in thefe violent any fufpicions ferved as the mofl undoubted proofs believe that fcarcely the form of juftice proceedings * . 104. and to reduce them to a condition in which they fhould no longer be formidable to his govern- But and confpiracies in fo many parts of the kingdom. ^ Malmef p. landed proprietors. The lives of a hun- dred thoufand perfons are computed to have been facrificed to this flroke of barbarous policy % which. or conferred with the mofl profufe bounty on the Normans and other foreigners '^ While the king's declared intention was to deprefs. 51. and the king took advantage of executing againfl them. the Their lives were laws of forfeiture and attainder. the Englifli gentry '. ToTo houfes were reduced to afhes by the mercilefs Normans J the cattle feized and driven away . indeed commonly fpared . nov/ refolved to proceed to extremities againfl all the natives of England. thus inHided a lading wound on the power and populoufnefs of the nation.HISTORY OF ENGLAND.Hunt. or rather entirely extirpate. or noble. a people thus " Order. p. by feeking a remedy for a temporary evil.

As power ^. Abbatis. 523. by the new inilitutlons which he eftablifhed. p. took alfo care to retain for ever the military authority in thofe hands which had enabled him to fubdue the kingdom. He introduced into England the'feudal law. p.^^^. Vitalis. chief tenants. ' but William.^ Ancient and 1070* the landed property of the kingdom. during that age. p. on the moft Thefe great baconfiderable of his adventurers. and who paid their lord the fame duty and fubmlffion in peace and war. He divided all the lands of England. with the refervation of ftated fervices and payments.. with very few exceptions.. p. who were denominated knights or vaffals.introduc' tionofthc r L c lution alone gave great lecunty to the roreigners . apud Selden. and they found themfelves carefully excluded from every road which led either to riches or >' preferment *^ii . . rons. befides the royal demefnes. and as none of the native Engliih were admitted into the retained their landed profirfl: rank. which he found eftabhihed in France and Normandy. and which. concurring with the rapacity of foreign C H A p. Titles of Honour. produced almofl a total revolution in v. Vitalis. the nobles themfelves were every where treated with ignominy and contempt . 5»x. 573. Spelm..WILLIAM THE CONQ. Secretum at the end of the volume. was the foundation both of the ftability and of the diforders In moft of the monarchical governments of Europe. which he himfelf owed to his foveThe whole kingdom contained about 700 reign. Gloff. into baronies . who held immediately of the crown. . in verbo Feodum Sir Robert Cotton. this revo. a- naturally follows property. adventurers. they had the mortification of feeing their caftles and manors poifeffed by Normans of the meaneft birth and loweft ftations .215 knights-fees^.UEROR. the few who * See note [I] * Order. and he conferred thefe. and 60.^^^. 25} of the king. feudallaw. ihared out a great part of their lands to other foreigners. honourable famiUes were reduced to beggary . M- Weft-. 229. perty . y Order.

to J070.. 225. invafion and acceilion. and to defy all the efforts of its (for enemi s. when it was moft prevalent. a when required. who held every well eftabliflied thing from his bounty.^Ji^^ perty were glad to be received into the fecond. able i . ^ But tives. that the Norman dominion feemed now to be fixed on the moft durable bafis. n. cap. or military tenants. ftrained to bend under his fuperior influence. I'he fmail mixture of Englifh which entered it into this civil or military fabric partook of both fpecies). cap. to number of knights . even in that age. 4. i. p. t> Flcta.^54 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and though he had courted the church on his he now fubjefted it to fervices which the clergy regarded as a grievous flavery. and to bind them into one fyftem. load themfelves and their pofterity with this grievous burthen. j. that fupeiftition itfelf. p. was fo reflrained by fubordination under the foreigners. and for the fupport of domelfic tranquillity. Paris. M. 2. proportioned to rhe extent of property poifelfed by each fee or abbey and they were liable. M. and under the proteclion of fome powerful Norman. to the fame penalties which were exafted from the laity ^ The pope and the eccleriafuics exclaimed againil this tyranny. • lib. William reduced the ecclefiaftical revenues under the fame feudal law . The bi- fhops and abbots were obliged. evi- The better to unite the parts of the government. num. i. during war. i. p. i. cnA si_^. in cafe of failure. was con• . p. furnifii to the king. but the king's authority was lb as they called it over the army. vol. p. Anglia Sacra. and as totally unbefitting their profeffion. lib. for ellates which they had received free from their anceilors *. which might fcrve both for defence againft foreigners. 24S. - Paris. Weft. 8. as the great body of the clergy were ftlll na- the king had much reafon to dread the elfedts of their refentment : He therefore ufed the precaution of expelling the Englifli from all the confider* M. li. Bradon.

authority king % of ful among the Englifh. and was. had gradually diifufed itfelf from the city and court of Rome . and even before the period of more than fix or feven of the were natives of the country. 255 chap. but under cover of a new fuperftition.Yet. which he was the great inftrument of introducing into England. and his . during that age. fcarcely prelates had promoted them to many of in England . that. he did not think it fafe to violate the reverence ufually paid to the primate. 161. 1C4. and be overlooked amidft the other important revolutions which afieded fo deeply the property and li. and the total fubjedtion of the Englifh. the fees the conqueft. The dodlrine which exuked the papacy above all human power. ^^^ . to avoid giving careiTes. made him hope that an attempt againft Stigand. it fo great.i- ckiiiaicS govern'^'''*^' Parker. gave jealoufy to the Though William had on his acceffion affronted this prelate. But among thefe was Stigand. by the extent of his pofleffions. great advantages. naturally expected that the French and Normans would import into England the fame reverence for his fa* c innov. would be covered by his great fucceffes. and of advancing foreigners in their The partiality of the Confeflbr towards the place. by the greatnefs of his family and alliances. Itru6tion ^. Pope Alexander. by his addrefs and vigour.ploying the archbifliop York he was careon other occafions to load him with honours and to officiate at his confecration. who had aflifled WilHam in his conqueils. archbifhop of Canterbury a man who. p. p. able dignities. and him farther offence till the opportunity fhould offer of effecting his final deThe fuppreffion of the late rebellions. as well as by the dignity of his office. Normans had been fuperior learning.WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. cred . by em. notwithflanding thefe berty of the kingdom. however violent. <1 Ibid. aided by their 1070. much more prevalent in the fouthern than in the northern kingdoms of Europe.

he cited before him Stigand. Ypod. As foon. The king^ .p. as is ufual. i. therefore. the pope difpatched Ermenfroy. and would break the fpiritual as well as civil independency of the Saxons. 482. The legate fubmitted to become the inftrument of his tyranny . IX. who was afterwards depofed for fimony. determined. 438. CHAP. p. to anfwer for his conduct. to employ the incident as a means of ferving his political purpofes. Thefe crimes of Stigand were mere pretences . p.^L^^ their own country . Neiift. a council of the prelates and abbots at Winchefler. The primate was accufed of three crimes . fmce the firlt had been a pradice not unufual in England. the more certainly did it confirm the authority of that court from which he derived his commiilion. and w^as never any where fubjefted to a higher penalty than a re* fignation of one of the fees the fecond was a pure ceremonial j and as Benedict was the only pope who officiating in the pall . arclibifnop of Canterbury. therefore. crcd character with which they were impreiTed in ^^^^.2^5 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. together with that of Canterbury . and thought that the more violent the exertion of power. p. the holding of the fee of Winchefler. as the Norman prince feemed fully eftabliiKed on the throne. and for in* trufion into the papacy ^. as his legate into England "Was the firft that had ever appeared with that character in any part of the Britifh iilands. and the having received his own pall from Benedid. and being affifted by two cardinals. « Hovedciij p. Peter and John. 453. then . 6. though he was probably led by principle fubmifliQn to to pay this Rome. 5. had hitherto condufled their ecclefiallical government with an acknowledgment indeed of primacy in the fee of Rome. 2345. He fummoned. who 1070. vol. bifhop of and this prelate Sion. the of Robert his predecefTor . Knyghton.Anglia Sacra. and of degrading thofe Englifli prelates who were become obnoxious to hi in. Diceto. but without much idea of its title to dominion or authority.

that no native of the ifland Ihould ever be advanced to any dignity. 154. See alfo the Annals of Burton. king. and was prolecuted with great feverity. Many confiderable abbots fhared the fame fate: Egrclwin. b Ingulf. that none but himfelf was able to pull it out Upon which he was allowed to keep his b'lhopric. however. or military \ The Wulftan was alfo deprived by the fynod • hut rcfufing to deliver his paftoral ftaff anJ ring to any but the perfon from whom he firft received it. S cefs . p. that : f Brompton Vol. relates. 70. who had fet nity. on account of the breach of his coronation oath. WuHlan ol: bifhop of Durham. had died a little before of grief and vexation and had left his m. and after a long procivil. de Gcft. then all 257 officiated. fled the kingdom Worcefter. and caft him into prifon. inftcad of many. a man of an inoffenfive charafter. p. promoted Lanfranc. I. and remained in pofleffion of his digAldred. as well as in fbme of the fubfequent. bilhop of Selefey. eipecially thofe who lay at a dilbnce. and Agelmare of Elmham.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. to the vacant fee. This inflance may fcrve. :84.alediction to that prince. 71. Stigand's ruin. and imprifoned by the king. a Milanefe monk. and (truck. Pont. and his adls were never repealed. he went immediately to kingEd ward's tomb. ecclefiaftical. the crown on William's head. refolved on. asafpecimen of the monkifh mirarles. archbiihop of York. againfl the other Lnglilh prelates : Agelric. was applications to him. and of the extreme tyranny with : ^ • which he faw he was determined to treat his Englifh fubjefts ^ It was a fixed maxim in this reign. The legate degraded him from his dignity : The king confifcated his eftate. were excufable for making their ^1070. celebrated for his learning and piety. upon Stigand's depofition. This prelate was rigid in defending the prerogatives of his ftation . p. the ftafFfo deeply into the (tone. the prelates of the church. where he continued in poverty and want during the Like rigour was exercifed remainder of his life. therefore. were depofed by the legate. 8 Malmef. was the only Englifh prelate that efcaped this general profcription '.

to difpute his fovereign will required that all the eccleiiaftical canons. prevalence of this fupcrftitlous fplrit became dangerous to fome of William's fucceitors. voted in any fynod. 1070. »a8. and in thoic ages of ftupidity and igaorance. to acknowledge the primacy of the archWhere ambition can be fo bifliop of Canterbury. He prohibited his fubjefts from acknowledging any one for pope whom he himfelf had not ever chara(fler. retained the church in great fabje6Hon. and his extenfive authority over the foreigners. he greatly applauded for that performance. p. Hence Lanfranc's zeal in promoting the interefts of the papacy. which were (till fomewhat more common in the fouthern countries. and be ratified by his authority previoufly received : • He M. who had been appointed to the fee of York. much farther . it is the mod incurable and inflexible of all human paffions. It afterwards went flood in France and Italy '. a Nor-man monk. to Rome continually increafed in England . during fome time. being favoured by that very remote lltuation which had at firft obftruded its progrefs and being lefs checked by knowledge and a liberal education. * CHAP. againft Bercngarius «i\'as Weft. jfhould firft be laid before him. and would allow none. happy as to cover its enterprifes. of what- commodious to moll: and pleafure. and in- The of them : But the arbitrary fv/ay of this king over the Englifli. and being favoured by the fentiments of the conquerors. it foon reached the fame height at which it had. . even to the perfon himfelf. he obliged Thomas. by which he himfelf augmented his own authority.258 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. The devoted attachment cefs before the pope. as well as his lay fubjeds . Even . Linfranc wrote in defence of the real prefenrc . was indefatigable and met with proportionable fuccefs. under the appearance of principle. as well as by the monaftic eltablifhments formerly introduced by Edred and by Edgar. kept him from He feeling any immediate inconveniencies from it.

» S 2 and . 15. and from the extenfive foreign dominions long annexed to the crown of England. 6. afhamed of their own country. proceeded that mixture of French which is at prefent to be found in the Englifh tongue. ^^• j^ excommunication ^. <» Chron. p. Fortefcue de laud. leg. p. 48. 189. D. attended with every circumftance of infult and indig- formed by the prince. p. and kept united the civil and ecclefiaftical powers. ad 36 Ed. aiiected to excel in that foreign dialect. a practice which w^s continued from cuftom till after the reign of Edward ill. and w^antonly profecuted by his followers '". Selden Spicileg. Hunt. 1066. he ordered that in all fchools throughout the be inilrucled in the French tongue . 71. >" Ingulf. whatever offences they were guilty of. Thefe regulations were worthy of a fovereign.WILLIAM THE CONQ_UEROR. could be fubjefted to fpiritual cenfures till he himfelf had given his con- be produced. The pleadings in the fupreme courts of judicature were in French " : The deeds were often drawn ia the fame language: The laws were compofed in ^ that idiom : No other tongue was ufed at court It became the language of all fafliionable company and the Englilh themfelves. Angl. was all employed in their opprefTion . pofe. William had even entertained the difficult projeft of totally abolifhing the Englifh language and for that purnity'. 370. and was never indeed totally difcontinued in England. the Englifli had the cruel mortification to find that their king's authority. they received the fame fanftion : And none of his minifters or barons. and that the fchcme of their fubjedion. cap. p. was deliberately . 1 kingdom the youth k Eadmer. Eadmer. A. Vital. From this atte^uion of William. however acquired But or however extended. Rothom. which the principles introduced by this prince himfelf had an immediate fent to their tendency to feparate. fliould Order. cap. H. p 523. III. Even bulls or letters till 259 11 from Rome could not legally c a p.

But amidil thofe endeavours to deprefs the Engliih nation. • The fituation of the two great earls. querors 1071. and having furrounded it with flat-bottomed boats.26o 'HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and made a caufeway through the moralfes to the extent of two miles. Senfible that they had entirely loll their dignity. fecured by the inacceflible fituation of the place. employed all his endeavours to fubdue the Ille of Ely . they determined. he obliged the Hereward alone rebels to furrender at difcretion. wha envied them on account of their opulence and greatnefs. *. gave t. forced . as a memorial of their ancient government. Morcar and Edwin. 88. at the end of the volume. dill defended himfelf againil the Normans. Morcar took fhelter in the Ifle of Ely with the brave Hereward.iem extreme fatisfadlion. p 2355. ' CHAT. and which compofes the greateft and beil part of our hmguage. Brompton. While Edwin retired to his eftate in the north. and at the fame time involved them in that general contempt which they entertained for the EnglilTi. 600. and they found themexpofed to the malignity of the courtiers. felves P Ingulf.. Though they had retained their allegiance during this general infurrection of their countrymen. p. to fhare the fame fate with their countrymen. ^ _f 1070. though too late. Knyghton. the king. who. . But this attempt ferved only to accelerate the ruin of the fev/ Englifh. and could not even hope to remain long in fafety . though feemingly laws of king Edward p of no great importance towards the protedion of general liberty. became now very difagreeable. William. p. who had hitherto been able to preferve their rank or fortune during the pafb convulfions. Hovedon. rellored a few of the which. moved by the remonftrances of fome of his prelates. and by the earnell defires of the people. with a view of commxencing an infurre6i:ion. and an unufual mark of comphdrance in their imperious con. * Sec note [K] 982. they had not gained the king's confidence. p.

and the latter foon Edwin. diifatisfied with the Norman government. and ftill continued his hoflilities by fea againft x^^^jfl. and to pay the ufual homage to the Engliih crown. were thrown into prifon. received him into favour. and weary of a fugitive life. who had was betrayed by fome of his followers. who paid a tribute of generous tears to the memory of this gallant and beauThe king of Scotland. to the great affliction of the Engliih. Earl Morcar. his bravery. Edgar Atheling himfelf. CHAP. . as monuments of his feverity. S 3 The . defpairing of fuccefs. the hands to be lopc off. charmed with 107 1. full . fkllen under the dominion of William fome years before his conqueft of England . and the eyes to be put out. bifhop of Durham. he retired he was glad to make peace. . in hopes of tiful youth. and inftigated by Fulk count The 1075. as ufual. till at hifl William. by William's his make efcape into Scotland. He ordered rigour againft the inferior malcontents. forced his way. was permitted to Hve in England But thefe a6ts of generofity towards unmolefted. and reftored him to his eftate. fubmitand receiving a decent penfion ted to his enemy for his fubfiftence. attempting to aftsr died in confinement. who had fome rofe now pretenfions to the fuccefin rebellion. but the inhabitants. and expelled the ma- giftrates whom the king had placed over them. and even to that of William. and Egelwin joined the malcontents. To complete the king's profperity. the leaders were difgraced. of Anjou. 261. of many of the prifoners whom he had taken in the Ifle of Ely .WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. fword in hand. and he difperfed them in that miferable condition throughout the country. profiting by thefe convulfions. by the will of Herbert the lad count. . province of Maine in France had. had fallen upon the but on the approach of William northern counties and when the king entered his country. fion.^ the Normans. through the enemy . and was killed by a party of Normans.

rity had prompted him to ftretch his authoover the Normans themfelves beyond what the genius free bear. who owed every thing to the king's bounty. England was greatly diliurbed thofe very foreigners and that too by Norman barons. were men of the moll independent fpirit and though they obeyed their leader in the field. who friendfhip and regard. feconded by thefe brave troops. to the arbitrary But the imperious character of will of one man. and might conquer his inveterate prejudices The king's miin favour of his own countrymen. The among them but which their late eafy fubjedion under the Normans had fomewhat degraded national . and of retrieving that character of valour which had long been province. encouraged by his ablolute dominion over the Englifh. and often impelled by the neceffity of his affairs. compofed aland joining them to fome mofl entirely ofEnglifh troops levied in Normandy. '^- punifii this of England aftorcied him leifure to iniuk on his 2. he carried over a confiderable army. by aftivity. and who were the fole objeft of his The Norman barons. The of that victorious people could eafily difcon tents were become general among tholb . their zeal and Perhaps too they hoped that. "WiUiam. they would have regarded wdth difdain the richefl acquifitions. full fettlement CHAP.uthority .^ willing to remove Norman forces from . litary conducl. and the count of Anjou relinquilhed his pretenfions. had engaged with their duke in the conquefl: of England. by like means.26z HISTORY OF EN GLAND. gained the affeftions of Canute . as their anceft: ors had formerly. they might recover the confidence of their fovereign. »e74ticn'of the But during thefe tranfadions the government of . but being unhis jg-. had they been required in return to fubmit. foon : overcame all oppofition in Maine The inhabitants Were obliged to fubmit. this ifland. he entered the revolted Englilh appeared ambitious of diftinguidiing themfelves on this occafion. in their civil government. and obfcured.

alhamed of his birth. Spelm. for fome generations. he proceeded neverthelefs to complete the nupand aifembled ail his friends. entered. J^ajardus... chief favourite. This nobleman. his imperious behaviour to his barons of the noblell birth . into the defign of fliaking oif Waltheof. and his apparent intention of re- ducing the victors and the vanquiflied to a like ignominious fervitude. was infilled on . and promifcd his concurrence towards its fuccefs. who was prefent. and during the gaiety of the feftival. the lafl of the Englifli who. This nobleman.„^ 1074. ^ William wasfo little appellation of Baftard in Glofl". the certain profpeQ. had.UEROR. and even Roger. thQ indignity of fubmitting to a baftard was not for'^ gotten . in verb. dud of the king . afluined the fome of his letters and charters. fon and heir of Fitz-Ofberne. earl of Norfolk. and warmed by the jollity of the entertainment. that he.y^.WILLIAM THE CONQ. whom they affected on this occafion to commiferate . while the company was heated with wine. and to defire the royal confent . and thofe of tials. had thought it his duty to inform the king of his purpofe. of fuccefs in a revolt. the king's v^. by a fo- iemn engagement. but meeting with a refufal. Guader. the royal authority. was flrongly infefted with them. inflamed with the fame fentiments. Camden in Richmondjhirct S 4 received . by the affiftance of the Danes and the difcontented EngHfh. difgufted by the denial of their requell. I'he two earls. his tyranny over the Englifli. thofe 263 haughty nobles . Amidft their complaints.„. to attend the folemnity. and dreading William's refentment for their diibbcdience. after his capitulation at York. and the whole company. inconfiderately exprelTed his approbation of the confpiracy. intending to marry his fifter to Ralph de Guader. they opened the defign to their They inveighed againit the arbitrary conguefts. Hereford.. earl of c h A P. poflefled any power or authority. here prepared meafures for a revolt . been Even earl .

. and deftroyed all the fatisfaftion which he could reap his from his own grandeur and advancement. Tormented with thefe reflections. or if it did. Dun. would tend to incenfe him ag-ainll Waltheof. Vital. f Sim. earl of Northumberland. v/hile the fumes of and the ardour of the com. haftily When a profpecl. inilead of being alleviated by that event. But after his cool judgment rehe forefaw. ^2z. would become more grievous under a multitude of foreign leaders. on fome new difgufl from William. Hovedcn. received into favour by the Conqueror '. p 536. . having fecretly fixed her aifedions on another. it is probable that the tyranny exer-^ cifed over the Englifli lay heavy upon his mind. Meanwhile .pany. 454. whofe union and whole difcord would be equally opprcffive to the people. he the liquor. and render him abfolutely implacable % 1 • Order Vital. that the confpiracy of thofe difcontenred barons was not Hkely to prove fucceff-^ ful againft the eftabliflied power of William .i64 . having. vented him turned. Waltheof was appointed his fuccelfor in that important command. p. arj. liberty. and feemed ftill to poifefs the confidence and frienddilp of his fovereign But as he was a m. retired into Scotland. fhe believed. of whofe fidelity he entertained no fufpicion. t^y^ had even married Judith.an of generous principles. She conveyed intelligence of the confpiracy to the king. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p. and aggravated every circumllance. took this opportunity of ruining her eafy and credulous hufband. he opened his mind to his wife Judith. was opened of retrieving their embraced it . where he received the earldom of Dunbar from the bounty of Malcolm . and loved '^. pre^ from refietSling on the confequences of that rafn attempt. country.p. that the flavery of the EngH'h. therefore. which.. but who. niece to that prince and had been promoted to the earldoms of Huntingdon and Northampton Cofpatrick. Order. factious and ambitious.

went over to Normandy . immediately concluded their defign to be be- and they liew to arms before their fchemes were ripe for execution. : *' . where the Danifh fleet. and thanked : . who. a great baron in thofe parts. The earl of Hereford was checked by Walter de Lacy.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. the two jufliciaries. and had deflroyed all the merit of her hufband's repentance. fupported by the bifhop of Worcefter and the abbot of Evefham. and prevented the earl from pafling the Severne. thefe arguments. or advancing into the heart of the kingdom. The earl of Norfolk was defeated at Fagadun. that he owed no fidelity to thofe rebellious barons. confpirators.074. near Cambridge. the account. previoufly tranfmitted by Judith. on whofe probity and judgment he had a great reliance He was perfuaded by the prelate. who had by furprife gained his confent to a crime . had funk deep into William*s mind. ^^ ^ . in whofe aid they placed their chief confidence. hearing of WaltheoPs depar- ture. but though he was well received by the king. as a punifhment of their treafon The earl himfelf efcaped to Norwich. by Odo. (till dubious with regard to the part which he Ihould ad. for his fidelity. which had made an unfuccefsful attempt upon the coafl of England. The trayed . if he feized not the opportunity of making atonement for his guilt by revealing it. that they would give fome other perfon the means of acquiring the Waltheof. raifed fome forces. that his firfl duty was to his fovereign and benefadior his next to himfelf and his family. 265 CHAP. and before the arrival of the Danes. convinced by merit of the difcovery. difcovered the fecret in confeffion to Lanfranc. afTifled by Richard de Bienfaite and William de Warrenne. Meanwhile the earl. thence to Denmark . and that. The prifoners taken in this action had their right foot cut off. the regent. the temerity of the confpirators was fo great.

But Waltheof.Paris. 183. and executed. who confidered this nobleman as the laft refource of their nation. p. provoked him to render his confinement perpetual. The king. out . the earl of Hereford. Nothing . which he executed with great feverity. ? Chron. inltigated by his niece. was abandoned by all the world. as well as 49th Apr. which are found at prcfent in that country. bani{lied. The Englifli. rapacious courtiers. was not treated with fo much humanity .266 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. grievoufly lamented his fate. fhowed more lenity to their leader. that all his CHAP. even difpofed to remit this laft part of the punifhment had not Roger. ^^^ were either killed. and mifery. always tors. * Many of the 5 fugitive Normans are fuppofed to have fled into Scot- land where they were proteded. . though his guilt. telligence. agreeably to his ufual maxims. fome had their eyes put But William. p. ordered him to be tried. Ralph retired in defpair to Britanny. remorfe. as a teftimony of his innocence and fandity. and to imThe king feemed prifonment during pleafure. being an Engiifhman. condemned. The infamous Judith. where he poffelTed a large eftate and extenfive jurifdidions. 7. much inferior to that of the other confpira- was atoned for turn to his duty.or taken priibners". who haftened over to England in order to fupprefs the infurreftion. others their hands cut off. falling foon after under the king's difpleafure. Sax. by his by an earlv repeatance and re-p William. . Many of the rebels were hanged . by a freih infolence. as well as the fugitive Englifli. England % foon after arrived. who longed for fo rich a forfeiture. found that nothing remained but the punifhment of the criminals. ^^J074. and pafled the reft of hex life in contempt. and brought him inconfederates were fupprefled. Whence come the many French and Norman families. by Malcolm. and fancied that miracles were wrought by his reliques. who was only condemned to a forfeiture of his eftate. M. 1075.

during his abfence. another at Winchefter. at leafl of ratifying his eledlion . who had hitherto exercifed the power of appointing the pope on every vacancy. he undertook the arduous tafk of entirely disjoining the ecclefiaflical from the civil power. and he haftened over to Normandy. contefl leemed very unequal betvi^een a private nobleman and the king of England. The perfeverance are furprifing.WILLIAM THE CONCLUEROR. one at London. in order to gra1075. In the former. after befieging him for fome time in Dol. or moderation. the precedency among the epifcopal fees was fettled. . remained in tranquillity . and the feat of villages ocefe. that William. yl^L. of the name of Hildebrand. and the leafl reflrained by fear. with which the popes had been treafuring up powers and pretenfions during fo many ages of ignorance . Nothing ^67 remained to complete William's fatif. ab'out^inveftiturcs.. and of ex eluding profane laymen from the right which they had . the moft enterprifmg pontiff that had ever filled that chair. in which Ralph himfelf was included. while each pontiff employed every fraud for advancing purpofes of imaginary piety. faftion but the punifhment of Ralph de Guader . was obliged to abandon the enterprife. and nothing remarkable occurred. England.1076. fome of them was removed from fmall to the mod confiderable town within the diIn the fecond was tranfaded a bufinefs of induftry and more importance. except two ecclefiaftical fynods which were fummoned. and make with thofe powerful princes a peace. Not content with fhaking off the yoke of the emperors. But though the tify his vengeance on that criminal. and cherifhed all claims which might turn to the advantage of his fucceifors. de» cency. though he himfelf could not expect ever to reap any benefit from them. All this immenfe ftore of fpiritual and civil authority was now devolved on Gregory VII. Ralph was fo well fupported both by the earl of Britanny and the king of France.C HAP.

had ^^^^y* J076. . of the church to fuch maturity as to embolden her to attempt extorting the right of inveflitures from the temporal power. * Abbe Cone. Europe. fpiritual fandity of their When had come the ufurpations. * i'adre Paolo fopra benef. therefore. the child of ignorance. 371. efpecially as the general ignorance of the age bellowed a confequence on the ecclefiaflical offices. to free his fubjeds from their oaths of allegiance and inftead of fliocking mankind by this grofs. and as they ingroffed the httle learning of the age. he found the flupid people ready to fecond his mofl exorbitant pretenfions. efpecially Italy and Germany. and the pope and the emperor waged implacable war on each other. The fovereigns. made great oppofition to this claim of the court of Rome . Gregory dared to fulminate the fentence of excommunication againfl Henry and his adherents. to v/hom it originally belonged". vefted the clergy with an authority almofl facred . affumed. even beyond the great extent of power and property which belonged to Superflition. but on the people. torn. became requifite in all civil bufiin and a real ufefulnefs common life was thus cha-r fuperadded to the radler. made the prerogative of conferring the paftoral ring and ftaff the moil valuable jewel of the royal diadem . com. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. x. which the feudal inftitutions left the fovereign the power of bellowing. was thrown into the mofl violent convulfions. 371. abbies. CHAP. ance. not by encroachments on the church. either civil or military. cccki'. L Every . defended this prerogative of his crown with a vigour and refolution fuitable to its importThe few offices. and who had acquired it. who had long exercifed this power. their interpofition refs. of filling the vacancies of biftioprics. and other fpiritual dignities'". p. 30. inthem. p. and Henry IV.268 . to pronounce him rightfully depofed. encroachment on the civil authority. 2. the reigning emperor.

when the claims of the fovereign pontiff finally prevailed '\ But the bold fpirit of Gregory. and even the mother of this monarch. fervant. not attentive to the pernicious confequences of thofe papal claims. Greg. extended his ufurpations all over Europe ar.d well knowing the nature of mankind. emperor of the Eaft Robert Guifcard. to which they gave rife. . VII. Princes themfelves. epift. covered his rebellion under the pretence of principle . Padre Paolo fopra benef. Every minifter. epift. he feemed determined to fet no bounds to the fpiritual. and eighteen in that of his fucceiTor. C difgiiffc. which he had undertaken to erecl. He pronounced the fentence of excommunication againfl Nicephorus. or rather temporal monarchy. was feduced to countenance the infolence of his enemies. fpreading into every city of Italy. . 35. or vaffal of the emperor. ecclef. lib. not difmayed with the vigorous oppofition w^hich he met with from the emperor. tumults. engendered the parties of Guelf and Ghibbcl. it . p. Henry V. the mofc durable received any : . it is computed that the quarrel occafioned no lefs than fixty battles in the reign of Henry IV. 113.0^5. forgetting all the ties of nature. the adventurous Norman who had acquired the dominion of Naples. and mod inveterate factions that ever arofe from the mixture of ambition and religious zeal. whofe blind allonifliment ever inclines them to yield to the mod impudent pretenfions. 5. was attacked by the fame dangerous weapon He degraded Bolellas. Befides numberlefs aiTairinations. a. who v^_13^ . and convuliions.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. p. from the rank of king and even deprived Poland of the title of a kingdom He attempted to treat Philip king of France with the fame rigour which he had employed againfl the emperor ^ He pretended to the entire property and dominion of Spain . ja. 26y H A. king of Poland. employed them for their prefent purpoies And the controverfy. and he parcelled : : : y » Epia.

according to the ufual praftice of the Romifli court. that the money fhould be remitted as ufual . Gregory wrote him a letter. he was infeded with the general fuperftition of the age..^ 1076. Epift. *=. Greg. Spicileg. faw that he was determined to reduce them to fervitude . tpift. the moft haughty. lib. p. was interpreted. and to hold it in vaflalage Even the Chriflian biunder the lee of Rome ^ fliops. he ventured. a. .270 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. By the tribute. notwithflanding the frequent complaints of the pope. and to fend him over that tribute. which. fecure from the attacks of this enterprifmg pontiif. Epifr. and the mod \igorous prince in Europe. Sddeni ad Eadmer. i.^^. 55. cil which that pontiff had fummoned againll his enemies. 4. who undertook to conquer it from the Saracens. nor was it in the lead his purpofe to impofe that fervitude on his ftate And the better to Ihow Gregory his independence. though at firf!: a charitable donation of the Saxon princes.. the moll potent. 7 Gregory. on whofe aid he relied for fubduing the temporal princes. requiring him to fulfil his promife In doing homage for the kingdom of England to the fee of Rome. though the king difplayed this vigour in fupporting the royal dignity. which all his predeceflbrs had been accuftomed to pay to the vicar of Chrift. under colour of ftriftnefs in religion. to refufe to the Englifh bifliops the liberty of attending a general counit : CHAP. but that neither had he promifed to do homage to Rome. he meant Peter's pence . which. ^. was not. epift 7. were But introduced or promoted by the court of » Rome.1. to centre all authority in the fovereign pontiffs William the Conqueror. and by affuming the whole legiflative and judicial power of the church. to be a badge of fubjeftion acknowledged by the kingdom. ' lib. amidft all his fplendid fucceffes. William replied. " Greg. and he did not perceive the ambitious fcope of thofe inftitutions. VII. out amongft adventurers.



Gregory, while he was throwing all Europe Into c ha combuflion by his violence and impoltures, af- ._ -\-~ 1076fefted an anxious care for the purity of manners ; and even the chafte pleafures of the marriage-bed were inconfiflent, in his opinion, with the fanftity of the facerdotal chara6ler. He had ilfued a decree prohibiting the marriage of priefts, excommuni-^ eating ail clergymen who retained their wives, de-» daring fuch unlawful commerce to be fornication,



and rendering
vine worftiip, at the altar


criminal in the laity to attend di-

fuch profane priefts officiated This point was a f^reat object in the pohtics of the Reman pontiifs ; and it coll theni infinitely more pains to eftablifli it, than the pro-


pagation of any fpeculative abfurd'ty which they had ever attempted to introduce. Many fynods were fumrnoned in different parts of Europe, before it was finally fettled; and it was there conftantly remarked, that the younger clergymen complied cheerf uliy with the pope's decrees in this particular, and that the chief reluftance appeared in thofe who were more advanced in year' An event fo little confonant to men's natural exp ""Nations, that it could not fail to be glolfed on, eve-; 'n that blind and fuperflitious age. William allowed the pope's legate to affemble, in his ab fence, a fynod at Winchester, in order to eftablifh the celibacy of the clergy ; but the church of England could not The yet be carried the whole length expelled. lynod was content with decreeing, that the bifuops fliould not thenceforth ordain any priefts or deacons without exading from them a promife of celibacy but they enacted, that none, except thofe who belonged to collegiate or cathedral churches, fhould be obliged to feparate from their wives. The king palfed fome years in Normandy ; but Revolt his long refidence there was not entirely owing to b^it^




p. ASS- 4J7.



p. 638.

Spdm. Conhis

di, fol. ij. A.








declared preference of that dutchy : His pre-* fence was aifo neceifary for compofing thofe diflurbances which had arifen in that favourite territory,

and which had even


proceeded from his

own family. Robert, his eldeft fon, furnamed Gambaron or Courthofe, from his fhort legs, was a prince who inherited all the bravery of his family
and nation ; but without that policy and diiHrnulation, by which his father was fo much diftinguifhed, and which, no lefs than his military valour, had contributed to his great fucceifes. Greedy of fame,
impatient of contradiftion, without referve in his friendlhips, declared in his enmities, this prince could endure no control even from his imperious father, and openly afpired to that independence, to which his temper, as well as fome circumftances in
his fituation,

ftrongly invited







received the fubmiffions of the province

of Maine, he had promifed the inhabitants that Robert (hould be their prince ; and before he undertook the expedition againfl England, he had, on the application of the French court, declared him his fucceflbr in Normandy, and had obliged the barons of that dutchy to do him homage as their future fovereign. By this artifice, he had endeavoured to appeafe the jealoufy of his neighbours, as affording them a profped of feparating England from his dominions on the continent ; but when Robert demanded of him the execution of thofe engagements, he gave him an abfolute refufal, and told him, according to the homely faying, that he never intended to throw off his clothes till he went to bed ^ Robert openly declared his difcontent and was fufpetlred of fecretly inftigating the king of France and the earl of Britanny to the oppofition which they made to William, and which had formerly fruflrated his attempts upon the town of


Order. Vital, p. 545. Hoveden, p Chron, de Mailr. p. 160.








augmented ^ Robert c H A p. ^^• proceeded to entertain a flrong jealoufy of his two furviving brothers, William and Henry (for Richard ,0^5^ Was killed in hunting, by a ftag), who, by greater fubmiilion and complaifance, had acquired the affections of their father. In this difpofition on both fides, the greatell trifle fufficed to produce a rupture be*
as the quarrel


tvveen them.


three princes, refiding with their father in

of I'Aigle in Normandy, were one day engaged in fport together ; and after fome mirth and jollity, the two younger took a fancy of throwcaflile

ing over fome water on Robert as he paffed through the court on leaving their apartments; a frolic, which he would n?.turally have regarded as innocent, had it not been for the fuggeftions of Alberic fon of that Hugh de Grentmefnil whom William had formerly deprived of his fortunes, when that baron deferted him during, his I'he young man, greate'ft difficulties in England. mindful of the injury, perfuaded the prince that

de Grentmefnil,

was meant as a public affront, which it and the choleric behoved him in honour to refent Robert, drawing his fword, ran up ftairs, with an The intention of taking revenge en his brothers ^ whole caflle was filled with tumult, which the king himfelf, who haflened from his apartment, found But he could by no fome difficulty to appeafe.
this aclion

means appeafe the rcfentment of his eldefl fon, who complaining of his partiality, and fancying that no proper atonement had been made him for the infult, left the court that very evening, and haflened to Roiien, with an intention of feizing the But being difappointed in citadel of that place this view by the precaution and vigilance of Roger de Ivery, the governor, he fled to Hugh de Neufchatel, a powerful Norman baron, who gave hini


Order. Vital,

p. J45.

^ I^'^.







proteclion in his caflles
againft his father


character of the


and he openly levied war


The popular


prince, and a fnnilarity of manners, engaged

young nobility of Normandy and Maine, as well as of Anjou and Britanny, to take part with him ; 2nd it was fufpected, that Matilda, his mother, whofe was, fupported him in his rebellion by favourite he fecret remirtances of money, and by the encouragement which flie gave his pardfans.



hereditary provinces

were, thrown into convulfions by this war ; and he was at laft obliged to have recourfe to England, where that fpecies of military government which he had eftablifhed gave him greater authority than the ancient feudal inllitutions permitted him to exercife in Normandy. He called over an army of Englifh under his ancient captains, who foon expelled Robert and his adherents from their retreats, and reftored the authority of the fovereign in all his dominions. The young prince v/as obliged to take fhelter in the caftle of Gerberoy in the Beauvoifis, which the king of France, who fecretly fomented all thefc In this fortrefs dill'enfions, had provided for him. he was clofely befieged by his father, againfl whom, having a ftrong garrifon, he made an obflinate deThere palTed under the walls of this place fence. many rencounters, which refembled more the fmgle combats of chivalry, than the military actions of armies ; but one of them was remarkable for its Robert happened to circumftances and its event. engage the king, who w^as concealed by his helmet and both of them being valiant, a herce combat

of William, as during feveral years,

at laic


young prince wounded


father in the arm,

and unhorfed him.
with remorfe ior


his call-

out for


his voice difcovered



his fon,



his pafl: guilt,

Order. Vital. p» 545.


Sim. Dun, p. zio.

Diceto, p. 437-




and aftonifhed with the apprehenfions of one much ^ ^^^ ^^ greater, which he had fo neatly incurred, inftantly v,^^^^ 1079. threw himfelf at his father's feet, craved pardon for his offences, and offered to purchafe forgiveneis by The refentment harboured by any atonement'. WilHam was fo implacable, that he did not immediately correfpond
to this dutiful fubmiffion of his

fon with like tendernefs but giving him his malediction, departed for his own camp, on Robert's


that prince




foon after raifed the


him to mount. and marched with


the queen, a reconcilement,

Normandy where the interpolition of and other common friends, brought about

which was probably not a


forwarded by the generofity of the fon's behaviour in this action, and by the returning fenfc of his paft mifcondud. The king feemed fo fully appealed, that he even took Robert with him into England ; where he entrufted him with the command of an army, in order to repel an inroad of Malcolm, king of Scotland, and to retaliate by a like inroad into that country. The WeKh, unable to refift William's power, were, about the fame time, neceflitated to pay a compe^fation for their incurlions ; ;vnd every thing was reduced to full tranquillity in this

gave William leimre to befinifli an undertaking^, which proves his extenlive genms, and docs honour to his memory

This ein and




was a general furvey of dom, their extent in each
tenures, value


the lands in the kingtheir proprietors,


the quantity of


palf ure,

wood, and arable land, which they contained and in fome counties the number of tenants, cottagers, and llaves of all denominations, who lived upon


appointed commiffioners for this purH. Hunt. p. 369. Hoveden, p. 457. Flor. Sim. Dun. p. aio. Knyghton, Diceto, p. 387.

p. 639.

p. io6.


p. 4351.

Alur. Beverl. p, 135.





entered every particulaY in their regirtei* by the verdift of juries ; and after a labour of fix years (for the work was fo long in liniiliing) brought him an exad: account of all the landed property of
his kingdom'".




This monument, called Domefday-


book, the mod valuable piece of antiquity poffeflfed by any nation, is Itiil preferved in the Exchequer ; and though only fome extracts of it have hitherto been publiihed, it ferves to illullrate to us, in many particulars, the ancient ftate of England. The great Alfred had finiflied a like furvev of the kino-dom in J o his time, which was long kept at Winchefter, and ivhich probably ferved as a model to "William in this undertaking ". The king was naturally a great oeconomift ; and though no prince had ever been more bountiful to his officers and fervants, it was merely becaufe he had rendered himfelf univerfal proprietor of England, and had a whole kingdom to beflow. He referved an ample revenue for the crov/n ; and in the general diilribution of land among his followers, he kept pofl'efTion of no lefs than 1422 manors in different parts of England ", which paid


rent, either in

money, or

in corn, cattle,


the ufual produce of the


ancient hiflorian

annual fixed income, befides efcheats, fines, reliefs, and other cafual profits to a great value, amounted to near 400,000 pounds a year ^ ; a fum which, if all circumftances be attended pound in that to, will appear wholly incredible. age, as we have already obferved, contained three


that his



M. Chron.Sax.
H. Hunt.

p. 190.

Ingulf, p. 79.


T. Wykes,

Hoveden, p. 460. M.Weih p. 229. Flor. p. 23. Wigorn. p. 641. Chron. Abb. St. Petri de Burgo, p.jX. M. Paris, The more northern counties were not comprehended in this p. 8.
p. 370.




fuppofe becaufe of their wild, uncultivated Hate.

n Ingulf, p. 8.

Weft's inquiry into the manner of creating peers, p. 24. Order .Vital, p. 523. He fays 1060 pounds and fonie odd Ungs and pence a day.







times the weight of filver that it does at prefent ; C H A p. and the fame weight of filver, by the mod probable ^^^^^^„^ 1081. computation, would purchafe near ten times more of the neceffaries of life, though not in the fame proportion of the finer manufactures. This revenue, therefore, of William, would be equal to at lead nine or ten millions at prefent ; and as that prince had neither fleet nor army to fupport, the former

being only an occafional expencc, and the latter being maintained, without any charge to him, by his military vafl'als, we mull thence conclude, that no emperor or prince, in any age o: nation, can be compared to the Conqueror for opulence and riches. This leads us to fufpeft a great millake in the com* nutation of the hiftorian ; though, if we confider that avarice is always imputed to William, as one of his vices, and that havingr bv the fword rendered himfelf mafter of all the lands in the Idngdora, he Vv'ould certainly in the partition retain a great proportion for his own fliare ; we can fcarcely be guilty of any error in afferting, that perhaps no king of England was ever more opulent, was more able to fupport, by his revenue, the fplendour and magnificence of a court, or could beftow more on his pleafures, or in liberali*
ties to his

and favourites There was one pleafure, to which William, as T^^^^^ well as all the Normans and ancient Saxons, was (extremely addifted, and that was limiting But this pleafure he indulged more at the expence of his unhappy fubjecls, whofe interefts he always differvants


regarded, than to the lofs or diminution of his own revenue, Not content with thofe large forefts,

which former kings




parts of Eng-?

land; he refolved to m.ake a nev/ forefl near Winchefter, the ufual place of his refidence And for that purpofe he laid wade the country in Hampfhire

% Fortefcue, dc



& politic,

cap. iii,





for an extent of thirty miles, expelled the inhabltaiits



their houfec, feized their property, even



churches and convents, and made the fufferers no compenfation for the injury ^ At the fame time, he enaded new lav/s, by which he prohibited all his fubjefts from hunting in any of his forefls, and rendered the penalties more fevere than ever had been infli£ted for iuch offences. The killing of a deer or boar, or even a hare, was puni{l:ied with the lofs of
the delinquent's eye: ; and that at a time, when the killing of a man could be atoned for by paying a moderate

or compcfition.

tranfaOions reccTded during the remainder of this reign, may be confidered more as domeftic occurrences, which concern the prince, than as national events,


which regard England.



of Baieux, the king's uterine brother, whom he had created earl of Kent, and entrufted with a great iliare of power during his whole reign, had amaffed immenfe riches ; and agreeably to the ufual prpgrefs of human wilhes, he began to regard his preieut acquiiidons but as a flep to farther grandear. He had form.ed the chimerical projed: of buying the papacy ; and though Gregory, the reigning pope, was not of advanced years, the prelate had confided fo much in the prediftions of an aftrologer, that he reckoned upon the pontiff's
death, and







envied Hate of greatnefs. Refolving, therefore, to remit all his riches to Italy, he had perfuaded many confiderable barons, and, among the reft, Hugh earl of Chefler, to take the fame courfe ; in hopes that, when he fhould mount the papal throne, he would beflow on them more The confiderable eftablifhments in that country. king, from whom all thefe projeds had been carg»

and money,

Malinef. p. 3.

H. Hunt.

p. 731.

Anglia Sacra,



p. 458.


fully concealed, at lafl


got intelligence of the de- C H A p. His officers, ,^__^,^^,1,^_^ fign, and ordered Odo to be arrefted. from refpedt to the immunities which the ecclefiio8a. aftics now aiTumed, fcrupled to execute the command, till the king himfelf was obliged in perfon to feize him ; and when Odo infilled that he was a prelate, and exempt from all temporal jurifdiction, William replied, that he arrefted him not as biHe was fhop of Baieux, but as earl of Kent. fent prifoner to Normandy ; and notwithftanding the remonftrances and menaces of Gregory, was detained in cuftody during the remainder of this

domeftic event gave the king much more concern It was the death of Matilda, his confort, whom he tenderly loved, and for whom he had ever preferved the moll fmcere friend fliip. Three years afterwards he paifed into Normandy, and carried with him Edgar Atheling, to whom he willingly granted permiffion to make a pilgrimage He was detained on the conto the Holy Land. tinent by a mifunderftanding, which broke out between him and the king of France, and wliich M^as occafioned by inroads made into Normandy by fome French barons on the frontiers. It was little in the power of princes at that time to reftrain their licentious nobility ; but William fufpeded, that thefe barons durfl not have provoked his indignation, had they not been aflured of the countenance and protediion of Philip. His difpleafure was increafed by the account he received of fome railleries which that monarch had thrown out againft: William, who was become corpulent, had him. been detained in bed fome time by ficknefs ; upon which Philip expreffed his furprife that his brother of England fhould be fo long in being delivered of his big belly. The king fent him word, that, as foon as he was up, he would prefent fo many lights










Notre-dame, as would perhaps give little plea*? to the ufua! ^,^J.,^I..„^ fure to the Idng of France ; alluding pradice at that time of women after child-birth. 1087. Immediately on his recovery, he led an army inta L'Ifle de France, and laid every thing wafte with and fword. He took the town of Mante, fire which he reduced to aQies. But the progrefs of thefe hoftilities was flopped by an accident, which foon after put an end to William's life. His horfe ilarting afide of a fudden, he bruifed his belly on the pommel of the faddle ; and being in a bad habit of body, -as well as fomewhat advanced in years, he began to apprehend the confequences, and or-^ dered himfelf to be carried in a litter to the monafiery of St. Gervas. Finding his rllnefs increafe^ and being fcrnfible of the approach of death, he difcovered at lafl the vanity of ail human grandeur, and was flruckwith remorfe for thofe horrible cruelties ^nd ads of violence, which, in the attainment and defence of it, he had committed during thecourfe of his reign over England. He endeavoured to make atonement by prefents to churches and monafleries and he iflued orders, that earl Morcay, Siward Bearne, and other Englifh prifoners, (hould be fet at liberty. He was even prevailed on, though not without rcludance, to confent, with his dying breath, to releafe his brother Odo, againfl whom he v»'as extremely incenfed. He left Normandy and Maine to his eldefl fon Robert He wrote to Lanfranc, defiring him to crov/n William king of England Jie bequeathed to Henry nothing but the polTeffions of his mother Matilda ; but foretold, that he would one day furpafs both his brothers in power and opulence. He expired in the fixty-third year f)cath^*^* of his age, in the tweniy-firfl year of his reign over England, and in the lifty-fourth of that over Nor«(




but might have been ufeful. His attempt againft England was the laft great enterprife of the kind. great monarch. Born in an age when the minds of men were intradable and unacquainted with fubmilTion. Though he rendered himfelf infinitely odious to his Englifh fubjefts. p. and partly from the afcendant of his vehement characler. which. he was hardened againil companion and he feetned equally oftentatious and equally ambitious of fhow and parade in his clemency and in his feverity.to the dictates of found pohcy. he tranfmitted his power to his pofterity. then the refined policy of princes. which. Some . Though not infennble to generofity.v/iiiiam His ambition. His •in-ithafpirit was bold and enterprifing.WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. the mod gentle management. and that. ftill lefs under thofe of humanity. 230. : tions. while he feemed only to gratify the prefent pailion. A 5 M. has fully fucceeded in Europe ^ and the force of his genius broke through thofe limits. which firft the feudal inftitu- have fixed to the fevcrai flatcs of Chriftendom. amidil all his violence. that the foundations which he laid v/ere firm and foHd. which was exorbitant. ever fubmitted . Few princes have been 281 this more fortunate than C H A jeS. 358. Anglia Sacra. vol. had they been folely employed to preferve order in an eifab'ilhed government': They were ill calculated for foftening the rigours. from the abilities and the vigour of ^J^l^ condud. are infeparable from conqueft. yet guided by pru. he was yet able to dircft them to his purpofes . 'vYtft. i p. The maxims of his adminiftration were auftere .. to eftablKh . and theCondence *1"'^'^"^* lay little under the reftraints of juflice. under tion. and the throne is ftill filled by his defcendants proof. partly from art and difhmuladifplayed in all mind which he : his an unlimited authority. or were better entitled to grandeur and profperity. P. during the courfe of feven hundred years. he ][ii\d ftill an eye towards futurity.

and was nothing but a tern-? porary facrifice. of his inScarce any of clination to his prefent policy. on pretence that the word is fometimes in old books applied to fuch as make an acquifition of territory by any means. which. found that they could draw moft advantage from the fubjefted provinces by fecuring to the natives the free enjoyment of their own The barbalaws and of their private polfefTions. or were attended with fo fudden an alteration both of power and property. have always been denominated conquefts. to the crown of England. which. which fpread its dominion over Europe. rians. * : conquerors. to the advantage of the former . 600. by the terms of it. Some this writers have been defirous of refufing to title prince the of Conqueror. mult neceifarily degenerate into a difIt fuffices to fay. they are willing to rejeft William's title by right of war. The Roman (late. thofe revolutions.282 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. of Normandy's firll: invafion of the illand was hoftile . It is needlefs to enter into a controverfy. who fubdued the Roman empire. appear equally violent. and thofe civilized . whofe intcreH: and affections he totally dif^ regarded and that if there was an interval when he alfumed the appearance of a legal fovereign. p. was obliged to make. in the fenfe "^^1^ which that term commonly bears . which he. that he atSted in every thing as abfolute mailer over the natives. that the duke pute of words. that his fubfequent adminiilration was entirely fupported by arms that in the very frame of his laws he made a diflinclion between the Normans and Engli(h. the period was very fliort. though they fettled in the conquered countries. ^ 8 cuflomed . and. left the rights of individuals in a great meafure untouched . while they made their own country the feat of empire. yet being ac* Hoveden. both in hlllory and in common language. as has b-^en the cafe with mod conquerois.

they pufhed the rights of conqueft (very extenfive in the eyes of avarice and ambition. p. which thev knew neither how to cultivate nor enjoy. a mix- . who were induced. 980. Thefe faOs are fo apparent from the whole tenour of the Englilh hiftory. by peculiar circumftances. while one party was ahfurdly afraid of thofe abfurd confequences which they faw the other party inclined to draw from this event. &c. ^^• . while they . Proff/-ej •» H. Except the former conqueft of Lngland by the Saxons themfelves. ftill Normanni. Hunt. or attended with a more complete fubjeclion of the ancient inhabitants. p. the vanquiflied kingdom the feat of governarts as to be acquainted with the advantages of a large property . Brompton. 283 chap. But it is evident that the prefent rights and privileges of the people. hovi^ever narrow in thofe of reafon) to the utmoft extremity ap-ainft them. who are to oppreffion " . See All the barons and military men 339. cuftomed to a rude uncultivated life. &c. it would be difficult to find in all hiftory a revolution more deftruftive. *^ Angl'ia: clarij/imi. that the Englifli name became a term of reproach and feveral generations elapfed before one family of Saxon pedigree was raifed to any confiderable honours. . farther Abbas Rieval. But the Normans and other foreigners. 1026. before the battle of the Standard. addrefied the officers of his army in thefe terms. the earl of Albemarle. were they not heated by the controverfies of faction .WILLIAM THE CONQ^UEROR. p. that none would have been tempted to deny or elude them. and having totally fubdued the natives. found a part only of the land fufficient to fupply all their wants and th<^y were not tempted to feize extenfive pofleffions. Contumely feems even to have been wantonly added were yet fo far advanced in and the natives were univerfally reduced to fuch a ftate of meannefs and poverty.^g^^ made pient. to proceed even to the extermination of the natives. who followed the flandard of William. ©f England called themfelves Normans. 370. <^ genere p. So late as the reign of king Steplien. or could fo much as attain the rank of baron of the realm '^. Brompton.

) Conftantia.. * 5ee note [L] at the end of the volytnc . to wit. no reafonable man. and Stephen of whom the elder was neglefted on account of the imbecility of his underftanding. can never be affected by a tranfaftion. (i. and bell knew the ftate of the country. five daughters. a nun in the monaflery of Fefchamp.) Agatha. William. earl of Britanny. but was betrothed to the king of Gallicia. where fhe a mixture of Englifli died in 1127. (4.) Alice. married to Stephen earl of Biois. (2.) Cicily. before joined her bridegroom. who died 'a virgin. will ever be tempted to rejeQ their concurring and undoubted teftimony. contrafted to Harold. King William had iffue. befides his three fons who furvived him.284 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.) Adela. (3. who lived near eft the time. and as all ancient authors *. c HA tj^' *o87. {Ire She died on her journey thither. p. which paiTed feven hundred years ago . Henfy. and Normans. by whom fhe had four fons. (5. from the fear of imaginary confequences. married to Alan She died without iflfue. afterwards abbefs in the Holy Trinity at Caen. unanimouily fpeak of the Norman dominion as a conquefl by war and arms. Theobald. Fergent.


•til.!.lA'-/:i:i..mhnTiihlvih^/.>/h'iT .(.7/ Slr. .u-::tl.tnJ./'ih-i./ l.

lao. Malmef. had no fooner procured his father's recommendatory letter to LanlosTr"^ franc the primxate. Thorn. he fecured the fortrefles of Dover.'itv. his WILLIAM. thefe . and having left St. had been entrufled with the care of his education. and had conferred on him the honour of knighthood 5 and being connected with him by laft.Paris. he trufled entirely for fuccefs to his own celerity . and fo little prepared. Rufus Senfible that a deed fo unformal. M. V. amounting to the fum of fixty thoufand pounds. p. firnamed Fafas^ or the Red^. p. 983. Gervas while William was breathinp. Pevenfey. 19--. and reputation in the kingdom gave him great authority. 10. whofe rank creafe his partifans ^. 263. Brompton. by which he hoped to encourage and inThe primate. 120. from C II A p. ^• the colour of his hair. p. ' x. p. and he got polTeflion of the royal treafure at Winchefler. he arrived in England before intelligence of his father's death had reached that kingdom Pretending orders from the king.C 285 ] C II A P. y Chron. p. '^ . io. * W. which violated Robert's right of primogenitm"c. "'. AcceJJion of the king William Rufus Confpiracy agahifi Invafwn of Normandy -The Crit' Acqidfttion of Normandy fades with Anfelm the primate Death ^^arrcl and Cha- raclcr oflVilliam Riifus. WILLIAM RUFUS. M. Sax. p. Rudborne.. Paris p. might meet with great oppofition. whofe fituatlon rendered them of the greateft importance . and Haftings. than he hallened to take raeafures Acccflion ''^"* for fecuring to himfelf the government of England.. Malmef.

and Robert earl of Mortaigne. who had been already acknowledged fucceflbr to Normandy. open. A comparifcn alfo of the perfonal qualities of the two brothers led them to give the preference to the elder. revolution. generous Even his predominant faults. and by this difpatch endeavoured to prevent all faction and refiftance. who alone had any pretenfions to unite thefe ftates. he inftahtly proceeded to the ceremony of crowning the new king*. there remained in England many caufes of difcontent. declared that he would pay a willing obedience to the laft will of the Conqueror. and nefaftor. Odo bilhop of Baieux. p. fnicere. • . tyrannical. 666. was- violent. fome of the principal nobility. who generally polfeired large eftates both in England and in Normandy. and feemed difpofed to govern more by the fear than by the love of his fubjeds. mud mony to the neceiTarily refign ancient patri- or their new acquifitions Robert's . maternal brothers of the Conquerorj^ « HoYeden. The barons. kingdom with reluctance to a vigorous adminiftration in their fovereign. 46 r. were not difagreeable to thofe haughty barons. fliould be put in pofleffion of both.286 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. his extreme indolence and facility. and fubmittcd plaufible . *> Order. were uneafy at the feparation of thofe territories and forefaw. At the fame time Robert. took peaceable pofleffion of that dutchy. Confpira* the^king^ and probably deeming his pretenfiong jufl. they either their ". The king. that as it to preferve long their would be impollible for them allegiance to two mailers. who affeded independence. envying . Vitaljs. CHAP. p. his friend and beHaving aflembled fome bifliops. BuT though this partition appeared to have been made without any violence or oppofition. ^ 1087. though equally brave. The duke was brave. which feemed to menace that kingdom with a fudden thefe ties. title to the dutchy they efteemed inconteflible his claim and they all defired that this prince. haughty.

they zealoufly embraced "William's caufe. The king. and of enjoying the licence of hunting in the royal forelts. upon receiving general promifes of good treatment. he confifcated all . and engaged them in a ^ToSt? formal confpiracy to dethrone the king. As that people were now fo thoroughly fubdued that they no longer afpired to the recovery of their ancient liberties. endeavoured to engage the affedions of the native Englifh. which was increafed by his late fervices. p. whom he detached from the confederates : And as his powerful fleet. 195. Vital. prevented the '^ Chron. and Robert Fitz Hammon. where his uncles had already feized the fortreffes of Fevenfey and Rocheltcr. The confpirators. The king was foon in a fituation to take the field and as he knew the danger of delay. and expecting to be foon fupported by a powerful army from Normandy. and were content with the profpedl of lome mitigation in the tyranny of the Norman princes. Robert de Moubray. O-der. joined to the indolent conduct of Robert. fenfible of his perilous fituation. Hugh de Grentmefnil . Robert de Belefme. they had already begun hoftilities in many places. haftened to put themfelves in a military pcflure . who had embraced his caufe. William bifnop of Durham.W r L L I A M R U F U S. he fuddenly marched into Kent . retiring ta their caftles. arrival . Thefe places he fucceffively reduced by famine . to fpare the lives of the rebels. William de Warrenne. 2^7 envying the great credit of Lanfranc. p. enforced all thefe motives with their partifans. his eldefl fon. and though he v/as prevailed on by the earl of Cheiler. Roger Bigod. They communicated their defign to Euftace count of Bologne. and they eafily procured the aifent C'f thefe potent noblemen. Roger earl of Shrewfbury and Arundel. their ellates. and baniihed them the kingdom ^ This fuccefs gave authority to his negotiations Vv^ith Roger earl of Shrewfoury. Sax. 6C8.

took freed little from the danget of thefe infur- care of fulfilling his promifes to found themfelves expofed to the fame oppreiTions \vhich they had undergone during the reign of the Conqueror. The brother in the poileflion of Normandy.ained to him. Some all Norman fuccours. who illegal adminiflration. that he might the longer enjoy the profits of their revenue . the terror of William's authority. and their mutual quarrels and devaflations had rendered that whole territory a fcene Two of them. rofe high againft this grievance. faithful William. J0S9. 1&S7. which were quickly propagated to the nation. retained every one in fubjeftion. confirmed by the fuppreffion of the late infurredions. and preferved general tranquillity in 1090liuMiion «t Nor- England. The death of Lanfranc. C H A ^^' arrival of the found no the other rebels refource but in flight or fubmiffion. and which were rather augmented by the violent impetuous temper of the prefent monarch. w-ere a feeble He felzed the rampart againft his ufurpations. and he openly fet to fale fuch fees and abbies as he thought proper to difpofe of. ^ to diflurb mandy. Even the privileges of the church. he beftowed fome of the church lands in property on his captains and favourites . held facred in thofe days. on the Norman barons. who had rem. Walter of violence and outrage. reftions. but the greater part were attainted and the king bellowed their eftateS . and . of them received a pardon . The king even thought himfelf enabled j^j . gave foon and all orders of after a full careei' to his tyranny men found reafon to complain of an arbitrary and the Englifii. temporalities of all the vacant biflioprics and abbies he delayed the appointing of fucceifors to thofe dignities. r r loofe and negligent admmiltration or that prince had emboldened the Norman barons to afiect a great independency . Though the murmurs of the" ecclefiaflics. F. ftill . .288 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. who retained great influence over him.

and with his own hands flung him from thebalUements. England. interpofed and mediated an accommodation. I. wards. Vol. i^ CHAP. .W I L L I A M R U F U ' S. The king appeared in Normandy at the head of an army . attainted in Robert's caufe. and dreading the conjunction of the two brothers aggiinfi: him. a rich burgefs of Roilen. engaged by '^'T^g'^ remain neuter. threw him into prifon . Conan. in return for fo flender a fupply. Valori and Albemarle into his hands : Others foon after imitated the example of revolt . : U . fhould be rellored to their eibtes in England. with the fum of three thoufand marks . on the detection of his guilt. had entered into a confpiracy to deliver that city to William . the towns of Aumale. ^'^• and Odo. but Henry. The chief advantage of this treaty accrued to William. was. were bribed by William to deliver the fbrtreires'of St. and affairs feemed to have come to extremity between the brothers when the nobiliiy on both fides. after making fome efforts in his favour. had been put in poileffion of the Cotentin. had inherited nothing of his father's great poffeffions. who of his brother Henry. upon fome fufpicion. and that the Norman barons. Fefcamp. and even made ufeofhis affiftance in large prefents to ' fupprefiing the infurrections of his rebellious fubjefts. and other places But in return he promifed that he would affifl: his brother in fubduing Maine. carried the traitor up to a high tower. who ought to have protefted his vaffal in the pofTeffion of his fief. The duke had alfo reafon to apprehend danger from the intrigues This young prince. and. who obtained poffefTion of the territory of Eu. while Philip. had furnilhed Robert. but finding himfelf expofed to invafion from the king of England. but fome of his money. king of France. which comprehended near a Rpbert after third of the dutchy of Normandy. he now gave Henry his liberty. while he was making his preparations againfl. ilrongly connected by interefl and alliances. which had rebelled .

W. Being reto is this ill-timed generofity. in great poverty.u\s. Riding out one day alone. when the king exclaimed. One of them drew his fwordin order to difpatch him . with expreffions of refpedl. p. ^ax. Michael's Mount. hearing of his dillrefs. and was taken into his fervice. and being defpoiled of all his patrimony. care ter .290 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. the furvivor fhould inherit all his dominions . Waved. granted himfelf. fufpended his blow and raifing the king from the ground. 131. 197. V1089. his him permiffion to fupply fome pipes of wune for proved by William for replied. he was attacked by two foldiers and difmounted. and had nearly reduced him by the fcarcity of wadifgufled that fo little Prince Henry. The . retired to St. Heming. befieged him in this place. 462. M:ilm. IVhat^ thirjt? and alfo fent him he of own my table. that on the demife of either without ilTue. and infefted the neighbourhood with his incurfions. p. p. p. ^ fvl Chron. Prince Henry was foon after obliged to capitulate . W. Duuclm. 986. performed an a6t of generofity which was lefs fuitable to his chara£ler. gone ? The king during this fiege. a ftrong fortrefs on the coaft of Normandy. Hoveden. 7. p. Hold The foldier knai'e ! I a?n the king of England. aiC. Robert and William. p. Anna). when the elder. p. 46j. Brompton. wandered about for fome time with very few attendants. and often . Suii. would employ power to infure the effed:ual execution of the whole treaty : A flrong proof of the great independence and authoiity of the nobles their '^ in thofe ages I had been taken of his interefts in this accommodation. Jhall I fuffcr brother die Where Jloall we find another when he alfo. received a handIbmc reward. 137. England.. p. II. with their joint forces. to take a furvey of the fortrefs. and twelve of the moft powerful barons on each fide fwore. The two brothers alfo fllpulated. that they CHAP. p.

. and were attended with no memorable event. Malcolm. Ma(colm left legitimate fons. bert here commanded his brother's army. To this Norman war. in which Malcolm was llain. his brother Donald. This peace was not more 10^. as if they were inftantly Here Ralph Flambard.W The I L L I A M RU F U S. levying an army. io34. who. produced little bloodfhed. The frank. in lieu of their fervice. and to be conducted to the fea-coaft. exa£ted ten {hillings a-piece from them. confpiracy againft him . Though regular fucceflion to the Scottifh crown. invaded England and after ravaging Northumberland. a fharp adlion enfued. which were not of longer duration. two years after. and inftigating his turbulent barons td rebelHon againft The king. New broils enfued with Normandy. and then difmiiTed them into their feveral counties. the king's to be embarked. made himfelf mailer of the kingdom. open. on dccount of the youth of vancted to the throne j thefe princes. having gone over to Normandy him. was ftill encroaching on his brother's poflelTions. and obliged Malcolm to accept of peace. that it rendered him better fer- U 2 vice . 1093. to fupport his partifans. and the chief iiiftrument of his extortions. he laid fiege to Alnwick. where a party of earl Moubray's troops falling upon him by furprife. and do homage to the crown of England. fupported by greater power. which was fo foon concluded. there fucceeded hollilities with RoScotland. natural fon of Malcolm. 291 continued inteftine difcord among the barons was alone in that age de(tru6tive : The public wars were commonly fhort and feeble. was ad- but kept not long polfeflion Duncan. and being affifted by William with a fmali force. This money was fo fkilfully employed by William. minifter. ordered an army of twenty thoufand men to be levied in EntTland. remifs temper of Robert was ill fitted to withfland the intereiled rapacious charatler of William. This incident interrupted for fome years the durable. formed a of it.

appeared a more ferious Robert concern. count of Aumale. he was condemned to becaftrated. many others. by means of his pretended revelations.ankind. which obliged him to return He found no dimeulty in repelling the to England. and difconcerted the confpiraMoubray made fome refiilance j but being tors. taken prifoner. Richard de Tunbridge. was fuppofed to be treated with more ri'^ p-our when he v^^as fentenced to be hano^ed.2^2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. nephew to the ConWilliam's difpatch prevented the defign queror. and to have William de Alderi. and have ever fmce engaged the curiafity of m. The cni- Iktlcs. But being worded in the combat. '^jj^jg count d'Eu denied his concurrence in the plot . Stephen. earl of Northumberlandy was at the head of this combination . v/here he died about thirty years after. A confpiracy J096. was attainted. fpirator. he could have expecled from the army. which was detected at this time. The . and thrown into confinement. and to advance in his ftead. BiiT the nolle of thefe petty wars and commotions was quite funk in the tumult of the crufades. After Mahomet had. from taking efiecl. a duel with Geoffrey Bainard who accuied him. fought. but was not able to make any confiderable impreffion on a country guarded by its mountainous vice than . united the difperfed Arabians under one head. and he engaged in it the count d'Eu. in the prefence of the court at Windfor. which now engroifed the attention of Europe. another conhis eyes put out. 1094. and tojuftify himfelf. Moubray. Roger de Lacey. and' fituation. 1095* of his own barons. He engaged the French king by new prefents toand he dailydepart from the proteftion of Robert bribed the Norman barons to defert his fervice : But-^ was prevented from pufhing Kis advantages by anincurfionof the Welfh. and engrofTed all his attention. as the mod fiffnal and mofl durable monument of human o folly that has yet appeared in any age or nation. purpofe of the confpirators was to dethrone the king. enemy .

expofed the pilgrims to many infults.and the confufions attending their unfetfled govern-ment. who had embraced Mahometanifm. became one of their moft early conquefls . and derided the facred myfi:erics in the very place of U 3 . by which they fpread their empire in a few years from the banks of the Ganges to ths Streights of Gibraltar. '•made themfelves maflers of Jerufalem.^* new religion. than the indolent and fpeculative Greeks. 293 they ifilied forth from their dcferts in great C H A p. a tribe of Tartars. filled all Chrifiiendom with indignation againfi: the infidels. to vifit the holy fepulchre. rendered the pilgrimage much more difficult and dang/:rous to The barbarity of their manners. fallen into the poffelnon of infidels. and being animated with zeal for their ^^^^JL. after paying a mode-Tate tribute. who daily flocked to Jerufalem . But the Arabians or Saracens v/ere fo employed in military enterprifes. they made deep imprefTion on the eaftern empire. their .•WILLIAM ^flead. and extortions . who profaned the holy city by their prefence. feems to contain fome violent precepts. . robberies. . and they q. which was far in the decline. Jerufalem by its fituation. multitudes . in the year 1065.the Chriftians. with Tegard both to military difcipline and to civil policy. v/ho were continually refining on the feveral articles of their reliThey gave little diflurbance to thofc gious fyftem.the'Turcomans or Turks. zealous pilgrims. and thefe zealots. . and to return in peace. that they had no leifure for •theological controverfy : And though the Alcoran. and the other places. R U F U S. having wrefted Syria from the Saracens.vigour of their 1056. confecrated by the prefence of their religious founder.llowed every man.. and fupported by the. the original monument of their faith. and having. to perform But his religious duties. and the Chrillians had the mortification to fee the holy fepulchre. they were much lefs infeded with the fpirit of bigotry and perfecution. returning from their meritorious fatigues and fufierings. new government.

M. which confifted of four thoufand eccleand thirty thoufand feculars . had created him fo many enemies. Paris. Gregory VII all . till he favv'' a greater He fummoned a council at probability of fuccefs. and of in a plain. Peter himfelf. p. 13. The work was referved for a meaner inftrument. Tjrius. a native of Amiens in Picardy. Martin II. lib. as well as with the inllances of oppreffion under which the eaftern Chriflians laboured. their completion. though fenfible of the advantages which the head of the Chriftian religion muft reap from a religious war. and it was necefiary to hold the affembly The harangues of the pope. and the indignity fuffered the * f Mahometans Gul Tyrifis. Placentia. and had rendered his fchemes fo fu'^picicus.294 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. to which that aft of piety nov/ expofed the pilgrims. cap. i. by . and who. and though he elleemed the blind zeal of Peter a proper means for efFedting the purpofe '. repreienting the difmal fituation of their brethren in the eaft. lib. PkteRj commonly called the Hermit. ble project of leading into Afia. armies fufficient to fubdue thofe potent and warlike nations which now held the He propofed his views to holy city in fubjeclion '. and in all appearance impraftica-. was o numerous that no hall could contain the multitude. 17. ii. had formed the of uniting the weftern Chriftians againft but the egregious and violent invafions of that pontiff on the civil power of princes. among the other vafl ideas "709^67^ defign which he entertained. refolved not to interpofe his authority. that he was not able to make great progrefs in this undertaking. cap. he entertained the bold. who filled the papal chair. i. and whofe folly was well calculated to coincide with the prevailing principles of the times. had made the pilgrimage to Being deeply affected with the dangers Jerufalem. from the farthefl extremities of the Weft. and which fiaflics. whofe low condition in life expofed him to no jealoufy. Gul.

enlifled themfelves in this facred warfare E Concil. and was of all affixed to their right (houlder. 16. a. that. remain in the hands of infidels. Concil. \ Hift. nobles. Sacri. Ital. a circumftance of chief moment. not moved by their preceding impreffions. Order. in order to enfure fuccefs. here found the minds v. and which. in allov/Ing the holy city to C H A p. as they believed it. princes . as if impelled by an immediate infpiration. The fign of the crofs. torn. p. and the refult of a divine influence. Matth. Martin knew. the whole affembly. >> p. V 4 J^UROP^ . to God and religion. Hiftoria Bell. he fummoned another council at Clermont in Auvergne ^. M. It is the ivill ofGpd! Words deemed fo memorable. fign. was the more paffionately cherifhed by them. and folemnly denly and devoted themfelves to perform this fcrvicc. became the badge of union. being now univerfally difllifed. exclaimed with one voice. and an exterior fymbol too. Sacri. It is the vj'ill of God. Clarom. i. was here chofen by the devoted combatants. Paris. i.W I L L I A M R U F U S. 295 by the Chriflian name. Bell.. that thewhole multitude fud1096. Weft.11 who p. violently declared for the war. 233. But though Italy feemed thus to have zealoufly embraced the enterprife.^ of men fo well prepared. Muftci Ital. Vital.. x. procured the attendance of the greatefl prelates. by '.^^^^. Muf. and and when the pope and the hermit renewed their pathetic exhortations. fo much Men ranks flew to arms with the utmoft ardour . 741. torn. it was neceflary to enlift the greater and more warlike nations in the fame engagement and having previoufly exhorted Peter to vifit the chief cities and foverei^ns of Chriftendom. the more it was an objedl of reproach among the Pagan world. The fame of this great and pious de. which had been hitherto fo much revered among Chriftians. fo meritorious. torn. that they were employed as the fignal of rendezvous and battle in all the future exploits of thofe adventurers ^.

artifans. and were expofed to every infult als were obliged to depend for iafety on their own And valour was force. who. abandoned themfdves to the worfl crimes and diforders. 8 the . Nobles. and were impatient to open the way : : : y^ith their fv\ord to the holy city. were neither guarded by walls nor protected by priviIndividuleges. as it w^ere. even priefts '. p. i096. impelled by its tv/o ruling paffions. ftill mean and poor. peafants. The open country was become a fcene of outrage anddiibrder: The cities. were here united in one great object.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. or their private alliances the only excellence which was held in efleem. now pre- had univerfally diffuf? editfjlf and though not fupported by art or difciplinc. or gave one mdn the pre-eminence above another. All orders of men. When all the particular fuperftition^. from its foundations. and an atonement for every violation of juflice and hum/anity. deeming the a'ufades the only road to heaven. Vital. enlifted themfelves under thefe facred banners. therefore. and lefs by law. and Eut rope. and to decline this meritorious fervice was branded with k Order. inrolled their names . and feemed to precipitate itfelf in one united body upon the eaft. was become the general paffion of the nations governed by the feudal law. knew of no other expiation than the obfervances impofed on them by their fpiritual pallors : And it was eafy to reprefent the holy war as an equivalent for all penances ^. All the great lords They were poirelTed the right of peace and war engaged in perpetual hodilities with each other . But. amidd the abject fuperftition which vailed. the military fpirit alfo . 1 Ibid. being Httle rellrained by honour. Europe was at this time funk into profound ig^i norance and fuperflition : The cccleriafti<:s had acquired the greated afcendant over the human mind The people. the ardour for military enterprifes took the fame direction . was loofened. 730.

and put m W. Malm. Women themfelves. 133. and impelled by necefiity. brother to the French king. The greateft criminals were forward in a fervice. that their more fagacious leaders. yol. and were determined. n Vcitot Hift. became apprehenfive left the greatnefs itfelf of the armament fliould difappoint and they permitted an undifciplined its purpofe . multitude. Raymond count of Touloufe. 46. p. Dunelm. what they had vainly expeded from miracles . 222. and trufting that Heaven. 297 reproach ftill "'. and the mod enormous diforders were. and Stephen count of Blois °. encouraged by example. attended it in perfon. conceahng their fex under the difguife of ar- mour. of impiety. de Malte. v de Chev. more dilgraceful. o SiiTv.^^^^j. which they regarded as a propitiation for all crimes . to the army ". Matth. if poffible. computed at 300. I L L I A M RU F U S. Godfrey of Bouillon. pufillanimity or what perhaps was CHAP. The infirm and aged contributed to 1096. and the enraged inhabitants of the countries through which they paiTed. The multitude of the adventurers foon became fo great. attacked the diforderly multitude. Paris. p.000 men. not fatisfied with the merit of this atonement. during the courfe of thofe expeditions. Thefe men took the road towards Conftantinople through Hungary and Bulgaria . i. made no provifion for fubfiftence on They foon found themfelves obliged their march. 17. attended the camp and commonly forgot ftill more the duty of the fex. by fupernatural affiflance. p. committed by men enured to wickednefs.W the jefleemed . to obtain by plunder. they felves. the expedition by prefents and money . prince of Brabant. and many of them. Hugh count of Vermandois. to breathe their laft in fight of that city where their Saviour had died for them. p. them . without referve. of cowardice and . under the command of Peter the Hermit and Walter the Money lefs ?.„. gathering together in arms. would fupply all their neceffities. by proflituting them. to go before them.

^ difciplined armies followed after . their . befides eftablifliing peace in their dominions by giving occupation abroad to the inquietude and margreater princes. they were muftered in 1096. whom he reprefented as equally criminal with the enemies of convents apid other religious focieties bought the polTellions of the adventurers . they often diverted to this purpofe what was intended to be employed But no one v. 21. and in purfuit of thefe chimerical projects. at. they fold at the loweffc price their ancient calfles avarice or their ambition. by its means. The moye ^^^i. entertained fchemes of gratifying. nobles who enlifted themfelves were moved. delle benef. The pope frequently turned the zeal of the crufades from the infidels againft his own enemies. *3 The ' Mitth. which had now eyes. the chief feat of arts and commerce during thofe ages . to hope for opulent eftablifhments in the eall. and paffing the ftreights at Conflantlnople. loft all value in their at home. or by the extinction of heirs. and as the contributions of the faithful were commonly entrufted to their management. Amidst this univerfal frenzy which fpread itfelf by contagion throughout Europe. men were not entirely forgetful of and both thofe v/ho went on their prefent interefls this expedition.. Paris. 20. Padre Paolo Hift. the plains of Afia. and thofe who flayed behind. who kept aloof from all connexions with thofe fanatical and romantic warriors.29S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. them to daughter Vvithout refiftance. tial The who remained difpofition of their fubjecls. efpecialiy in France and Germany. p. from the romantic fpirit of the age. CHAP. and amounted in the whole to the number of 700. took the opportunity of annexing to their crown many confiderable fiefs. ecckriaft. p. Robert . Chrill.^as a more immeagainft the infidels \ diate gainer by this epidemic fury than the king of England.000 combatants ". either by purchafe. The and inheritances.

had 1096. T. in purfuit of glory. p. impelled by the ^ ^J^ ji bravery and miflaken generofity of his fpirit.W I L L I A M R U F U S. have been able to pay him the pioney ? The Conqueror. 236+. that Robert would confign queror. who were obliged to melt their plate in order to furnifli the quota demanded of them^: He was put in poffeffion of Normandy and Maine. fet out for the Holy Land. p. for a fum. it is agreed. p 457- W. 299 ' ^** of Normandy. Knyghton. Malm. was frugal able as well as rapacious s j yet his trealure. Heming. he found that it tion^of' would be impradlicable for him to appear in a Norman- Robert duke . 467. W ' exceeded . 222. Waverl. or rather to fell his dominions. W. Annal. p. He refolved. is the account which heedlefsly adopted to the rapacious hands of his brother fuch confider- dominions. The which refute fmallnefs of this fum. 123. which. _ manner fuitable to his rank and flation at the head ^^' of his numerous vaffals and fubjefts. 1:^3. 648. W. and in full confidence of fecuring his eternal falvation. cluded The king raifed the money by violent extortions on his fubjeds of all ranks. to mortgage. p. p. J39. Wykes. 35. and he offered them to his brother William. tranfported with the general rage. Heming. with the difEcuIties William found in raifing it. fuffices alone to by hiftorians. 24. p. according to that account. of the enormous revenue of the ConIs it credible. « Eadmer. for the very unequal fum of The bargain was foon conten thoufand marks'. Sim Dunelm. providing himfelf with a magnificent : train. early enlifled himfelf in the crufade . made not a week's income of his father's Englilh revenue alone ? Or that the king of England could not on demand. I'lor Wig. but being always unprovided with money. p. which he had not talents to govern . who. therefore. without oppreffing his fubjechs. p. Malm. p. even on the convents. were determined to follow him into Alia. at his death. Chron. and Robert.

If this ftory be true. it was but equitable that he Ihould be paid for his pains. and bade them fairly difpute the queftion of their religion in his prefence He was perfectly affilt him in "". "William employed both menaces and perfuaiion for that purpofe . and would embrace that doctrine which upon comparifon fhoidd be found fupported by the mofl folid arguments ^. : between them had his ears open to reafon and conviction .^58. which hardly amounted to his income for two months : Another certain re- of that exaggerated account. of the king.oco pounds. P. .goo HISTORY OF ENGLAND. As an inftance of his irreligion. he fent for feme learned Chriftian theologians and fome rabbles. it is probable that he meant only to amufe himfelf by turning both into ridicule : But we mull indifferent . izz. be p. that as he had not fuc-ceeded. and he would therefore retain only thirty marks of the money At another time. it was not jufl that he fhould keep the prefent . finding their fettlement in that kingdom ftiil fomewhat precarious. it is faid.probably becaufe the Norman conquerors. 123. Gcmct p. durft not abandon their homes in queil of The felfiih intercfled fpirit alfo didant adventures. which kept him from kindling in the general flame. W.br. . and as he is accufed of open profanenefs ". Malm. and was endued with a Iharp wit '^'. exceeded not 6o. he fent for the fatlier and told him. . we are told. whofe fon had been converted to Chriftianity. but as he had done his utmolf. The fury of the crufades. it is likely that he made the romantic chivalry of the crufades the objecl of his perpetual raillery. iVcv. p. Malm p. ^ Eadmer. 47. checked its progrefs among his fubjecls . lefs infefted England than the neighbouring kingdoms. but finding the convert obilinate in his nev/ faith. 192. during this age. W. " G. that he once accepted of £xty marks from a Jew. p. J "^ W. C H A ^iOQ6. and who engaged him by iiitation ihat prefent to bringing back thsj ^outh to Judaifm.

and his pairions regaining their wonted vigour. and it is no wonder his memory fhould be blackened by the hiftorians of that order.' cant bifhoprics . But he found inAnfelm * * Eadmer. 18. Eadmer.. p. After the death of Lanfranc. who was much celebrated for his learning and piety. and when he found the prince obdinate in forcing the paftoral flair it on change fell his upon him. archbifiiop of Canterbury. Eadmer. and the clergy reprefented to him. p. p. abbot of Bee in Normandy. Sax. Anfelni. as he did thofe of many other va. that . the king for fe. 198. Chron. and entreated the king to his purpofe * . the fale of fpiritual dignities continu-ed as open as ever . he returned to his former violence and rapine. and for that purpofe he fent for Anfclni. He detained in prifon feveral perfons whom he had ordered to be freed during the time of his penitence j he flill preyed upon the ecelefiaftical benefices .Qnan-el veral years retained in his own hands the revenues J']^^^ ^f c of Canterbury. knees.prim'ite. commonly called St. that required the utmoil vio- lence of the byfianders to open to receive and force that enfign of fpirimal dignity ^ "Wil- liam Ibon after recovered . 43' Cbron. The abbot earneftiy refufed the dignity. and facrileges. rcg. he wasfeized with remorfe. wept. r6.W I L L I A M RU F U S. that he v/as in danger of eternal perdition. with the ecclefiaitics. and he kept pofl'eflion of a confiderable part of the revenues belonging to the fee of Canterbury". = ^ Eadmer. a Piedmontefe by birth. he kept it. b Diceto. ^' monk! ill hiftorians to the difad vantage of tiiis prince : He had the misfortune to be engLiged in quarrels ^^^6. 10. of which he had been guilty He refolved therefore to fupply inftantly the vacancy of Canterbury . i»-4. p. but failing into a dangerous ficknefs. particularly \vHh Anlelni. 17. if before his death he did not make atone- ment for thofe multiplied impieties ''. p. p. hia hinii fid fo fail clenched. ^% be cautious of admitting every thing related by the c H A P. Sax.

could overturn thrones. particularly thofe in drefs and ornament. Knyghton. and to affix to it the figure of a bird's bill. by his gf eat zeal againft all abufes. and which was often fuftained by The ecclegold or filver chains tied to the knee ^..^^ perfevering oppofition. nay aflembled fome fynods. and had authority fufficient to fend above a million of men on their errand to the deferts of Afia. 68z. Vital. contrary to all other modes. fiaftics took exception at this ornament. W. But Anfelm was more fortunate In decrying the particular mode which was the object of his averfion. ground during feveral centuries and if the clergy had not at lafl defifted from their perfecution of it. which he had reafon to cxped: from the oftentatious humility which that pre- ioy6. tred J . both among men and women. p. on Alh-Wednefday who he refufed the were fo accou- d Order. prevailed throughout Europe. that no man can add a cubit to his ftature . The oppofition made by Anfehn was the more dangerous on account of the charafter of piety which he foon acquired in England. and which probably had not taken fuch fafl hold of maintained its He preached zealoufly the affisftions of the people. in that age. and they declaimed againft it with great vehemence. who abfolate But. it might flill have been the prevailing fafhion in Europe. A. had difplayed in refufmg his promotion. fuch are the ftrange though the clergy. againft the long hair and curled locks which were then fafhionable afiies among the courtiers to thofe . they could never lutely it. which they faid was an attempt to bely the fcripture. 143.302 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p.a369. that ^__^_^^^. ! condemned prevail againfl thefe long-pointed fhoes : On . Malmef. There was a mode. which was turned upwards. which. contradictions in human nature at that time. the contrary. to give an enormous length to their fhoes. or fome fuch ornament. that caprice. where it is affirmed. C H P. to draw the toe to a fliarp point. p.

when the quarrel broke out afrefh from a new caufe. p. William had undertaken. to introduce his authority into England ^. p. 495. as abbot of Bee. ene4 . 463. 13. William. Cone. and Anfelm. ii. and matters feemed to be accommodated between the king and the primate ". who regarded the demand as an oppreffion on the church. « Spelm. 494. and threat<^ Eadmcr. g Eadmer. Eadmcr. RU F U S. 30. Diceto. and his authority (^^ William's profanenefs therefore returned to him with his health. without the king's confent. imitating his father's example. and appeared in the cropt hair. was enraged at this attempt . fent them fo miferably accoutred. had already acknowledged the former. 303 and eloquence had fuch in. an expedition againfl Wales.title Anfelm received the pall from that pontiff. that time a fchifm in the church between Urban and Clement. they knew of no expedient for infliding that punifhment on their priThe king was at lad engaged by other mate ^ motives to give the preference to Urban's. that the king was extremely difpleafed. but Anfelm. had prohibited his fubjefts from recognizing any pope whom he had not previoufly received. without the papal authority. p. M. was determined.Paris. who was primate. <" Hoveden.WILLIAM tred . i^v Diceto. p. that the young men univerfally abandoned that ornament.c H A P. who. alfo his companion and fecretary. p. ^• fluence. p. which was recommended to them by the fermons of the The noted hiftorlan of Anfehn. and fummoned a fynod at Rockingham.sjj. celebrates highly this effort of his zeal and piety ^. *» p. 23. who both pretended to the papacy* . he was foon engaged in conThere was at troverfies with this auftere prelate. that. p. who. with an intention of depofmg An- When felm : But the prelate's fuffragans declared. vol. and yet durff not refufe compliance. and required the archbifhop to furnifh his quota of foldiers for that fervice .

though they cannot be paffed over in filence. and obfcene contacts ''. finding it dangerous to remain in the kingdom. 40. where. with^ Eadmer. Bronipton. who did homage to laymen for their fees or benefices. Wigorn. p. that the primate. who confidered him as a martyr in the caufe of religion. p.304. and could offer him up as a facrifice for the falvation of mankind. Paris. 649. Dunclra. Du Flor. p. and even menaced the king. <> " Eadmev. him with a profecution ^. P Sim. fliould put his joined hands between thofe of his fuperior. p. to Rome againfl the king's injuflice'. 13. The rite of homage. on the that all the reve~ nues of his fee (liould be reftored to him appealed . p. p. and fhould in that But the council depofture fvv-ear fealty to him ^ clared it execrable. the right of election to church preferments was declared to belong to the clergy alone. Sim.unication. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. befides fixing the controverfy between the Greek and Latin churches concerning the procefFion of the Holy Ghofl". p 14. that the vafi'al fliould throw hinifelf on his knees. az4. but he was received with great refped by Urban. Anfelm affifted at the council of Bari. p. p. with the fentence of excomm. Paris.. by the feudal cufloms. p. between profane hands. Heming. that pure hands. 13. *" M. J Ibid. Parker. and affairs came to fuch extremities. were employed day and night in impure purSuch were the reapofes.Paris. 37. M. 994. defired and obtained the king's permiffion to retire beyond fea.a24. <1 VV. 178. 49. v/hich. fonings prevalent in that age . other hand. Can^ey \n verb. which could create God. Spelman. 467. demanded pofitively eiied Anfelm. after this humiliating manner. befides being enured to rapine and bloodihed. and againfl all laymen who exacted it °. Homagii^im. on account of his proceedings againft the primate and the church. p. \oU. was. reafonings which. and fpiritual cenfures were "' denounced againfl all eccleflaftics. out . M. fhould be put. Dun. 43. All his temporalities were feized . p.

who had acquired the confidence and affections of the inhabitants of Maine. M.. but having releafed him. and ordered them to fet fail inftantly . cloudy and tempeftuous. 134. that they never yet heard of a king that . that he would not (lop a moment till he had taken vengeHe found the weather fo ance for the offence. Helie. lord of la Fleche. Bv this vicrour and celeritv. that the mariners thought But the king hurried it dangerous to put to fea on board. and. was able to give him inquietude and this great monarch was obliged to make fevcral expeditions abroad. at the interceffion of the French king and the count of Anjou. William. p. can fcarcely be de. was hunting in the new foreft. he delivered the citadel of Mans from its prefcnt danger . 1097. X obliged . when he received intelligence of this hoftile attempt. which he received before this place. Ypod. • iioo.. Even Helie. livered with the requifite decency and gravity. that he immediately turned his horfe. was fo provoked.. without being able to prevail over fo petty a baron. a fmall town in Anjou. II. . p. who befieged the garrifon in the citadel 1099. perhaps not the chap. 44a.WILLIAM R U F U S.^. lead inftrudive part of hiitory. fo fortunate as at laft to take him prifoner in a rencounter .v^^^. and galloped to the fea-fhore at Dartmouth . Malm. W. being introduced by the citizens into the town of Mans. however. Vol. he found the province of Maine ftill expofed to his intrigues and incurfions. He was. p. 305 out omitting the mofl curious. Paii. declaring. : : was drowned . Neuft. the mutinous difpofition of the barons. telling them. 373. and purfuing Helie into his own territories. he laid fiege to Majol. a fmall caftlc in thofe parts But a wound. 36. and the vicinity of the French kingy who fupported them in all their infurreftions. becaufe of the unfettled ftate of thofe countries. Hunt. p. I. The celiion of Normandy and Maine by duke Robert increafed the king's territories but brought him no great increafe of power.

3 fore . the fole amuiement. without entertaining any fcruple on account of that rapacious and iniquitous hand. Tyrrel. and he returned to "iiuo. p. were able to afTeinble. attended him in this recreation.000 horfe. W. 149. appears the sJAuguit. enflamed with the glory. earl of Poitiers and duke of Guienne. of which the new forefl was the fcene . had put himfelf at the head of an immenie multitude. and the arts afforded few objedls worthy of attention. and indeed the chief occupation of princes in thofe rude times. impatient to fly * fnow his dexterity. Vital. He wanted money to forward the preparations requifite for this expedition. Malmef. and to conduct in dangerous enterprifes to the remote provinces of Alia^r William. Malm. remarkable for his addrefs in archery. and to ail his ambitious projecls. in order to tkor'i the money. in their military expeditions againfl their more furprihng. He was engaged in hunting. computed by fome hiftorians to amount to 60. The -isho'e is faid * to amount to 300. Walter Tyrrei. and he offered to mortgage all his dominions to William. vvhich fuddenly flarted beby Order. during this age. and take poffeflion of the rich provinces of Guienne and Poidou j when an accident put an end to Iiis hfe. a French gentleman. when we confider the prodigious numbers. let an arrow \V. - even petty princes. obliged him to raile the fiege . p. which nearell D'cighbours. which had attended the former adventurers in the crufades. England. to which he refolved The king accepted the offer to confign them '.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and had prepared a fleet and an army. and not difcouraged by the misfortunes. and a much greater number of foot % and he purpofed to lead them into the Holy Land againfl the infidels. feconding the enthufiadic rage of the people. p. and as William had difmounted after a chafe. at a flag.000 men. The weaknefs of the greateft monarchs. 789. when fociety was little cultivated. 1^7.

' the king in the breaft. 378. that domineering policy. flruck chap. p.W fore him. he lay fo much under the government of impetuous paffions. an unkind and ungenerous was equally prodigal and rapacious in and if he poffeffed the management of his treafury abilities. Blef.37. and though we may fufped. 307 The arrow. while Tyrrel. Hunt. put fpurs to his horfe. He feems to have been a violent and tyrannical prince . and p. His courtiers were negligent in performing the laft duties to a mailer who was fo little beloved . to attend the funeral of a dead fovcreign. He ful in diforderly times. whom racier of he had offended . without informing any one of the accident. W. 9. Paris. X 2 London- . with courage and vigour. ^^<^^^ embarked for France. ^ noo. a penance which he of this monarch is tranfmitted to ^nd chaus with Httle advantage by the churchmen. The body of William was found in the forell: by the country people. I L L I A M R U F U S. or for attributing to him any very eflimable qualities. p. Petr. encroaching. no. in i^u -us"^ general. are the " remain of this prince Tower. The monuments which in England. his condud: affords little reafon for The memory contradiding the charafter which they have afligned him. and was buried without any pomp or ceremony at Winchefter. haftened to the feafhore. proves often more fucceiTrelation. that their account of his vices is fomewhat exaggerated. H. 12O. a perfidious. and dangerous neighbour. Weflminfler-hall. glancing from a tree. than the deepeft forefight and mofi: refined artifice. and every one was too much occupied in the interefling objed of fixing his fuccelfor. . . which fuited his temper. and which. . Malm. an expedition to impofed on hiirifelf for this involuntary crime. M. in and joined the crufade Jerufalem . if fupported. without referve. and inftantly flew him " . that he made little ufe of them in his adminiltration and he indulged. as it was in him.

William was killed rn the thirteenth year of his reign. to reflore prince Edgar. In the eleventh year of this reign. but was repulfed by Hugh. by the daughter of his pofterity. This is the laft attempt made by the northern nations upon England. thofe piratical invaders. c II K^^gr-^i-*^ London-bridge. and about the As he was never married. periflied by an accident in the new foreft Richard. and of Margaret. king of Norway. three years before his death. which thenceforth kept them at home. the juft ance of Heaven was fignalized. fon of Malcolm. loft his life in the fame place. and freed the other nations of Europe from the devaftations fpread over reftlefs them by This proved one great caufe of the fubfequent fettlement and improvement of the fouthern nations. the true heir of that kingdom. fifter of Edgar Atheling and the enterprife proved fuccefsfuL It was remarked in that age. natural fon of Duke Robert. exclaimed that. he fortieth of his age. impelling diftridl to the inhabitants of that large for his make room game. made a defcent on the ifle of Anglefea-. The moil laudable foreign enterprife which he undertook. into Scotland with a fmall army. left no legitimate iffue. Magnus. Conqueror had been all guilty of extreme venge- violence. That people feem about this time to have learned the praclice of tillage.3o8^ HISTORY OF ENGLAND. his nephew. was the I'ending of Edgar Atheling. in the fame place. that Richard. an elder brother of William's. A P. . as the sioo. earl of Shrewfbury. -which he built. after the fame manner : And all men. upon the king's fate.


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opaffembled the in the "^'^• they proceeded on their ^"TioT*"^ entcrprife . and for which. of obtaining fuch a moderate fupply. though they pretended feen them.were chap. detefted them as hereticaL By all the arts of policy. on a fudden.The cm^'^^^^* ficuhies which their zeal had hitherto concealed from them. Alexis provide a remedy. even if they had forepofice to Confiantinople. been almoft impofTible to The Greek emperor. acting under his command. who had apphed to the weftern Chriftians io^. but immediately experienced thofe dif. VL I. but while he employed profeflions. in which he excelled. might enable him to repulfe the enemy : But he was extremely aftonilhed to fee his dominions overwhelmed. by fuch an inundation of licentious barbarians. carell'es. and. fuccour againfl the Turks. defpifed his fubjecls as -civilities. towards the leaders of the crufade. he endeavoured to divert the torrent . HENRY Ths Crufades AcccJJion Marriage Ac' Invafion by duke Robert 'of the king Attack of Normandy commodation icilh Robert Continuation of the Conqiiefi of Normandy of Henry Conipromife quarrel lAtb Anfelm. it would liave • unwarlike.r 309 ] C H /V p. and thofe but feeble ones. the primate Death of prince fFars abroad him ^ijjitb Death King's fecond marriage Willia?n and character of Henry. entertained hopes. who. holy war adventurers AFTER on the banks of the Bolphorus. as. he fecretly regarded thofe imperious fervices and feeming X 3 allies . friendlhip. Comnenus.

whofe alliance they had hitherto courted. Their zeal. and their irrefiftible force. might exped. emperor of the Turks . Hav-.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. deftroyed the adventurers by thoufands. his former authority in Jerufalem and he informed them by his ambaifadors. recovered. the exceifes of fatigue. on the fall of the Turkifh power. His dangerous policy was fecondcd by the diforders infeparable from fo vaft a piultitude. who were not united under one head. his power. for difappointing the enterprife. Hill carried them forward. iiig eflefted that difficult point of difembarking them fafeiy in Ana. and entirely broke the force of the Turks. and that all Chriftian pilgrims. and determined enemies to civil authority and fubmiffion. allies as more dangerous than the open enemies by whom 'iiooT' empire had been formerly invaded. unacquainted with military difcipline. or his fituation. The long retained thofe countries in fubjecfoldan of Egypt. however. and pra£lifed every infidious art. the feat of the Turkiflr empire. that if they came difarmed to that city. which his genius. the influence of unknown climates. them to and continually advanced After an the great end of their enterprife. enabled him to employ. and to the fword of a warlike enehis my. joined to the want of concert ii\ their operations. and were conducted by leaders of the mofl independent intractable fpirit. they defeated SoHman in two great battles . the fame good treatment which th^y hati tver received from his predeceffors. The . and difcouraging the Latins from making thenceforward any fuch prodigious migrations. obftinate fiege they took Nice. they made themfelves mailers of Antioch . they might now perform their religious vows. he entered into a private correfpondence with Soliman. their bravery. who had fo tion. who fhould thenceforth vifit the holy fepulchre. The fcarcity of provifions. and would have abated the ardour of men impelled to war by lefs powerful motives.

io«. i. nor No age or fex was fpared : fubmh'iion the timorous Infants on the breail were pierced by the fame blow with their mothers. p. Neither arms defended the vahant.w Vertot. * M p.^^^^^^. 498. devotion. to that facred raonument : They fung anthems to their Saviour. who implored for mercy : Even a multitude. v/ith the fentiments of humiliation and contrition towards the holy fepulchre. -Sn i^ fx P.HENRY The yield oiler 1. they had learned to pay to their leaders. and the difafters which they had undergone. and naked feet and heads. After a fiege of five weeks. fo overcame their fury. p. p. the foldan was required to c . •: "•". impelled by a mixture of military and religious rage. . 756. after every enemy was fubdued and flaughtered. trheir experience. they took JeTufalem by aifault and. they were diminiflied to the number of twenty thoufand foot and fifteen hundred horfe . were butchered -in cool The flreets i)Iood by thcfe ferocious conquerors ofjerufalem were covered with dead bodies^. immediately turned thcmfelves. to the number of ten thoufand perfons. the prefence ef the place where he had fuifered.phant warriors. was rejcfted . Hill ft reaming with blood: They advanced with reclined bodies. they put the numerous garrifon and inhabitants to the fword without diftinftion. ffom their valour. J. and the trium. up the city to the Chrillians and on his re. By the detachments which they had made. the champions of the crofs advanced to the . So inconfiflent is . that enlivened 'by they diffolved in tears. 57. which they fummation of their labours. and the obedience which. regarded as the confiege of Jcruraleai. 24. They threw afide their arms. Vital. Dictto. who had there purchafed their falvation by his death and agony: And their . . vol. but thcfe were ilill formidable. and bore tht appearance of 4^very foft and tender fentiment.^ fufal. who had furrendered thetnfelves prifoners. from paft calamities.Order. 4 humaA .Paris. and were proinifed quarter.

as well as his undoubted title. had all along diilinguiflied himfelf by the mofl intrepid courage. which he knew to be a neceifary implement for facilitating . courage and with the fiercefl barbarity This the laft great event happened on the fifth of July in Chriftian in year of the eleventh century.y. whom he efpoufed Indulging himfclt in this new pailion. in order to fecure the royal treafure. in order to enjoy at home that glory.^ . who. none of them knew it. as he had rehnquifhed the greateft dominions of any prince that attended the crufade. would. In palhng through Italy. both by birth. as well as by that affable dlfpofition and unbounded generolity which gain the hearts of foldiers. have infaliibly this delay By fecured to him. advantage attending the conjunclure. had he been prefent. which the great fame he had acquired during the crufades. nature with id'elf ! CHAP. and fo eafily does the mofl: efteniinate i'uperftition ally. and though his friends in the north looked everv moment for his arrival. to fettle themfelves while fome of them returned to Europe. The princes and nobles. daughter of the count of Converfana. as well as fond of enjoying eafe and pleai'ure. he hurried to Wincheller. after chufing Godfrey of Boiiillon king of Jerufalem. after the fatigues of fo many rough campaigns. a young lady of great beauty and merit. and by the preceding agreement v\'ith his deceafed brother. Acccfiion ojHen. human . their began . Prince Henry was hunting with Rufus In the forefl. and qualify a prince to fnine in a military life. both with the mofl heroic ! noo. when they could with certainty exped he lofl the kingdom of England. he lingered a twelvemonth : in that delicious climate .312 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. which their valour had acquired them in this popular and meritorious enterprife Among thefe new conquefls was Robert duke of Normandy. he became acquainted with Sibylla. when intelligCiKe of that monarch's death was brought him and being fenfible of the j^g.

p. P. had no fooner heard of his mailer's death.HENRY cUitating his defigns I. haftened with the money to London . arrived. who had Henry's pretenfions. In lefs than three days after his brother's death. joined the prince's party. and he told the prince. ll 3x3 on the crown. than he haflened to take care of his charge . who was perfuaded to officiate on that occafion and thus. he intruded himfelf into the vacant throne. and that he himfelf. and as others of the late king's retinue.100. without lofmg a moment. Vital. he was fuddcnly elected. in fpitc of all other pretenfions. ao8. p. . I Orclev. which was indeed founded on plain ufurpation And the barons. and oppofed himfclf to This nobleman. ^ : : y Onler. to maintain his allegiance to him. belonged to his elder brother. Henry. and celerity. '^ A ^. was determined. Sax. or rather faluted king and immediatelyproceeded to the exercife of royal authority. Breteiiil was obliged to withdraw his oppofition. whom his addrefs. which. that this treafure. or prefents. by his courage . drawing his fword. keeper of the treafure. He had fcarcely C reached tlie place when William de Breteiiil. could now. No one had fufficient fpirit or fenfe of duty to appear in defence of the abfent prince : All men were feduced or intimidated Prefent poifellion fupplied the apparent defeats in Henry's title. been engaged in the fame party of hunting. gained to his fide. as well as the people. though it could neither be juftified not comprehended. But . who was now his fovereign . and having alfembled fome noblemen and prelates. =« Chron. acquiefced in a claim. ^ . they found. 7?a. threatened him with inftant death if he dared to difobey him . the ceremony of his coronation was performed by Maurice bifliop of London. and to acquiefce in this violence >. Vital. for his part. who came every moment to Winchefter. be oppofed through the perils alone of civil war and rebellion. p 783. or abilities. But Henry. as well as the crown.

without being expofed to fuch violent exaftions as had been ufual during the late reigns : He remitted the wardfhip of minors. Sax. Fjiece. church. 225. baron. at the death of any bifliop or abbot. it fliould only be necelfary for him to-confult the king. by fair profeflions at leaft. but would leave the whole to be reaped by the fucceflor . the vacancy. Sim. he paiTed a charter. and if any baron intended to give his daughter. would fit unfteady on his head. he proceeded to enumerate the civil grievances which he purpofed to redrefs. But as againfl all ISOO. or military tenant. fifter. niifed. ing the ufual coronation oath to maintain the laws and execute juflic^s. and allowed guardians to be appointed. to Befides takgain the affeftions of all his fubjefts. Henry forefaw that a crown.3H HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p. their money or perfonal eftates . fhould happen to be his enemy : He granted his barons and military tenants the power of bequeathing. on paying a juft and lawful relief. He promifed that. but by the advi-ce of all the barons . that. unlefs the pei-fon. nor ever to refufe permiiTion. Dunelm. he never would feize the revenues of the fee or abbey durino. which was calculated to remedy many of the grievous opprefduring the fion-s which had been complained of He there proreigns of his father and brother ^. who promifed to take no money for his confent. . he refolved. upon the death of any earl. by will. to whom it was purpofed to marry her. ufurpe4 rules of juflice. nor difAfter this conceffion to the pofe of it for money.hron. or kinfwoman in marriage. whofe favour was of fo great importance. who fhculd be anfwerable for the trufl : He promifed not to difpofe of any heirefs in marriage. his htir fliould be admitted to the pofleffion of his eftate. and that he would never let to farm any ecclefiaftical benefice. and if they neglected to make -a * £. p. aoS.

of obferving one fnigle article of it . <= Matth. and he promifed a general confirmation and obfervance of the laws of king Edward. they could with difficulty find a copy of it in the kingdom. and of levying taxes at pleafure on the farms no©. Paris. defired who had heard an obfcure tradition of it. lay under no manner of reftri^tion. that. lib. This is the fubftance of the chief articles contained in that famous charter % : To give greater authenricity to thefe conceflions. as if defirous that it fliould be expofed to the view of all his fubjects. and it is evident that the general promife here given j of accepting a juft^ b See Appendix II. I^rompton. 3?. were unknown in the agepf the Confeflbr. 310. fince relief-. and the whole fell fo much into negleft and : government oblivion. p. p. which the barons retained in their own hands ^ : He made fome general profeiTions of moderating fines . 315 he promifed that their heirs fhould fucceed to C H A p. Henry lodged a copy of his charter in fome abbey of each county . whQfe laws thefe originally wiie. mi .^TJ^. 1 Glanv.. But as to the grievances here meant to be redrefTed. he offered a pardon for all offences 5 and he remitted all debts due to the crown He required that the vaflfals of the barons fhould enjoy the fame privileges which he granted to his own barons .. Hagulftad. p. preferved by Ingulf. were never efFeclually fixed till the time of Magna Charta ^ . after the prefent purpofe was ferved. Reliefs of heirs. as well as the other turtjensof the feudal law. they were flill continued in their full extent . he never once thought. and remain a perpetual rule for the limitation and diredion of his Yet it is certain that. in the following century. Hoveden. 468. and the royal authority. them : He renounced the right of impofing money. 36. feems to have been the heriot . in all thofe particulars. to make it the model of the great charter which they exa(3:ed from king John. fo capital an article.H E N R Y will. during his reign. cap. lozi. 4. I. What is called a relief in the Conqueror's laws. when the barons. p. age.

indeed. 7. where any man died inteiiate. permit a younger brother to intrude himfelf into the place of the elder. that they may be pronounced . to the blifhed government. and lawful precifion. ought to have been reduced to more in order to give fecurity to the fubjedl:. 16. cap. 1'he Normans. and mull grow to perfection during feveral ages of fettled and eftaA people fo infenfible. influence Power and violence fitted .. p. to ailume true liberty turbulent difpofition frequently prompted them to make fuch ufe of their arms.i6 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. whom they eileemed. and left their pofterity fufficient power. which prevented the eftabliflmient of the hereditary fucceffion. 91. or allow his engagements to fetter his power. pretended to feize all the moveables. and who was guilty of no crime but being abfent. and debar him from any confiderable inThey had indeed arms in terelt or convenience. during this age. their hands. ratified 'sy the Conqueror. the king. or regular liberty incapable of any true which requires fuch improve- knowledge and morals as can only be the refuit of refleclion and experience. and a total defpotifm. IICO. fo hcentious a people. or the lord of the lief. in ment rights of their fovereign as to disjoint. relief. in his time. whenever they Ikould attain a fufficient deBut their gree of reafon. and to exclude every heir. were. : we le. who domineered in England.irn : from Ingulf. This pradtice was contrary to the laws of king as Edward. ^ut laws had at that time very little ^<>venicd every thing. without neeeffity. that. that they were more : « Lib. could not expert that that prince w^ould pay any greater regard to their privileges. an accident which mud have been very frequent when the art of writing was fo little known. The oppreilion of wardlliip and marriage was per- petuated even till the reign of Charles II. even the fure mark ofa tyrannical children of the deceafed : A and arbitrary government. : And it appears from Glanvilie % the famous jufliciary of Henry II.

contains fome articles which bind others as well as himfelf. 39. p 144. to confider more the power of the perfons whom he might oifend. Rudbonie. p. which was a direct violation of his own charter. to increafe his popularity. raris. who had been the chief inflrument of oppreflion under his brother But this aft was followed by another. power. bilhop of Durham. and is therefore unfit to be the deed of any one who pofTeffes not the whole legiilative power.p. de- graded and committed to prifon Ralph Flambard. 317 obftruft the execution of jufHce. and. Senfible of the great authority which Anfeim had acquired by his character of piety. T. than to C n A uoo. farther. which . Paris. p. Sax. and who may not at pleafure revoke all his conceffions. where he refided. p. Sax. MaUh. Chron..J^^ Henry. p. 208. 275^.. on every emergence. and by the perfecutions which he had undergone from William. On the arrival of the prelate. and invited him to return and take poffelfion of his dignities s. were chiefly concerned in it) were totally ignorant of the nature of limited monarchy. he propofed to him the renewal of that homage ^ : Chron. 156. p. than *the rights of The very form of thofe whoift he might injure. finding that greater oppofidon was often made to him when he enforced the laws than when he violated them. of violence and oppreflion. and was a bad prognoltic of his fmcere intentions to obferve it : He kept the fee of Durham vacant for five years. he fent repeated meffages to him at Lyons. 39. is the rei'ult of his free grace. Alur. Beverl. f W. Vitnl. g p. Thg prince. MrIiti. in conjunction with their fovereign. and durin-i^ that time retained poffefllon of all its revenues. flop the career v. Matth. p. Order.HENRY fitted to I. and were ill qualified to conduci. It is an aO: of his fole the machine of government. rather than the people of England. 78J. 208. was apt to render his own will and pleafure the fole rule of government .^„-. this charter of Henry proves that the Norman barons (for they.

and niece to Edgar Atheling. but merely in confequence of a cuftom familiar to the Englifli ladies who proteded : There s Vv'. He objeded the decrees of the council of Baii. king of Scotland. or who accepted of inveftitures from laymen.3ig HISTORY OF ENGLAND. durfl not infill on his demand^: He only defired that the controverfy might be fufpended . doubts might arile concerning the lawfulnefs of the a<^ and it behoved him to be very careful not to fhock. fiaftic who paid that fubmiffion. which he had done his brother. Matilda. Malm. not with a view of entering into a religious life. and which had nevCt been refufed by any Englifh bifhop But Anfehni had acquired other fentiments by his journey to Rome. the religious prejudices of his fubjefts. reap great advantages from the authority and popularity of An* felm. in a council of the prelates and nobles which was fummoned at Lambtth INIatilda there proved that flie had put on the veil. and gave the king an abfolute refufal. their . been brought to England. and that meifengers might be fent to Rome. had. . This princefs Henry purpofed to marry J but as Ihe had worn the veil. on her father's death. in which the king was obliged to have recourfe to the authority of Anfelm. though never taken the vows. to in his prefent England. at which he himfelf had affifled and he declared. The affair was examined by Anfelm. immediately occurred an important affair. he would not fo much as communicate with any eccle* : "jioo. daughter of Malcolm HI. in order to accommodate matters with the pope. Mamage king. delicate Henry. and educated under her aunt Chriilina. who expected. that fo far from doing homage for his fpirituel dignity. 225. p. in any particular. and obtain his confirmation of the laws and culloms of fituation. in the nunnery of Rumfey. and the fubfequent revolutions in the Scottifh government.

been io unjuftly defrauded. by Henry's intrigues. when the blood of their native princes fhouid be mingled with that of their new ibvereigns : : '. and her elpoufals with Henry were celebrated by Anfeln% with great pomp and folemnity ^ No a6)* of the king's reign rendered him equally popular with his Engliili fubjecls. without op. fequences. He took poifelTion. 468. fenlible that even a princefs had otherwife no fecurity for her honour. ran great hazard of being fruftrated by the fudden appearance of Robert.H their chaflity E N fhelter R Y I. The great fame which he had acquired in the Eafl forwarded his pretenand the Norman barons. . paratioTi . and tended more to eflablifn himi on the throne. was not heir of the Saxon line. ^ Hoveden.es to produce Roberu their full effecf. iiivafioa time had been allowed for thefe virtu. who returned to Normandy about a month after the death of his brother William. Though Matilda. ihe was become very dear to the Englilli on And that peoaccount of her connexions with it ple. p. he had.hqu pofition. fenfible of the confions •. during his abfence. f arisj p. 57. 40. from the brutal violence of the Norunder that habit ^y p^ C HA P. of that dutchy and immediately made preparations for recovering England. ' Ibid. exprclTed the fame difcontent at the feh i Eadmer. The council. by taking which. of v/hich. But if the policy and prudence of Henry. during the life of her uncle and brothers. lioo. M. had felt fo feverely the tyranny of the Normans. was yet generally revered. which. that they refiected v»^ith extreme regret on their former liberty. would have fecured him pollcfrion of the crown. and hoped for a more equal and mild adminiflration. admitted this reafon as valid They pronounced that Matilda was (till free to marry'. mans. who before the conqueft had fallen into a kind of indifference towards their ancient royal family. amidil the horrible licentioufnefs of the times. p.

which had Robert de yJlh^. Belefme earl of Shrewfbury and Arundel. reprefentcd the duty of keeping their oaths of allegiance. to join him with all their forces. dutchy and kingdom. this . and a refolution of perfevering in an implicit obedience to the decrees of councils and to the will of the fovereign pontiff. paration of the CHAP. emergencies . m Order. Vital. Even the feamen were affefted with the general popularity of his name. fanclity and wifdom he pretended to revere. and many others of the principal nobility "% invited Robert to make an attempt upon England. He . whofe influence over the people. "William iioi. in order to oppofe their fentiment of He paid diligent court to Anfelm. de la Warrenne earl of Surrey. 785. Robert de Mallet. began to be apprehenfive for his life. Yvo de Grentmefnil. on his landing. feemed promifed to be governed by him in every meafure a ftrift regard to ecclefiallical privileges . Arnulf de Montgomery. recommended to the foldicrs the defence of their prince. p. in this extremity. and authority with the barons. the people. to oppofe his paflage.320 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and promifed. Anfelm fcruplcd not to aflTure the nobles of the king's iincerity in thofe profeiTions which he made. Robert de Pontefracl.. and they carried over to him the greater part of a fleet which had been equipped Henry. profelTed a great attachment to Rome. whofe juftice. By thefe carcifes and declarations he entirely gained the confidence of the primate. of avoiding the tyrannical and oppreffive government of his father and brother He even rode through the ranks of the army. Walter Giffard. and all difficult : : confulted him in prognofiicated to them the greatefl happinefs from By the government of fo wife andjufl a fovereign. were of the utmofl fervice to him in his prefent fituation. appeared on the acceflion of William. as well as for and had recourfe to the fuperftition of his crown .

and receive in lieu of them an annual penfion of 3000 marks . and that fliould thenceforth enthe courage. 209. - W.H this E N R Y I. fhould not long remain unmolefled in their prefent opulence and grandeur. and reflored to all their pofto his feffions either in Normandy Henry neither Robert nor or England . joined to the influence of the earls of Warwic and Mellent. as well as the prejudices of his " Chron. confifting of forty-five articles. powerful IIOI. of Roger Bigod. who was watched for fome time by fpies. Sax. tween them. who had landed with his forces at Portfmouth. and marched. Richard de Redvers. and then indicted on a charge. barons. that noblemen fo powerful and fo ill afFeded. It was agreed that Robert fhould refign his pretenfions to England. knowing his own guilt. the army was retained in the king's interefts. hearkened the more willingly to the councils of Anfelm and the other great men. who ifill adhered to the prefent government. He This treaty. who mediated an accommodation beAfter employing fome negociation. 156. to oppofe Robert. or protect other \ enemies of the nos. which ^^ci-t would probably be decifive. He began with the earl of Shrewlbury. Malmef. The two armies lay in fight of each other for Acccmfome days without coming to action. he was the firft to violate. p. being apprehenfive of the event. Vol. the other iliould fuccecd dominions . reftored indeed the eftates of all Robert's adherents but was fecretly determined. 321 expedient. receive. who had both inclination and ability to difturb his government. that the adherents of each ihould be pardoned. I^ Y judges . and Robert Fitz-Hamon. that if either of the princes died without ilTue. and both mod^iion princes. with feeming union and firmnefs. p. though calculated fo much for Henry's advantage. This turbulent nobleman.

Though the ufual violence and tyranny of the Nor- man barons afforded a plaufible pretence for thofe profecutions. the king's uncle. he was fo remifs. having given matter of fufpicion againft him. men eafily faw. and he fell into contempt among thofe who approached his perfon. that the chief part of their guilt was not the Robert. who had diilinguifhed themfelves among Robert's adherents. both in the care of his treafure^ and the exercile of his government. had recoiirfe to arms tor defence But being foon fupprefl'ed by the activity and addrefs of Henry. in : fevere terms. and Roger earl of : 3x03. imprudently ventured to come into England . he was banilhed the kingdom. fatal Robert foon expofed him to This prince. by Vefigning his brother. and he remonftrated with his breach of But met with fo bad a reception. or conjectured. thers. Arnulf de Montgomery. the fate of his friends. William de Warenne Even William earl of Corn^^a_g jhe rn^xt victim Lancafler. had no fooner attained the pofleffion of power and enjoyment of peace.322 t: HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Soon after followed the profecution and condemnation of Robert de Pontefrad and Robert de Mallet. and his great eftate was His ruin involved that of his two broconfifcatcd. than all the vigour of his mind relaxed . : wal. that he treaty began to apprehend danger to his own liberty.^_^ and the power of his profecutor. fon of the earl of Mortaigne. or were Alternately abandoned fubje6t to his authority. againft this penfion. iioa. whofe bravery and candour procured him refpect while at a diftance. jiiJges H AP. that his fervants 9 pillaged . to diflblute pleasures and to womanifli fuperflition. lofl all the vafl: acquifitions of his family in England. enraged at or illegality of their conduct. The more indifcretion of injuries. and it is probable that none of the fentences pronounced againft thefe noblemen was injuftice wholly iniquitous . and was glad to purchafe an efcape. ^^^^_*.

Inflead of employing his mediation to render his brother's government refpedable. or to redrefs the grievances of the Normans . flole from him praftife chap. and to increafe their number by every art of bribery. a great army and treafure. was become The Nor- mans at " which had been able to eRablifli in England. that he intended to Robert was at the entire pofleffion of Normandy. that he might ufe his authority for the fuppreffion of thefe diforders and they thereby alForded him a pretence for interpofmg in the ailairs of Normandy. that the nobility were more difpofed to pay fubmiffion to him than to their legal fovereign. intrigue. he colled:ed. became evident. his ^^^^^ of Tenchebray . either by violence or corruption. and obliged by the winter feafon to raife the fiege. notwithilanding his ufurped title. Next year he opened the campaign with the fiege nos. applied to him. preparations and progrefs. he returned into England after giving aflurances to his adherents that he would perfevere in fupporting and protecting . 3^3 money with impunity. and proceeded thence to every Tpecies of extortion on his dcfencelcfs fiib^"^loT"^ jedts. and all during the reign of this benign prince. he was onlyattentive to fupport his own partifans. and inhnuation. ^'^• his very clothes. He took Bayeux by (lorni after an obflinate fiege He made himfelf mailer of Caen by the voluntary fubmillion of the inhabitants But being repulied at Falaife. from y 2 iaft . gave reins to their ^^°"^''^"* unbounded rapine upon their valfals. in a vifit which he made to that dutchy. whom a fevere adniiniflration Attack of alone could have reflraincd. : obferving the regular government Henry. them. the dominion of that province. and inveterate animofities againil each other . 1105. Having found. by arbitrary extortions on England. The barons. and it ufurp mandy. Normandy. a fcene of violence and depredation. . and returned next year to Normandy.H E N R Y pillaged his I. in a fituation to obtain. laft.

p. Sax. which was no lefs than twenty-eight years. Prince William v/as committed to the care of Helie de St. 8»i. and being fupported ^^^^^. p. 1002. army. p. opened acquifition. gates and by this befides ren- dering himfelf malter of an important fortrefs. and occafioned their total defeat. Hunt. jm- Order. he got into his hands prince William. mans. with a view of finifhing. E. and difmantled the caflles lately built. befides doing great execution on the enemy. Paris. he returned into England. when the able of Bellefne fpread a panic among the NorHenry. p. happy if. M. he could have relinquiflied that power which he was not qualified either to hold or exercife.idmer. and That carried along with him the duke as prifoner. 43. that fcene of action in which alone he was qualified to excel . revoked his brother's donations. ^he king's inveterate enemies. p. without lofing his liberty. the He was now entered on quarrel between them. tory was followed by the final redu6lion of Normandy : Roiien immediately fubmitted to the conflight queror its : Falaife. Chron. and approached his brother's camp. having fettled the government. and had nearly obtained the victory ° . and he died in the caftle of Cardiff in Glamorganfliire . who had married Robert's natural daughter.3H CHAP. and . Brompton. made near ten thoufand prifoners . Vital. . the only fon of Robert He aifembled the fi:ates of Normandy . and who being a man of probity : » . and having received the homage of all the valfals of the dutchy. lafl roufed from his lethargy . 379. in one decifive battle. he raifed a confider-' „o6. after fome negociation. and all the mod confiderable This vicbarons who adhered to his interefts p. Saen. among whom was duke Robert himfelf. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p..1^ by the earl of Mortaigne and Robert de Bellefne. and he fo animated his troops by his example that they threw th€ Englifh into diforder.P H. 90. unfortunate prince was detained in cuftody during the remainder of his life.

C 11 ufyal in A P. and what an afcendant the ecclefiaftics had been able to affume over them. with regard to the inveititures in ecclefiaflical benefices . to live unmolefted. 325 thofe ages. He had feen. than that. 144. Waved. obliged him to pay great court to Anfelm The advantages which he had reaped from the zealous friendfhip of that prelate. and though he was here obliged to relinquifh fome of the ancient rights of the crown. LITTLE after Henry had completed the conqueft of Normandy. *i Chron. and fettled a fmall penfion on him. notwithstanding he polfefled the affeSions of the Englilh. Continm- ^ qu"irel^ with Anfelm the primate. who had followed Robert in the expedition to Jerufalem. with which he retired and he lived to a good old age in England. who in that age were fo unhappy as to be engaged in difputes with the apof^ tolic fee. Edgar Atheling.HENRY and honour beyond what was I. and go to his grave in peace. . during the reigns of fo many violent and talents in every jealous ufurpers. y 3 mofl . This prince was diftinguifhed iDy perfonal bravery But nothing can be a ftronger proof of his mean jexecuted the trufl with great affeftion '^. that though the rights of primogeniture were then violated. and enjoyed the only legal title to the throne. totally neglected and forgotten^. p. p. Sax. ^^' no6. had made him fenfible how prone the minds of his people were to fuperflition. and fidelity. he was allowed. 214. was another illuftrious prifoner taken in the battle of Tenchebray Henry ^ave him his liberty. other refped:. he extricated himfelf from the difficulty on eafier terms than mod princes. The king's fituation. and the inclinations of althat province. in the beginning 4Df his reign. and who had lived with him ever fince in Normandy. and fettled the government of he finifhed a controverfy. which had been long depending between him and the pope. Ann. : A jjq^. on the acceffion of his brother Rufus.

than his refufal '•to do homage to the king raifcd a difpute. in the management of to rifque his where he was always for fenfible that had become neceffary him whole crown. yet the authority of Lanfranc.?L^ which was ftill more unfavourable. which were well qualified to operate on the underftandings of men in thofe ages. ^^- c HAP. afforded an inflance in which the clergy had more evidently lliewn their influence and Thefe recent examples. and narrow principles. him cautious not to offend that poM'erful body. The meffenger. p. The this it prudence and temper of the king appear in nothing more confpicuous than delicate affair . had prevailed over all other inoft all the barons . on that very account. p. convinced him. had made of Anfelm. at the fame time. a more dangerous inflrur ment in the hands of politicians. as was probably foreleen. brother. the primate. thwarted. while they made authority. he was. prognofiicated no great knowledge of the world or depth of policy. greater afcendant over the bigoted populace. by promifmg to fend a meffenger. that it was extremely former prerogative of the crown in filling offices of fuch vafl importance. then filled the papal throne. returned with an abiblute refufal of the king's demands . Pafcal . fied P Eadraer. and to check the ecclefiaflics in that independence to The choice which his \vhichthey vlfibly afpired. and and though his monkiih deaufterity of manners votion.326 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. in order to preferve the mofl invaluable jewel of it P. which Henry evaded at that critical junfture. that was celebrated for his piety and zeal. and retained a this prelate . confiderations : His own cafe. and that forti- who "^ by manyreafons. ^ W. Anselm had no fooner returned from banifhmcnt. in a fit of penicence. in order to compound the matter v/ith Pafcal 11. 56. his intereft to retain the was fo far unfortunate to the king's pretenfions. Malm. 325.

p. through the civil magiftrates. p. p. 163. as he was poffeffed of great reflection and learning. he perfuaded Anfelm. This topic is plfo s W. p. : t Eadmer.HENRY " It is I. or a man to (t create his God: Prieils are called gods in fcrip<c And w ill you ture. he thought that the abfurdity of a man's creating his God. Yet it pafTed current in thofe ages. was not urged with the belt grace by the Roman pontiff. that by affuming the right of inveilitures. and who mull: not admit of fuch a commerce with any other perfon . ^* that a fon u fhould pretend to beget his father. « Eadmer. See Mahn.Malm. Pafcal wrote back letters equally pofitive and arrogant._J>. while Anfelm fent two meffengers of his own. 73. urging to the former. the coming to any dangerous extremity with the church. p. 6> the y 4 .^ muft enter into the church through Chrifl alone. who was the fpoufe of Chrill. even allowing prieils to be gods. not 1107. Eadmer. by farther negotiation. 327 Pafcal quoted the fcj-iptures to prove that Chrlft was CHAP. affume the right of creating : « them'?" But how convincing foever thefe arguments. St." added the pontiff. or any profane laymen \ monftrous. 225. that this text of fcripture is a forgery of his hohnefs For I have not been able to find it. to attain fome compofition with Pafcal . further enforced in p. as being the vicars of God by your abominable pretenfions to grant theni their inveftiture. that the pretenfion of kings to confer benefices was "' ' Eadmer.. and. and he theace inferred. perhaps. See Epift. p. they could not perfuade Henry to refign fo important a prerogative. But as he defired ftill to avoid. and for that purpofe he difpatched three bifliops to Rome. p. I much fufpeft. 62. he committed a kind of fpiritual adultery with the church. and was often quoted by the clergy as the foundation of their power. both to the king and primate . that he fliould be able. and infilling with the latter. at lead to delay. W. 60. that all ecclefiaftics y_^. 74. Thorn. 61. 169. to be more fully affured of the pope's intentions '. the door .

aij.07. 64. W. as if he had : gained his caufe. 66. left other princes Ihould copy the example. and the king. but even to communicate with finally and the bifhops themfelves. of fo inflexible an antagonift. 215. a topic which had but too much foundation in thofe ages Henry had now no other expedient than to fupprefs the letter addreiTed to himfelf. Henry. as he had good reafon. had aflured them in private of his good intentions towards Henry. r^. who were monks. p.iS. threw out menaces againft fuch them . returned to Henry the enfigns of their dignity. defired leave to make a journey to Rome. that Pafcal tion of his prerogative in granting inveftitures though he himfelf fcrupled to give this affurance under his hand. V p. and to perfuade the three bifliops to prevaricate. and aifume a like privilege ".. Malm.. Duuelm. notwithftanding the prudence and moderation of his temper. without violence. who. p.^ fimony . 66. Sim. . Malm. p. p.. refufed not only to confecrate them. proceeded to fill the fees of Hereford and Salilhury. fen- of his ov/n dangerous fituation. But Anfelm. Ilovedcp. '•'•'. well pleafed to rid himfelf. gave no credit to the affeveration of the Idng's mefl'engers. The prelate was attended to the fhore by inw Eadmer. that it was impoffible this ftory could have any foundation But their word was not deemed equal to that of three bifhops . Eadmer. ^ finite .. Anfelm's two meffengers. 65. The quarrel every day increafed between the king and the primate The former.328^ HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and to inveft the new bi^ lliops in the ufual manner ^. readily granted him permiffion. 2. finding how odious they were become. p. Eadmer.^^^. W. in order to lay the cafe before the fovereign pontiff. affirmed to him. : as fhould pretend to oppofe him : in exerting the an- cient prerogatives of his lible crown And Anfelm. and of his refolution not to refent any future exertheir epifcdpal faith. and afTert upon the fource of all CHAP.^^. p. 469.

p. 71. miffion all The people of England.!. Malm. blame their primate for abfenting himfelf fo long from his charge . feized all the revenues of his fee.^. not only of monks and clergymen. befides reftoring to him the revenues of his fee. of and Chriftianity was likely to enfue from the want of his fatherly care : The moft fhocking cuftoms prevail in England . who thought differences now accommodated. HovcJen. and who regarded his departure as the final abolition of religion and true piety in the kingdom '^ The king. Englifh minifter told Pafcal. and the dread of his feverity being now removed. p. reprefenting the necelTity of his fpeedy they told him. and lent William de Warelwafl to negotiate with Pafcal." the right of granting inveftitures. fodomy.-^^. and bend him to fub. in order to foften his oppofition. that his mafter would rather lofe his crown. in expeftation that the king would at laft be obliged to yield the point which was the prefent object of controverfy between them. gain ground among all ranks of men. and the practice of wearing long hair. . •» » Eadmer. M. who fcrupled not in this man. than part with *^ And I. 1107. 40. W. ^^G.^ ha ner to declare for their primate againft their fovereign. treated him with the greateft refpect. p. replied Pafcal. however. 47i« every .. and he daily received letters from his partifans.H E N R Y finite I.v. 73. Paris. c but people of all ranks. unlefs he refolved to conform himfelf to the laws and ufages of the kingdom and the primate took up his refidence at Lyons. " would rather lofe my head than al- The " low him bited to retain it %'* Henry fecretly prohi- Anfelm from returning. total The extinftion. and held feveral conferences with him. 329 p. and thefe enormities openly appear return. religion ^ Eadmer. multitudes. Soon after he was permitted to return to his monaftery at Bee in Normandy and Henry. and to find fome means of accommodation in this delicate affair.. were inclined to ''. p. p.

without force of arms. have bellowed the highell: eulogies on that prudence by which a power. The clergy.330 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and fo little liable to accident or diforder. tempers. could advance. is fo grofs an engine. "i Eadmer. abandoned to the mofl flagrant diforders. and men. feehng the necefTity which they lay under of being proteded againfl the violence of princes. of men who filled the papal throne. is not intelligible. and who were of fuch different ages. wrought. being removed from the fear of the civil authority. indeed. pro. invaded in any particular country defirous of an independence on their diocefans. were well pleafed to adhere to a foreign head. in defending her ancient or ufurped properties and privileges. from fuch flender beginnings. the power of the church daily made a fenfible progrefs and the temerity of Gregory and cauin Europe tion of Pafcal were equally fortunate in promoting it. . the ignorance and fiiperflition of the peor pie. and could never have place in naThe inltrument. that even in the mofl unfkilful it may be fuccefsful. ftratlon . p. to eflabliih an univerfal and almoll abfolute monarchy But the wifdom of fo long a fucceilion in Europe. with which they ture. : feifed a flill more devoted attachment to the triple crown and the flupid people poflefTed no fcience or reafon. 8r. judging by fuccefs. and interefts. or rigour of the laws. hands . ^^^^\^ nifhment^ The policy of the court of Rome has commonly been much admired . 07. J. could freely employ the power of the whole church. every where without fenfe of ihame or fear of pu- chap. of fuch univerfal prevalence. who. which they could oppofe to the mofl exNonfenfe pafled for demons orbitant pretenfions. when The monks. even while it was torn with fchifms and fadlions. and fcarce any indifcretion can fruftrate its While the court of Rome was openly operations.

in the courfe of this very controverfy concern* ing inveftitures.3. the other taken by the pontiff tremendous imprecations were publickly denounced on either of them who fliould violate the treaty : Yet no fooner did Pafcal recover his liberty. by a formal treaty. : <J W. : *". Chron. p. and the other ceflitated to follow a conduct. p. W. iiz. and all events thus turned out equally to the advantage of clerical piety of the : : 1^^^^. by the end Treaties were not fuppofed to be binding. ''. 170. Petri ecclef. was obliged to fubmit to the terms required of him. noj. was. who. if unfortu^ nate. Mnlm. and to yield up all his pretenfions. to refign to that monarch the right of granting inveftitures. Pafcal himfelf. were wordiipped as martyrs . p. one half of which was given to the The mod prince. de Burgo. the emperor and pope communicated together 011 the fame hofte . p. 63. if fuccefsful. minifters .HENRY flration : I. 331 fanctified The mod: criminal : means were c HA p. involved in circumftances. in the end.^^-. and pronounced the fentence of excommunication againil the emperor. p. Malmef. Dunelm. and neufurpations. where the interefts of God were concerned The ancient laws and cuftoms of flates had no authority againft a divine right Impudent forgeries were received as authentic monuments of antiquity : And the champions of holy church. 33. Henry V. Atib. c Padre Paolo fopia benef. Sim. than he revoked all his conceffions. St. were celebrated as heroes . and he was obliged.. for which they had fo long contended In. >vhich he never could refume The king of England had very near fallen into Pafcal had already the fame dangerous fituation excommunicated the earl of Mellent. 167.^ reigning pope. the which would have drawn difgrace and ruin on any temporal prince that had been fo unfortunate as to fall into a like His perfon was feized by the emperor fituation. order to add greater folemnity to this agreement.

79. on the other brother's eternal damnation ^. and which received the name of Z?(j. was affrightened with the danger of her Henry.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. a princefs of piety. p. While Pafcal and Henry thus flood mutually in awe of each other.2(?^(?. rights. his fifler. it was the more eafy to bring about an accommodation between them. 79. Before and this was called their invefliture to the prince : They which alfo made thofe fubmiffions were required of vaflfals by the rites of the feudal And law. tiently for the opportunity of diflurbing his govern: and infurreftions ^ : The king's befl friends were anxious at the profpe6t of an incident which would fet their religious and civil ment by confpiracies the countefs of Blois. c Ibid. who were Inftrumental in fup* He daily menaced the porting his pretenfions' Jiing himfelfwith a like fentence . w^hich had been enjoyed by all his predeccfTors and it feemed probable. been endowed with the right of eleftion. rather than refign a prerogative of fuch importance. Urban . took pofleffion of their dignities. and to find a medium in which they might agree. feemed determined to run all hazards. from his great prudence* and abilities. as fymbols of their Comprobifliops office . though the chapter had. as the king might refufe both to grant the invefiif ture and to receive the homage. that he might be able to fuftain his and finally prevail in the conteft.. and hefufpended the blow only to give him leifure to prevent it by a The malcontents waited impatimely fubmiffion. who had great influence over him. p. they had formerly been accuftomed to pafs through An?r"^^ two ceremonies : They received from the hands of thefovereign a ring and crozier. * Ibid. 80. duties at variance : And hand. the fovereign had in reality the fole power of appointing prelates. by fome canons of the middle age. p. '\^^ mmlflers of Henry. f Eadmer.

Chroii. Paris. .. it the principal controverfy was accommo- was not difficult to adjuH: the other differThe pope allowed Anfelm to communicate ences. and nothing can be a ftronger proof of the miferable ignorance in which that people were then plunged. 43. Eadmer. anxious to procure an efcape from a very dangerous fituation. p. with the prelates who had already received inveflitures from the crown and he only required of them fome fubmifTions for their pafl mifconducl '. Such was the idea which the popes then entertained of the Englifh . jooo. which. Eadnier. p. 164. p. He alfo granted Anfelm a plenary power of remedying every other diforder. Malm. p. 333 "Urban IL had equally deprived laymen of the rights of granting invefliture and of receiving homage The emperors never vi^ere able. and he allowed the biftops to do homage for their temporal properties and privileges ^* The was well pleafed to have made this acquifition. 303. xi. by all their wars and negotiations. Dunelm. in any particular. and . than that a man who fat on the papal throne. pontiff in the election of prelates. W. as gave greater weight to his ne' chap. ' Sim. 91. M. : : gotiations the prefent fatisfied with his refigning the right of granting inveflitures. and Pafcal was for by which the fpiritual dignity was fuppofed to be conferred . p. p. Hoveden. he faid. p. p. p. p. 91. T. Wilkins. 230. But Henry had put England as well as Normandy in fuch a fituation. Rudb. was content to retain fome. Dunft. Malm. which. ^^' : no. to make any diflindion be adThe interpofition of profane mitted between them laymen. 227. 471. 91.H E N R Y r. Brompton. would in time involve the whole : And the king. 163. might arife from the barbaroufnefs of the country "". p. W. i I' Eadmer. ™ Ibid. and who fubfifted by abfurdities . p. he hoped. was flill reprefented as And the church openly impious and abominable afpired to a total independence on the ftate. After dated. though a more precarious authority. 87. p. 274.

. "When the king went to Normandy. 68. at. p. Eadmer. 67. and any man who had money fufficient to pay for it. (hould think himfelf entitled to treaf CHAP. willingly parted with his hair He cut it in the form which they required of him. The fynod alfo paifed a vote. which tended to promote the ufurpations of the clergy. though he would not refign his prerogatives to the church. The acquifition of Normandy w^as a great point pf Henry's ambition . p Order. earnefhly exhorted him to redrefs the manifold diforders under which the government laboured. and parifh regifters were not regularly kept. while in his pofleflion. a fynod was held at Weftminfter. p. The celibacy of prieils was enjoined. 22.1. Henry. in a . a point which it was flill found very difficult to carry into execution : And even laymen were not allowed to marry within By this contrivthe feventh degree of affinity ". 2i6.ion ' . where the king. p. Spelm. before he had conquered that province. and to oblige the people to poll their hair in a decent form. on pretence that his wife was more nearly related to him than was permitted by the canons. it was not eafy to afcertain the degrees of affinity even among people of rank . ance the pope augmented the profits which he reaped from granting difpenfations. Wars abroad. which. vol.^ J them as barbarians. and obliged all the courtiers : to imitate his example p. 68.334 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. allowed fome canons of lefs importance to be enacted. 107. p. During the courfe of thefe controverfies. Cone. ^^. might obtain a divorce. formal harangue.. The averfion of the clergy to this mode was not confined to England. and likewife thofe from divorces for as the art of writing was then rare. and the only territory. prohibiting the laity from wearing long hair°. ii. and nonfenfe. gave him any v/cight or confider" • Eadmer. being the ancient patrimony of his family. Vital. the bifliop of Seez. intent only on the main difpute.

p.v^^-v^-^y 1107. a brave and generous prince. in. Helie withdrew his pupil. 335 of his ^ ^^^ ^• continent : But the Injulllce ufurpation was the fource of great inquietude. age the hiftorians of complain''. fon of Philip. when he committed him to the care of Helie de St. "o found his interefls to be in fo many particulars oppofite to thofe of the Englifn monarch. 213. the counts of Anjou and Flanders in giving difquiet to Henry's government againfh his uncle. He joined. ^ 380. of which unanimoufly William was but fix years of age. p. Waverl. and who became fenfible of the danger attending the annexation of Normandv to Eno-land. In proportion as the prince grew up to man's eflate. and . who gave hirn protedion '. and it is probable. was to prevent all malignant fufpicions. he difcovered virtues becoming hi$ birth .Hunt. 143. Ann. p. Saen . and raifed a general indignation bereaved him of his inheritance. Lewis the Grofs. 83. But thefe ties w< re foon diifolved after the accellion of Lewis. His nephew all ^^i»* many princes. ai2. was at this time king of France. therefore. and had thence conceived a perfonal friendlhip for him. had been protected by Henry. p. 211. ixS- H.H E N R Y ation on tTie I. Order. Vital. Chron. and obliged him to impofe on his Enghfli fubjecls thofe many heavy and that arbitrary taxes. in order to efcape the perfecutions of his ilep-mother Bertrude. 220. Hoveden. and wandering through different courts of he excited the friendly compaffion of Europe. during the lifetime of his father. that his reafon for entrufting that important charge to a man of fo unblemiflied a charafter. 837. p. who having been obliged. 470. volved him in frequent wars. p. fo unjuftly '. in cafe any accident fliould befal the life of the young prince. 219. to fly into England. He loon repented of his choice .\ who had ^ Eadmer. and carried him to the court of Fulk count of Anjou. Sax. but when defired to recover pofleflion of William's perhe fon.

and who. and of affording the ecclefiaftics a pretence to interpofe in the temporal concerns of piinces.330 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. one of the mod eminent champions of the crofs. wheriever their fubjeds were not roufed by fome great and urgent occafion. a new war was kindled in Normandy. His nephew. by contracting his eldeft fon William to the daughter of Fulk. XII 3. where he refided two years. death of Baldwin. found himfelf obHged to go over to mo. and obliged the others to come to an accommodation with him. Rheims by pope Calixtus II. William. for other reafons. retired to the court of Baldwin. which produced no event more memoraAt lafl the ble than had attended the former. was attended with no memorable event. gave fome refpite to Henry. The war which enfued among thofe princes. and the king of France. prefented the Norman prince to them. and reprefented the enormity of detaining in captivity fo brave a prince as Robert. agreeably to the weak and this HA condition of the fovereigns in that age. in order to defend his foreigtl ^^^[^^ dominions. finding himfelf unable to wrefl Normandy from the king by force of arms. and produced only flight fkirmilhes on the frontiers. who efpoufed his caufe . was placed under the immediate protedion of the holy fee. Lev/is. c monarch. craved the 8 rights . by that very quality. earl of Flanders. and enabled him to carry on war with more advantage againll his enemies. This peace was not of long duration. who was llain in an aftion near Eu. complained of the manifeft ufurpation and injuftice of which was aliembled at of the church for reinftating the true heir in his dominions. P. joined the party. detached that prince from the alliance. Henry knew how to defend the ailiftance Henry. having foon after. had recourfe to the dangerous expedient of applying to the fpiritual power. Henry. He carried young William to a general council. Normandy.

A in the head by Crifpin. that they put the French to total rout. and the king himfelf was in the moft imminent danger. " Go. 381. a gallant Norman officer. and maintain the prerogatives tranfmitted to him by his predeceflbrs. p. he was determined to adhere to the laws and cufloms of England. I. name quainted with. where prince William behaved with great bravery.^ ^i^ ^' He had fent over the Englifh bifliops to v-^^-y-. and had very nearly » who had H Hunt. that it would be eafier for him to elude than oppofe the efforts of Calixtus. and when that prince probably rene«'ed his prefents. and fo encouraged his troops by the example. mj.^ terity. The warlike meafures of Lewis proved asineffeQiual as his intrigues. he gave his ambafladors orders to gain the pope and his favourites by hberal prefents and The complaints of the Norman prince promiles. followed the fortunes of William ' .Paris. and yet with dex. Diceto. He had laid a fcheme relief for furprifmg Noyon but Henry having received intelligence of the defign. Vol. but being rather animated than terrified by the blow. however. 337 crown with vigour. 47. p«i03. this lynod . were thenceforth heard with great coldnefs by the council . " falute the pope in my *' *' hear his apoflolical precepts . M. as they were advancing towards it. Z taken . he was beyond comparifon the mod eloquent and perfuafive. but take care to bring none of his new inventions into *' my kingdom. . he immediately beat his antagonifl to the ground. and Calixtus confelled. p. that. fharp conflitl enfued . of all men whom he had ever yet been ac." Finding." faid he to them. but at the fame time had warned them that if any farther claims were darted by the pope or the ecclefiaftics. after a conference which he had the fame fummer with Henry.HENRY Tights of his I. marched to the and fuddenly attacked the French at Brenneville. Fie was wounded of the place.

There were nine hmiUred horftrmen. had taken care to have him recognifed fuc-.HISTORY OF ENGLAND. the countefs of Perche. when hearing the cries of his natural filler. and his failorSj their captain Thomas Fitz-Ste- pUens. king. and was foon carried by a fliir wind out of fight of land. put Into the long-boat. ceifor by the ftates of the kingdom. rendered the moll For. The prince was detained by as well as fome accident . p. beijig in a hurry to follow the king. The reft were defended by that heavy armour worn by the cavahy An accommodation foon after enin thofe times K fued between the kings of France and England and the interefts of young William were entirely neglected . and had got clear of the fhip . and had carried him over to Normandy. taken their king prifoner. fet fail from Barfleur. it. foon funk the boat ^nd the prince with all his retinue perifned. overbalanced by a domeftic calamity which befel him. it was not of great importance. were {o fluftered. yet were there only two perfcns flain. that he might receive The the homage of the barons of that dutchy. Vital. having fpent the interval in drinking. from the facility with which he hi. in iiao. he ordered the feamen to row back in hopes of faving her : But the numbers who then crowded in. in other rememorable adion of the war fpefts. But this public profperity of Henry was much pHnce " William.Tifelf had ufurped the crown. William was where fhe immediately foundered. His only fon William had now reached his eighteenth year . 8j4. on his return. II19 The : dignity of the perit fons engaged in this fMirmifli. dreading that a like revolution might fubvert his family. Above a hundred and forty young noblemen of the principal families of England and Normandy were t loft Order. -^ ' joT pj^ . and the king. they heedlefsly carried the Ihip on a rock. v/ho fought on both fides . that.

p. and had been heard to threaten. that his fon had put into fome diftant port of England : But when certain intelligence of the calamity was brought him. young prince had entertained a violent averfion to the natives . Vitalp. no. to were denied them during this whole reign . nor ever recovered his rifhed. : I. ^^^. an extreme prejudice againfl that people. i. and it was remarked. mo. as a native of England % fhowed. and was taken up next morning by fiihermen. refpedl:. that the as a misfortune to the Englifh . however ignorant or worthlefs. that he never after was feen to fmile. and would turn them into beads of burthen. after the demife of the king. ' He clung to the perfon on board who efcaped " niaft. though he was wont. was fure to have the As the Englifh preference in every competition ^ had given no difturbance to the government during ccclefiaflical as well as civil dignities. 14^. 242. he fainted away . y ^ Order.H E N R Y on this occafion.^^J. caufed fuch confufion in the kingdom : But it is remarkable. who. * £admer. forms a prefumption that the EngUlh of that age " Sim. 868. the courfe of fifty years. Order. this inveterate antipathy in a prince of fo much temper as well as penetration. in one becaufe it was the immediate fource of thofe civil wars. and any foreigner. 869. p. to value himfelf on his birth. lib.^ wonted cheerfulnefs ". p. he would make them draw the plough. in the courfe of his government. Alured Beverl.. which. ^ Hoveden. 476. Dunelm. Vital. Fitz-Stephens alfo took hold of the maft . that when he fliould be king. Z 2 were . cap. I". but being informed by the butcher that prince William had pehe faid that he would not furvive the difafterj and he threw liimfelf headlong into the fea ^^ Henry entertained hopes for three days. 3. m C 339 A butcher of Roiien was the only HA p. Gul. All hopes of preferment. when it might ferve his purpofe. The death of William may be regarded.Neub. p. Thefe prepolTcfTions he inherited from his father.

his fon-in-law. Order. 165. He out ilTue. Fulk joined the party of the unfortunate prince. . and even the immediate poffeffion of the crown. rjage. • See note [M] at the end of the Volume. and her marriage into a foreign family. Malm. Sax. the fon of duke Robert. was ftill protefted in the French court and as Henry's connexions with the count of Anjou were broken oif by the death of his fon. . and one more material to the interefts of that count's . to the Normans. of drawing off the count of Anjou.340 ^ HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 215. he had betrothdaughter. hoped II . 123. Malm. recovered hopes of fubverting his rival. p. and whom he had then fent over to be educated in Germany *. might endanger the fucceffion. VV. and obliging the barons both of Normandy and England to fwear fealty to her. J127. ftill C HAP. by forming anew with him a nearer connexion than the former. Chron. gave him his daughter in marriage. Sax. p. a Chron. William. and endeavoured to infure her fucceffion by having her recognifed heir to all his dominions. who had fucceflively feized all his patrimonial dominions. and imprelles us with no very favourable idea of the Anglo-Saxon manners. and aided him in raifmg difturbBut Henry found the means ances in Normandy. Prince William left no children and the king except one had not now any legitimate ifiue . mo . p. who was moft likely to children difpute the fucceffion. family. Matilda. though only eight years of age% to the em* peror Henry V. who was now a widower. whom in ed. p. was induced to marry in hopes and he made his addrelTes ^^ having male heirs K' 's fecondMar.\^' iiao. daughter of Godfrey duke of Lovaine.to Adelais. W. Henry. Vital. were . a rude and barbarous people even compared . The emperor. ^md niece of pope Cahxtus. a young princefs of an But Adelais brought him no amiable perfon ^ and the prince. the eldeft fon of Fulk. 166. dying with- hebeftowed his daughter on Geoffrey. But as her abfence from the kingdom. 83. *» p.

__. to which he had pretenfions in the right of his grandmother Matilda. and his Henry. and Henry had too fenfibly experienced the turbulence of their difpofition. p.H E N R Y hoped that the choice of this I. and reduce their country to the rank of a province : But the barons were difpleafed. agreeable to all his fubjeds than that of the emperor . who the might bring them into fubjedlion. he brought over fome Flemings. little time this piece of good fortune. that king afked and obtained the confent of all the barons. that they were . 341 hufband would be more CHAP. being aflaffinated during the celebration of divine fervice. dominion of a great and diftant potentate. for the prefent. in the year nil. that his nephew*$ party might gain force from the increafe of the malcontents : An acceffion of power which that prince acquired a httle after. found him fo well prepared. He was killed in a fkirmilh with the landgrave of Alface. and fettled them in Pembrokefhire. tended to re3. The Z 3 they . that a ftep fo material to national in* terefls had been taken without confulting them ' . . It feemed probable. his death put an end. which feemed . The chief merit of this monarch's government profound tranquillity which he eflablifhed and maintained throughout all his dominions during the greater part of his reign. to the jealoufy and inquietude of competitor for Flanders . W. king Lewis immediately put the young prince in pofleffion of that county. 150. p 175. to open the wav to ftill farther profperity. in every attempt which they made upon him.L^ as fecuring them from the danger of falling under mg. and his neighbours. not to dread the effefts of their re- fentment. fay. wife But William furvived a very to the Conqueror.ider his pretenCharles earl of Flanders fions (till more dangerous. Malm. The mutinous barons were retained in fubjeftion . In order to reprefs the incurfions of the Wehh.difcouraged from continuing or renewing their enterprifes. where confifts in the « tlie anhals of Waverly.

Henry prohibited thofe enormities. archbifhop of Vienne. in the year 1101. and the violence itfeif of this remedy. and hiftorlans "^ the infults of the king's retinue.34« HISTORY P. and cuftoms. and levied in fo licentious a manner. from grievances . legs. and his commiffion gave general furprife ^ the king. aUr '^ Eadmer. OF ENGLAND. On£ great and difficult obje£l: of the king's pru- dence was. often defer ted their houfes as if an enemy had invaded the country . when they heard of the approach of the court.. as he did frequently. it was judicious and prudent . and fheltered their perfons and families in the woods. The pope. C HA 1128.. and to furnifh carriages on the fame hard terras. p. i and . and puniflied the perfons guilty of them by cutting off their hands. and manners. and was as little oppreffive as the neceflity of his affairs would permit.!^^ they long maintained a different language. had fent Guy. K^. was only a proof of the ferocity of the government. when the king made a progrcfs. and protecting the liberties of the church of England. p. who was then in the commencement of his reign. fo far from giving fe*". 58. Thefe exadions werefo grievous. that the farmers. Ibid. from their neighbours. Sax. which he endeavoured to moderate and reflrain. <i Eadmer. Chron. and though he was the firll that for many years had appeared there in that charadler. or other memBut the prerogative was perpetual .. into any of the counties. The tenants in the king's demefne lands were at that time obliged to I'upply ot^//> the court with pro vifions. p 94. and threatened a quick return of like abufes. Though his government feems to have been arbitrary in England. as legate into Britain . p. 94. the rebers medy applied by Henry was temporary .^. the guarding againft the encroachments of the court of Rome. curity to the people. He wanted not attention to the redrefs of mention in particular the levying of purveyance..

A other canons. who wsls a clergyman as well as the others. . that the very next night the officers of juilice. ii. enacting fevere penalThe cardinal. ^'' jjog. the fa(ft was notorious. p. that this lalt 1125. p. by reafon of the pretenfions of Gregory. p. Chron. and the king. fend any legate into England Notwithflanding this engagement. Sax. 474. ^34. breaking into a diforderly houfe. and the canons againft the marriage of clergymen were worfe executed than ever '". by reafon of his nephew's intrigues and invafions. 4S. was obliged to C /ubmit to this encroachment on his authority. ' Hoveden. the pope. was obliged to fubmit to the exercife of this commiffion '. among ' A P. Paris. us foon as he had fupprefled his antagonlft. an antipope. p. declared it to be an unpardonable enormity. vv'ho in the was coming over with a like legantine commifiion. an incident which threv/ fuch ridicule upon him. that he never would for the future. p. k Spelm. 478. ^9. Sabas. p. 125. a vote pafled. found himfelf at that time in a dangerous fituation.HENRY L II 343 anJ was involved in many diUIculties. who. Weft. Hoveden. ties on the marriages of the clergy ". was obliged to promife. ad ann. that he immediately ftole out of the kingdom The fynod broke up . Cone vol. makes an apology for ufing fuch freedom with the fathers of the church . writer. 13S. But it happened. Matth. It is remarkable. was prohibited from entering the kingdom ° j and pope Calixtus. 8 « Z 4. thintingdon. except when lbJicited by the king himfelf. p. . Anfehn abbot of St. Sax. found the cardinal in bed with a courtezan . where. who in his turn was then labouring under many difficulties. 34. tha^. that a prieft ihould dare to confecrate and touch the body of Chrift immediately after he had rifen from the fide of a ftrumpet : For that was the decent appellation which he gave to the wives of the clergy. Henry. But year iii5. p. and ought not to be cciicealed. in a public harangue. H. granted the cardinal de Crema a legancine commiffion over that kingdom . ' : h Eadmer. 382. "" Chron. 137. fynod was called by the legate at London . M. but fays.

A P. ufual maxim with every pope.344 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. fent Wilarchbifliop of Canterbury. commonly acquiefced by their lileiicc in thefe pretenfions ence of the apoflolic fee. then in order to prevent this alternate reVo-* ^^^^^ lution of conceffions and encroachments. Some time after. who received the name of Henry j and the king. and the fa. had pafled a bull. ner.'* all the nobility of * See note ^N] at the end of the volume. the pope. and td It was a aifert the Hberties of the Englifli church. The Englifli princes. farther to enfure her fuccsliiony made England and Normandy renew the oath of fealty. finding that the French nation would not admit his claim of granting inveftitures. Henry took the opportunity of paying a vifit to Normandy. renewed his commifTion from time to time. As every thing in England remained in tranquillity. Rome After this manindulgence of the Roman pontiff. were entirely derived from the indulg- and Henry in particular. The joy of this event. who was always his favourite. which they had already fworn to her ". c rt Henry. I' 31- »i32' of the court of Rome *. that princefs was delivered of a fon. to refume at a proper juntlure the claim which feemed to be refigned. to grant princes or dates a power which they had always exercifed. He made the archbifliop of Canterbury his legate. Ham. giving the king that authority . as bv his tendernefs for his daughter the empreis Matilda. and to pretend that the civil magiflrate had pofiefTed the authority only from a fpecial with the court of againfl thofe abufes. I " W Malm. to which he was invited as well by his afiection for that countrv. who were glad to avoid any immediate conteil of fo dangerous a nature. when he found that he could not prevail in any pretenfion. and (till pretended that the rights which that prelate had ever exercifed as metropolitan. and he now pracliled a like invention to elude the complaints of the king of England. p. to remonllrate J128. 177- tisfa<Slion- .

and though p. and his perfonal bravery would have procured him refpe>St. 385.iftofDcc. ferene.c H A p. when an incurfion of the Welih obliged him to think of returning into EngHe was preparing for the journey. he acquired the name of his - Beau-clerk. Dennis le For. and ever kept at a dlftance from all indecent familiarities with his courtiers. Hunt. but was land. even had he been born in a private Itation . v. p. and though he often indulged his facetious humour. and penetrating. natural and acquired. ment. and the thirty-fifth of his reign . This prince was one of the moft accompliihcd and ch^. 17S.'ho had given him feveral caufes of difpleafure '^. which could fit him for the high flaHis perfon was manly. tion to which he attained. feized with a fudden illnefs at St. '"TiJiT^ and he feemed determined to pafs the remainder of his days in that country . 345 tisfadion which he reaped his refidence in from his daughter's Cdm. . countenance engaging. By his great progrefs in literature. from eating too plentifully of lampreys. H. his eyes clear.Hunt. who bore fucceffively two other fons. made very agreeable to him " . p. i^j. he knew how to temper it v/ith difcretion.Malm. His fuperior eloquence and judgment would have given him an afcendant. 1 he affability of his addrefs encouraged thofe who might be overawed by the fenfe of his dignity or of his wiidom . M. q W. though it had^ been lefs fupported by art and policy. leaving by will his daughter Matilda heir of all his dominions. that has filled the Engliih throne. . [i^ncv. without making any mention of her hufband Geoffrey. P H. or the fcholar : But his application to thofe fedentary purfuits abated nothing of the aftivity o and vigilance of his government p.H E N R Y I. 50.Paris. ^^* pany. a food which always agreed better with his palate than Normandy his conftitution ^ He died in the fixty-feventh Death year of his age. and poffefled all the great qualities both of body and mind.

346. neceffity obliges a prince to continue in the fame criminal couife. Stealing : was » firfl made capital in this reign p. 29. W. " Sim. His temper was fufceptible of the fentiments as well of friendfhip as of refentment .Wigorn. which ."' than improve the underltanding. and mention no lefs than feven illegitimate fons Hunting and fix daughters' born to him '. 179. 231. both from the pedantry and fuperftition which were then fo prevalent among men of letters. 805. In other refpeds he executed juftice. incapacity of Robert for government afforded his younger brother a reafon or pretence for feizing the and when fceptre both of England and Normandy violence and ufurpation are once begun. lib. though high. Vital. Brompton. ^^ \jf. 653. King Henry was much hiftorians addifted to women . which were augmented during his reign \ though their number and extent were To kill a flag was as criminal already too great. and his ambition. and he exercifed great rigour againfh thofe who encroached on the royal forefts. might be deemed moderate and reaibnable. was alfo one of his favourite amufements . p. had not his condudl towards his brother and nephew lliowed that he was too much difpofed to facrifice to it all But the total the maxims of juftice and equity. his natural good fenfe preferved itfelf untainted. '^ jp. Hoveden. Malm. or even cutting their own woods. indignation. the learning of that age was better fitted to corrupt CHAP. the befl maxim which a prince in that age could follow. Dunelm. Flor. p. p. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. He made all the dogs be as to murder a man mutilated which were kept on the borders of his forefls : And he fometimes deprived his fubjeds of the liberty of hunting on their own lands. p 471. and that with rigour . Gemet. « " : Falfe coining. cap. 8. 1000. and engages him in meafures which his better judgment and founder principles would otherwife have induced him to rejeft with warmth and ' . Order. Gul.

i. ^nnal. were ftill continued. Dunelm. It is however a very ancient compilation. 2 Spelra. was feverely punifhed by Henry ^.H E N R Y I. 63. they were grateful to the people. with a confirmation of the privileges of their court of hullings. wardmotes. Waverl. and lodging the king's retinue. like the articles effeft. more attentive to prefent advantages than jealous of general laws. was enafted But this law. and may be uleful to inftrud us in the manners and cuftoms of the times. learn from it. to eleft its own fheriff and judiciary. p. Danegelt. a 7 common . iii.7 which was then a very common crhne. g. 34. y ^v charter the city was empowered Brompton. which the money had been extremely debafed. Inft. 75. Blackftone. VI. and were not yet wholly We illegal \ it is Among lion. p. Hovedcn. Coke. Hen. that a great diflinftion v/as then made between the Englifh and Normans. 70. ecclefiartical courts. granted a charter to London. p. of his char- probably from the oppofition of archbilliop Anfelm. 305. LL. on his acceffion. as in the '. and the liberty of private revenge. 1000. 231. Thefe. much to the advantage of the latter \ The deadly feuds. Hen. By this remained without keep the farni of Middlefex at three hundred pounds a year. trials by combat. p. and it was exempted from fcot. LL. and though thefe punifliments feem to have been exercifed in a manner fomewhat arbitrary. § 81. which feems to have been the firfl flep towards rendering that city a corporation. and to hold pleas of the crown . Saxon times. Near fifty criminals ii: of this Icind were at one time hanged or mutilated . 471. and by citap. vol. 149. Henry. § 18. which had been avowed by the Saxon laws. is a code which pail'es There under the name of Henry L but the beft antiquaries have agreed to think ic fpurious. the laws granted on the king's accefremarkable that the re-union of the civil and ter. ^ p. and to Sim.

7. Wilkins. But the great fcarcity of coin would render that commutation difficult to be executed. while at the fame time provifions could not be fent to a diftant This affords a probable quarter of the kingdom. common ^ and their liberty of hunting m Middlefex and Surrey. halls. 235. reafon why the ancient kings of England fo freThey carried quently changed their place of abode their court from one place to another. which was more eafily remitted to the exchequer. p. edit. Twifdcn. are the chief articles of this charter \ Iv is faid ^ that this prince. i. cap. into money. de Scaccario. that they might confume upon the fpot the revenue of their : feveral demefnes. X135. from indulgence to his tenants. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. . changed the rents of his demefnesj •which were formerly paid in kind. lib. CHAP. * <> Lambardi Archaionomia ex Dial.348 ^^.


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^^'• feme time before the female was admitted. of male heirs to the kingdom of England and dutchy of Normandy. But the irregular manner in which he himfelf had acquired the crown. not as property. and from their own reiterated oaths and engagements. STEPHEN. naturally introduced their fucceflion to go- vernment and authority. without a rival. feemed to leave the fucceffion open. in a great meafure. and the fame revolution of principles which procured them the inheritance of private ellates. in the fame family. the females were gradually adinitted to the poffeilion of feudal property . Acccjfion VII. being confidered as military benefices. to the emprefs Matilda . But when the continuance of rights. progrefs and fettlement of the feudal law. The failure. therefore. and •eftates ^^^. that neither his Norman nor Engliife . and perform in perfon the con-^ ditions upon which they were originally granted. War with Scotland hi' of Stephen Stephen taken furredioji in favour of Matilda Stephen rcleafcd Matilda crowned oner pr if Reftored to wars prince Henry civil of the Compromife between the king and Cojitinuation the crown Death of the king. obHterated the primitive idea. IN themale fucceflion to had taken place the fiefs c H A-i>. had. might have inllructed him. during fome generations.C 349 ] CHAP. and as Henry had made all his vaflals in both dates fwear fealty to her. were tranfmitted to fuch only as could ferve in the armies. he prefumed that they would not eafdy be induced to depart at once from her hereditary right.

and that forfeited by the earl of Mortaigne in Nor^ king. daughter of William the Conqueror. Adela. and he conferred on him the great eftate forfeited by Robert Mallet in England. imagining that he ftrengthened the interefls of his family by the aggrandizement of Stephen. he had reafon to dread. and to Matilda. EnglHli fubje6ts were as yet capable of adhering to j^^^. 1023. had been invited over to England by the late king. and c had brought him feveral fons. who was daughter and heir of Euftace count of Boulogne./^^^ a ftrict rule of government .. among whom Stephen and Henry. took pleafure in enriching him by the grant of new polTeffions . p. had been married to Stephen count of Blois. . riches. fome invafion of his daughters tltle^ which he had taken fuch pains to eilablifli. as Mary his wife's mother. ^Co- Brompton. . The king had married him to Matilda. the firfl. and had received great honours. and who brought him. new connexion with the royal family of England . the two youngeft. and preferment. A p. attained eltablifliments flill more folid and durable *. which in the diflribution of lands had been Conferred by the Conqueror on the family of BouStephen alfo by this marriage acquired a logne. Henry. and as every precedent of this kind feems to give authority to new ufurpa113J.>-• Ko II HISTORY OF EJCGLAND.Neubr. even from his own family. who had betaken himfelf to the ecclefiaftical profefTion. was created abbot of Glaftenbury and bifhop of Winchefter and though thefe dignities were confiderable. The wife of Flenry. (till * Gal. Stephen had. p. mandj. and mother of the emprefs. from his uncle's Hberality. befides that feudal fovereignty in France. was fifter to David the reigning king of Scotland. an immenfe property in England. tions. from the zealous friendfhip which that prince bore to every one that had been fo fortunate as to acquire his favour and good opinion.

infenfible to all the ties of gratitude and fidelity. p. And though he dared not to take any fteps towards his farther grandeur. Malm. profeiTed great at. By his brahe acquired the efleem of very.Steph. c ijji(j. many virtues with which he feemed to be endowed. particularly of the Londoners*'. and though the citizens of Dover. by accumulating riches and power. and by an affable and familiar addrefs. and thofe of Canterbury. apprifed of his purpofe. p. His next point was to act» No fooner had Henry W. his way to the throne. by every art of poputhe friendfliip of the Englilh nation . ^'^ tachment to his uncle . iTiut their gates againft him. and trufted that. 19?. p. activity..35. He haftened over to England . he ftill hoped that. he might in time be able to open ''. ^s well as i|ioved by his general popularity. 35i Stephen. who (liould firfl be admitted to give her this teftimony of devoted zeal and fidelity Meanwhile he continued to cultivate. he flopped not till he arrived at London. and blind to danger. that. inftigated by his emiffaries. 928. fwore fealty to that princefs.c H A P. the celerity of his enterprife. and the boldnefs of his attempt. mandy. favoured the fuccefs of his intentions. even without any previous intrigue. breathed his laft than Stephen. and vigour. 179.STEPHEN. in return. and by acquiring popularity. immediately faluted him king. might overcome the weak attachment which the Englifh and Normans in that age bore to the laws and to the rights of their fovereign. where fome of the lower rank. unufual in that age among men of his high quality. he contended with Robert earl of Glouceller. the barons: By his generofity. ^ulre . Geft. and appeared fo zealous for the fucceffion of Matilda. left he fhould expofe himfelf tothe jealoufy of fo penetrating a prince as Henry . he obtained the aifeftions of the people. gave full reins to his criminal ambition. the king's natural fon. and larity. when the barons .

Bigod. has often Httle efficacy in fortifying the duties of civil fociety. which. Bigod 's teftimony. who. made oath before the primate. 25. iteward of the houfehold. The overcome by an expedient equally diihcnourable with the other ftcps by which this revolution was effected. ' . in virtue of his oilice. but none oppofed his ufurpation. and required him. if corrupted into fuperftition. Hugh ''. *idDec. to give the late king. to William archbilhop of Canterbury. and put the crov/n upon his head . His brother. either believing. 1023. and had expreffed his intention of leaving the count of Boulogne heir to all his doWilliam. but his oppofition w^as royal unftion to Stephen. the bifhop of Winchefler. who. CHAP. anointed Stephen. p. Bronipton. refufed to perform this ceremony . by . was allowed to proceed to the exercife of fovereign authority. Diccto. was ufeful to him in thefe capital articles : Having gained Roger bifhop of Salifbury. was not affecled by the mukiplied oaths taken in favour of Matilda. had fworn fealty to Matilda. p. Dunft. though he owed a great fortune and advancement to the favour of the of gratitude to that prince's family . to put himfelf in poflefiion of the throne. Chron. without any fliadow either of hereditary title or confent of the nobility or people. or feigning to minions believe. however unjufh or flagrant. i»3i- quire the good-will of the clergy . and by performing the ceremony of his coronation. p. 51. 505.352 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. as all the others. p. Very few barons attended his coronation ^ . from which he was confident it would not be eafy afterwards to expel him. he applied. and from this religious ceremony that prince. preferved no fenfe primate. * * Matth. that the late king on his death-bed had lliown a diffatisfaclion with his daughter Matilda. Paris. The fentiment of religion. in conjunclion with that prelate. and only rendered the people obedient to a prince who was countenanced .

Vol. 179. k^J-. palled a charter. very readily . with whom every country in Europe. by reafon of the general ill police and turbulent government. p- »5S. and correct all encroachments . K W. Hoveden. mate the rite of royal unftion and confecration ^. which ratified his title. feeing this prince in pofleflion of the throne. and reftore the laws of king Edward ^. Jtj. vacant benefices. though he had for fome time been in polFeffion of the crown. by feizing this money. procured a bull from Rome. The late king had a great treafure at Winchefter.1135.CHAP. and pleafed with an appeal that he fpeedily to his authority in fecular controverfies. though not the attachment. . beral promifes to all 353 by the clergy. that he might farther fecure his totter. that the monkiOi writers never give any prince the title of king till he is crowned. A a Matii^da. that he might alfo overawe all malcontents by new and additional terrors of religion. 175. p. and excrciled all the powers of fovereignty. to the clergy. and which the pope. would granted him f '. that he would reduce the royal forefts to their ancient boundaries. and would never levy the rents of any of them during the vacancy . he invited over from the continent. amounting to a hundred thoufand pounds : And Stephen. and to the people. in which he made liorders of fill all men . that he would remit the tax of Danegelt. 1 Hagulftad. Malm. but not trulling to this frail fecurity. p. i* W. great numbers of thofe bravoes or diforderly foldiers. immediately turned againfl: Henry's family the precaution which that prince had employed for their grandeur and fecurity : An event which naturally attends the policy of amaffing treafures. Malm. ing throne. I. By means of this money the ufurper infured the compliance. to the nobility. p. of the principal clergy and nobility . and who had received from the pri.STEPHEN.J^ Stephen. extremely abounded \ Thefe mercenary troops guarded his throne by the terrors of the fword j and Stephen. 4Si. Such ftrefs was formerly laid on the rite of coronation. particularly from Brltanny and Flanders.

Stephen's elder brother. s%. moved by an hereland. breach . earl of Glocefter. who was in Norgovernment. Paris. and a ^ M. the reigning king of ment. and put him in poffeffion of their governLewis the younger. who time. it much from his intrigues and refiftance that the king had reafon to dread a new revolution of This nobleman. ^^^' . finiflied all thefe tranfactions in perfon. received intelligence of Stephen's found himfelf much embarraffed concerning the meafures which he fhould purfue in that To fwear allegiance to the difficult emergency. on condition of the king's paying him. ufurper appeared to him dilhonourable. and foon after returned to all his *". p. firft c HAP. Robert late king. they transferred their allegiance to Stephen. The pretenhons. ditary animofity againil the Angevins. apphed to Theobald count of Blois. for the dutchy borate his connexions with that family. Stephen's and the more to corroeldefl fori. and having many of them the fame reafons as formerly for defiring a continuance of their union with that kingdom. . and zealous for the lineal fucceffion. a penfion of five thoufand had taken a journey to Normandy. was chiefly mandy when he accellion. accepted the homage of Euftace. and her hufband Geoffrey. for protection and affiftance but hearing afterwards that Stephen had got poffeffion of the Enghfh crown. England.135. he betrothed . his filter Conftantia to count of Blois refigned the young prince. and received in lieu of them an annual penfion of two thoufand marks . France. during that Stephen. and Geoffrey himfelf was obliged to conclude a truce for two years with Stephen. were as unfortunate in Normandy as they had been in Eng-' The Norman nobihty.354- HISTORY OF ENGLAND. natural fon of the abilities . was a man of honour and and as he w^as attached to the interells of his filler Matilda. Matilda.

that they were only bound fo long as the king defended the ecclefiaftical liberties. p 51. He offered Stephen to do him ho- mage. flocked to 1 who Malmef. 179. fo unufual in itfelf. «« Ibid. or contributinr^ to their reftoration *. rendered England a fcene of uninterrupted violence and devaftaWars between the nobles were carried on tion. was to baniih himfelf from England. and to take the oath of fealty but with an exprefs condition that the king fhould maintain all his ftipulations. by the numerous friends and retainers of that nobleman. Malm. as well as of royal authority : Many of them required the right of fortifying their caftles. who could Icarcely at this time be deemed fubjefts to the crown. ^^"' u^g. A « 2 with . which had with difficulty been reflrained by law. M. in return . them from all quarters. n W. Ibid. and fliould never invaile any of Robert's rights or dignities And Stephen. and fupported the difcipline of the church ". which the noblemen garrifoned either with their vaffals. was meant only to afford Robert a pretence for a revolt on the lirfI favourable opportunity. and of putting themfeives in a poflure of defence . i2o. The barons.STEPHEN. and fo unbefitting the duty of a fubjecl. p. ferving the royal family. thou*^ h fenfible that this referve. The clergy. : : v for their fubmiffion. breach of his oath to Matilda To refufe giving this pledge of his fidelity. 179. exaded terms ftill more de- ftrudive of public peace. or with licentious foldiers. imitated that dangerous example They annexed to their oaths of allegiance this condition. p. All England was immediately filled with thofe fortreffes. Paris. p. Unbounded rapine was excrcifed upon the people for the maintenance of thefe troops 5 and private animofities. and be totally incapacitated from : 355 chap. and the king found himfelf totally unable to refufe his confent to this exorbitant demand °. to receive him on thofe terms '". now breaking out without controul. was obliged.

and to purchafe his protection. jBiomptoi). everv acl of jurifdiction ^ . Malm. earl . though endowed with vigour and abilities. and of exercifing. had now rifen to its utmoft height during the reign of a prince who. Heming. . he was alfo tempted to make and to his power the fole meafure of his conduct violate ail thofe concellions which he himfelf had . for their pay court to fome neighbouring cf-'efcain. to put themfelves on an equal footing with their neighbours. were obliged.money. Chron. Paris. thought that they were entitled. having exhaufled the royal treafure. p 51. fubfilted by depradations . who com-^ monlv were alio their enemies and rivals. as Vv'ell as the people. Gul. that the legal prerogatives of the crown were refiffed and abridged. A. P Triver. by the great principle of felf-prefervation. Stephen was not of a difpofition to fubmit long to thefe ufurpations. The chiefly fupported who authority. But made on' his acceflion% as well as the ancient pri- vileges of his fubje6ts.^5_ the barons with the utmofl: fury in every quarter even affumed the right of coining. c H p.p. proved the immediate caufe of building many others . and by aflifling him in The erection of one caftle his rapine upon others. 1 \V. and every place was hlled with the befl grounded complaints againll the government. to finddiffo- lution of fovereign authority. and even thofe who obtained not the king's permiiTum. fovereignty. Neub. had ufurped the throne without the pretence of a title. ing no defence from the laws during this total immediate fafety. p. The mercenary his foidiers. p. and who was ncceliitated to tolerate in others the fame violence to which he himfelf had been beholden for his ftocratical pov/er. I'he ari- which is ufually fo oppreilive in the feudal governments.356 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. M. p. without appeal. 3711. xSo. both by fu'Smitting to his exactions. without making fome Finding effort for the recovery of royal authority. i^-Lj 3 . 10J5. p 487. 19. and the inferior gentry.

erefted by the Englifh on a waggon. who were at that time an overmatch ibr any monarch. it and interrupted the courfe of the may be doubted whether. who might otherwife have been inclined to join him and William eari of Albemarle. p.. A great battle was here fought. and that men were taught to pay regard to fome principles and m ' W. narrowly efcaped falling into the hands of the Engl i Or. retired beyond fea. both the hands of the prince and nobles. Walter TEfpec. Thougfi cient times the great power of the church in an- weakened the authority of the crown. Ilbert Lacey. I'his fuccefs overawed the The king malcontents in Enghmd. ^ ^^' . laws. tions committed the mofl barbarous devaita- on that country. Roger Moubray. in ages of fuch violence and outrage. and he himfelf. with v/hich they encamped at North-Ailcrton. folemnly renounced his allegiance. had he not been fo elated with profperity as to engage in a controverfy with the clergy. of Scots was defeated. it was not rather advantageous that fome limits were fet to the power of the fword. fent the king a defiance. oath of fealty fworn by that nobleman ^ king of Scotland. 1138. afifembled an army.STEPHEN. Robert deBrus. J^^^ij^^Jj']'^ and penetrating into Yorkfliire. Malm. having now fettled with his friends the plan of an ini'urreftion. as Aveli as his fan Henry. and carried along with the 22^ Aug. iSo. and upbraided him with the breach CHAP. A a 3 privi- . powerful barons in thofe parts. and might have given fome ftability to Stephen's throne. and avv-aited the arrival of the enemy. appeared at the head of an army in defence of his niece's title. Robert de Ferrers. army as a military enfign. The fury of his mafiacres and ravages enraged the northern nobility.^7^ of thoie conditions which had been annexed to the David. etirl -^57 of Glocefter. "XVilliam Piercy. called the battle of the Standardy from a high crucifix.

that the pre- on fome occafions tidied entirely as barons. in imitation of the nobility. they could lawfully be tried and condeinned. by which alone. refolved to begin with deflroying thofe of the clergy. the Idng's brother. being armed with a legantine commifTion. employed military power againft their fovereign or their neighbours. if their conduft had anywife merited cenfure or pufures. Making pretence of a fray which had arifen in court between the retinue of the blihop of Salif- bury and that of the earl of Britanny. lates CHAP. 181.. one at Sherborne. Gill. p. who was now fenfible from built : : had two ftrong experience of the mifchiefs attending thefe multiphed citadels. Vv?ho nifliment 5 ^ » The fynod ventured p. and forgetting the ties of blood which connected him with the king. which he pretended were here openly vio30th Aug.g^j^ He aifembied a fynod at Weltminfter. aj3. caftles. to .358 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. he feized both that prelate and the bifhop of Lincoln. Bilhop of Winchefler. and thereby often encreafed thofe diforders which it was their duty to reprefs. he affirmed. ' to fend a fummons Malmef. had erefted a fortrefs at Newark And Stephen. VII. p. i^(. and had not awaited the fentencc' of a fpintual court. and there complained of the impiety of Stephen*s mea- Henry had employed violence againft the dignitaries of the church. Cliron. ^^""^'^^"''^-^ The chief misfortune was. Maim. W. and had laid the foundations of a third at Malmeltury His nephew Alexander. Sax. Neuber. The bifhop of Saiifbury. privileges. i8i. 36Z. and obliged them by menaces to deliver up thofe places of ftrength which they had lately creeled'. he refolved to vindicate the clerical privileges. now conceived himfelf to be an ecclefiaflical fovereign no lefs powerful than the civil . p. an-. bifhop of Lincoln. W. other at the Devizes. threw them into prifon. lefs who by their function feemed entitled than the barons to fuch niilitarv fecuri- ties*.

2:irl Sept. William Fitz-Alan. and even fhown a difpofition of executing violence by the hands of the ibldiery. which belonged to her brother Robert. where fhe remained under the protec- a gallant nobleman in thofe parts. ' 183. invited by the encouraged by the legate himfeif. Fitz-John. people. affairs had inflantly come to extremity between the crown and the mitre . and Matilda. and Stephen. Adelais. Malm. and to juftify his meafures ^ . Soon after Geoffrey Talbot.^1. 359 charging him to appear before them. became apprehenfive of danger . landed in England. the emprefs. y Ibid. who had expected that her daughter-in-law would have invaded the kingdom with a much greater force. removed firfl to Briftol. thence to of Glocefter. mflead ^ . to and fecretly eafe her her fears. 53. who had embraced her caufe. William tion of Milo. whofe gates vonrof were opened to her by Adelais the queen-dowager.Paris. i8z. or examine their condudl. which w W. of refenting this indignity. ^ W. Ralph Lovel. were previoufly reftored to them ^. this quarrel. ^'. p. till thofe caftles. of which they had been difpolfefled. ^^^'^'''^^' now married to William de Albini earl of SulTex and flie excited by meffengers her partifans to take arms in every county of England. A a 4 was . C HA p. The bifhop of Salifbury declared that he would appeal to the pope and had not Stephen and his partisans employed menaces. with Robert earl of Glocelfer. M. and a retinue of a hundred and forty knights. fent Aubrey de Vere to De Vere acplead his caufe before that aflembly.S to the king. While grievances. and many other barons. Paganell. T E P H E N. p. declared for her j and her party. Malm. p. cufed the two prelates of treafon and fedition . but the fynod refufed to try the caufe. joined to fo difcontents encreafed the many other among the opportunity. _f 1139. She tion'irf fafixed her refidence at Arundel caftle. WiUiam Mohun.

The land was left untilled . CHAP. was generally favoured in the kingdom. feemed every day to gain ground upon that of her antagonilt. exercifed implacable vengeance on each other. It fuffices to every quarter and that thofe turbulent barons. committed fpoil on the open country. as well as the defencelefs people. and fo confufed both in time and place. fold their perfons to llavery . from neceffity. in a great meafure. leading them to commit wanton deftrudion. on the villages. and a grievous famine. and fet fire to their houfes. i8j. Steph. the natural refult of thole diforders. expofed to the fame outrage which had laid wafte the reft of the kingdom. The caftles of the nobiHty were become receptacles of licenfed robbers . it would be eafy to fwell our accounts of this reign into a large volume But thofe incidents. in order to make them reveal their treafures . and fet no bounds to their oppreffions over the people. who had already fhaken off. 738. p. who. and even on the cities . AfTERt . after they had pillaged them of every thing valuable. p.360 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. The fiercenefs of their difpofition. 961. fruft rated their rapacity of its purpofe . put the captives to torture. ^ ^^^' 1139- Were we to relate all the military events tranf- mitted to us by contemporary and authentic hiftorians. Geft. affected equally both parties. were at lalt. the inflruments of hufbandry were deftroyed or abandoned . and reduced the fpoilers. p. and the poverty and perfons even of the ecclefiallics. having now obtained the pretence of a public caufe. W. generally fo much revered. to the molt extreme want and in» digence ^. could afford neither instruction nor entertainment to the reader. fay that the into war was fpread ? Chron. fo : little memorable in themfelves. Malmef. Sax. the reftraint of government. faliying forth day and night. carried on their devaftations with redoubled fury.

and Stephen himfelf. that prince laid clofe fiege to the caille. but the citizens. that if he would' acknowledge her for fovereign. The princefs. and the barons came in daily from all quarters. borne down by numbers.S t E P H E N. »hi* ^ * Stephen foner. amidft all her profperity. who were better affeQed to Stephen. took the field with a refolution of giving him battle. which never interrupted thele deftruclive hothere happened at lafl an event. and fhowed his intentions to have rather aimed at humbling his brother. where ihe promifed upon oath. unlefs flie could gain the confidence of the clergy . earl of Chefter. on fome fufpicion. knew that ihe was not fecure of fuccefs. had fworn to her. Ralph. After a violent fhock. having invited ties. peace. in hopes of foon rendering himfelf mafler of The earl the place. feemed to promife fome end of the pubhc calami- ^^!lj . the two wings of the royalifts were put to flight . He was conducted to Glocefter . partifans of Matilda. and though at firfl treated with humanity. however. and loaded with irons.140. was foon after. had furprifed the ca(tle of Lincoln . flie employed every endeavour to fix him in ad March. and his half-brother William de Roumara. of Glocefter haftened with an army to the relief of his friends . which itilities. after exerting great efforts of valour. informed of his approach. than totally ruining him. and as the conduct of the legate had been of late very ambiguous. thrown into prifon. and Stephen. 361 After feveral IVuitlefs negotiations and treaties of C n A P. furrounded by the enemy. and taken prifoner. and did homage to Matilda. him to their aid. She held a conference with him in an open plain near Wincheflcr . her interefls. was at laft. Stephen's party was tivity entirely broken by the cap- of their leader. as well as the reft pf the kingdom. he fhould ia return . and would again fubmit to the allegiance which he. either by alfault or by famine. would recognile her title as the fole defcendant of the late king.

. granted abioiution to fuch as were obedient to her. Contin. denounced curfes againft all thofe who curfed her. but that flill burdened with the exprefs condition. and fwore allegiance to "'^ . 676: < W. addreffing himfelf to the afiembly. in the prefence of many bifhops and abbots. and of reforming all abufes him to obferve how much that prince had in every particular been wanting to his engagements . that in the abfence of the emprefs. public peace Was interrupted. Flor. ' p. and inilead of aifembling the ftates of the kingdom. Brian Fitz-Count. and excommunicated fuch as were rebellious ^ Theobald archbifhop of Canterbury foon after came alfo to court. and with great foiemnity. ''. r that fhe mi(?ht farther enfure the at1 1 • 1 : / ^ W. crimes were daily committed with impunity. that fhe ihould on her part fulfil her promifes. The legate. that the legate fhould fummon an ecclefiaftical fynod. had (educed them by many fair promifes of honouring and exalting the church.. and that her title to the throne fhould there be acknowledged. Chion. MT tachment oi the clergy. ^y^J][_^ j. her brother. return be entire maflerofthe adminiftration. became guarantees for her obferving cant bifhoprics and abbies. was wilimg to receive toe crown from their hands . difpofe of all CHAP. and the prelate was at lall induced to promife her allegiance. had it been either fixed or regarded. Majm. at his pleafure. p. bifhops were thrown into prifon and ' Matilda. and other great men. Slatilda ci owned. of maintaining the That it grieved laws. poured out blelTings on thofe who blefl'ed her. feemed neceifarily to require. the emprefs 1 '=. 187. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. fhe was content. Stephen his brother had been permitted to reign. the meafure which the conditution. 187. engagements * . 243. ' V/lg.4i. . Sax.'p. and in particular Hiould. ' h . p. told them. led her in proceffion to the cathedral.3^2. Malincf. forced . Miio of Glocefter. va- Earl Robert. and previoufly to his afcending the throne. He then conducted her thefe to Winchefler.

p. he now pronounced Matilda the only defcendant of Henry. and even thefe were required not to give their opinion. which decided the fate of the crown. muft be regarded as fubordinate to thofe of their heavenly Father. forced to furrender their poflcfTions. The whole affembly. temporary . had rather offended him by that expedient That. by their acclamations or filence. were the Londoners . e may be regarded as entirely genuine. that it became not the Londoners. were not fo pafTive : They infifted that their king fliould be delivered from prifon . 18S. who had bafely forfaken their lord in battle. This fpeech. churches were pillaged. objed: of his affections this declaration''. only laymen fummoned to this council. and fays. in order to procure a redrefs of thefe grievances. p.ely ' zens of London alTumed fo much authority. their late fovereign. but inftead of inducing 363 chap. abbies were put tx) fale. or feemed to give. their aflent to . but to fubmit to the decrees of the fynod. however. however. he had fummoned them together for that purpofe . and having invoked the divine afliftance. The deputies of London. This author. \ therefore. gave. that he was very attentive to what pafled.41. and the mofi: enormous diforders prevailed in the adminiflration : That he himfelf. how much foever mifguided. what is related by Fitz-Stephen. queen of England. if it be true. who were The regarded as noblemen in England. Malnxcf. a con: <1 W. but were told by the legate. Malmef.STEPHEN. and thrown him into the hands of his enemies : That it principally belonged to the clergy to eled and ordain kings . W. was pre-.' ^^^' 1. a judicious man. 188. him to amend his conduft. to take part with thofe barons. that prince was ftill his brother. had formerly fummoned the king before a council of bifliops . and the : but his interefts. who had now rejeded him. fent. and who had treated holy church It is with reafon that the citiwith contum.

and knew not how to temper with affability the -har/hnefs of a refufal. inllead of thofe of king Henry. 1355 to . Were this then only forty thoufand inhabitants in London. p. manner. and fecretly inftigated the Londoners to a revolt. p. imperious fpirit. and commerce of London. and retire into a The legate defired that prince Euflace. availed himfelf of the ill-humour excited by this imperious conduct. p. was at length obliged to fubmit to Matilda . deferve very little credit. by the prudent conduct of earl Robert. which weakened her influence over a turbulent and martial people. Peter of Blois. was of a paflionate. temporary author. a contemporary writer. they faid. befides the difad vantages of her fex.000 combat- Its great power. Ccrvafe. What Fitz-Stephen fays of the prodigious riches. 4. fays there were f P. That princefs.3^4- HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and a man of fenfc. and offered that. ^ Contin Flor.000 inhabitants. But thefe loofe calculations. Stephen's queen. which is much more likely. which is above double the number it contained at the death of queen Elizabeth. K Brompton. convent. he fliould renounce the crown. Teemed to be eflabliilied over the whole kingdom But affairs remained not long in this fituation. which. on this condition. his nephew. and her authority. 677. and indeed of all the northern parts of Europe. The who had A account to be depended on. and attachment to Stephen. might inherit Boulogne and the other patrimonial eftates of his father g The Londoners applied for the eftablifliment of king Edward's laws. London muft at that time have contained near 400. probably never been fmcere in his compliance with Matilda's government. not\^-ithftanding its : : ''. proves only the great poverty of the other towns of the kingdom. See Epift. that that bring into the ants ^ field CHAP^'^' 1X41' city no lefs could at this time than 80. All thefe petitions were grievous and oppreffive were rejected in the mofl haughty and peremptory London. fplendour. or rather guefles. Wig. confpiracy was entered into legate. petitioned for the liberty of her hufband . 1031. 151. feconded by many of the nobility.

her brother. This expedient. befieged Matilda in Winchefter. would have c^-il wars.6. a fubject. as Stephen was of the other. 365 ^'' to feize the perfon of the emprefs . chelter built by the noblemen of his own party encouraged the . retainers.STEPHEN. She fled to . earl Robert. to take a journey into England. thoug-h of a mafculine fpirit. and appear at the head of his partifans. though the hands of the enemy. made her efcape. defirous to fave appearances. The death of her brother. yet being harailed with a variety of good and bad fortune. had retired.Continoapened nearly about the fame time. which. and fhe faved ^ ^. fell into This nobleman. Karl Robert. who had not yet evacuated the kingdom. before. and watching the opportunity to ruin her But having alTembled all his caufe. had fubmitted to the earl of Anjou . during Stephen's captivity. was as much the life and foul of his own party. and he The princefs. whither fhe had fent her fon feme time 114. and alarmed with continual dangers to her perfon and family. and he perfuaded Geoffrey to allow his eldeft Ion Henry. had not fome incidents occurred. finding that the caiUes profperity.^ herfelf from the danger by a precipitate retreat.^teplien ^^ prefs fenfible of his merit and importance. but in the flight. Stephen took Oxford after a long fiege : He was defeated by earl Robert at Wilton: And die emnrefs.^-v-'^^ (Oxford : Soon after fhe went to Win- im«. being hard preiTed by famine. at lail retired into Normandy.^^ fented to exchange the priloners on equal terms. finding the fuccefTes on both fides 114a. which hap. whither the legate. and to Stephen's mercenary troops. proved fatal to her intereiis. he openly joined his force to that of the Londoners. however. which checked the courfe of Stephen's Tins prince. ii43« produced nothing decifive. l"he civil war was again kindled with greater fury than ever. went over to Normandy. con. nearly balanced. a young prince of great hopes. v. and the em.

Roger de Moubray. which with furprifing fuccefs. William de Warrenne. after former ' » Epift.p. notwithftanding his prefent dilHculties. inlilted themfelves in a new crufade. «i48. Stephen. p. to remove the reproach from his party ^ The weaknefs of both fides.^g_ joined the other party. 22O. had. endeavoured to extort from them a furrender of thofe fortreffes . rather than any decreafe of mutual animofity. which his brother had brought over to his fide. 1807. as had been ufual. and required their attendance in the council. took revenge by laying all Stephen's party under an interdict ^ The diicontents of the royalifts. and others. That pontiff alfo. who. Thorn. fenfible of his advantage in contending with a prince who reigned by a difputed title. » ^ Chrcn. and he alienated the affections of many of them by this equitable demand. by making proper fubmifTions to the fee of Rome. nominated live Enghfh bifliops to reprefent that church. W. having produced a tacit celfation of arms in England. 7 difap- . of independence. allowing the church of England. many of the nobility. Epift. had mounted the papal throne j the bifliop of Wincheiter was deprived of the legantine commiilion. finding no opportunity to exert their militarv ardour at home. refufed them permiiTion to attend . which was conferred on Theobald archbifhop of val. at being thrown into this fituation. ' Thom. who enjoyed all the benefits of the facred ordinances . and the pope.366 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. The artillery alfo of the church. St. to eleft its own deputies. was jealous of the rights of his crown. were augmented by a comparifon with Matilda's party. Eugenius 111. after fome interthe fplrit CHAP. St. having fummoned a general council at Rheims in Champagne. inilead of 1147. 1x5. p. and were little lefs dangerous than thole which remained in the hands of the enemy. VIIj. and Stephen was at lafl obliged. Canterbury. Thorn. the enemy and rival of the former legate.

the daughter and heir of William duke of Guienne.t purpofe he paflfed through England with a great retinue. and ren. inverted in that dutchy and upon the death of his father Geoffrey. . David king of Scotland .STEPHEN. He remained fome time with the king of Scotland made for the greateft princes. But an event foon after happened ^^2^^ which threatened a revival of hoftiUtes in Eng114^.anly exercifes. and reflored her thofe rich provinces. Bernard"'. and which was even deemed requi- intended to receive. and earl of Poidou. was now preached C hap. by his valour in war. he took polleflion both of Anjou and Maine. which happened in the fubfequent year. which by her marriage fhe had annexed to : I" Hagulft. -567 difappolntments and misfortunes. He incurfions into and by his dexterity and vigour in all m. and had attended him in a crufade. England 1150* dered him extremely formidable to his rival. which that monarch conduced againfi: the infidels But having there loft the affeftions of her hufband. was defirous of receiving the knighthood . more delicate than polite. honour of year. Lewis. . by Matilda's confent. and gave fymptoms of thofe great qualities which he afterwards difplayed when he mounted the throne of England. and concluded a marriage. and his prudent condud in every occurrence. procured a divorce from her. and for tha. 476.ho had reached his fixteenth land. Soon after his return to Normandy. his admiilion from his great-uncle. and even fallen under fome fufpicion of gallantry with a handibrae Saracen. v. Prince Henry. and was attended by the mod confiderable of his partifans. by St. which brought him a great acceffion of power. king of France. p. had been married fixteen years to Lewis VII. Eleanor. 275. he was. he roufed the hopes of his party. a ceremony which every gentleman in that age pafTed through before he the fite ufe was admitted to of arms. the .

interpofed with and fet on foot a negociation be- of Euflace. fucceed to the kingdom. The lulfre which he received from this acquifition. lliip made fuccefsful all court- to that princefs. and the death of Stephen. and done homage to Henry. 115Z.25. and that this latter prince fhould. Oaob.y. when the people. terrified at the profped: of farther bloodflied good tween the : and confufion. After all the barons had fworn to the obfervance of this treaty. Henp. to Boulogne and his patrimonial eflate. and. he proceeded thence to throw fuccours into Wallingford. and William. prevented all thofe quarrels and jealoufies. Young Henry. had fuch an effecl in England. Denth of the kiiijj. during the courfe of the treaty. after a fhcrt illnefi. defirous to enfure the crown to his fon Euflace. neither dllcoiiraged by the inequality of years. crown of France. her dominions as her dowry. that prince evacuated the kingdom . The death Cqjnpromlfe be- clufion it An accommodation was fettled. facilitated its conrival princes. the CHAP VII. even in the provinces which had fubmitted to Henry. that Stephen fhould poifefi by which the crown Henry. that when Stephen. the primate refufed compliance. and made his efcape beyond lea. Stephen's fon. tween the king and prince was agreed. invalion : made an A great their men of both offices. and the profpeft of his rifing fortune. which happened the next year. decilive action was every day expe<3:ed .368 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. fides. informed of thefe difpofitions in the after her divorce. got pofleiBon of on England Having gained fome advantage over Stephen at Malmeibury. nor by the re- ports of Eleanor's gallantries. as to the heir of the crown. required the archbifnop of Canterbury to anoint that prince as his fuccelfor. . which the king had advanced v»?ith a fuperior army to befiege. efpoufmg her fix weeks- iijj. during his lifetime. that juftice fliould be adminiftered in his name. on Stephen's demife. to avoid the violence and refentment of Stephen. and having taken that place.

|i. and he leems to have been well qualified. and notwithflanding his precarious fituation. 369 deli- which were likely to have enfucd In fo CHAP.p. Hunt. he was not deficient in abilities . The court of Rome was alfo per» mitted. I* B b . p. .. became now common in every ecclefiaitical controverfy p. which had always been ftriclly prohibited by the Englifh laws. H. 39J. Hagul. to make farther advances in her ufurpations . 31s. He was poifeiTed of induftry. ' cate a fituation. he had the talent of gaining men's affeftions . and though the fituation of England prevented the neighbouring ftates from taking any durable advantage of her confufions. he never indulged himfelf in the excrcife of any cruelty or revenge '.54. had he fucceeded by a juft title. Vol.' England fuffered of for this prince of his ufurpation. His advancement to the throne procured him neither tranquillity nor happinefs . during thofe civil wars. and appeals to the pope. p. p. and courage. f Malmef. appears not liable to any great exception . loufies. Paris. " M. activity.STEPHEN. injullice " But the temerity and : great miferles during the reign his perfonal charaftcr. het inteftine diforders were to the laft degree ruinous and deftrudive. to a great degree though not endowed with a found judgment. W. i8o. allowing 1. to have promoted the happinefs and profperity of his fubjefts ".

'-v-^ 1 154- by which the European potentates are now at once united and oppofition to each other. not yet bound together Wars. and often in one battle. and was : Commerce had : : more . that he was obliged to confine his attention chiefly to his own ftate and his own fyftem of governr^ent. were little affefted by the movements of remote The imperfeft communication among the ftates kingdoms. are at leaft attended with this advantage. that they prevent any violent revolutions or conquefts in particular flates. prefent. and which. HENRY government Jiajlical powers of Canterbury IL Fh-Jl ads of Henry* of France —Dfpictcs between the civil andeccle- Thomas a Beckett archbifhop between the king and Becket Conjiitutions of Clarendon Banijlj' tnent of Becket-' Compromife with him— His return fro?n banifhment His murder Grief parrel — andfubmijfwn of the C I^ king. made it impracticable for a great number of And them to combine in one project or effort above all. Europe^ they are apt to diffufe the leaft fpark ofdiflenfion throughout the whole. State of Europe VIII. A P. and their ignorance of each other's fituation. the mofl diftant nations in fo clofe a chain finifhed in one campaign. f I ^HE X. fet in v-. were toand the theory of tally unknown in ancient ages foreign politics in each kingdom formed a fpeculation much lefs complicated and involved than at . the turbulent fpirit and independent fituation of the barons or great vaiTals in each flate gave fo much occupation to the fovereign. though extenfive confederacies.CHAP.

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or engaged them in intrigues with the Roman pontiff. ^ 1154. but this fief. and while the oppofite pretenfions of the pope and emperor in Italy produced a continual intercourfe between Germany and that country. had neither enemies nor allies on the continent. the EngUfli. the two great monarchs of France and England formed. . in another part of Europe. The roval demefnes confifted only of limits narrow the prerogative B' b 2 Paris. by annexing a great fief to the crown. whofe conquefl and defence was deemed a point of common honour and interefl. The acceffion of Hugh Capet. the decline of the Carlovingian race. to whom they had yielded the direction of ecclefiaftical affairs. againft the ravages of the Norman freebooters. though confiderable for a fubject. each for his own defence. and except from the inroads of the Daniili pirates. had brought fome addition to the royal dignity . and obliged to provide. carried abroad the views of princes . without meeting either with oppoiltion or fupport from the others. an authority almoft independent.PI E N R Y IL his neigh- 371 Iniore ludiiTerent -about what paiTed among C . and who was every day affuming more authority than they were wilhng to boiirs. this ifland was as much feparated from the reft of the world in politics as in fituation . allow him. had affumed. while it either fixed their thoughts on the Holy Land. Before the conquefl of England by the duke of Normandy. and had reduced within very On State of ^^^"^^' of their princes. taking advantage of the weaknefs of the fovereign. not politics. The foreign dominions of William connected them with the king and great vaffals of France . appeared a narrow bafis of power for a prince who was placed at the head of fo great a. both in civil and military affairs. the nobles in every province of France. a feparate fyftem._ ha ' p j Religion alone. (Community. and carried on their wars and negociations. happily confined at home.

and Champagne. for a time. there were fix lay peerages. Burgundy. CHAP. ^^^'- Compiegne. to turn their arms againft their fovereign : They exercifed all civil jurifdiftiort. was able. Eflampes. over their tenants and inferior vafTheir common jealoufy of the crown eafily fals united them againft any attempt on their exorbit: ant privileges the fmalleft . Touloufe. if they con- ceived themfelves injured.of laft fovereign. The vaflals were accuftom- nay entitled. even the effeftual power and authority of great baron was. and the difproportion two hundred thoufand men . Flanders. and as fome of them had attained princes. at another period. The authority of the Englifti monarch was much fncre extenfive within his kingdom. marched at . frontiers againft the Germans one time to his the head of an army but a petty lord of Corbeil. the fame fenfe . to : on each other make war without his permiiTion. which formed very extenfivc and puiifant fovereigriAnd though the combination of all thofe ties. of Couci. cramped extremely the general execution of juftice . on urgent occafions. the . at Lewis the Grofs. which. Guienne. Normandy. of common intereft made of his the others oppofe them- felves to the fuccefs pretenfions. and to maintain open war againft him. mufter a mighty power . without appeal. . to fet that prince at defiance. Orleans.3^2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. of Puifet. a fenfe of common intereft alone could. the prince's authority In the was ra- ther nominal than real: ed. fure of immediate and proteQion. They were even entitled. and a few : places fcattered over the northern provinces *'^^7~' reft of the kingdom. Befides fix ecclefiaftical peerages. princes and barons could. unite them under their fovereign againft a common enemy but if the king attempted to turn the force of the community againft any mutinous vafial. with the other immunities of the church. Paris. yet was it very difficult to fet it was almoft imthat p-reat machine in movement poffible to preferve harmony in its parts.

had been granted by Charles the Simple in vaflalage to that formidable ravager.H E N R Y portion II. Poidlou. Perigord. might appear an event dangerous. Henry II. The vaffal was here more powerful B b 3 . in that of his wife. and were much fuperior in extent and opulence to thofe territories which were fubjected to the immediate jurifdiftion and government of the king. its required. right of his father. of Guienne. Angoumois. the Limoufm. well or ill founded. in that of his mother. if not fatal. Auvergne.^^^ : He on was accuflomed to levy arbitrary exac- tions His courts of judicature extended their jurifdiclion into every part of the kingdom He could crufh by his power. 373 much greater between powerful of his nue were ilate: large.»y!!il* compared to the greatnefs of his j. of Anjou and Touraine . had the fame tendency as his fubjecls : : in other ftates. it to exalt the ariflocracy and deprefs the monarchy. and to afford provaflals to te6lion to the inferior barons. vaiTals. him and the mofl CHAP. which. and fufficient to break entirely the baHe was mafter. His demefnes and reve. any obnoxious baron And though the feudal inftitutions which prevailed in his kingdom. in England. poffeffed of fo many rich provinces on the continent. Xaintogne. a great combination of the oppofe their fovereign lord. to the French monarchy. or by a judicial fentence. in the lance between the ftates. and was already poft'effed of the fuperiority over that province. ^rhefe provinces compofed above a third of the latter and England. and there had not hitherto arifen any baron fo powerful as of himfelf to levy war againfl the prince. on the firft cefiion of Normandy to RoUo the Dane. While France fuch were the different fituations of enjoyed fo the acceffion of . a prince of great abilities. and the many advantages above the former I whole French monarchy. He foon after annexed Britanny to his other ftates. of Normandy and Maine . according to prefent conllitution.

other powerful vaifals of the French crown were rather pleafed to fee the expulfion of the Englifii. and w^ho was acknowledged to be the fupreme head of He was always at hand to invade their nation. the king of France found it more eafy to conquer thofe numerous proagainfl him. and that with iij. which appeared fo formidable. By this means. them . The limited authority of the prince in the feudal king of England from employing with advantage the force of fo many conflitutions. : C powerful than his liege lord The fituation which ^^^^^. fome great difafler to himfelf But. The vinces from England.374 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. it was this cirand to his family cumftance. HA from this conjuncture. their immediate lord was often at too great a diflance to protect them and any diforder in any part of his difperfed dominions gave advantages flates. and his fubjeds on the continent confidered their allegiance as more naturally due to their fu-t perior lord. prevented the which were fubjedled to his government and thefe different members. disjoined in fituation.^^^ had enabled Hugh Capet to depofe the Carlovingian princes. in reality. and difagreeing in laws. and by its coiifequences exalted them to that pitch of grandeur which they at prefent : enjoy. . a kind of foreigner to his French dominions . Maine. and were not affected with that jealoufy which would have arifen from the oppreflion of a co-vaflal who was of the fame rank with themfelves. P. much greater advantages on the fide of the valfal And when England was added to fo many provinces. feemed to be renewed. and from the incompatibility of interefts. He foon became. the French king had reafon to apprehend. language. both from his diftant place of refidence. that faved the Capetian race. Normandy than to fubdue a duke of or Guienne.4. and manners. a count of Anjou. were never thoroughly cemented into one monarchy. who hved in their neighbourhood. .

^_ . were little difpofed to violate their oaths. in order to retard its progrefs. he had made with his predecelTor.— ^ J. and being engaged in the fiege of a caftle on the frontiers of Normandy. and were rather pleafed to fee the accelTion of fo many foreign dominions to the crown of England. 381. they never entertained the leafl thoughts of refifling them. or preventing the performance of thofe (lipulations which. But after this prince's death it was too late to think of oppofing the fuccelllon of Henry. he had ever maintained a ftrict union with Stephen. and had endeavoured to fupport the tottering fortunes of that bold ufurper. But as thefe important confequences could not be forefeen by human wildom. The Englilh. he made it a point of honour not to depart from his enterprife. Paris. the fon of Stephen . had attended them. ""^ 1 Matth. the whole nation had had occafion to fee the noble qualities with which he was endowed and to compare them with the mean talents of William. he found greater facility in uniting to the crown the other great fiefs which flill remained feparate and independent. with the unanimous confent of the nation. till he '^.. which immediately incorporated with the body of the monarchy. harafled with civil wars. . was in no hurry to arrive in England . Poidou.HENRY <c)r II. Neubr. p. by excluding the lawful heir Many of from the fucceffion of their monarchy the mofl confiderable fortreifes were in the hands of his partifans . And after reducing fuch exteiwve terrkories. and. the king of France remarked with terror the rifmg grandeur of the houfe of Anjou or Plantagenet . fenfible of the advantages attending his prefent fituation. B b 4 had . p. _| 1154. during the courfe of fo many years. when he received intelligence of Stephen^s de^th. 65. and difgufled with the bloodflied and depredations which. and as they were acquainted with his great power. 375 C H Ap. '' Gul. Henry himfelf.

He then fet out on his journey. Neubr. and was received in England with the acclamations of all orders of men. p. and Roger the fon of Milo of Glocefler. "55ofHenry's pvern*"^"^' had brought it to an iffue. debafed during the reign of his predeceflbr . " T. p. 13. made no oppofition to a meafure fo neceflary for fupporting the dignity of the crown. who fwore with plea£yj. Anjou . 381. but the approach of the king with his forces foon oblisfed them to fubmit. p 491. M. Fitz-Steph. Chron. Brompton. during his abfence. which had proved fo many fanduaries to freebooters and rebels'^. who had refigned her rights in favour of Henry. He immediatelv difmifled all thofe mercanary foldiers who had committed great diforders in the nation and he fent them abroad. Henry went abroad in order to oppofe the attempts of his brother Geoffrey. 382. Wykes. The earl of Albemarle. I p. 65. and he took proper meafures againft a return of the like abufe". Neubr.^. PariSj p. and that he might reftore authority to the laws. had made an incurfion into « Fitz-Steph. p. C HA II54- s^^^. Neubr. P.g ^i^g Q^j-j^ ^f fealty and allegiance to him. he caufed all the new erefted cafcles to be demolifhed. w Hoveden. 30. 491. p. which had been extremely JJ56. 381. 1043. p. confident of Stephen '. their leader. and prognofticated the re-eflablifhment of juftice and tranquillity. He repaired the coin. and in the fupprellion of robbery and violence . 13. ^ Paris.^. He v/as rigorous in the execution of juftice.376 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. He revoked all the grants made by his predecefTor \ even thofe which neceffity had extorted from the emprefs Matilda . of which the kingdom had fo long been bereaved. M. The firft a6t of Henry's government correfponded ^o the high idea entertained of his abilities. the friend and . who. 65. together with William of Ypres. Hoveden.. were inclined to make fome refiftance to this falutary meafure .^ 8th Dec. p. Hugh Mortimer. Every thing being reftored to full tranquillity in England. and that princefs. p. p.

70. y M. nj^. chap. 383. being engaged in a narrow Henry de EiTex. and he The fubmiffions himfelf was thruft into a convent of the Welfli procured them an accommodation with England. on occafion. 383. and had got poiieffion of a con. Henry laid claim to the territory as he had acquired poflTeflion ni^ * See note [O] at the end of the volume. Chioi». Neubr. was vanquiflied in. and led on his troops with great gallantry. took to flight. even the mofl: frivolous . his eflate was confifcated . EiTex was afterwards accufed of felony by Robert de Montfort . Keming. and Geoffrey. where the natural faftnefles of the country occafioned him great difficulties. On the king's appearance. reiigning his claim for an annual penlion of a thoufand pounds. the people returned to their allegiance . p. the herepafs. the king's died : of Nantz Though he had no other title to that county than the voluntary fubmiflion or election of the inhabitants two years before. authority nerals. which the inhabitants. devolved . to their ge- Geoffrey. p. who had expelled count Hoel their prince. feized with a panic. njy. the confequence might For this have proved fatal to the whole army\ mifbehaviour. had put into Henry returned to England the folhis hands. iingle combat . p. departed and took pofl'eflion of the county of Nantz. the command brother.HENRY n. was put to rout ditary flandard-bearer. ^ W.^1[!L^ fidcrable part of them *.. after made it commonly impracticable for them foon to delegate. The martial difpofition of the princes in that age engaged them to head their own armies in every enterprife. had advanced fome pretenfions to thofe provinces. and their feeble : : >'. and even brought ger. Keubr. 377 Aiijou and Maine. threw down the ftandard. p. and exclaimed And had not the prince that the king was flain immediately appeared in perfon. 49^. lowing year : The incurfions of the Welfli then provoked him to make an invafion upon them . him into dan- His vanguard. Paris.

advanced with his army into Britanny . fition of his fubjeds. and would have inherited his dominions. to which of right it belonged .-378 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. to Geoffrey the king's third fon. and he went over to fupport his pretenfions by force of arms. given indifferently by hiftorians to thofe princes). Henry paid him a vifit . and Henry. devolved to him by hereditary right. duke or earl of Britanny (for thefe titles are XJ58. . deurous of preferving the fucccflioii 3 . ^^[^J^^ Conan. duchefs of Guienne. and fo illured and civilities. and he betrothed his daughter and only child. haraffed with the turbulent difpocident. CHAP. had not that prince. was the only iffue of William IV. it for the prefent to his other great jK dominions. put himfelf in poffeffion of that principahty. delivered up the county of Nantz to him. heir to the Englilh monarchy. that an alliance was contracted between them and they agreed that young Henry. The able conduct of the king procured him farther and more important advantages from this inConan. no interruption on this fide. and Conan. pretended that Nantz had been lately feparated by rebellion from his principality. and annexed 1159. count of Touloufe . was defirous of procuring to himfelf the fupport of fo great a monarch . The duke of Britanny died about feven years after. and immediately on Geoffrey's death he took poffeffion of the difputed territory. and alfo natural guardian to his fon and daughtereareffes . who was of the fame tender years. now fecure of meeting with in her cradle. in defpair of being able to make refiftance. him bv in-law. The king had a profpefl of making flill farther acquifitions and the activity of his temper fuffered no opportunity of that kind to efcape him. fhould be affianced to Margaret of France. the latter was flill Henry. Led Lewis the French king fhould interpofe in the controverfy. yet an infant. Philippa. mother of queen Eleanor. though the former was only five years of age. being ?nef}ie lord.

and becaufe the commands were not given. 3^9 conveyed the principality C H^ A P. ^ach baron conducted his own yaflals His rank was greater or lefs. Gilles. "^ fite to fupport his pretenfions againft potent antago^ . p. and had demanded pofleffion of Touloufe . was the reigning fovereign . who was fo much concerned in policy to prevent the farther aggrandizement of Lewis himfelf. and that nothing but a formidable army could maintain a claim which he had in vain allerted by arguments and manifeftos. when mar^* the Englilh monarch.387. compofed of feudal vafials. was com* monly very intractable and undifciplined. grandfon of Raymond de St. proportioned to the extent of his property Even the fupreme command under the prince was often attached to birth : And as the mirlitary valTals were obliged to ferve only forty days at their own charge . and on Henry's reviving his wife's claim..^-^-^ H5v» of fale which was in that age regarded as fiditious and illufory. levied Qhron. either by the choice of the fovereign. though. had obtained polfefTion. by a contract v. and the one or the other. "W. both becaufe of the independent fpirit of the perfons who ferved in it. An army. By this means the title to the county of Touloufe came to be difputed between the male and female heirs . they were put to great expence . this prince had recourfe for protedlion to the king of France. Raymond. or from the military capacity and experience of the officers. had aiferted the juftice of her claim. p. as op. Heixilng.. nifls : : fenlible of thefe inconveniencies. to his brother Raymond de St. Gilles. 494* Taflals . he now determined to defend by his power and authority the title of Raymond. upon his a Neubr. the prince Henry. portunities favoured them.HENRY cefTion in the II. reaped little benefit from their attendance. Henry found that it would be requi- male line. if the expedition were diftant. but his fentiments changing with his intereft.. ried to Eleanor.

vafials" CHAP. had made upon it. aa. miniflers to profecute the fiege. by reafon of the great diftance. threw himfelf into the place with a fmall Henry was urged by fome of his reinforcement. Gervafe. of . p 435.. The a fortrefs of Gifors. p. however. the military tenants willingly fubmitted . was ilill more advantageous He impofed.5^0 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. fcutage of 180. : rival princes. the yohimc. attended with any confidence or good correfpondence between thofe conftant. though it was unufual. and other provinces were remote from Touloufe. a fuiii of money in whichin lieu of their fervice . a> to his Engli/ii vaflais. . and loufe other places. and to impofe his own terms in the pacification . to take Lewis prifoner. was now openly carried on between the two moIt foon narchs. he invaded the county of Touand after taking Verdun. . Normandy. and was likely to prevail in the enterprife when Lewis. p. and that followed by a peace. he befieged the capital of the province. but he either thought it fo much his intereil to maintain the feudal principles. and Trincaval count of Nifmes. a commutation to which. advancing before the arrival of his main body. IT 59. 531. Caltlenau. by which his foreign dominions were fecured. and with this money he levied an army which was more under his command. that he declared he would not attack a place defended by him in perfon and he immediately raifed the fiege ^ He marched into Normandy to proted that province againfl an inGurfion which the count of Dreux. Afliiled . and whole fervice was more durable and bv Berenger count of Barcelona. and the firll perhaps to be met with in hiftory *. * Madox. VIII. therefore. or bore fo much refpeft to his fuperior lord. pitx-Steph. which was not. and this commutation. whom he had gained to his party. p.000 pounds on the knight's fees. being part See note [P] at the end of Diceto. 1381. but produced no memorable event ended in a ceifation of arms. inftigated by War king: Lewis his brother.

and conducted him manner into the caftle''. That we may form an idea of the authority poffefled by the Roman pontiiF during thofe ages. 1450firft publication of this hiftory. foon ferences with after he had accommodated his dif- n^a. and they gave him fuch marks of reGifors"". bred •> Hoveden. if there was no Ibcret article. p.HENRY If. met the pope at the caftle of Torci on the Loir . A fpedade. and even conducted in the main with prudence. where he commenced an enterprife. ordered the marriage to be folemnized between the prince and princefs. the year before. $i^. 48. holding each of them one of the reins of his bridle. to God^ angels^ and men 5 and fuch as had never before been exhibited to ths world ! Henry. by which it appears. p. Baronius in an ecftacy. Trivet. and in. p. 381 of the dowry flipulated to Margaret of France^ had chap. banifhed the templars. been configned by agreement to the knights tern. fpecl:. of the nuptials. 49J. to put him in poffeflion of '^ Lewis. and would have made war upon the king of England. had it not been for the mediation and authority of pope Alexander III. grand mafter of the templars. though required by found policy. walked on foot by that fubmillive cries his fide. him . on condition that it (hould be delivered into 1160. who had been chafed from Rome by the anti-pope Viftor IV. as was generally fufpe£i:ed. Henry's hands after the celebration The king. it may be proper to obferve that the two kings had. Diceto.v'^ plars. Lord Lyttleton has pubcopy of the treaty between Henry and Lewis. though both infants and he engaged the . Neubr. which. and refided at that time in France. Brompton. Lewis by the pope's mediation.v^^^. Since the p. ^^^^* that both difmoimted to receive him. p. returned to England . that he might have a pretence for immediately demanding the place. 400. that Henry was not guilty of any *^ lifhed a fraud «1 in this tranfaftiofl. by large prefents. refenting this fraudulent conduft.

in this refpedl. CHAP. archbifliop . 1 1 honour. 6a. particularly the archbifhop of Canterbury. which gave inquietude to all his neighbours. he immediately iffued orders for overthrowing the houfes of the bifhop of Mans and archdeacon of Roiien * . acknowledged Alexander as legitimate pope. p. During the fchifm of the papacy between Alexander and Vidor. as well as of England. the mild character and advanced years of Theobald. he was fo enraged. authority over any of his dominions.. * Fitz-Steplien. involved him in danger. which had at been gradual. were now become fo rapid. from their own authority. in the go- vernment of his foreign dominions. and it was not by till he had deliberately examined the matter. ufurpatlons of the clergy. he was in no danger of falling.3^2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. that he allowed that pontiff to exercife In England. he had determined. 37. and it became neceffary to determine whether the king or the prieils. that the contefl had between powers. that though he fpared the archbifhop on ac: count of his great age. to remain neuter And when informed that the archbifhop of Roiien and the bifhop of Mans had. was not likely long to pay a tame fubmiffion to the en* croachments of fubjecls . for fome time. ] at tlie end of the volume. From the commencement of his reign. * See uotc [ Q. the regale and pontificale was really arrived at a crifis in England . and to maintain thofe prerogatives which had been tranfmitted to him by his predeceflbrs. and was not concluded without fome lofs and difgreat difquletude. into that abjecl fuperftition which retained his people in fubjeftion. and as nothing opens the eyes of men fo readily as their intereft. him VIII. thofe views which ufually enter into the councils of princes. and Difputes The firft between the civil and ecclcfiaftical mounted to fuch a height. fhould be fovereign of the kingdom % The afpiring fpirit of Henry. he had fhown a fixed purpofe to reprefs clerical ufurpations.

6^^ his chancellor.^^' duftry and capacity. ^^^'' . prevented Henry. he advanced to that dignity Becket. in that age. and on Henry's acceffion he was recommended to that monarch as worthy of farther preferment. He was afterwards employed with tranfa£ling bufmefs at fuccefs by Theobald in Rome . fon of Stephen. ii 383 archblHiop of Canterbury. he early infinuated himfelf into the favour of archbifhop Theobald.rchbiffiop. . was born of reputable parents in the ofCan"*^* city of London. on whofe compliance he thought he the firfl: could entirely depend. from taking any meafures againft the multiplied encroachments of the clergy But after his death. he foon promoted him to the digniiy of chancellor. Thomas a Becket. during Thomas a the courfe of a whole century. during the Hfe-time of that primate. fmce the Norman conqueft. on farther acquaintance. that his fpirit and abilities entitled him to any truft. one of the firft civil offices in the kingdom. The chancellor. that he was promoted by his patron to the archdeaconry of Canterbury. and on his return he appeared to have made fuch proficiency in knowledge. and being endowed both with in. was already inftrumental in and finding. an office of confiderable trufl and profit.HENRY 11.archbiniop able ftation. who. rifen to any confider. had. had poflefiion of all vacant prelacies and abbies } he was the guardian cf prepoflefled in his favour . Henry. and obtained from that prelate fome preferments and offices. : a p. fcent man of Englifli de- June j. befides the cuftody of the great feal. together with his merits III c refufing to put the crown on the head of Euftace. which had tended fo much to facilitate his own advancement to the throne. and that he might be fecure againft any oppofition. where he ftudied the civil and canon law at Bologna . By tlieir means he was enabled to travel for improvement to Italy. the king refolved to exert himfelf with more adivity .. who knew that Becket had been fupporting that refolution of the a.

A f Fitz-Steph. 13. p. in fummer. ^^^^' of all ii62. 15. 914- h p. the fumptuoufnefs of his furniture. Fitz-Stephens ^ mentions. if the king fhould come thrice i . he was entruflcd with the education of prince Henry. large baronies th?t had efcheated to the crown: And to Complete his grandeur. fons . and who could not. he was a kind of prime minifler. among other particulars. The pomp of his rethe tinue. and in fummer with green rufhes or boughs . the greateff barons were proud of being received at his table . Bar. fuch minors and pupils as were the king's tenants . Anglica.384 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. portance ^ Becket. and it belonged to him to counterfign all commiffions. ftraw. that his apartments were every day in winter covered with clean ftraw or hay. i^j. king John Baldwin held the manor of Oterasfee in Aylefbiiry of the in foccage. and heir of the monarchy ". and was concerned in the difpatch of every bufmefs of imBefides exercifmg this high office. even though he were not particularly fummoned . great number of knights were retained in his fervice . Madox. correfponded to thefe great preferments . all baronies which efcheated to the crown were under his adminiflration . Quad. by the fei'vice of finding litter for the king's bed. p. luxury of his table. of fecretary of ftate. he was entitled to a place in council. grafs or herbs. the king's eldeft: fon. and as he exercifed alfo the CHAP. and letterspatent. thrice in the year. 15. was made provoffc of Beverley. Hift. and three eels. fliould foil their hne deaths by fitting on a dirty floor '. his houfe was a place of education for the feen in any fubjett. He was put in pofand conftable of the Tower feffion of the honours of Eye and Berkham. p. the munificence of his prefents. dean of Haftings. and two grey geefe and in winter. by the favour of the king or archbifhop. left the gentlemen who paid court to him. in the year to Aylcfbury. writs. by reafon of their great number. viz. find a place at table. or rather exceeded any thing that England had ever before office : His hillorian and fecretary. s ibid p.

cried the king fkirt And of the chancellor's coat. his amufements and occupations were gay. feven hundred knights. and partook of the cavalier fpirit. Hift. and horfemanfliip .H E N R Y . he carried over. with which he was entrufled. it may not be improper to relate. in the fubfequent wars on the frontiers of Normandy he maintained. furely. faid the king. which was fcarlet. familiarity is mentioned by Fitz-Stephens. "^ ' Vlll. : Then he fliall have one prefently. replied the chancellor . to attend the king in his wars at Touloufe . he aftoniflied that court by the number and magnificence of his retinue. 19. and you do well. embafly to France. honoured him with his friendfhip and intimacy . He employed himfelf at leifure hours in hunting. An inflance of their . he did not think unbefitting his charader. 23. tvi^elve hundred knights. they obferved a beggar who was fliivering with cold. 9.13. and four thoufand of their train . 385 fre- fons of the chief nobility and the king himfelf c II A p. so. and when- ever he was difpofed to relax himfelf by fports of any kind. and in an. p. he expofed his perfon in feveral military aftions . as he had only taken. which. as the king and the chancellor were riding together in the flreets of London. Quad. As his way of life was fplendid and opulent. deacon's orders. began to pull it violently. in thinking of fuch good adions. 16. Quad. as it fhews the manners of the age. p. hawking. to give that poor man a warm coat in this fevere feafon ? It would. 22. The chancellor defended himfelf for feizing the k Fitz-Steph. One day. which. at his own charge. and hned with ermine. Yql. I. befides committing all his more im- portant bufmefs to Becket's management. Sir. p. quently vouchfafed to partake of his entertainments. gaming. II. he admitted his chancellor to the party ™. Hift. p. p. 8. "> Ibid. during forty days. Xl62> Henry. 'Fitz-Steph.worthy. C c fojns . Would it not be very praife.

fooner was Becket inftalled in this high dignity. in the eyes of the bereaved him. was not a little furprifed at the Chap. or rather confining within the ancient bounds. Without people. being ignorant of the quality of the perfons. fome time . 23*. p. 167. Tliom. Epill. who never expected any refiftance from that quarfor elecling him ter. and always fliowed a ready difpofition to comply with them ^. p. let go his coat j which the king beftowed on the beggar. appeared to him the fitted perfon for fupplying the vacancy made by the death of Theobald. As he was well acquainted with the king's intentions ° of retrenching. of which his former bufy and Oitentatious courfe of life might. prcfent ". olbid. when Becket. i6. and they had both of them like to have tumbled ofF their horfes in the (treet. I his . v/ith fome pretenfions of alpiring to be the firlt. St. p. EpUt. have naturally confuking the king.. immediately ilTued orders archbiikop of Canterbury. ^^^^^- „6j. who. But this refolution. he immediately returned into his hands the commifiion of chancellor . and many of the mini(ters% drew after it very unhappy confequences . Henry. and never prince of fo great penetration appeared in the iilue to have fo little underftood the genius and character of his his Becket who by miniller. and by his induftry and abilities ufeful to his mailer.386 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. P Ibid. 25. and endeavoured to acquire the character of fanctity. Thorn. all ecclefiadical privileges. p. which was taken contrary to the opinion of Matilda. St. and be folely employed in the exercife of Ji No Fitz-Steph. after a vehement ftruggle. complaifance and goodhumour had rendered himfelf agreeable. than he totally altered his demeanor and conduct.p 1 17. v/hich rendered him for liie the fecond perfon in the kingdom. pretendirig that he muil thenceforth detach himl'elf from fecular affairs.

He wore fack-cloth next his ikin. or in perufmg religious difcourfes His afped wore the appearance of ferioufnefs and mental recollection. which he even rendered farther unpalatable by the mixture of unfavoury herbs He tore his back with the frequent difcipHne which he inflided on it He daily on his knees wafhed.-. which he was fenfible would have an equal or a greater tendency to the fame end. 25. tation of Chrifl. was now entirely a become maintained.. which S^J^^^^ he knew had been formed by that prince : was the king andBec^et. that it was filled with His ufual diet was bread . by his affefted care to conceal it. p. in imifeet of thirteen beggars. his ancient pomp and luftre. which was ufeful to ftrike the vulgar : In his own perfon he affected the greatefl aufterity new perfonage. the whom he afterwards difmifTed with prefents He gained the aife6tions of the monks by his frequent charities to the convents and hofpitals Every one who made profeffion of fandity was admitted to his converfation. that Becket. and apprife v^. was neceffarily the more remarked by all the world : He changed it fo feldom. : : : " : : : : : Becket waited not till Henry fhould commence 1163. r ritz-Steph. and that the ambition and oftentation of his charafter had turned itfelf towards a new and more dangerous obje£l. his dirt and vermin drink water.HENRY his fpiritiial II. thofe projects againfl the ecclefiaflical power. and returned full of panegyrics on the humility. him.^^^^ ii6j. break of all connexions with Henry. 19. and fecret devotion And all men of penetration plainly faw that he was meditating fome great defign. but in reality. in his retinue. He C c 2 himielf . p. He and moil rigid mortification. Ilift. 3^7 fundlon . and attendants alone. that he might ^ ha p. as well as on the piety and mortification of the holy primate He feemed to be perpetually employed in reciting prayers and pious leftures. as primate of England. Quad. which.

prefented. by a meffenger. one Lau- rence to that living. 2S. as it had formerly belonged to the fee of Canterbury. p. ?j5o Ihould . than by attacking fo powerful an inrived .. had farther extended his credit among the nobility. He fummoned the earl of Clare to fur- render the barony of Tunbridge. terprifes. and the extent of his poffeffions. CHAP. was patron of a living which belonged to a nianor that held of the archbifhop of Canterbury . . 1384. fent him. was allied to all the princihis filler. who was a pal families in*the kingdom celebrated beauty. The primate making himfelf. and was even fuppofed to have gained the king*s affections . Paris. olf all perfonal intercourfe with Becket. of his fee ^ William de Eynsford. his refolution of maintaining with vigour the rights. without the previous confent of the fovereign \ Henry. without regard to William's right. Dicela. but Becket. as was iifual in fplritual courts. p. m who had now broken . real or pretended. who complained capite of the crown to the king that he who held Ihould. iffued in a fummarv manner the fentence of excommunication againfl Eynsford.388 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. The earl of Clare. his orders to abfolve Eynsford but received for anfwer. a military tenant of the crown. and maintained ever fmce by his fucceflbrs. Becket pretended his predecelfors were prohibited by the canons to alienate. who was violently expelled by Eynsford. p. contrary to the practice eltablifhed by the Conqueror. both judge and party. and Becket could not better difcover. from the greatnefs of his own birth. Gervafc. and endeavoured to overawe the king by the intrepidity and boldnefs of his enhimf'elf the aggreflbr. befides the luftre which he de. ^^/^^ II 63. p. be fubjected to that terrible fentence. terefl. that it belono-ed not to the kiu'j: to inform him whom he s ' M. Fitz-Steph. which ever fince the conqueft had remained in the family of that nobleman but which. on a new and legal pretext.

Thorn. which divided all Europe And he rightly judged. are often attended with the molt dangerous confequences. determined not to defifl from his former intention of retrenching clerical ufurpations. p. But during the pro: : Henry. in every civilized government. that Becket. from the prevalent fuperftition of the people. to the maintenance of peace and order . " Fitz-Steph. and it behoves the prince. renders the civil part of his character mod prevalent . it was not till after many remonftrances and me^^^II. be in danger of falling into an entire fubordination under the mitre. had raifed his character above that of any of his predecellors "" : The papacy feemed to be weakened by a fchifm. the crown muft. as there can be no ultimate judge between them. though : by the refiftance of the civil magiftrate. that if the prefent favourable opportunity were neglected. is not material The fuperior weight which temporal intereits commonly bear in the appreheniions of men above fpiritual. is naturally thrown into convulfions . receives the appellation of prince or prelate. the ftate.HENRY fiiould abfolve II. He was entirely mailer of his extenfive dominions The prudence and vigour of his adminiffration. The union of the civil and ecclefiaftical power ferves extremely. and in time prevents thofe grofs impoilures and bigoted perfecutlons. 13c. « c 3 Epift. p. who unites thefe powers. : 389 excommunicate " And C hap. he found himfelf thus grievoufly miltaken in the charafter of the perfon whom he had promoted to the primacy. which in all falfe religions are the chief foundation of clerical authority.163. a8. both grefs of ecclefiaftical ufurpations. attended with perpetual fuccefs. naces. was induced to comply with the royal and whom mandate. imaginable. C for . St. Whether the fupreme magiftrate. though with the worfl: grace . and prevents thofe mutual encroachments which.

. and many of them were con: : * Fitz-Steph. for that of the public. by thefe rneans. ^^^^ji5. the fins of the people. give his confent to every compofition their Spiritual which was made with fmners for The ecclefiaflics in that age had renounced : all immediate fubordination to the magiftrate They openly pretended to an exemption in criminal accufations from a trial before courts of juflice . and it was natural to expecl fome extraordinary event to refult from their conflicl. and having again introduced the practice of paying them large fums as a commutation. and fhould for the future offences. Henry required that a civil officer of his appointment fhould be prefent in all ecclefiaftical courts. : : : Among their other inventions to obtain money. p.. That he might eafe the people of fo heavy and arbitrary an impofition. fequently . CHAP. as well as in other catholic countries and affairs at laft feemed A fovereign of to have come to a dangerous crifis A prethe greatefl: abilities was now on the throne late of the mod inflexible and intrepid character was The contending powers poffelfed of the primacy appeared to be armed with their full force.390 HISTORY for his OF and ENGLAND. the clergy had inculcated the necefTity of penance as an atonement for fni . to provide in time fufficient barriers againft fo dangerous and infidious a rival. and were gradually introducing a like exemption in civil Spiritual penalties alone could be inflicled caufes And as the clergy had extremely on their offences multiplied in England. This precaution had hitherto been much neglefted in England. into the royal exchequer ^. or fpecies of atonement for the remiffion of thofe penances. had become a revenue to the priefts . by all money upon his fubjetls than the funds and taxes. 3a. that by this invention alone they levied more flowed. own intereft. and the king computed.

p. 492. p. 32. Fitz-Steph. Paris. and .. p 29. left he ihould be feized by the king's officers . 1058.Hoveden. and he put to height. 33. having debauched a gentleman's daughter. had at this time proceeded to murder the father . p. that immediately after he was degraded he fhould be tried by the xivil power. Quad. become a full protection for all enormities. 3^1 very low charadlers. CHAP' ^"^* . on enquiry. p. maintained that no greater puniihment could be inAided on him than degradation : And when the . So^y 537p. He fummoned an aifembly of all the prelates of England . murders. fmce the king's acceflion. p. p. Brompton.45.HENRY fequently of 11. 209. It had been found. robberies. Neubr. ^ FitzSteph.P 33. and receive condign puniihment from the magiftrate ". p. all refolved to pufli the clergy with regard to their which they had to raifed to an enormous determine at once thofe controverfies which daily multiplied between the civil and the ecclefiaftical jurifdiclions. rapes. church king demanded. been perpetrated by men of that profeflion. Epift. 13S4. laying hold of fo plaufible a pretence. for inftance. and for the fame offence \ Henry privileges. ao8. and the general indignation againll this crime moved the king to attempt the remedy of an abufe which was become fo palpable. crimes of the deepefl dye. C c 4 laws . p 72. Hift. A clerk in Worceilerfhire. Qu<''-fi. Gervafe. 394. Whether or not they were willing to fubmit to the ancient y 3 M. Diceto. and to require that the clerk fliould be delivered up. that no lefs than a hundred murders had. St. the primate afferted that it was iniquitous to try a man twice upon the fame accufation. Hift. them this concife and decifive queftion. adulteries. Thorn. who had never been called to account for thefe offences ^ and holy orders were . Becket infifled on the privileges of the confined the criminal in the bifliop's prifon. were daily committed with impunity by the eccleiiafcics.1^.

and appeared fo dangerous to the Henry therefore deemed it necivil magiftrate. and to put a ftop to clerical ufurpations before they were fully confolidated. 493. Hoveden. on a favourable opportunity. and was pro- voked to the highefl indignation. had pofitively defined and immunities. iloveden. 1 _ kingdom? The bifliops \ 163.392 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. favi?ig tbeir own order ^ : A device by which they thought to elude the prefent urgency of the king's demand. and expected flill farther effects of his refentment. p. i_. and give a general and abfolute promife of obferving the ancient culloms '. who prince at vailed dreaded a breach with fo powerful a fo unfeafonable a jun6lurej could have pre- on him to retraft the faving claufe. the mafk had at lafl been taken oif. and could plead antiquity. and nothing but the interpofition of the pope's legate and almoner. 1385. the power of reluming all their pretenfions. 492. which were pretended to be : But Henry was irrevocable and infallible. He left the affembly with vifible marks of his difpleafure He required the primate inftantly to furrender the honours and caftles of Eye and Berkham The bifhops were terrified. to oppofe his legal cufloms to their divine ordinances to determine the exaclbounthofe privileges . Quad. ere it was too thefe general terms late. Quad. p. that they were -willing. yet referve to themfelves. The claims of the church were open and vifible. The king was fenfible of the artifice. p. as they already did a facp^d authority. laws and cuftoms of the r CHAP. ceflary to define with the fame precifion the limits of the civil power . to define exprefsly thofe cuftoms. unanimoufly replied. p. which gave fuch general offence. Becket alone was inflexible . Gervafe. p. Hift. darieg . with which he required compliance. « Hilt. : : Philip. b Fitz-Stepli. p. not content with a declaration in He refolved. After a gradual and infenfible progrefs during many centuries. 34. 37. and feveral ecclefiaftical councils. 31. by their canons. in their favour.

he fummoned a general council of the nobility and y^^J^!^ prelates at Clarendon. and if it be found to be a lay-fee. great and Thk barons were all gained to the king's party. 25th Jan. particularly no clergyman of any rank. nor his lands be put under an interdift. from him to the king. either by the reafons which he urged. general combination againfl them And the follow: : ing laws.64. to whom he fubmitted this 1. except with the king's confent That all appeals in fpiritual caufes fhould be carried from the archdeacon to the bifliop. Conflitn.HENRY daries of the rival jurifdielions . 393 and for thispurpofe C H A p. fhould depart the kingdom without the king's licence That excommunicated : : perfons fhould not be bound to give fecurity for continuing in their prefent place of abode : That laics fhould not be accufed in fpiritual courts. ^^* the \}. or by his fu. that all fuits concerning the advowfon and prefentation of churches fliould be determined in the civil courts : That the churches belonging to the king's fee fliould not be granted in perpetuity without his confent That clerks accufed of any crime fhould be tried in the civil : commonly courts That no perfon. from the bifhop to the primate.J5""i. p. and it be difputed whether the land be a lay or an eccleliaflical fee. were it was enacted. don. the caufe fliould finally be determined in <J Fitz-Stepli.^^*^* rcnperior authority The bifliops were overawed by the don. important queflion. except by legal and reputable promoters and witneifes : That no chief tenant of the crown fliould be excommunicated. it fliould firfl be determined by the verdi6l of twelve lawful men to what clafs it belonged . and fhould be carried no farther without the king's confent That if any law-fuit arofe between a : : layman and a clergyman concerning a tenant. called the Conjiifutions of Clarenvoted without oppofition by this alfembly ''. . II.

flrudioii . fliould poifefs the privileges and be fubjedled to the burthens belonging to that rank . ^J^^' 1 164. Paris. Spelm. the prelates Ihould afiift the That king with their cenfures in reducing him goods forfeited to the king fhould not be protected That the clergy fliould in churches or churchyards no longer pretend to the right of enforcing payment of debts contradled by oath or promife . p. Gevvafe. 1386. to the determination of the civil courts : And that thefons of villains fhould not be ordained clerks. vol. Wilkins. till the chief officer of the place where he rehdes be confuked. p. that he may compel him by authority to give fatisfaftion to the church: That the archbiTnops. 1387. M. and that the bifhop-elect fhould do homage to the crown That if any baron or tenant in capite fhould refufe to fubmit to the fpiritual courts. without the confent of their lord ^ These articles. the king : fliould employ his authority in obliging him to make fuch fubmiffions . gradually ftealing on. p. 163. Qnad. 70. 311. the civil courts fliould CHAP. to the number of fixteen. ii. fnould be regarded as barons of the civil the realm . if any of them throw off his allegiance to the king. had threatened the total de: : ^ Hift. 71. till the fentence. That no iuhabitant in demefne be excommunicated lor non-appearance in : ^ fpiritual court. p.394 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. bifliops. p. and fhould be bound to attend the king in his great councils. and to put an effectual flop to the ufurpations of the church. 63. fhould fit in the king's chapel till they made the new eledion with his confent. and affifl at all trials. and other fpiritual dignitaries. be given againft the criminal : That the revenue of vacant fees fhould belong to the king . which. w^ere calculated to prevent the chief abufes which had prevailed in ecclefiaOical affairs. but fliould leave thefe law-fuits. the chapter or fuch of them as he pleafes to fummon. Cone. equally with others. either of death or lofs of members.

the :. who then refided . pontiff's ratifica- duad. therefore. p. 395 Aj^P. endeavoured to prevent all future difpute with regard to them . he refolved that they fhould all fet their feal to them. and he took an oath to that The king. R Fitz-Steph. legally. thinking that he had now . 15. v. p. grand prior of the templars in England. p. None ferve the conflitutions purpofe finally ''. threw himfelf on his knees before him . was at lalt obliged to comply . prevailed in this great enterprife. finding himfelf deferted by all the world. Quid. II. 45. who. who was refolutely bent on his purpofe. by a fruitlefs oppofition. except Becket. the indignation of a great monarch. Thorn. 39. p. and by collecting. them in a body. Richard de Haltings. obftinately withheld his alfent. and by paiTmg fo many ecclefiaftical ordinances iii a national and civil aflembly. and with many tears entreated him. 493. 38. not to provoke. Hift. with good faith. p. Henry. h i-itii-SLepb. to ob*". p .^.55. • Epift. even by his own brethren. by C H reducing thofe ancient cufloms of the realm to writing. would take the firft favourable opportunity of denying the authority which had enacted thefe conflitutions. that tory over the ecclefiallics. though urged by the earls of Cornwal and Leicefter. if he paid any regard either to his own fafety or that of the church. and who was determined to take full revenge on every one that fhould dare to oppofe him Becket. and ivithout fraud or referve =. tion . At lail.-^ 1164.^-^.bilhops. of the prelates dared to oppofe his will . and he required that p. he fully eltablifhei the fuperiority of the legillature above all papal decrees or fpiritual canons. St. and give a promife to obferve them. fent the conflitutions to pope Alexander.^. and gained a fignal vicBut as he knew. 1386. Gervafe. and he promifed.HENRY ftru£lion of the civil power. in France < Hift. Hoveden. the barons of principal authority in the kingdom. though overav/ed by the prefent combination of the crown and the barons.

which. till he fliould receive abfolution from the pope . : C H A P. informed of his prefent difpofitions. p. 13. fent back the commiffion by the fame meffenger that brought it ^. Henry. and endeavoured to engage all the other blfliops in a confederacy to adhere to their common rights. when he any part of his archiepifcopal function.refolved to take vengeance for this refractory behaviour. that thefe laws were calculated to elhi1 164. and to the ecclefiaflieal privileges. which was readily granted him.3'96 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. owed the moft Important obligations to the king. plainly law. The . annexed a claufe. and of the royal power on the clergy. blifh the independency of England on the papacy.. for the fake of peace. 14. k Ilovetkn. in which he reprefented the intereft and honour of Cod to be fo deeply concerned. he was willing to ratify. who. p 493. I ThoiB. and rejected them. obferved that he might hope for fupport in an oppofition. though he had ^y_|vl. lie redoubled his aufteritles. in order to punifh himfelf for his criminal confent to the conftitutions of Clarendon : He proportioned his difcipline to the enormity of his fuppofed offence : And he refufed to exercife Becket.. ' : i Epift. expreiled the deeped forrow for his compliance . He applied to the pope. findthe archbhhop of Canterbury ing howfruitlefs fuch an authority would prove. St. tion of them But Alexander. that it lliould not impower the legate to execute any act in prejudice of And the king. that he fhould grant the commiffion of legate in his dominions to the archbilliop of York . but Alexander. though he granted the commiffion. the ieafl important. condemned them in the flrongell terms . abrogated. as politic as he. by means of that very power which Becket made fuch merit in fupporting. annulled. There were only fix articles. Ger- vafcj p- J 88. and he attempted to crufh him.

and to appeal thence to the king's court for juflice On the day appointed for trying to fue '. 397 primate. p. 394. being determined to profecute Becket to the utmoit. The king had raifed Becket from a low flation to the highefl offices. profecution ^. and when he found him become of a fudden his moft rigid opponent. 72. and with difficulty efcaped being fent to prifon. had honoured him with his countenance and friendfhip. jnarefchal of the exchequer. rage at the difappointment. 537. 494. for not appearing perfonally that day in the court.Paris.M. while every one befide complied with his will. fame time vengeance againft the inflexible prelate. the primate fent four knights to reprefent certain irregularities in John's appeal . p.^^-v-*-' 1164* from the kingdom often detained by contrary winds : . and at the on account of ficknefs. . and indignation againft fuch fignal ingratitude. which he purpofed to make the inltrument of to excufe himfelf. in the great council. . endeavoured twice Chap. at Northampton. a great council. 1 The Hoveden. v. notwithftanding. This flight offence (if it even deferve the name) was reprefented as a grievous contempt the four knights were menaced. had trufted to his affiftance in forwarding his favourite projeft againft the clergy . voted whatever fentence he was pleafed to didate to them j and the bifhops themfelves. p. He inftigated John. as offering falfehoods to the court * and Henry. who found hnnfelf flill cxpofed to the king's indignation. who . Becket in the archiepifcopal court for fome lands. p. * See note £R] at the end of tJie volume. tranfported him beyond all bounds of moderation and there feems to have entered more of paffion than of juftice. but was as And Henry haflened to make him feel the effeds of an obftinacy which he deemed fo criminal. or even of poHcy. however. the caufe. part of the manor of Pageham . fummoned. I)iceto. in this violent his barons. *" Neubr. -.HENRY The to efcape fecretly 11.

which. p. p. obliged. he faid. the laws had affixed a very flight penalty to that offence And that. p. P Fitz-Steph. p. and to fubmit his conduct to their enquiry and jurifdidion : That even jfhould it be found that he had been guilty of non-appearance. and regarded him as the champion of their privileges. with .. bifhop of London. but. the prelate who had been fo powerful in the former reign. as he was an inhabitant of Kent. : : : CHAP. Hid. he was by law entitled to fome greater indulgence than ufual in the rate of his Notwithllanding thefe pleas. 1389. 57. who y^^-.^ 1. all his goods and chattels were confiicated " . and as wanting in the fealty which he had fworn to his fovereign . on the contrary.^. concurred with the reft. was. rons voted in this council n Fitz-Steph. however. in coniequence of the king's fummons. ready to julHfy his caufe againfl the marefchal. who paid court to the king by this fmgularity. he was confine ". undoubtedly bore a fecret favour to Becket. in fpite of his remonftrances.43.. mate fubmitted to the decree . to The pripronounce the fentence againft him p. v^ould appear from the flieriff's teflimony to be entirely unjuft and iniquitous That he himfelf had difcovered no contempt of the king's court . became fureties for It is remarkable. that his court was proceeding with the utmoft regularity and juftice in trying the marefchal's caufe .398 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. where his archiepifcopal palace was feated. p. by fending four knights to excufe his abfence. demned as guilty of a contempt of the king's court. that feveral Norman bahim "'. Gervaff. had virtually acknowledged its authority That he alfo. perfonally appeared at prefent in the great council. Quad. and all the prelates. 37. 47- ° Hoveden. and that this triumph over the church might be carried to the utmoft. q Ibid. except FoUiot. Henry bilhop of Winchefter.64. 494. in the defign of In vain did Becket urge oppreffing their primate. j and we may conclude. by order of the court.

he demanded of Becket the fum of three hundred pounds. after premiiing that he was not feffion. 47. that money fhould not be any ground of quarrel between him and his fovereign He agreed to pay the fum . and Becket. abbies. during that time. which the primate had levied upon the honours of Eye and Berkham. after remarking that he had expended more than that fum in the repairs of thofe caftles. that a like praftice had prevailed in many of the great councils fummoned fnice chap. however violent and oppreffive. and baronies. becaufe it was not contained in his fummons . and immediately gave fureties for it '. which. exprefled however his refolution. 36. Becket obferved. p. 454. not . for which that prince had been furety for him to a Jew. which to us appears very palpable and flagrant. 537. been fubjeded to his management ". : ' he preferred a third of required (fill greater importance : He him to give in the accounts of his admi- nillration while chancellor. p. p..Quad. as this demand was totally unexpected. " * Ibid. he had rpitz-Steph.HENRY the conquell. Immediately after thefe two claims. Diceto. has given us a full II. * Hift. while in his pofBecket. he affirmed. that. never founds any objedion on an irregularity. which had. Hoveden. ^^^^• For the contemporary hiftorian. 38. and another fum to the fame amount. ! . and of the royal palace at London . So little precifion was there at that time in the government and conftitution The king was not content with this fentence. the king demanded five hundred marks. Next day. p. and to pay the balance due from the revenues of all the prelacies. with regard to the feverc treatment which he had met with. 399 with feme probability. does not mention this circumflance as any wife fmgular ' . obhged to anfwer to this fuit. In the fubfequent meeting. in all his fubfequent remonftrances. who *^''7i64/ account of thefe tranfadlions. he had lent Becket during the war at Touloufe . p.

during that time. and from the ufual vigilance of his government. which in the king's eilimation amounted to 44. fmce elapfed it was not till the quarrel been made upon him .400 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Fitz-Steph. Two years had no demand had. 38. ' v Epifl. p. had too much courage to hnk under oppreffion : He de: w St. p. to refign his fee. when he promoted Becket to the fee of Canterbury. and Becket dedelay. "0* CHAP. on good grounds.000 marks ^. that he ought to quittal fubmit hlmfelr entirely to the king's mercy * : But the primate. from the known character of Henry. that the claim was ftarted. termlned . The king infifted upon fureties . even if that prelate had diffipated money beyond the income of his place. but he required a and promifed in that cafe to give fatisfaction. p 495. Thorn. required to produce accounts of fuch intricacy and extent before a tribunal which had fhewn a determined refoiution to ruin and opprefs him. and had In the main been calculated for his fervice ". 139^3. that he (hould anfwer fo boundlefs and uncertain a claim. thus pufhed to the utmoft. he was. on condition of receiving an acOthers w^ere of opinion. Fitz-Steph. p. the king was fatisfied that his expences were not blameable. and the primate was. By the advice of the blfhop of Winchefter he offered two thoufand marks as a general fatisfafllon for all demands : But this offer was reSome prelates exhorted him jected by the king ^. p. Geivale. - Hoveden. 3S. . and Becket's fuflragans were extremely at a lofs what counfel to give him in fuch a critical emergency. p. To find fureties. fired leave to confult his fuffragans in a cafe of fuch Importance ^^ It is apparent. that. was impracticable . 2 Fitz-Steph. 3j. of a fudden. with which he had entrufted him arofe concerning ecclefiailical privileges. Il64- come prepared to anfwer It . . vni. well pleafed -with his adminiflration in the former high office and that. 315.

401 ^ermined to brave all his enemies. After a few days fpent in deliberation. which. Stephen. was aftonifhed at this parade. if he and p. Thefe prelates complained to Becket. and he fent fome of the prelates to remonfirate with him on account of fuch audacious behaviour. 43Illft. to involve his caufe with that of God and religion. he took the crofs into his own hands. 35. p. and engagements: That Quad. and faid mafs. 53. bein^x connefted with the caufe of God and his church. that the introit to the CHAP. Vol. m : his fuffer- thence to court. and that now. by which the primate feemed to menace him and his court with the fentence of excommunication . bore it aloft as his protedion. that he had indeed fubfcribed the ratified conflitutions of Clarendon. who was in an inner room. 404. Hove<ien. could never be relinquifhed and was ivithoiit fraud or referve \ by b their oaths Fitz-Steph. 40.gate. that. when he pretended to fhake off all fubiordination to the civil power. to trud to the facrediiefs of his chara6ler for protection. p. the paffage appointed for the martyrdom of St. and marched in that pofture into the royal apartments ^ The king. p. eflabliflied by their content. where he had previoufly ordered. L D d they . whom the primate thereby tacitly pretended to rcfemble ings for the fake of righteoufnefs. and appeared defirous of involving them in the guilt which muft attend any violation of thofe laws. by their fubfcriptions ". St Thorn. and to ftand the utmoft efforts of royal indignation. was too and Becket replied. ^^^^* ^j^ communion fervice fhould begin with thefe words. arrayed in his facred veftments As foon as he arrived within the palace. p. Beckct went to church. ' Neubr.HENRY II. Princes fat nnd /pake againji me . p. he had feduced He went them it to imitate his late. by fubfcribing himfelf to the conflitutions of Clarendon. 394. Epift. example . legally^ with good faith ^ but in thefe words virtually implied a falvo for the rights of their order. Fitz-Steph.

who. p. he had been tyrannically condemned a new and unheard-of claim to a grievous penalty was fince darted. had been abohihed by the conftitutions of C. p. was a practice altogether new and unprecedented it tended directly to the fubvernon of the government. except from the determined refolution. perdition ''. even in ecclefiaftical caufes. . 44.95. 46. 195. could never be obligatory. 7i. St. p. 41.57- Hoveden. in which he could expect no jufand he plainly faw. ' CHAP. however terrible the indignation of fo great a monarch as Henry. M.402 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. by his ruin. could kill the foul. Appeai-s to the pope. Thorn. for a flight offence. ^ F-tz-Steph. and could receive no colour of excufe. 45. he put himfelf and his fee under the protetlion of the fupreme pontiff. Farii. or giving their fanction to ^ny fentence againft him . entrufted kill the body into the hands of the primate. fuch as the king's demand upon Becket. which. him and which too was falfely imputed to him. and appealed to him againfl any penalty which hisiniquitous judges might think proper to inflict upon him And that. and to follow the pope's authority. Hid Quad. mult prepare the way for That he the abroo-'ation of all fuiritual immunities O ftriclly inhibited them who were his fuffragans from afliifing at any fuch trial. great . in fiich a cafe. . : 1 : . p. T^^^' 'I164. Epift. 4':. who had folemniy annulled the conliitutions of Clarendon. 4. and throw the difobedient into infinite and eternal . and had abfolved them from all oathswhich they had taken to obferve them That a determined refolution was evidently embraced to opthe florm had lirfi broken upon prefs the church : . his fword could only while that of the church. . they had erred in refigiilng the ecclefiaftical prlvilegeSj the bed atonement they could now make was to retract their confent. which was but too apparent in Plenry and the .larendon. p. that he was the deftined tice victim. and were become criminal by law but an appeal in a civil caufe.

they affe6ted to pity extremely the condition of the exiled primate and the latter even honoured him with a vifit in foreign countries. ZScoiirulerablevaflals of the chief barons b Hift. he withdrew fecretly wandered about in difguife for fome time and at laft took {hipping.\y the fen- The king. wkhor. but un. fitting apart from the biiliops. of Flanders \ and Lewis king of France ^. Philip earl . A farther proof how little fixed the conilitution was at that f Epill. j . and his departure from all oaths and engagements. There were many other reafons which procured him countenance and protection tence. D d 2 gave . jjeckVL . but Becket gave him no leifure to conduft the profecution. der colour of law. . were well pleafed to give him diilurbance in his government and forgetting that this was the common caufe of princes.t iuflice. which however is not infifted on in any of B-ckefs vemonftrances. which the barons. 37. the total ruin of the inflexible pri- obtained a pretext fo much more plaulible for his violence.ainH: him . to elFectuate. 76.C iiAp. p. had given upon the king's claim He departed from the palace aflied Henry's immediate permiffion to feave Northampton and upon meeting with a refufal. ^ Vo\^. Quad. p. and arrived fafely at Gravelines. and joined to fome flieriifTs and barons of the fecond rank". in which city ^ Filz-Steph. he had invited him to fix his refidence ^ The pope. and to make men overlook his former ingratitude towards the king. whofe interefls were more immediately concerned in fupporting him. 403 great council. jealous of the rifing greatnefs of Henry.HENRY mate. Thorn. St. p 36. as well as the enormity of thofe ecclefiaftical privileges^ of which he affefted to be the champion. at SoilTons. and the giving them a place there was a p ilpable irregreat gularity . Th'shiftorian isfiippofed to : mean the more Thefe had notitle tofitin the coiiucil.46. II. : Binifh-^ . having now 1x64. time. would probably have pufhed the affair to ths utmoft extremity a<. The violent and unjult profecution of Becket had a natural tendency to turn the public favour on his fide. He refafed fo much as to \\?:. p.

where he lived for fome years in great magnificence. he had been uncanonically elected by the authority of the royal mandate . gave a cold reception to a CHAP. caufe before the fovereign pontiff. venge. was received with The king. appeals- forbidding any one to to the pope . and dillributed them among the convents in refidense -was affigned ta France and Flanders Becket himfelf in the convent of Pontigny. him anew with that dignity.' in his turn. in rethe greatefl marks of diltindion. he affirmed. had there been at that time any regular check on royal authority. before their departure. under fevere penalties.4ci-J(. partly from a penfion grantsd him on the revenues of that abbey. ries. hebaniflied all the primate's relations and domedics. st6s- The ni-ore to . whom he obliged to fvvear. to the number of four hundred. to whieh. 2feceive any mandates from them. or apply in any or archbifliop ^ eafe . abfolved them from their oath. when they arrived beyond fea. made provilions againfl the confequences of that breach which impended between ^he apoftolic fee. Becket refigned into his hands the fee of Canterbury. his kingdom and all He iffued orders to his jufticia- inhibiting. by which Henry endeavoured to reduce Becket fooner to neceflity. and by a conduct which might be efteemed arbitrary. by a bull. that they would inftantly join their patron. befides invefling. ingratiate himfelf with the pope. attempting in vain to procure a conference with the pope. pretended to abrogate. while Becket him^^J}^1^ felfj who had come to Sens in order to juftify his tj64. But this policy. magnificent embaliy which Henry lent to accufe him . HISTORY OF ENGLAND. feqtieftered the revenues of Canterbury . and Alexander. after England had palled againft him. the fentence which the great council of Henry. partly from remittances made him by the : A French monarch. who departed foon alter for Rome. whither the profperous ftate of his affairs now invited him. loli its effed : The pope.

the national religion. and fhough the limits of the two jurifdidions were difficult to afcertain or define. 97. D d 3 and . but. and in laics with death . his will and pkafure. ei fnncrciim onmnunrine fnUlium patres i§t. and even to ad:¥ance maxims totally incompatible with civil government % Henry had thought it high time to put an end to their pretenfions. though ancient. and formally. 496. to fix thofe powers which belonged to the magi Urate. which. ^ ^is dubitct. •and menacing with fequeftration and banifhment the perfons thenifelves. by breal. it ' 4_-. in the primitive church. in regulars \>y amputation of their feet. and even changed. in. 88. 73. fpiritual which. lays Becktt to xh^ \vxi%.5 to their authority. But as the ignorance of the age encouraged the ecclefiaflics. for the time. who fliould pay obedience to any fuch interdid: : And he farther obliged all his fubjefts to fwear to the ob- Thefe were cdids of the fervance of thofe orders utmoff importance. were |:)eginning to be abolifhed by a contrary pradice. OS Paris.. declaring bring from either of them treafonable to C i-l A P. ct p. affeded the lives and properties of all the fubjecls. 167. in a public council. Hoveden. by moderation OR both fides. The which atlcL'ds all human inflitutlons. kingdom. dependant on the civil. i^ifi ccnjeri. were. In this attempt he was led to re-eftabifh culloms. Thorn p. had by a gradual progrefs reached an equality and independence . and which he was for the future determined to maintain. government might ftill have been conduced in that imperfeci and irregular manner powers. p. Jhceri^'otes Cbrijii t/l regum Epift. as well as their kindred. p. flaily to extend their privileges. M.-ing off all communication with Rome : Yet were theyenaded by the fole authority of the king.H E N R Y -cafe il. > Hid:. 148. a great meafure. it was not impoffible.j^. and punilhable in fecular clergy nien by the lofs of their eyes and by caibation. Qiiail. and were derived entirely from '. ^'^^ an interdid upon the .

.z6. 197. Prin- on the one fide. that he might employ the weapons of temporal power remaining in his hand's. in jeds. ^ Ibid. therefore. who had been ed. Frederic Barbaroifa. . p. ties againll him. 31. 30. ftood . 105. 95. and who was crucified anew in the prefent opprefTions under which his church laboured : He took it for granted. Hovedcn. than that prince had on the other. p._f prevailing opinions and fentinients of the age. from the general favour borne him by the ecclefiaftics.4o6 C y HISTORY OF P. and by thefe who was protected by that emperor expedients he endeavoured to terrify theenterprifmg though prudent pontiif from proceeding to extremi: : : . to have all the advantage in the argument.99. Et Thom. the controverfy muil foon.497. I Epift- 7 But . by the general defedion of Henry's fubBeckct. and which were ftill more flrongly oppofed by the —. condemned by a lay tribunal'. 97. that his caufe was the caufe of God'" He affumed the charaOer of champion for the patrimony of the Divinity He pretended to be the fpiritual father of the king and all the people of England He even told Henry. he feemed flill. 29. order to forward this event. St. who was at that time engaged in violent wars with pope Alexander he difcovered fome intentions of acknowledging Pafcal HI. p. The king. p. H A 1165.Tliox. the prefent anti-pope. F.St. have been decided againft him.jz. p. 194" f itz-Steph. fufpended he made advances the payment of Peter's-pence towards an alliance with the emperor. power on the other and if the Enghfli had been actuated by confcience more than by prefent intereft. ciple.p'ifl. tilled all places with exclamations againll the violence which he had fufferHe compared himfelf to Chrift. 7.N"^ 56Epift. " Brady's Append. 148. that kings reign folely by the authority of the church ° And though he had thus torn oft' the veil more openly on the one fide. E N G L A^N D. 46. Ihom.94. 6^. p. as a point : inconteftable.

pulhed matters to a decifion. flill . p. and others. were fent to Noreffeclual. 499. and having recourfe to a tribunal whole authority he had himfelf attempted to abridge in this very article of appeals. and ordered. to be reilored in two months to all iheir benefices. 239- Beau- Vie dc St. that two legates. had the addrefs to procure orders for fufpending this fentence . he knew. hitCj inltigated by revenge. . Sahfbury. the king's agent with the pope. Paris. only that the prince might avoid the blow by the king's chief miniiters by name. ^6lieu Hilt. Tbom p. was fo deeply engaged on the fide of his adverfary But even this expedient was not likely to be long ''. 407 • nature of the controverfy. a timely repentance The fituation of Henry was fo unhappy. p. William of Pavia and Otho. 'I'hat preing long. exeommunicating more than the c hap. and : . p.-J^^ xi66. and animated by the prefent glory attending his lituation. the ecclefiaflics. p. But John of Oxford. Thorn. M. and iffued a cenfure. comprehending in general all thofe who favoured or obeyed the Thefe conilitutions he conflitutions of Clarendon he abfolved all men from abrogated and annuU». v/hich admitted of no appeal. to attend him. 74. 213.-Steph. 149. - II. and which. p. that he could employ no expedient for faving his minifters from this terrible cenlurc. and in virtue of that authoiity. Epift. and he gave the pontiff fuch hopes of a fpeedy reconcilement between the king and Becket. Quad.d the oaths which they had taken to obferve them and he fufpended the fpiritual thunder over Henry himfdif. but by appealing to the pope himfelf. he fummoned the bifhops of London. under pain of excommunication. fequeilered on his account. P Fit/. St. 93. D d 4 mandy. Hoye- tlen.^^^.in fufpence between the parties. VIII kept affairs from remain.HENRY But the violence of Bccket. Becket had obtained from the pope a legantine commiffion over England .

no lefs feeble in its operadons. which he fent of that prince's conduft and to procure him every poiTible indulgence from the fee of Rome. for protection. as yet.4o8 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. as ufual. took care to protract the negoby the accounts tiation . too opThe king pofite to admit of an accommodation : required. rendered the boundaries of power between the intricacies The prince and his valfals. About this time the king had alfo the addrefs to obtain a difpenfation for the marriage of his third fon Geoffrey. and thereby Idndled a war between the two monarchs. j^^^^. s?67« of the feudal law had. gave great fcandal both to Becket. and between one prince and another. to mitigate the pope. in profecution of fome controverfies. and they en^ deavoured to find expedients for that purpofe.. previoully ta ihould be ratified : any agreement. The cardinal of Pavia alfo. and all wars took their origin from difputes. in that age. France. a vaifal of the dutchy of Guienne. niandy. he and his adherents fliould be re- CHAP. But the pretenfions of the parties were. had no power to pronounce a definitive fentence on either fide. (^?ufe . as uncertain as thofe between the crown and the mitre . '. being much attached to Henry. the negotiation fooa after came to noftored to their pofleffions : And as the legates thing. in which he was involved with the count of Auvergne.J^ ii66. Henry. and to his zealous patron the king of .. which. than it was frivolous in its . had invaded the who had recourfe to territories of that nobleman the king of France. his fuperior lord. confidering Henry's deny merits towards the church. had there been any tribunal poffefied of power to enforce their decrees. ought to have been decided only before a court of judicature. with the heirefs of Britan-i a conceffion which. But this war was. that. that all the conftitutions of Clarendon Becket. where the king then refided.

while he retained fuch a check upon him. ha4 . Jiope Though the vigour of Henry's government had confirmed his authority in all his dominions.HENRY jiated II.Paris. 517. p. pope and the king began at lad to perceive. * Diceto. Jbid. <i He Hoveden. f M. beency*. reafonably imagine that the pope. neighbouring ftates.J^"^' the barons of Poiclou and Guienne. p. The could not. neither of them could expe£l a final and decifive viftory over the other. that. peace were rather difadvantageous to Henry. p. p. in the prefent fituation of afl'airs. rather than relinquifli claims of fuch importance. would formally recognife the conftitutions of Clarendon. 176. by its fituanication tion. that Henry. and would give an example to other Rates of exerting a like independPope Alexander. and as the trials hitherto made of the fpiritual weapons by Becket fion'. C47. on. his French provinces at whofe communication was open with the leall. p. on the other hand. lipift. would join the party of his enemy . his throne might be ihaken by a fentence of excommuand if England itfelf cpuld. by rcafon of his conteft with the by a peace. be more eafily guarded againif the contagion of fuperftitious prejudices. 230.c H A P. 1402. ing ftill engaged in dangerous wars with the emperor Frederic. loft the fuperiority which he had hitherto An addimaintained over the crown of France tional motive to him for accommodating thofe dif: ferences. Ger- St- Xi^om. p. yafe. would be much expofed. that account. to fome great revolution or convuU . and prove that that prince had. and after occafioning fome mu. was termi1167. and that they had more to fear than to from the duration of the controverfy. and fome infurretHons among . 1403. ?f. 4c^ caufe and object . tual depredations^. Robert de Monte. might julily apprehend. which both put an end to papal pretenfions in England. therefore. The terms of this church.

Normandy and after all ditferences became fruitlefs. make A by Backet's infiffing on a like referve in his fubmiffions . which. and every thing had remained quiet in all the king's doniinions. P. in the end. and though the difficulty was attempted to be pvercon. among fuch jealous fpirlts. and to receive the kifs of peace. had not fucceeJed to his expectation. Henry refufed him that honour . with a falvo to his royal dignity . and were anxious not to lofe the leail advantage in the negotiation. and the French prelates where to Becket. vvas conduced at Montmirail. was extremely offenfive to the king. that the negotiation. and the excommunications were renewed Another negotiation againft the king's minifters. with a falvo to the honour of God. alfo offered to his fubmiffions. in prefence of the king of France. The diipoiition of minds on both fides. to prevent the conclufion of the treaty . produced frequent attempts towards but as both parties knew that an accommodation . HA ^ 1168. for a like realon. and when tion. under pretence. was broken off'. which it was ufual for princes to grant in thole times. the effential articles of the difpute could not then be terminated. which gavefuch umbrage . and which was regarded as a fure pledge of forgivcnefs. and rendered the treaty aborthird conference. refulting from thefe circumflances. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. that. Henry offered to fign the treaty. Becket ^169. the primate expected to be "introduced to the king. when all the terms v/ere adjufted.e by a difpenfation which the pope granted to Henry from . This formality ferved.410 •C . nothing feemed impofiible to the capacity and vigilance of fo great a monarch. and even in a fourth treaty. ' . and the liberties of the church . under the fame mediative. The nuncios. they entertained a perpetual jealoufy of each other. . Gratian and Vivian. during his anger. met with the king in feemed to be adjufled. having received a commilnon to endeavour a reconciliation. he had made a rafh vow to that purpofe.

on conditions which may be efteemed both honourable and advantan-eous to that prelate. ^idjul}-. holy and good men.HENRY from his ir. fome " of greater. to depart from the relbUition which he had taken. and the king allowed Becket to return. p. lienry reaped only the advantage of feeing Hovedcn.'^ Lewis was fo ftruck with this flate of the cafe. 411 vow.169. that pnncc could not be prevailed on C il A p. ^^'"'^'^. and their common animofity againft Henry. his .u Becket. foon produced a renewal of their former good cor: : refpondence. cancies \ and Becket have liberty to fupply the va- In return for conceiTions which entrenched fo deeply on the honour and dignity of the crown. and entitled to every '* kind of refped Let Becket but aft towards me *^ with the fame fubmiilion which the greatefl: of " his predeceilbrs have paid to the lead of mine. jjo. and had been filled during the primate's abfence. that all thefe queflions (hould be buried in oblivion . faid to that monarch : king was prefent.69. and withdrawing his friend (liip from him during fome time But the bigotry of that prince. fliould be expelled. and Vv'ith an offer which Henry made to fubmit his caufe to the French clergy. or refign any of thofe pretenfions which had been the It was agreed original ground of the controverfy. but that Becket and his adherents fhould. difficulties All T170. He was not required to give up any rights or the cnurcn. " and there fhall be no controverfy between us.-i conferences. that he could not forbear condemning the primate. without making farther fubmiffion. and that even the poifelTors of fuch benefices as depended on the fee of Canterbury. t Fitz -Stcph. p. be reftored to all their livings. iX!'i^. at which the French In one of thefe . were at laft adjufled between the parties. fome of lefs authority than myfelf *' There have alfo been many archbifliops of Can" terbury. Henry " There have been many kings of England. 63.

before it . confidering the many paft irregularities in that point. Epift. 140S. which. mounted '. p. both enfured the fucceffion of that prince. v/ho Broinpton. 4. j. 794y Epift. p. p. was ready to be laid on much dominions \ It was eafy to fee how he dreaded that event. . his fubjecls renounce their allegiance to Though this defign was conduced with expedition was carried into exeand being decution. Gervafe. if the fentence of excommunication (hould have the effe(3: which he dreaded. humiliated himfelf 10 far as to hold the flirrup of that haughty prelate while he was Henry to reconcile himthe moft exvanity. 704. as well :and fecrecy. Becket. and he preferved at lead: his family on the throne. lib.41? HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Qnnd. pretended . . had got intelligence of it firous of obftruding all Henry's meafures. that he took diflionourable traordinary fleps to flatter his on one occafion. and a fentence of excommunication to be fulminated againfl his per-^ fon. and of pre- venting the interdict. aflbciated with him in the royalty. could not but be efteemed fomewhat precarious. v/hen a prince of fo all his high a fpirit could fubmit to terms fo So anxious in order to prevent it. 104. _ _' 1170. Bcntdid. from the fentence of excommunication pronounced agninfl them. prevent this affront to himielf. and to felf fully with Becket. which.35 753. p.&.5. and even. his miiiillers abfolved c HAP. AbbaS. if thefe hard conditions had not been compHed with. By this precaution he expedients. while he was every day expecting an interdid: to be laid on his kingdom. and to make him be crowned king by the hands of Roger archbifliop of York. prince Henry. the king attained no. Tliom. even that temporary tranquillity which he had hoped to reap from thefe But During the heat of his quarrel with Becket. and lliould make him. St. 7. 70J. 707. 1062. accommodate all diiferences. he had thought it prudent to have his fon. p. 7c6. as anxious to ^ Hilt.

was not content with this voluntary compenfation. recover his rights by officiating in this coronation. Quad. daughter of that monarch. Gommu- . he had inhibited all the prelates of England from alTifting at 137a. and to the two bifhoDs that of ex: : z Hift lii'. On his arrival in England he met the archbifhop of York. had procured from the pope a mandate to the fame purpofe % and had incited the king of France to proteft againft the coronation of young Henry.mandy He notified to the archbifliop the fentence ef fufDennon. as archblfhop of Can. 1414. which was a-kin to its other fuperftiticns. this ceremony. which he pretended to have fuffered. a handle for takinq. that the royal unftion was eflential to the exercife of royal power ' : It was therefore natural both for the king of France. careful of his daughter's eftablifhment. and by the vidory which he had already obtained over his fovereign. unlefs the princefs. to demand. ^''^^' terbury. that befides receiving the acknowledgements of Roger and the other bifliops for the feeming affront put on the fee of Canterbury. who were on their journey to the king in Nor. after apologifmg to Lewis for the omiifion with regard to Margaret. But the violent fpirit of Becket. 103. reven2. tty p. and the bifnops of London and Salifbury. the primate fhould. elated by the power of the church.ift. and excufing it on account of the fecrecy and difpatch requifite for conducting that meafure. * Thorn. to officiate in the coronation. Cervafc. and for Becket. Henry. There prevailed in that age an opinion. 62a.e on all his enemies. p. ^»3 pretended to the fole right. fliould at the fame time receive the royal unftion. jealous of his own dignity. as a farther fatisfaction. Epift. fome fatisfa£lion in this effential point. Thorn- p.H E N R Y II. in the treaty with Henry. but refolved to make the injury.chap. promifed that the ceremony fhould be renewed in the perfons both of the prince and princefs And he affured Becket. p 70S. S.

^^^^ him. from his experience of the difpofitions of his people. we are not.414 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. commonly afcribed to the vindiftive difpofition and imperious charader of Beci^et . Th£ king. to return to his diocefe. two of the king's 1. on hearing of this bold attempt. and Gervafe de Cornhill. therefore. he was received with the fliouts and acclamations of the populace. to look for the caufe of his conduft. In Rochefler. in his paffions alone. who either had affifted at the coronation of the prince.g the conflitutions . or been aclive in the late perfecution of the £xiled clergy. His fagacity had led him to difcover all Henry's intentions . by which he in efieft denounced war againfl the king himfelf. communication. but as this prelate was alfo a man of acknowledged abilities. men of all ranks and ages. and all the towns through which he palTed. he found that he was not miftaken when he reckoned upon the higheft veneration of the public towards his perfon and his dignity. to take poiTeffion of his dk)cefe. and he propofed. Reginald de Warenne. w ho refided at WoodRoke. which at his folicitation the pope ^^^b. Becket's miniHers who were employed on their duty in Kent. and celebrated wdth hymns of joy his triumphant entrance. the clergy. when he proceeded to thefe extremities againfl his enemies. to prevent the execution of them. from bn. had pronounced agalnft them. And though he was obliged. wheniftiment. came forth to meet him. the laity. heedlefs of the reproof. is : CHAP. proceeded. As he approached Southwark. in the molt oftentatious manner. with many others. with the more courage. He proceeded. by order of the young prince. was become fenfible that his enterprife had been too bold in eflabliiliir. by this bold and unexpected affault. to dart his fpiritual thunders He iffued the fentence of excommunication againfl Robert de Broc and Nigel de Sackville. This violent meafure.-0. ther he meant to bring fire and fv/ord into the kingdom ? But the primate.

But Becket determined not to betray the ecclefiaftical privileges by his connivance % and apprehenfive left a prince of fuch profound policy. a fix years' exile would. ft eadily to put thofe laws in execution ^ and to truft to his own abilities. an exprefs avowal of thefe difputed prerogatives. for the prefent. all 415 power. the profecution of Becket. refolved to take all the advantage which royal : . p. if allowed to pro<:eed in his own v/ay. troverfy arofe. 3. and to the courfe of evilhts. as well as from the pope. he was not difpleafed to undo that meafure which had given his enemies fuch advantage againft him . in endeavouring the branches of C to extort from HAP. as well as abrogated by the fentence of the fovereign pontiff.o.ours. Though he dropped. 837. the original ground of the quarrel. he intended.5. which was the utmofl that princes in thofe ages could hope to attain in their difputes with the fee of Rome. in denning II. St. might pr bably in the end prevail. Thom. « Titz-Stcph. 65. b Epift. after his pride was fully gratified by his reftoration. for fuccefs in that perilous He hoped that Becket's experience of enterprife. he to himfelf the right of maintaining. 839. he expcded thenceforth to engage in a more favourable caufe. flill referved that the conftitutions of Clarendon. Thom. p. Confcious alfo of his own violence in attempting to break or fubdue the inflexible primate. in fpite of their clam. St. and he w^s contented that the controvcrfy fhculd terminate in that ambiguous manner. whi. p. his . and the church of England. be fufiicient to teach him more referve in his cppofition or if any con-. and to maintain with iidvantace. «l Epift. ^^^^' ij. were both the ancient cuftoms and the prefent law of the realm And though he knew that the papal clergy afferted them to be impious in themfelves.'e the primate was now in his power % the ancient and undoubted cuftoms of the kinfO drm againft the ufurpations of the clerjy.HENRY tlons of Clarendon.

p. even if attended with the moil fatal confcquences^ would ferve only to gratify his ambition and thirft of glory ^ When the fufpended and excommunicated prelates arrived at Baieux. Paris. Thorn. Parker. to appeafe. 818. The archbifhop of York remarked to him. p. where the king then refided. being veheniCTitly agitated. and which. taking thefe paflionate expreffions to be a hint for Becket 's death. mufl come to an immediate and decifive iflue . . Bwnidi<5i. Alfured offupport from Rome. by the vehemence _. . gave him. and to difconcert the cautious meafures of the king. p. William de Tracij Hugh de Moreville. 74. but which he had endeavoured. io6j. 1414. 86. by all his late negotiations and conceffions. had fo long left him expofed to the enterprifes of that ungrateful and imperious prelate ^. p. that fo long as Becket lived. fecretly withdrew from court Some menacing expreilions which they had dropped. a conteft which he hrmlelf had firfl roufed.4i6 HISTORY OF ENGLANlJ. immediately communicated their thoughts to each other and fwearing to avenge their prince's quarrel. Gervafe. __' 1170. Four gentlemen of his houfehold. he was little intimidated by dangers. which his courage taught him to defpife. he inftantly perceived the confequences . and complained to him of the violent proceedings of Becket. St. . p. he faid. 207. ''. burft forth into an exclamation againfl his fervants. p. Abba. whole want of zeal. M. h p.s. charging them to attempt his prefent victory . 84S. and he was thence thrown into the moft violent commotion. and rigour of his own conduft '. gave and the king difpatci ed a fufpicion of their defign a meflenger after them. and Richard Brito. Reginald Fitz-Urfe. « S Fitz-Stepb. f Epift. Bromptoii. „ Chap. was fenfible that his whole plan of operations was overthrown forefaw that the dangerous contefl between the civil and fpiritual powers. he could never expect to enjoy peace or tranquillity The king himfelf. lo- nothing .

55. and ambition. were engaged to All the wretched literature of the times fupport it. different roads to England. Quad. They followed him thi. crednefs who trufled entirely to the fa- of his character. and had diredled the vehemence of his charafter to the fupport of law and juftice . much more was inlifted on that fide Some faint glimmerings cf common fenfe might fometimes pierce through : > Hift. and honour. CHAP. The fpirit of fuperftition was fo prevalent^ that it infallibly caught every every one whofe intereft. ther. p. Benedidl's church to hear vefpers. by the prejudices of the times. p. I. though they took purpofe. that. a prelate of the moft lofty. arrived nearly about the fame time at Saltwoode near Canterbury . E e the . retired without Becket. he was fo incapable of fear. attacked him before the altar. had he been allowed to remain in his firft ftation. 144- Tiivet. and being there joined by fome afiiflants^ they proceeded in great hafle to the archiepifcopal palace.^0. This was the tragical end of Thomas a Becket. But no man who enters into the genius of that age can reafonably doubt of this prelate*s fmcerity. under the difguife of fanftity. and of zeal for the interefts of religion : An extraordinary perfonage. and having ThonSs^ii cloven his head with many blows. 29. meeting any oppofition. carelefs reafoner. without ufmg any precautions againft their violence. 417 ' nothing againfl the perfon of the primate : But thefe orders arrived too late to prevent their fatal The four aflaiTms. ^^^' 1.HENRY II. he immediately went to St. intrepid. They found the primate. very ilenderly attended 5 and though they threw out many menaces and reproaches againft him. who was able to co- ver to the world. and probably to himfelf. furely. the enterprifes of pride and ambition. Vol.Dee. inftead of being engaged. and inflexible fpirit. to facrifice all private duties and public connexions to ties which he imagined or reprefented as fuperior to every civil and political confideration.

and is a difdain of their antagonifts flyle. no lefs than in himfelf. which had blotted ^>tit the fun. : there lefs cant and grimace in their Nor when they addrefs each other. firfl Henry. proceeded on no principles which they could pretend to juflify : They were more in- c H Ap.jro. perverted fcience. or. which fo much flattered thefe Cvicf domineering palTions. inftead of forming a prefumption of hypocrify. of mankind. and enveloped the face of nature : But thofe who preferved themfelves untainted by the general contagion. are the furefl pledges of their fincere attachment to a caufe. a moft entire and abfohite conviction of the reafon and piety of their : own party. on the report of Becket's violent meafures. and he was immediately fenfible of the dangerous confequences which he had reafon to apprehend from fo unexpected an event. together with the enfigns of fpiritual dignities. than v/hen they compofs manifeftos for the perufal of the public. and ambition. theilluiions of" j. muft attain the higheft honours of martyrdom while his murderer would be ranked among the mofl bloody tyrants that ever v/ere expofed to the hatred and deteftation Interdids and excommunications. Throughout that large collection of letters which bears the name of St. than to their knowledge. in all the retainers of that afpiring prelate. if they ftill retained fome fhare of underdanding Folly was pofTefled of all the fchools as well as all the churches . what was worfe. we find. An archbiihop of reputed : fanftity ailkflinated before the altar.4i8 ^'^^^^ HISTORY OF ENGLAND. violence. which accompanied their conduct. and her votaries affiimed the garb of philofophers. weapons 8 . debted to their total want of inftruftion. . and on account of his zeal in maintaining ecclefiaftical privileges. the thick cloud of ignorance. and had already taken fome fteps towards the execution of that defign But the intelligence of his murder threw the prince into great conflernation . The fpirit of revenge. had purpofed to have him arreded. Thomas. in the exercife of his functions.

and fo peculiarly adapted to the eloquence of popular preachers and declaimers. "» p. the bifhops of Worcefler and Evreux. he fore. and occupied his leifure in taking precautions againft the confequences v/hich he fo juftly apprehended from the murder of the In themfelves fo terrible. when employed ^^'^ in a caufe fo much calculated to worJi on the hu1170. Diceto. he took no care to conceal the depth of his afFiittion ^. Gei-vafe. to ^"p *"^ r convince the pope of perfuade him that he would reap greater advantages thtr king. E of . during three days. 87. with five perfons of inferior quality. p. p. if the cliurch thought proper to efteem him fuch And his concurrence in Becket's martyrdom. p. 1419. than from pro- The The ceeding to extremities againit that kingdom. faw. and from all commerce with his fervants He even refufed. Hoveden. archbilhop of Rouen. In vain would he plead his own innocence. becoming a religious opinion. Neuft. M. Paris. J26. i-i 419 would. would be received with all the implicit credit which belonged to the mod ellabliflied articles of faith. Paris. ^ M. p. 87. ^ : : ' : primate. and they employed every topic of confolation. He fhut himfelf up from the light of day. Though the name and authority ^ Ypod. and as it was extremely his intereit to clear himfelf from all fufpicion. 143. his innocence . man paifions. and orders were given them to perform their journey with the utmoft expedition. 556. point of chief importance to Henry was to Ti7r. or rather. Hift. from the fubmiifions of England. e 2 p. induced him to accept of nouriiliment. be armed with double force.HENRY Weapons II. Thefe confiderations gave the king the moll unafFedted concern . p. all food and fuftenance The courtiers.c A p. were immediately difpatched to Rome "". Quad. and even his total ignorance of the fad: : He was fufficiently guilty. were at iafl obliged to break in upon his folitude . apprehending dangerous eifecls from his defpair. 447.

and run all the hazards of the palfage ". that Becket'S partifans were daily ftimidating him to revenge. Epift. . It was at length agreed that Richard Barre. p.ket's murder. jj6. of the court of Rome were fo terrible in the remote countries of Europe which were funk in profound ignorance. and even con- government in that city . one of their number. He found. that Alexander was already wrought up to the trolled his greatefl rage againft the king. be folemnly comprehended in the number. that his inveterate enemies furrounded the gates of Rome itfelf. and abettors of Becall the adors. in order to prevent the fatal confequences Vv'hich might enfue from any delay in giving^ fatisfadion to his holinefs. and the arch. carried to him the humble or rather abjed fubmiffions of the greateft potentate of the age. on his arrival. the pope was fo little revered at home. found the iitmoft difficulty to make their way to him. with others of fuccefs. St ThoHj. with all the preparations peculiar to the difcharge of that facred artillery. p. and to throw themfelves at his feet.420 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. But Barre found means to appeafe the pontiff. and that the very mention of Henry's name before the facred college was received with every expreffion of horror and execration. and it was expefted that Henry fliould. • Hoveden. ihould leave the rell behind. could not afterwards be eahly recalled : The anathemas were only levelled in general againft accomplices. Henry's . The Thurlday before Eafler was now approaching. if it failed of . from a diltant extremity of Europe. that the king" of France had exhorted him to fulminate the molt dreadful fentence againfl England. The abbot of ValafTe. Vin. 2nd were entirely unacquainted with its charader and condud. JJJl. ^ CHAP. when it is cuftomary for the pope to denounce annual curfes againft all his enemies . and the ambalfadors who. 8^3. dtjacons of Salifbury and Lifieux. and to deter him from a meafurs which.

a fuitable acknowledgment to his memory. Becket's great partifan. rible blow was thus artfully eluded . enriched with prefents from all parts of Chriftendom . and this pecuHar merit challenged. Other faints had only borne teftimony by their fufferings to the general doftrines of chriftianity but Becket had facrificed his life to the power and privileges of the clergy . Snd make every fubThe termiflion that fhould be required of him. and in exalt- ing him above ral ages ail that devoted tribe who in feve- had. and though Henry's foreign dominions w^ere already laid under an interdict by the archbifliop of Sens. and the pope's legate in France. and were ordered to proceed to Normandy for that purpofe . the cardinals aflerting their prince's innocence. in extolling the merits of his martyrdom . E e 3 computed . though their rage was happily diverted from falling on the king. kept €very one in fufpenfe._^ jl^ the whole confiftory. H 421 befides CHAP. more nonfenfical. and the miracles v/rought by his reliques w^ere more numerous. the general €xpe6lation. Two years after his death he was canonized by pope Alexander . than thofe which ever filled the legend of any confeffor or martyr. were not idle in magnifying the fanftity of Becket . meanwhile. pilgrimages were performed to obtain his intercefTion with heaven j and it w^as . that he would fland to the nji. The clergy. his body was removed to a magnificent farine. that the monarch would eafily excul- pate himfelf from any concurrence in the guilt. by their blood. Henry's minifters. and not in vain. before . pope's judgment in the aftair. who foon after arrived. a folemn jubilee was eftabiiflied lor celebrating his merits . and prevented all the bad confequences which might be dreaded from that fentence. Endlefs were the panegyrics on his virtues . and more impudently attefted. cemented the fabric of the temple.^ N R Y II. made oath Albert and Theodin were appointed legates to examine the caufe.

It is indeed a mortifying relleftion to thofe who are actuated by the love of fame. It is only a conqueror. but declared themfelves ready to fuffer for the tenets of their mafler. there came over from Germany about thirty heretics ofbothfexes. p. aperfonage no lefs entitled to our hatred. confent to the impofmg of a tax on all his dominions for the delivery of the Holy Land. all the princes of Europe laid a like impofition on their fubjedls. and whofe induftry was entirely direfted to the purfuit of objeOs pernicious to mankind. fo juftly denominated the lad infirmity of noble rninds. fimple ignorant people. that the wifeft legillator. They made only one convert in England. CHAP. and moft exalted genius that ever reformed or enlightened the In computed. who could give no account of their faith. 1. Gcrvafe. It may not be amifs to remark. p. that world. whofe whole condud was probably to the laft degree odious or contemptible. and to avoid all appearance of He gave his a profane negligence on that head. ^^^^^' 117 one year above a hundred thoufand pilgrims arrived in Canterbury. yet they gave fuch umbrage to the clergy. During this period. which received the name of Saladine's tax. was on every occafion m^ore anxious than ufual to exprefs his zeal for religion.4-22 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. who can pretend to the attainment of equal renown and glory. that the king. before we conclude the fubjeft of Thomas a Becket. and were : o Chron. 74- punifhed . can never expeft fuch tributes of praife as are lavilhed on the memory of pretended faints. Paris. that they were delivered over to the fecular arm. during his controverfy with that prelate. under the direfticn of one Gerard . and Almoft a penny a pound for the four fubfequent °. io99« M. now This tax threatened by the famous Saladine amounted to two pence a pound for one year. and paid their devotions at his tomb. a woman as ignorant as themfelves .

and perifhed through cold and hunger no one daring or being wilHng to give them the ieafl . and by which he hoped to recover his credit. you and pcrfeciite you^. We are : ignorant of the particular tenets it cf^ thefe people For on the reprefentations would be imprudent left of them by the to rely clergy. fomewhat impaired by m Jiis late tranfadlions p Neubr. no immeAs foon as Henry found that he was diate danger from the thunders of the Vatican. relief.te After they were whipped. bable that their departure from the flandard of orthodoxy was ftill more fubtle and minute. and the unity of the church. lung the beatitude. p. he undertook an expedition againft Ireland . . aaJ C then whipped through the flrects. njuhen men hr. They feeni to have been the hrll that ever fuffered for herefy in England. % t & . and as they went along. 391. M. they were thruft out ahnofl naked in the midit of winter. ti 423 by being barnccl on the forehead. a ' i>. 49^}. 74. BleJJ'ed are ye. p. Taris. Heining. p. who affirm that they denied the efficacy of the fu- It is procraments.HENRY puniflied II. They feemed •to exuk in their full'erings. with the hierarchy. a defign whifh he had long projected. ^ ii^i.

not tamed by education. fo was Ireland probably from Britain and the inhabitants of all thefe countries feem to have been fo . many tribes of the Celtse. Conqueji of that ijland— State of Irelandking^s accommodation with the court of Rome — The < Revolt of young Henry and his brothers Wars War with Scotland——— and infurre^ions Penance of Henry for Becket's murder WiU Ham The king of Scotland defeated and taken prifoner The king's accommodation with his fons king's equitable adminijlration Crifades Revolt cf prince Richard Death and characler of Henry Mifcellaneous tranfaclions — ' of his reign. HENRY —— ' II. The Irifh from the beginning of time had been buried in the mofl profound barbarifm and ignorance and as they were never conquered.r 424 . . - S Britain was firfl peopled from Gaul. C H A. IX. fmall principalites into which they were divided. p. State of Ireland. lity. who derive their origin from an antiquity that lies far beyond the records of any hiftory or tradition. a continual fource of domellic convulfions I j the ufual . exercii'ed perpetual rapine and violence againft each other the uncertain fucceffion of their princes was fociety. 117a. they continued flill in the moil rude ftate of and were diftinguiihed by thofe vices alone to which human nature. The or reflrained by laws. is for ever fubjeft. or even invaded by the Romans. from whom all the weftern world derived its civi.

The other inhabitants exercifed pafliurage in the open country . Roderic O'Connor. for the time. ' the other of thefe to take the lead in their wars. than on the expedients for terest. bours. 425 of each petty fovereign was the murderer of his predeceflbr . ill obeyed even within his own territory. Leinfter. were fliil more intent on the means of mutual injury. The ambition of Henry had. king of Connaught. could not unite the people in any meafures either for the eftablifliment of order.__l^^ 1171. but thefe inroads. had been planted along the coaft CHAP. were They had almofl wholly unknown among them.^„. common or even for private in- Besides many fmall tribes. been moved by the profpeft of thefe advantages. and the only towns which were to be found in the ifiand. was then advanced to this dignity s . and a pretence was only wanting to invade a people who. felt the invafions of the Panes and the other northern tribes . five principal fovereignties in the ifland. 527. to attempt the fubjedting of Ireland . or for defence againft foreigners. were more honoured than any pacific virtues j and the moil fmiple arts of Hfe. which had fpread barbarifm in other parts of Europe. Ulfter. to a6t as monarch of Ireland. even tillage and agriculture. tended rather to improve the Irilh . very early in his reign. v. fought proteftion from any danger in their forelis and moralTes . but his government. being always confined to their own ifland. by the freebooters of Norway and Denmark. there was commonly fome prince. though exercifed in the commiflion of crimes. and Connaught and as it had been ufual for the one or . there were in the age of Henry II. who feemed. Munfler. . p. and being divided by the fiercefr animofiuies againft each other. had never given any reafon of complaint to any of their neigh^ Hoveden. Meath. courage and force.HENRY ufual title ir.

which he was one day to maintain with that fee. blifhed it as a point inconteflible. in the year 1156. and to increafe the number of his faints and elect in heaven . and oblige them to pay yearly. commands all the inhabitants to obey him as their fovcreign. in which. and in: vefts . a kingdoms belong to the : penny to the fee of Rome He gives him entire right and authority over the ifiand. 11/2. and being on that account the more difpofed to oblige Henry. by precedent miilions from the Britons. which afuinied a right to difpofe of i^ingdoms and empires . for prefent. was by birtii an Englifliman . For this purpofe. they followed the doctrines of their firft and. the acquifition of a who The Irifh great ifiand to his fpiritual jurifdi6tion. after premifmg that this prince had ever flicwn an anxious care to enlarge the church of God on earth. he acknowledges it to be his own duty to fow among them the feeds of the gofpel. without any hazard or expence. venience. and to make. in order to extirpate the vice and wicked nefs of the natives. therefore. Peter. thtn hlled the papal chair. had. ^ HA IX. that all chrifoan patrimony of St. and not forefeeing the dangerous difputes. the pope regarded as the furefl mark perfect converfion. P. from every houfe. to give fanftion to claims which were now become dangerous to all fovereigns.426 c 'HISTORY OF ENGLAND. or rather for an imaginary conhours. and had never acknowledged fee Adrian. iffued a bull in favour of Henry . he reprefents his defign of fubduing Ireland as derived from the fame pious motives : He confiders his care of previouily applying for the apoftolic fanction as a fure earnelt of fuccefs and victory. he had recourfe to Rome. which might in the He exr Ijill day fruftify to their eternal faivation horts the king to invade Ireland. what of their im- teachers. been imperfeclly converted to chriftianitv . he helped. Adrian III. he was eafily perfuaded to act as mafter of the world. and having efta- any fubjedion to the of Rome.

Dermot . he declined for the prefent embarking in the enterprife. but being at that time embarralfed by the rebellions of his French fubjefts. i. which was become grievous and oppreffive to them. whofe views were already turned towards making acquifitions in Ireland. » M. who. Can'ibr. in an ifland furrounded by a bog . Spencer. wife of . This prince had formed a defign on Dovergiida. on that event. had left his wife fecure. vol.expelled him his kingdom. though armed tion of the fouls of men^ with this authority.the princefs '. Spelm. king of Leinftcr. il 427 with full power all fuch godly indruments as c A i\ proper to employ an enterprife thus calculated for the glory of God and the falvaHenry. 51. vi. did not immediately put his defign in execution . having collected forces. 15. and taking advantage of her hufband's abfence. recourfe to Henry. Dermot Ma. had. but being detained by more intereftino. ii. by his licentious tyranny. p. Paris. p.cafion that offered of throwing off the yoke. vol. vol. who. 760. and offered. though ufual among . and gave he fliould think m ^^" n^a. Rymer. readily accepted the offer . p.HENRY yefts II. Henry. as he thought. invaded the dominions of Dermot. Caxnbr. * Girald. as well as by his difputes with the fee of Rome.Orotic prince of Breffny . rendered himfelf odious to his fubjedf^. who feized with alacrity the firfl oc. to hold his kingdom in vaffalage under the crown of England. and The exiled prince had . craved his affiftance in refforing him to his fovereignty. and rather deemed a proof of gallantry and fpirit \ provoked the refentment of the hufband . the Irifh. being obliged to vifit a diftant part of his territory. he fuddenly invaded the place and carried off This exploit. f p. and being ftrengthened by the alliance of Roderic king of Connaught. waited for a •favourable opportunity of invading Ireland. Girald. who was at this timein Guienne.cmorrogh. 67. Concil. bulinefs on the continent.

flruck a great terror into the barbarous inhabitants.4i8 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. in the recovery of his dominions ". he prepared every thing for the reception of his Englifh allies ". who. but this fmall body. invading Ireland. brought over ten knights and fixty archers. p. came to Briftol . and completely armed. The conjunftion of Maurice de Pendergaft. and meeting with Robert Fitz-Stephens. p. not unac- quainted with difcipline. Dermot no ^^' by which he empowered fubjefts to aid the Irifh Dermot. he made himfelf mafler « Girald. Conqueft The troops of Fitz-Stephens were firft ready. a thing almoft unknown in Ireland. * Ibid. who was of the earl of Strigul. he promifed alliftance to Dermot. about the fame tim. conflable of Abertivi. and Maurice Fitz-Gerald. fixty efquires. 761. he returned privately to his own fiate . to engage adventurers in the enterprife. iiluflrious houfe of Clare. This nobleman. farther afliflance than letters patent. That gentleman landed in Ireland with thirty Ifland*^ after knights. he alfo engaged them in his fervice.e. and be declared heir to all While Richard was aflembling his dominions ^^ his fuccours. being brave men. 760. all his c HAP. which he had founded (for this ruffian was alio a founder of monafteries). and after gaining an advantage. a town inhabited by the Danes . Derm-Ot went into Wales . and lurking in the monaftery of Fernez. and three hundred archers . 761. had impaired his fortune by expenfive pleafuresj and being ready for any defperate undertaking. of . he at laft formed a treaty with Richard. ^'^'J^!^^ prince fupported by this authority. Camb. "" Ibid. p. though for fome time in vain. and obtained their promife of Being now allured of fuccour. furnamed Strongbow. enabled Fitz-Stephens to attempt the fiege of Wexford. and feemed to menace them with fome fignal revolution. and endeavouring. on condition that he fhould efpoufe Eva daughter of that prince.

and prepared to exRoderic and tend his authority over all Ireland. the chief monarch of the ifland. and give hollages for his peaceable behaviour . » Ibid. was foiled in different a6lions . He firfi: fent over Raymond. who. landing near Waterford. prepared himfelf for the execution of his defigns. who brought over two hundred horfe. defeated a body of three thoufand Iriih that had ventured to attack him ^ . p. the other Irifh princes were alarmed at the danger. marrying Eva. in revenge. and as Richard himfelf. 429 Soon after. not content Avith being reflored to his kingdom of Leinfter. and Richard. not fatisfied with the general allowance given by Henry to all his fubje£ts. Roderic. and proceeded to Dublin. and Dermot. p. he fent over a meflenger to the earl of Strigul. with ten knights and feventy archers. and having obtained a cold or ambiguous permiltion. which v/as taken by affault. the prince of Olfory was obliged to fubmit. with ten knights. joined. thirty efquires. one of his retinue. In profecution of thefe views. 767. by the death of Dermot. befieged Dublin y Girald. a few days after. they made themfelves mailers of Waterford. projected the dethroning of Roderic. 767. and difplaying the mighty advantages which might now be reaped by a reinforcement of warlike troops from England. and combining together. and being joined by the former adventurers. and afpired to the fole dominion over the Irifh. Richard.*' archers'". p. Roderic. cut off the head of Dermot*s natural fon.HENRY II. then in Normandy . * Ibud. mafter of the kingdom of Leinfler. challenging the performance of his promife. 76*. compofed a force which nothing in Ireland was able to withftand. the viftorious Englifli. with . 766. who had been left as a hoftage in his hands . Cambr. and a hundred / _! n. and a body of archers. Fitz-Gerald arrived ^ ^^ ^' of the place ''. went to that prince. became foon after.

p. CHAP. vv^hich a durable conqueil could then be made or maintained. p. was by pouring in a multitude of new inhabitants. Cambr. with their followers. that. now dared to oppofe themfelves to the Englifh Hknry. by making him the mod humble fubmiflions. and the other adventurers. fubjecls. and *^ he made preparations to attack Ireland in perfon But Richard. and annexed to the Englifn crown. 775. put this numerous army to rout. which might retain a conquered country in fubjection . found means to appeafe him. ^ Ibid. of trufl Girald. chafed them off the field. eftabliiliing *> all oflices Ibid. 770. and . fcarcely worth relating. and after a ftay of a few months. p. and purNone in Ireland fued them with oreat ilausfhter. The low ffate of commerce and induilry during thofe ages made it imprafticable for princes to fup- port regular armies. jealous of the progrefs made by his own ''. 773. he had no acquifitions in vaffalage to his crown '^.430 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. befides other foldiers fo difpirited by their late misfortunes. He left moll of the Iriih chieftains or princes in poffeilion of their ancient territories beftowed fome lands on the Englifh adventurers gave earl Richard the commiffion of fenefchal of Ireland . and offering to hold all their That monarch landed in Ireland at the head of five hundred He found the Irifh kniqhts. ient orders to recal all the Englifli. in a progrefs Vv'hich he made through the ifland. was Ireland fubduea. with an army of thirty thoufand men: Bat earl Richard. making a fudden Tally at the head of ninety Jinights. : other occupation than to receive the homage of his new fubjeds. by of bearing the expence. returned By thefe trivial exploits. dividing among them them in <^ the lands of the vanquifhed. ^ f^___j xr^a. except for the importance of the confequences. and the extreme barbarifm and poverty of Ireland could ftill lefs afford means The only expedient. in triumph to England.

4. as thev had ever been among the Irifli tribes. and from thefe caufes. It was alio found requifite to beftow great military and arbitrary powers on the leaders. which remained (table on their foundations. e Brompton. were arrived in Norifiand. and to erect kingdoms. the Irifli. and of late the duke of '~\. 1069. nor till that of her fucceifor. the natives. that it gave hopes of . that the iiland was fully fubdued . and were tranfmitted to the poBut the flate of Irefterity of the firft.". who command- ed a handful of men amidfi: fuch hoflile multitudes . Neubrig. ftill retained their animofity againil their hatred was retaliated by like the conquerors injuries . 403. land rendered that iiland lb little inviting to the Englifii.U -v and authority. never fully fubdued. independent authority conferred . and inihead of reclaiming the natives from their uncultivated manners. they were gradually aflimilated to the ancient inhabitants. p. ta whom was committed the trial of his conduct in the murder of archbifliop Becket. Palatinates were creeled in favour of the new adventurers . By this policy. the ^-^• northern invaders of old. to tranJport themfelves thither''. p. mandv . and thereby tninsforming the ancient c u r new people. remained ftill favage and untractable: It was not till the latter end of Elizabeth's reign. conquerors. in a little time. The two legates Albert and Theodin. from time to time.'^ Normandy. becoming a ufeful conquefl: to the Englifn nation. became as much unknown in the Engliih fettlements. that only a few of defperate fortunes could be perfuaded. which was of the lad importance to his interert and lafc^^y. during the courfe of four centuries. and lav/ and equity. Besides that the eafy and peaceable fubmiffion of the Irifli left Henry no farther occupation in that he was recalled from it by another incident. and degenerated from the cuftoms of their own nation.HENRY inhabitants into a II. had been able to fix their dominion.

77?. commanding or dehring the death he was extremely grieved when But as the paifion. where their demands were fo exorbitant. thereformed by the afl'afiins.-iccomj-j with the coin t (. found themfelves obliged to lower their terms and Henry was fo fortunate as to conclude an accommodation with them. he ftipulated the following conditions. pafl for taking advantage of that tragical incident which. and being impatient of delay. fent hint ^J^^ frequent letters. . threatened to return to Ireland. when lenting to the people murder of the primate. that he fhould pardon. as an atonement for .. that the fgg Qf Canterbury fhould be reinftated in all its ancient poilefTions . Cambr. fum . fore. figns Iiis entire innocence in the and his ignorance of the de- The legates. who had been very induftrious in reprefluence as it . gained had contributed to appeafe the minds of men : The event could not now have the fame in- was recent and as the clergy every day looked for an accommodation with the king.^3*2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ^j ^ gg ^^^ i^g^j^ banilhed for adherinor to Becker. was capable of throwing the whole kingdom into comBut the time which Henry had happily buftion. Theking's the oft'ence . mandy 1172. before the reliques of the faints. if he protrafted any longer making his appearance before them ^ He haftened therefore to Normandy.f promifed. had it been hotly purfued by interdifts and excommunications. He declared upon oath. that he fliould pay the templars a i He Giiald. and had a conference with them at Savigny. and Ihould reitore them to tneir livings . full of menaces. he received intel- which he had expreiled on account of that prelate's conduct. had probably been the occafion of his murder. they had not oppofed the pretenfions of his partifans. p. and bade them do their worft againlt him. ligence of it : that. They perceived that the feafon was now . C H A P. fo far from of the archbifliop. that he broke off the negotiation.

560. ^^' 1. by treaty. And on the whole. mas following. that he fhould not infill on the oblerv- ance of fuch cuftoms. and was confirmed in the grant of Ireland made by pope Adrian ^ and nothing proves more ftrongly the . Chron. Vol. 1071. h Brompton. but fliould content himfelf with exadting fufficient fecurity from fuch clergymen as left his dominions to profecute an appeal. M. that they ihould attempt nothing againll the rights of his crown 5. Liber Nig. than his extricating himfelf on fuch eafy terms.Paris. Gerv. p. ferve three years againft the infidels either in Spain or Paleftine . p. I. p. great abilities of this monarch. but as the king was alfo permitted to exadt reafonable fecurities from the parties. as had been introduced in his ow n time^ and that he fliould not obftrud appeals to the pope in ecclefiaflical caufes. he had it virtually in his power to prevent the pope from reaping any advantage by this feeming conceflion. to maintain his pretenfions. and might flretch his demands on this head as far as he pleafed. but the ancient cufloms of the kingdom . He had though the pope and his legates feem fo little to have conceived the king's power to lie under any legal limitations. 142a. if the pope required it. Apthe pope w^ere indeed permitted by that peals to treaty . from fo difficult a fitu- always infilled. Hoveden. and he was flill at liberty. p. 34. that he Ihould himfelf take the crofs at the Chriil- A P. from one of the mofl moment« Diceto. 529. that the laws eflablifhed at Clarendon contained not any new claims. ri 433 the fubfiHience of two c hundred knights during a year in the Holy Land . that they were fatisfied with his departing. Benedid:. p. Abb..H E N R Y fum of money fufficient for II. p. Upon figning thefe conceffions. the conflitutions of Clarendon remained flill the law of the realm ation. p..7. Scac. notwithflanding the articles of this agreement. and. derogatory to ecclefiadical privileges. F f ous . Henry received abfolution from the legates. 88. 47.

might eafily lend to each other mutual afliftance both againif inteftine commotions and fordgn im^adons. Abb. Humbert count of Savoy and and was to receive as herdowry confi- derable demefnes in Piedmont. Ypod. jj. the dutchy of Normandy. Brompton. the dutchy of Britanny j and the new con« qued of Ireland was dedined for the appanage of . p.434. 562. Maine. Rymer. gave both luflre and authority to his crown. and didurbing i his government. his elded fon. the only daughter of Maurienne . vol. freed from this dangerous controverfy with the ecclefiaftics. But this exaltation of his. ous articles of thefe conftitutions. a marriage withAdelais. cited the jealoufy of all his neighbours. his fecond fon. in right of his wife. 38. Hoveden. family exDauphiny '. without requiringany repeal by the flates of the kingdom. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and repreffed all pretenfions of the ambitious barons- ii7»- A The ral king's precaution alfo. and the counties of Anjou. rW . in eftablifhing the feve- branches of his family. and to be equally happy in his domedic fituation and in his political govern^ numerous progeny of fons and daughters ment. to be his fucceffor in the kingdom of England. prevented the dangers of a difputed fucceffion. and with the fee of Rome. Diceto. 53*. He had alfo negotiated. whofe fortunes he had fo anxioufly €^dablid-ied. feemed well calculated to prevent all jealoufy among the brothers. Richard. He had appointed Henry. p. Bened. inherited. Brefle. p. and Touraine territories which lay contiguous. felicity. his fourth fon^ favour of this lad prince. p. who made ^hofe very fons. Neuft. his third fon. in •John. Savoy.. by that means. 1081. 448. and which. and to perpetilate the greatnefs of his family. Henry. was inveded in the dutchy of Guienne and county of Poic- tou Geoffrey. i. and. feemed now to have reached the pinnacle of human grandeur and. the means of embittering his future hfe>. p. p.

and affociated the princefs Margaret. liberal. This faying. or even for an oblique his his compliment to fatherj was however regarded as a fymptom of afpiring temper and his condudl foon after . 1463. munificent. juftined the conjefture. Gerv. permitted his fon to be crowned anew by the hands of the archbilhop of Roiien. and that the coronation robe. are the forerunner of the greateil calamities is ^. fpoufe to young Henry. Trivet. Chron. without conferring on him any prefent participation of royalty . DIceto. to crown the fon during the lifetime ^J*' of the father. Lewis perfuaded his ^ Henry. ambitious. and afpire to indeBrave. Thoue-h it had been the conflant young of o pra6tice of France. he difcovered qualities which gave great luftre to youth . his father. prognofticare a fliining fortune . p. p. unlefs tempered in mature age with difcretion. ia order to give greater faid. which might pafs only for an innocent pleafantry. and obferved to his fon. who was rifing to man's eftate.y more royally fcrved. in the cere117J' '. // is faid young Henry to one of nothing extrahis courtiers. Chron. p. that at the time when this dignity to the ceremony. p. ySz. Brompton. money of that agp.HENRY Young : II. J' by this ceremony. who took the opportunity of infliiling into the young prince thofe ambidous fentiments to which he was naturally but too ^<^^°^t much inclined "". four pence.. 1421. ofHciated at table as one of the retinue . began to dilplay his character. p. CHAP. Gervaf. if the fon of a count Jhould ferve the fon of a king. ^^^ 117a. but. allowed him to pay a vilit mony He afterwards to his father-in-law at Paris. p. 435 Henry. that filk garments were then known in England. of the yonng king and queen coft eighty-feven pounds ten {hillings and "» Girald. ever fmce the acceffion of the Henry and ^^'^' Capetian Hne. 1080. p. which in thofe I Hoveden. It appears from Madox'sHiftory of the Exchequer. agreeably to the promlfe which he had given both to the pope and French king. 560. F f 2 ages . pendence affable . It prince received the royal unclion. 58. that never king vi^as ordinary. Cambr. 529. that. fon-in-Iaw.

municated her difcontents againft Henry to her two younger fons. whether fuccefsful or not. young Henry. Geoffrey and Richard . or the dutchy of Normandy . or at leall a part of his domiIn confequence of thefe extravagant ideas. three boys. an efcape to the fame court. without injulllce. Thus Europe faw with aftonifhment the beil and moil indulgent of parents at war with his whole family . and thrown into coniinement. perfuaded fo important. mufl be extremely calamitous and difagreeable to him.jnd abfurd pretenfions. Queen Eleanor. and had the profpecl of dangerous intrigues. and was meditating. Henry. where he was protected and fupported by that monarch. herfelf. deemed them of the that they were alfo entitled to prefent poffeffion engaged them to fly fecretly to the court of France . nions. dil'covered great difcontent on the refufal . was no lefs offenfive to her fecond by her jealoufy . She comevery circumflance of female weaknefs.• when fhe was feized by orders from her hufband. to dethrone himfelf in their favour . which muft: have affected him in the mod fenfible manner.^^ title to fovereignty. on his return. fion of the whole. Whii.. who had difgufted her firft hufband by her gallantries. he recei\'^d intelligence of new misfortunes. in the full vigour of his age and territories affigned to them . and foon after. and that the king could not. and feveral princes not afhamed to fupport them in thefe unnatural . in concert with Lewis. or even of a war. fpake in the mod undutiful terms of his father . made his efcape to Paris.e Henry was alarmed at this incident. he had acquh'ed a ^^^5^. and had even put on man's apparel for that purpofe . defired the king to refign to him either the crown of England. . ages was CHAP. and after this manner carried to extremity. require a great monarch. whicli. height of his reputation. exclude him from immediate poflef1172. fcarcely arrived at the age of puberty. in the different periods of her life.436 HISTORY OV ENGLAND'.

tp pillage the open country. to infeft the highways. 136. Fejira jurifdi^ionis ftrange paper is ejl regnum Anglia. after takftep. et feudatorii juris obligatioTiem. whom he found fuch relu6lance to punifh by the fword of the magillrate ". F f 3 The . ing in vain this humiliating have recourfe to arms. as are king. iflued the buIU required of him : But it was foon found. in Biblioth. thefe fpiritual weapons had not the fame force as when : employed in a fpiritual controverfy . had recourfe to the court of Rome v^. 62. Alexander. and have feldom been employed by fo wife and juft a monarch. p. i. to excommunicate his enemies. i. p. torn. The loofe government which prevailed in all the ftates of Europe. Patr. 413. the many private wars carried on among the neighbouring nobles.^ Though fenfible of" the danger attending the inter. njobis duntaxat obnoxius teneor. and the impolTibiiity of enforcing any general execution of the laws. under leaders pf their own : the ufual refource n Epift.CHAP. p.H E N R Y Henry. well pleafed to exert his power in fo juftifiable a caufe. and to brave j^ll the efforts of the civil magillrate. Petri Blef. he applied to the pope. o Ncubrig.^>^. which was nowife calculated to promote the immediate interefts of their order. and to aries. fometimes in that of another : They often aded in an independent manner. and even thp excommunications of the church. pofition of ecclefiaftical authority in temporal difputes. and by thefc cenfures to reduce to obedience his undutiful children.1173. vol. as his fuperior lord. was obliged to enlifl The ' fuch auxili- of tyrants. vol. which wer^ fulminated againll: them". Rymer. II.epift. 1048- His words are. in quanlum od The fame p. Troops of them were fometimes enlifted in the fervice of one prince or baron. xxiy. apd Trivet. that. 35. able fituation. had encouraged a tribe of banditti to dilturb every where the public peace. 437 reduced to this perilous and difagree. and that the clergy were very negligent in fupporting a fentence.

a vigilant government. pernicious to induftry. for iubfiftence. minions. as well as to the exe-s cution of juftice. which decided the political quarrels of princes. were more defirous of being ruled by young princes. reduced to poverty by their ravages. veral of them were enlifted i . ceived the name fometimes of Braban9ons. among themifelves. 570. Gcrv.47. Difaffedion had creeped in among P r Chron. Blef. ignorant of public affairs. were frequently obli-< "^^"fT^ ged. hardinefs.43S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. epift. was thus carried on in the bowels Thofe defperate ruffians reof every kingdom p. which of mankind. they knew. the . many of the . and profufe in their grants . and the fituation of his affairs rendered even fuch banditti the only forces on whofe fidehty he could repofe any His licentious barons. remifs in their conduft.. difgufted with . 1 Petr. they generally compofed the moft formidable part of tjhofe armies.Sefet at defiance the reft .confidence. to betake themfelves to a like diforderiy courfe of life : And a continual inteftine war. muff fome time become ' : by Henry's enemies their fovereigns. but for what rea{6ii is not agreed by hiflorians kind of fociety or government : And they formed g. and courage. The peaceable and Induftrlbus inhabitants. The greateft monarchs were not afliamedy on occafion. Henry had deferted to his fon the Breton and Gafcon barons feeme4 Norman equally difpofed to ernbrace the quarrel of Geoffrey and Richard. and as the king had enfured to his fons the fuccellion to every particular province of his do-. DicetOj p. fome-times of Routiersor Cottereaux . Prompted by nobility thefe motives. the nobles dreaded no danger in adhering to -thofe who. and as their to have recourfe to their affiftance habits of war and depredation had given them experience. among the forces levied but the great treafures amafl'ed by that prince enabled him to engage more numerous troops of them in his fervice . p. 1461.

and having made a new great he lavifhly diftributed among ?confiderable parts of thofe territories them many which he pui- pofed to conquer from his father. formed the fole force with which he intended to refifl his enemies. had alfo entered into this great confede>racy . bound himfclf by .H E N R Y the Englifli ter in . Brabancons. The counts of Flanders. therefore. Hostilities were firit conimencedby the counts ^f Flandea^s and Boulogne on the frontiers of Nor- mandy^ Thofe princes laid fiege to Aumale.co. partly moved by the general jealoufy arifing from Henry's power and ambition. a like tie . Boulogne. particular had openly declared againft the ^J?^1. king. and a few barons of approved fidelity. king of •Scotland.never to de- fert his 'French allies feal. opened the gates of all his other lortreffes. received their approbation of his meafur.es. paying his ranfom. in order to bind the confederates in a 'clofer union.ve an4 . William.CHAP. The two counts next befiegedand made themfelves mafters of Drincourt But the count of Boulogne was here mortally wounded in the alfault and this incident put fome flop to the progrefs of the Flemifh arms. declared openly in favour of the latter. them by oath to adhere to the caufe of young Henry. •in Twenty thoufand 1173. This prince. joined to foine troops which he brought over from •Ireland. and a plan was concerted for a general invafion on different parts of the king's extenfi.. which was delivered into their hands by the treachery of the . Lewis. IT. and Eu. partly allured by the profpect of reaping advantage from the inconfiderate temper . : F f 4 In • . 439 and the earls of Leicefter and Chff. Blois.factious dominions. fummoned at Paris an affembly of the chief vaffals of the crown.unt of that name This nobleman furrei> •dered himfelf prifoner and on pretence of thereby : . return. and engaged.and the neceihties of the young prince.

^- CHAP. as was now expired. and a proportionable number of inf^ntry Carrying young Henry along with him. and terminate the difference between Henry and his fons. laft of thefe days. in order to eflablifh a general peace. he laid fiege to Verneiiil. fent the archbifhop of Sens and the count of Blois to the Englifh camp. fhelter . being ftraitened for provifions. fet fire to the place. who palTionately deured this accommodation. but Lev/is. after Lewis's retreat. had fent againll them. according to the capitulation. Henry appeared with his army upon the heights above Verneiiil Lewis. The two armies came to an adion near Dol where the rebels were defeated. . gave his confent . that morning. the governors. were obliged to capitulate . and began to retire with his army. the garrifon. to furrender On the the town. fifteen hundred killed on the fpot. but their progrefs was checked by a body of Braban^ons. the earls of Chefter and Fougeres. if not reheved within three days. the king of France. After he had lain a month before : the place.. and to retire into the citadel. and fufpecled no fraud. inftigated by the earl of Chefter and Ralph de Fourgeres. aflembled a great army of feven thoufand knights and their followers on horfeback. put them to rout. which the king. and they enga- ged. The nobles of Brittany. and took feveral prifoners. did fome execution. and defired that next day iliould be appointed for a conference. were all in arms . dreading an attack. their time of fervice The French army. Henry provoked at this artifice. The king.440 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. ^ ij^ Wars and "'003^'^' In another quarter. immediately into their feveral difperfed themfelves provinces and • Plenry free to profecute his advantages againlt his other enemies. and the leaders. obliging the garrifon to furrender. being flrongly afTifled by his vaflals. obliged to take left . attacked the rear with vigour. which was vigoroufly defended by Hugh de Lacy and Hugh de Beauchamp.

would terminate hoitilities on fome moderate and reafonable conditions. 108S. p. The two monarchs met between Trie and Gifors and Henry had here the mortification to fee his three fons in the retinue of his mortal enemy. with fome places of furety in that king- he rather chofe to refide in Normandy. the king made them fuch offers as children mi<Tht be afhamed to infifl on. to Richard in Guienne. and he even put alfo prefent at the negotiation s Hoveden. earl of Leicefter was and either from the impetuofity of his temper. the infurreclions were entirely quelled in Britanny and the king. He infifted only on retaining the fovereign authority in all his dominions but offered young Henry half the revenues of England. or by the prefent neceflity of his affairs '. As Lewis had no other pretence for war than fupporting the claims of the young princes. Henry entirely frullrated. finding all their mighty efforts in the town of Dol.HENRY flielter II.^^* tack with fuch ardour. that he obHged the gover117. or from a view of abruptly breaking off a conference which muft cover the allies with <:onfufion. and could be extorted from him by nothing but his parental affection. By thefe vigorous meaiures and happy fuccefles. 536. and if thefe conceffions were not deemed fufficient. p.. with He made a like offer all thofe of Anjou. he agreed to add to them whatever the pope's legates. willingly agreed to a conference with Lewis. thus fortunate in all quarters. and carried on the at. he gave vent to the mofl violent reproaches againft Henry. p. 539. in hopes that his enemies. Brompton. The . . half the revenues of that dutchy. he promifed to refign Britanny to Geofirey . haflened to C H A form the fiege of that place. nor and garrifon to furrender themfelves prifoners. who were prefent. 441 p. t Ibid. if fliould require of him '. dom or. his .

where his authority was expofed to the mojft imminent danger. One article of prince Henry's agreement with his foreign confederates was. invafion of eccleliailical immunities. 508. with. * Hoveden. Yet or public fpirit prevailed among the independent Englifh nobihty. 536. hand to his fword. notwithftanding fo little national which mull have pro<luced the ruin of the kingdom. and put an end to the treaty ". prior of Dover. or that they were entirely fatisfied with Henry's atonement for the murder of Becket.out his fwearing to attempt nothing againll the royal prerogatives . admitted no legate into England. however. M7. p. in the place of that turbulent prelate "". Hovcdcn. and this pernicious concefiion. p. that he fliould refign Kent. 533. and for his former with whom and the biiliops. The king's principal refource lay in the church he was now in ther that the decency of their chara^flter made theni afhamed of fupporting fo unnatural a rebellion. »» p. perfeft agreement j whe«- That prince. 1084. had refigned none of the effential rights of his ctown ftill in the accommodation. with Dover. p. Thje chief hopes of Henry's enemies feemed now to depend on the ftate of aifairs in Engiand. Brompton. he maiur tained the fame prudent jealoufy of the court of Rome . eleftion on the vacancy made by the death of Becket. and he had even obliged the monks who pretended to a free of Canterbury. the greater part of them had confpired to make an infurreclion. This furious atlion threw the whole company into confufion. that. fo wholly bent were they on the aggrandizement each of himfelf and his own family. Ncub. ^ Ibid.4^^ his HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p. to fupport the prince's pretenfions. into the hands of the earl of Flanders ^ . 537. to chufe Roger. as if he meant to attempt feme violence againil him. The . and all its other fortreiTes.

The Flemings. whom Henry had left guardian of the realm. fons. the conftable. had advanced to Farnham. with a lefs numerous. had made upon Suffolk. ten thoufand of them w^ere put to the fword. The more to augearl of The Ferrars. II. and Cornwal. and encouraged by the king's own own prife. Architel de Mallory. but braver army. Hamo de Mafcie. which the earl of Leicefter. and marching into the heart of the kingdom. though vigoroufly fupported by Geoffrey biftiop of Lincoln. where they hoped to be fupported by Leicefler's vaffals. found it difficult to defend himfelf on all quarters. who were moftly weavers and artificers (for manufactures were now beginning to be eftabliflied in Flanders). at the head of a great body of Flemings. and the remains of fation of arms. he Y^l\ ^d'* retreated into his own country. frofh fo many ppen and concealed enemies. affifted by Humphry Bohun. determined to perfevere in their enter- Roger de Moubray. but being oppofed by Richard de Lucy. Richard de Morreville. rofe in arms The fidelity of the earls of Clare and Glocefter was fufpeded . 1173. who. the earl of* Leicefter was taken prifoner. the king*s natural fon by the fair Rofamond. The Flemings had been joined by Hugh Bigod. Glocefter. were broken in an inftant. : ment .HENRY The Northumberland. and agreed to a cefThis truce enabled the guardian to march fouthward with his army. being fupported by the alliance of fo many foreign princes. in order to oppofe an invafion. they were met by Lucv. This great defeat did not difhearten the malcontents . who. ' the invaders were glad to treat into their compound for a fafe reii74» country. king of Scotland made an irruption into and committed great devaftations. and the earls of Arundel. to oppofe them. together with many friends of the earls of Leicefter and Chefter. and the guardian. who made them maflers of his caftle of Framlingham .

^. and tender his fubmiiiions to a dead enemy. ^' ^ broke into the northern army^ of 80.. he difmounted. the king of Scotland. though undifcipHned and diforderly. 501.^. and knowing the influence of fuperftition over the minds of the people. J174. poilure of of danger . got foon after the agreeable intelligence of a great vidory which his generals had obtained over the Scots. provinces with a great reliques. put a monks. was become dangerous from the prefent faclious and turbulent fpi-p rit of the kingdom. and watched all night the holy y. as was reported.000 men.444 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p. and which being gained. now found England the feat a. As foon as he came within fight of the church of Canterbury. or by his condu6b and He landed at Southcourage to fubdue them. and had put his frontiers in defence. and he determined by his prefence to overawe the malcontents. Not content with this hypocritical de- votion towards a man. ' and had been the object of his moft inveterate animoiity. was rey Heming. which. and prefented his bare fhoulders to the lafhes which thefe ecclcfiaftics fuccelTively inflided upon him. and better fitted for committing devaftation.. in order to make atonement to the aflies murder of Thomas a Becket. oii the very day of his abfolution. he haflened to CanHe'iTr"'^?^ Bcckfts terbury. whofe violence and ingratitude had fo long difquieted his government. He alTembled a chapter of the difrobed himfelf before them. than for executing any military enterprife. Next day he received abfolution . 8th July ampton . he fubmitted to a penance ftill more fmgular and humiliating. on the expiration of the truce. proftrated himfelf before the fiirine of the faint. garded . and departing for London.^^ ^x ^^^^ ^^^ confufion. fcourge of difcipline into the hands of each. remained in fading and prayer during a whole day. Henry. who had baffled all his enemies in France. walked barefoot towards it.

near the Scottifn cam. and difcord arifing among them. eneBut Glanville. Robert de : Stuteville. hearing of this difailer. the famous jufticiary. \¥il]iam de Vefci. 445 garded as the earned of his final reconciliation with C H A p. together with the gallant bifnop of Lincoln. and he fixed his camp He had here weakened his army ex-' at Alnwici tremely. though repulfed be1174.i3tlijuly» lefs of the great numbers of the enemy. had committed the mofl horrible depredaBut on the aptions upon the northern provinces proach of Ralph de Glanville. he thought proper to retreat nearer his own country. arrived in the morning. that he took the Englilh. he immediately fet out towards evenHe marched that night aboveing for Alnwic. fled on all '^^J^^^/^ fides with the utmoft precipitation. as he imagined. and fuffered : more . he began the attack with his fmall but determined body of cavalry. feconded by Barnard de Baliol. in confidence that the numerous army which furrounded him would foon hafi:en to his relief. he entered on the adion with no greater body than a hundred horfe. caftle of Prudhow. He was dif. they proceeded even to mutual hoftilities. Scotland while his troops. Odonel de Umfreville. thirty miles . William was living in fuch fupine fecurity. who were returning to But the fight of their banners convincthe camp ing him of his miftake.^-C^ William king of Scots. v^. made a hafty and fatiguing march to Newcaftle and allowing his foldiers only a fmall interval for refrelhment. for a body of his own ravagers.p . The difperfed pnfoncr. and regard. and taken prifoner . and he lay abfolutely fafe. from any attack of the. by fending out numerous detachments in order to extend his ravages . my. and other fortified fore the places.HENRY II. and other northern barons. under cover of a mill. informed of his fituation. at firfl.JJ?'"'^5?* mounted on the firft fhock. ravagers made the befl of their way to their own" country . TV" Heaven and with Thomas a Becket.

more from each enemy. and propagated an opinion which was fo favourable to his into refift tereils ^. and Henry. Laurence . and entirely broke the This of the Englifli rebels. p. Hugh Bigod. which. all ' abandoned Hovcden. in that fuperflitious agej was deemed not very honourable. during the abfence of the king. who. and had laid fiege to Rouen \ The place was defended with great vigour by the inhabitants ^ . v/ho was preparing to revolt. had made an irruption into Normandy. though he had received a ilrong reinforcement of Flemings. inftead of oppofing this fuperftition. all England was reftored to tranquillity in a few weeks . hearing that his partifans in England were thoughts of the enterprife. and as the king appeared to lie under the immediate protection of Heaven. Prince Henry. 578. was obliged to fpirit furrender all his caflles. the inferior rebels imitating the example. ^ Diceto. p. The clergy exalted anew the merits and powerful intercefiion of Becket . to embark at Gravelines. on pretence of celebrating the feftival of St. plumed himfelf on the new friendfliip of the faint. and throw himfelf on the king's mercy . it was deemed impious any longer him. He proclaimed in his own camp a ceffation of arms. who was ready . and when the citizens. than from that of the 1X74* great and important viftory proved at lafl decifive in favour of Henry. other's fword. he purpofed to take advantage fuppreffed. no better reCource was left to the earl of Ferrars and Roger de Moubray . and Lewis. ^ ^ Bromptoa. The biiliop of Durham. 1096. fuppofmg themfelves in fafety. were fo imprudent as to remit their guard. p. defpairing of fuccefs by open force.446 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. made his fubmilTions . of . and joined the camp of Lewis. with the earl of Flanders and a great army. tried to gain the town by a ftratagem. 539.

. After making a ceffation of arms. had. ^^• mere curiofity. found means to raife him. alarm. had already mounted the walls in feveral places . were obliged to retreat with confiderable lofs ". 4ii- Heming. but being repulfcd by the enraged citizens. however. which had been walled up. from c H A v. a neceflity on both fide's. and he prepared to pulh his advantages againfl the enemy. Henry could no longer for an accommodation. and gave warning to the inhabitants. and entered Roiien in fight of the French army. and obferving the French camp in mo. v/ho had haftened to the defence of his Norman dominions> pafled over the bridge in triumph . Lewis faved himfelf from this perilous fituation by deceit not fo juftifiable. 503. which he knew would be greedily embraced by Henry . He proai new piece of pofed a conference for adjufting the terms of a general peace. There was. Ncubrig. where the alarmbell hung . he made a retreat with his army into France. on hearing the veral ftations. and while the king of England trufted to the execution of his promife. E N R Y II. p. mounted a fteeple. and abfolute mafter of his dominions. The moft ma* Br.^"^C^ tion.H 6f their fecurity. fome priefts had. victorious in all quarters... p. and Lewis dreaded. hurried to the affault. and the king. left this great monarch. crowned with glory. 447 Happily. who. The city was now in abfolute fafety . . and ftill more the intrigues of France. commanded the gates. to be opened . they immediately rang the bell. Next day Henry.ompton^ p. might take revenge for the many dangers and difquietudes whichthe arms. where Henry granted his fons much lefa advantageous terms than he had formerly offered ^ and he received their fubmiffions. 1056. terial. who ran to their feThe French. a conference was agreed on near Tours . in his difputes both with Becket and his fons. bear to fee his three fons in the hands of his enemy . in order tobrave the French monarch.

540. 35- Bened. J Rymer. Heming. 36. and Jedborough. 36. about nine hundred knights whom he had taken prifoners . Diceto. p. dation with his Of all thofe who had embraced the caufe of ths young prince. Theking-s together with an indemnity for all their adherents. of his conceffions were fome penfions which he ftipulated to pay them. brought up all his ba* «". He ftipulated to do homage to Henry for Scotland and all his other poffefTions . and acknowledged him and his fucceifors for their fuperior lord ^ The Englifh monarch ftretched ftill farther He the rigour of the conditions which he exacted. and they did homage to Henry in the cathedral of York. 36. 584. p. p. Roxborough. he engaged that all the barons and nobility of his kingdom fliould alfo do homage j that the bifnops fhould take an oath of fealty . i Paris. p. Brompton^ p. 583. Dunft. icth Aug. their native prince. 1 103. 251. 113. e Brompton. Diceto. p. 1098. being releafed. Chron.44^ History teriai . Hoveden. p. Stirling. vol. 91. Abb. This fevere and till the performance of articles humiliating treaty was executed in its full rigour. 7 to .Weft. CHAP. p. if the latter Ihould break his engagements . p.1. ^ . prelates. engaged the king and dates of Scotland to make a perpetual ceOion of the fortrelTes of Berwic. rol. without exadling any ranfom. Bened. 505. p. Hoveden. f p. p. Chron. Liber Niger Scaccarii. p. p. 39. M. M. and Roxborough. William. and that the fortrefles of Edinburgh. Abb. and fome caftles which he granted them for the place of their refidence 1174. fhould be delivered into Henry*s hands. but it coft William the ancient independency of his crown as the price of his liberty. Rymer. William king of Scotland was the only confiderable lofer by that invidious and unjuil enterprife. 545!. Berwic. Henry delivered from confinement. 88. of englAnij. who Were reflored to their eilates and honours ^. p. and to allow the caftle of Edinburgh rons. p. and abbots . Dunft. that both fhould fwear to adhere to the king of England againft 1175.

and they were commonly calculated as well for the future as the fevere penalties prefent happinefs of his kingdom. extricated himfelf with honour from a fituation in which his throne was expofed to great danger. had been gradually difufed and feems to have been entirely abolifhed by the rigour of thefe flatutes.Cirniiii - itrat. Spicileg. fhcw fuch largenefs of thought as qualified him for being a legiflator . Hoveden. quite incredible. flill fubof lenity. was employed for feveral years in the adminiftration of Henry having thus. and yet was Indeed. difficulty. fo William paid. whom he had taken prifoner in battle. deliverance.thirds of h it levied with great only could be paid before his p.j. Vol. were. befides England. p. two. 449 This was the firfl great afcendaiit which England obtained over Scotland.on. in the execution of the laws. or the political inflitutions of The provifions that age. which he made. G g Med j . Abb. 133.000 marks. King's "{'ilS^l'** ti. without provocation. combined againfl: him ^. and in guarding againfl thofe inconveniences. I. to remain in his hands for a Hmited time. in which all the neighbours of that prince. p. though condemned by the church '. robbery. which has a falfe appearance He enatled againfl 1176. The ranfom of many rich territories was only 150. jufdce. Few princes have been fo fortunate as to gain confiderable advantages over their weaker neighbours with lefs violence and injuftice than was praftifed by Henry againfl the king of Scots. The fuperflitious trial by water ordeal. 8 Some Scotch hiftorians pretend. which is Richard I.H E N R Y 11. .^. falfe coining. and even his own family. commutation for crimes. 549* Seld. ad Eadm. which either the pall convulfions of his flate. unavoidably occafioned. and indeed the firfl important tranf2<5lion which had patfed between the kingdoms. and who had wantonly engaged in a war. and ordained that thefe crimes fhould be punifhed by the amputation The pecuniary of the right hand and right foot ". contrary to expe£lation. befides. CHAP^^^- . that 100. i Bened. 204. poflefled in France. murder.000 pounds of vanfom. arfon . who.

Henry. Abb. were able. to give weight and credit to the . and was fixed by the laws of king Alfred : But the barbarous and violent genius of the age had of late by an afllze This latter method given more credit to the trial by battle. befides carrying the authority of the king's commiffion. which had a diredl tendency to curb the oppreffive barons. who. was another important ordinance of this prince. llfhing . by the dignity of their own character. and the appointment of itinerant juftices to go the circuit in each divifion. England and there is an inilance of it fo late as the reign of EHzabeth : But the inilitution revived by this king. cap. or any heinous felony. and to proteft the inferior gentry and common people in their property ". but Henry ordained.l.450 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 8. The partition of England into four divifions. lib. Hoveden. 1 Glanv. the king was vigilant in ^ Bened. "^ demo7. Thofe juftices were either prelates or confiderable noblemen . ^^^^^^^.^^ 1176- realm flov/ ''. that any man accufed of murder. 133. gradually prevailed over it. being found more reafonable and more fuitable to a civilized people. That there might be fewer obftacles to the ex- ecution of juilice. p. and to decide the caufes in the counties. though fenfible of the : great abfurdity attending the trial by duel or battle. by the oath of the legal knights of the county. 590. He only admitted did not venture to abolifh it either of the parties to challenge a trial '. which had become the general method of deciding all important It was never aboliflied by law ia controverfies. CHAP. ii. p. fliould. or jury of twelve freeholders of trial feems to have been very ancient in England. laws. be obliged to abjure the fiflcd . even though acquitted by the ordeal. All advances towards reafon and good fenfe arc and gradual.

who Abb. and the crime was atoned for by penances and fubmiffion p. and a wambais that is. though guilty of the moft atrocious wickednefs. Diceto. " Bened. Hence the affafTms of Thomas a Becket himfelf. and a lance . with- out being called to account by Henry himfelf. and the mod repugnant to the fentiments of : that age. It appears that archery. at this time. whom he found But left the realbn to fufpc6t ". p. i6t. lived fecurely in their own houfes. p. P Petri Bleflen. tom. every one that polfefTed ten marks was obliged to have an iron gorget. all burgefles were to have a cap of iron. or fuch like materials °. p. tow. Waverl. may feem totally incompatible with a civi- and indeed with any fpecies of government. • Bcned. epift. and The fuch as lized. he could be If he were murpunidied by degradation only dered. The fpear was the chief weapon employed . 73. p. during that age. and he permitted no fortrefs to remain in the cuflody of thofe ^"TT^^"* kinQ:dom fhould be weakened bv this demolition of the fortrefles. by which all his fubjecls were obliged to put themfelves in a fituation for defending Every man pofTefTed of themfelves and the realm. Patr. had not. for which the Englifh were afterwards fo renowned. in battle. Abb. become very common among them. clergy and the laity were. poffelTed of goods to the value of fixteen marks. apud Bibl. in c H A p. If a clergyman were guilty of murder. 4^1 the new-cre£ted caflles of the nobility. Anna). ^^• England as well as in his foreign dominions . p.'xxiv. the king fixed an aflize of arms. G g 3 was .. aoa. was to be armed in like manner . a coat quilted with wool. a cap of iron. 58. a knight's fee was ordained to have for each fee a coat of mail. 305. 99a. the murderer was expofed to nothing but excommunication and ecclefiaftical cenfures . a fliield. a helmet.HENRY llfliing all II. and a lance . a lance. every free layman. in a ftrange fituation with regard to each other.

and who profefied. that they were induced to take a journey to Rome. they continued to poffefs. Chron.176. without moleftation. Touraine. to throw themfelves at the feet of the pontiff. Anjou. or aifefted on all occaiions. and that the rents of vaffal s lliould be paid to the creditors of the lord. both in honour and iiTtereft. their honours and fortunes. 1433.452 cH HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and which conhfted of fome prelates and barons of England. not to the lord himfelf. Ihould be fubjecled to a forfeiture of their eilateSj tels and a confifcation of their goods and chat- ^ king pafTed an equitable law. It is remarkable that this law was enacted by the king in a council which he held at Verneiiil. which he endeavoured dill to maintain % had fubjeded the was fo much : feemed but juft to give them the protedion of that power to which thev owed obedience It was enaded. Chron. ' The . though . • . 66. A. p. Gorvafe. Moli'> ncux's Cafe of Ireland. Poiftou. ^ Diceto. fence fhunned by every one as excommunicated perfons. Maine. 592. p. to punilh that Grime. unlefs the vaffal be furety for the debt . Abb. that the murderers of clergymen fhould be tried before clergy to a trial by the civil magiilrate. and befides the ufual punifliment for murder. that the goods of a vaffal ihould not be feized for the debt of his lord. p. 1433. as well as fome of Normandy. and feem even to have recovered the countenance and good opinion of the public. by the conftitutions of Clarendon. the mofl extreme abhorIt was not till they found their prerence of it. 248. after the conqueli of Ireland. and Britanny and the flatute took place in all thefe lail-mentioned territories '. tofummon barons and members of that country to the Englifli parliament. 64. P. It was ufoal for the kings of England. in the prefence of the bilhop or his official . p. But as the king. p. Gervafe. * Eened. it : the julliciary. 65. concerned. and to fubmit to the penances irapofed upon them After which.

He fent over his fourth fon. in order to obtain his interceflion for the cure of Philip. He probably Spelman even doubts whether the law were not alfo extended to England. by a devotion more fmcere than that cf Henry. and gave him no farther inquietude. prince much dreaded and revered. people to queftion the juftice of his ordinance . juft. The king of France had fallen into an abjeO: fuperftition and was induced. contain little memorable. 437. obtained but the appearance of general confent to n-^o. into Ireland. John. more . ^_ - It vernment was. with a view of fuccefs - Th^ . force ai. the fulled and mofl authentic aifembly had no authority. Becket. tliough totally unconnecled with each other ' : certain proof how irregular the ancient feudal go- A 453 C H A p. in fome injflances. obliged the king foon after to -recal him ". &c. his eldeft fon. which had attended Henry In his wars did not much encourage his neighbours to form any attempt againft him and his tranfaclions with them. during feveral years. Scotland remained in that ftate of feudal fubjedion to which he had reduced it. approached to defpotifm.complete conqueft of the illand but the petiilance and incapacity of thi^ prince. no regular idea of a conititutipn . in his ityanfmarine dominions. all it an became his fubjetts was hated or defpifif the nobles who fupported him had fmall ined fluence if the humours of the times difpofed the it. for his authority was greater " in that kingdom that p.d violence decided every thing. Bened. ordinance which was equitable and immediately an efhabliflied law. Thus all was confufion and diforder . it could only be becaufe Henry did not ' chufe it. though in others If a they feemcd fcarcely to poflefs any authority.HENRY II. like Henry. Abb. and how near the fovereigns. O g 3 thought . to make a pilgrimage to the tomb of . If it were not. and acquiefced in . If the prince . by making a which he enraged the Irilh chieftains.

took on him the adminiftration. and on meeting with a refufal. llruck with an apoplexy. and : made . ra: CHAP. v/hich happened foon after. Pp. till his father's death.^^ tiSo. Thefe fervices were but ill requited by Philip. he fled with his confort to the court of France But not finding Philip at that time difpofed to enter into war for his fake. failed not to publifh that Lewis's prayers were anfwered. inftead of taking advantage of his own fituation. however. and experience of Henry. he accepted of his father's offers of reconciliation. and encouraged Henry's fons in their ungrateful and undutilul behaviour towards him. while they moderated his ambition. and that the young prince was reftored to health by Becket's That king himfelf was foon after interceffion. that no dangerous rivalfhip.ince Henry. The monks. for a long time. who. equally impatient of obtaining power. gave him fuch an afcendant over this prince. and incapable of ufing it. and he proved the ableft and greateft monarch that had governed that kingdom fmce the age of Charlemagne. on account of their ancient intimacy. The fuperior years. when he was fo highly exalted in heaven. opened his way to the throne . forget his old friend and benefactor. ^}^' j. arofe between them The Englifli monarch. would not now. quarrels which arofe in the royal family of France and he was fuccefsful in mediating a reconciliation between Philip and his mother and uncles. when he came to man's eftate. and hoped that Becket. whom he had protected while on earth. fomented all the domeftic difcords in che ro)al family of England. which deprived him of his underftanding Philip. renewed to the king the demand of his refigning Normandy . thought himfelf well entitled to the favour of that famt. ther employed his good offices in compofmg the .454 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. though a youth of fifteen. fenfible that their faint's honour was concerned in the cafe.

and he lamented that he had deprived that prince of : obtained his forgivenefs. nth June. p. of Guienne. It II. and entreated the fathat he might at lead die with the . he Hcnrj-. 383. and he durfl not entrufl But when he foon himfelf into his fon's hands after received intelligence of young Henry's death. While the young prince was conducting thefe criminal intrigues.-^-^^ 110 tranquilHty from the criminal enterprifes of his nSo. Abb. Gg 4 the . The king. JBened. thrice fainted away . had fo often experienced the prince's having ** Ypod. 455 circum- was a cruel chap. fiance in the king's fortune. 451.HENRY made him fubmiflions. and he defended himfclf againfl young Henry and Geoft'iey. whom he had made mafter convulfions. in difcontent Turenne. a caflle near . to which he had retired and feeing the approaches of death. to the king. and who had difplayed his valour and rnihtary genius by fupprefTing the revolts of his mutinous barons. fons but by and threw his ftate into Richard. that he could hope for v. p. and the proofs of his fmcere repentance. with remorfe for his undutiful He fent a meffage behaviour towards his father. fome difficulty. who. he was feized with a fever at Marin doing to his homage elder tel. Neuft. this god yo'iing*^ prince was affefted with the deepeft forrow. but immediately found his eldeft fon engaged in confpiracies. who ingratitude and violence. of Henry. brother for that dutchy . uniting their arms. p. 617. who was not far diftant . expreffed he was at laft (Iruck his contrition for his faults vour of a fatisfadion vifit. their mutual difcord and animofities. Diceto. 1183.^. apprehended that his ficknefs was entirely feigned. corapofed this difference . refuled to obey Henry's orders. with carried war into his territories ". and ready to take arms againfl himfelf. he nccufed his own hardheartednefs in refufmg the dying requefl of his fon . which diflurbcd his family.

: third furviving fon and favourite. readily performed . Chron. Gervafe. i. the heirefs of Guienne. and of pouring out his foul in the bofom of his reconciled father ^. and even made preparations for carrying on war. 1480. fled into that dutchy. as duke of Normandy. p. Henry fent for Eleanor his queen. p. p. deceafe. and was invefl:ed in the dutchy of Britanny. Trivet. to '^ demanded Anjou ^ Bened. as lord parar rior lord of that territory. This prince died in the twenty-eighth year of his age. 451. Neubrig. and required Richard to deliver up to her the dominion of thefe territories . the lad opportunity of making atonement for his offences.456 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. who was killed in a tournament at The widow of Geoffrey. under the guardianfliip of his grandfather. who received the name of i^rthur. or retaining fome fenfe of duty towards her. the mod vicious perhaps of all Henry's unhappy family. who was now put in poflefof Britanny. The behaviour of his furviving children did not tend to give the king any confolation for the lofs. broke out into violence fion *^^S' be annexed to his dominions of Britanny . p. court. was alfo fupePhilip. fled to the court of France. p. and the king intended that John. 42*. Abb. Hoveden. which that prince. who. and on meeting with a refufal.6zt. 393. p. foon after his Paris y. vol. as well againft his father as againll his brother Geoffrey. either dreading an infurreftion of the Gafcons in her favour. As prince Henry had left no poflerity. 84y Bened. Richard was become heir to all his his dominions . mountj . Abb. than Geoffrey. iliould inherit Guienne as his appanage But Richard refufed his confent. was delivered of a fon. and levied forces againft his father \ Henry was freed from this danger by his fon's death. and he peaceably returned to his father's No fooner was this quarrel accommodated.

feemed now to have ^". repeated misfortunes. and all their inferior intereft. vailed among the champions of the crofs. he bent the whole force of his policy and valour to fubdue that fmall and barren. frefh fury the zeal of the ecclefiaftics and military Saladin. had recovered courage after the torrent was pail and attacking on all quarters the fettlements of the Europeans. and feeing the flower of their nobiHty fall by their fide. and having fecretly gained the count of Tripoli._ . and Lewis VII. aided by the treachery of that men of their and a new paffion for thofe fpiritual . reBut thefe turned with little honour into Europe. brought them but a temporary relief. difputed fome time his title to this ward. under fuccours from the Weft. and condudt. began to extend his conquefts over the eaft . but important terriTaking advantage of diflenfions which pretory. adventurers among the Latin Chriftians. and the expulfion of the Saracens. bravery. 457 mount.HENRY . 000 men. which drained the wefteni world of its people and treafure. ^ ^ given place to the general pafTion for the relief of the holy Land. but was obliged to yield to the inclinations of . II. were not yet fufficient to cure incident rekindled with adventures . Thofe infidels. having fixed himfelf on the throne of Egypt. after lofmg fuch immenfe armies. had reduced thefe adventurers to great difficulties. and finding the fettlement of the Chriftians in Paleftine an invincible obftacle to the progrefs of his arms. a prince of great generofity. Ciufadec.c HA p. in which there perilhed above 20c. king of France. though obliged to yield to the immenfe inundation of Chriilians in the firfl: crufade. who preferred the government of Henry.^ /liip 1185. the Emperor Conrade. the Bretons. who commanded their armies. and thofe princes. and obliged them to apply again for A fecond crufade. he invaded the frontiers with a mighty power j and. But the rivalfnip between thefe potent princes.

Abb. gained over at . that an enterprife which had failed under the conduct of many independent leaders. by the efforts of fuch potent and able monarchs. ^^' 1. near a century before. ceiving this difmal intelligence. fuperftition. or of imprudent princes. and men flattered themfelves. The general cry was. enforced all thefe topics . Paris. The two monarchs many of their moft '' confiderable vaflals imitated the example .458 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 435. employed the whole time of his The . Vv^ho did not vindicate from the dominion of the infidels the inheritance of God on earth.. having procured a conference between Hemy and Philip fliort pontificate in near Gifors.8^. were entertained . fome well-grounded hopes of fuccefs * * M. roufmg to arms all the Chriftians who acknowledged his authority. which utterly annihilated the force of the already languhhing kingdom of Jerufalem. p.sg. it had cod the efforts of all Europe to acquire ^ that count. which. and as the emperor Frederic I. and jealoufy of military honour '. » Bened. and employed every argument to excite the ruHng paftrons of the age. Tiberaide a complete victory. might at laft. p. entered into the fame confederacy. immediately took the crofs . and deliver from flavery that country which had been confecrated by the footfteps of their Redeemer. William archbifliop of Tyre. died of grief. after a feeble rethe kingdom of Antioch was almoft enfiflance tirely fubdued . and his fucceffor. loo. Neubrig. and except fome maridme towns. nothing confiderable remained of thofe boafted conquers. it is pretended. Heming. lift Jan. jiz. p. Greeory VIII. 531. that they v/ere unworthy of enjoying any inheritance in heaven. them weftern Chriftians were aflonifhed on rePope Urban III. gave a pathetic defcription of the miferable Hate of the eaflern Chriftians . be brought to a happy iflue. CHAP. The . p. The holy city itfelf fell into his hands.

112. ''. might . and it was with fome difficulty they were conftrained to defifl from an oppofition. tax amounting to the tenth of all moveable goods. the fecular afpired to the fame immunity j. who . this burden mod of the regular clergy. who had been the chief promoters of thofe pious enterprifes. p. the monarchs. which in them. In order to give a pretence for hoftilities between the two kings. But before this great machine could be put in motion. there were ilill many obftacles to furmount. and that the frenzy was chiefly fupported by the miHtary genius and love of glory in.HENRY The II. that his enterprife againft Raymond had been undertaken by the approbation of Philip himfelf. and. y}^' on fuch as remained at home". that the enthufiaftic ardour which had at firfl: feized the people for crufades. entered into a private confederacy with young Richard . but as they exngg. Henry . « Be'ned. but received for anfwer. Philip. 498. that Richard had confeifed to the archbifliop of Dublin. J Petri Bleflen. jealous of Henry's power. "f^'c prince i^ichard. Richard broke into the territories of Raymond count of Touloufe. inftead of fupporting and aggrandifmg that monarchy which he was one day to inherit. v/as now bv time and ill fuccefs confiderably abated . and was conduced by his authority. The king of France. to feek prefent power and independence by difturbing and difmembering it. appeared with the This backwardnefs of woril grace imaginable the clergy is perhaps a fymptom. 4^9 kings of France and England impcfed a C H a p. Abb. working on his ambitious and impatient temper. who immediately carried complaints of this violence before the king of France Philip remonflrated with as his fuperior lord. epift. perfuaded him. empted from pretended that their duty obhged them to aififl the crufade with their prayers alone .

ordered a great elm. unider colour of revenging the quarrel of the count of Touloufe ^. Henry had experienced fuch fatal effects. of which he had before only The King of France entertained fome fufpicion. and from that prince's alliance with the royal family of France. and invaded the provinces of Berri and Auvergne. his own vaflals refufed to ferve under him in fo invidious a caufe ^ . feparated on worfe terms than before to ihew his difguft. by making inroads upon the frontiers of France. p. which deftroyed all hopes of fuccefs in the projected crufade. and was determined to carry the war But to extremities againil the king of England. and fully convinced him of the perfidy of his fon. go might have been covered with fiiame and confufion by this detection. Keveden. gave great fcandal. in order to find means of accommodating their differences They and Philip. p- ^ Ibid. immediately revoked : . required that Richard fhould be crowned king of England in the lifetime of his father. ilill profecuted his defign. both from the crowning of his eldefl fon. * Ibid. and he was obliged to come anew to a conference with Henry. in confequence of his fecret agreement with Philip. J15. and fliould immediately efpoufe Alice. jii. and who had already been conduded into England ^. p. as if he had renounced all defire of uccommodadon. to be cut down . to whom he had formerly been affianced. ^ Bcned. Philip's fifler. 517.. 53a. the eyes of the king of England. p. 508. ^ • Bened. As this war. p. p. from . 652. Abb. and to offer terms of Thefe terms were fuch as entirely opened peace. and his fecret alliance with Philip. Abb. and burning Dreux. H A ^^J. that he rejefted thefe terms j and Richard. fliould be invefted in all his tranfmarine dominions.6o :" HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Henry retaliated._the two kings held a conference at the accuflomed place between Gifors and Trie. under which the conferences had ufually been held.

and with receiving bribes from the king of England ^ . who was a prince of great vigour and capacity. and Anjou. p. while it . and finding that he had now received the inveftiture from their fuperior lord. and told Anagni. p. He even proceeded fo far as to reproach him with partiality. difpleafed with thefe increafmg obftacles . p'. defpifed the menace. But Philip. 5 ^ M.to the crufade. Bened. Neubrig. 54a. who had fucceeded Albano in the legatefhip. and dreading ftill worfe effeds from their turbulent difpofition. Abb. . p. that it is faperfluous to affign a caufe. u—v--^ ^^9. much lefs in thofe between him and his rebellious vaiTal. had again recourfe to papal authority and engaged the cardinal Anagni. p. The chief barons of Poidou. 104. been the lawful that Henry himfelf had become enamoured of vounor Alice.A^^' all the dominions which Henry held of that crown. 1149. as the chief fpring of difcord : But the fentence of excommunication.H E N R Y II. that it belonged not to the pope to interpofe in the temporal defputes of princes. Richard. and was zeal oufly fupported by the clergy. of France for ^ ^. 6ja. mo- Cardinal Albano. Normandy. Several hidorians aflert. Henry. proved entirely ineffeclual in the prefent cafe. and received the inveltitures as if he had already poflefTor. excommunicated Richard. Guienne. the pope's legate. difquieted by the daily revolts of his mutinous fubjefts. 4&t from him'. had often great influence in that age. being attached to the young prince. and mention this as an additional reafon for his refufmg thefe conditions But he had fo many other juft and equitable motives for his con: duct. 437. was properly prepared. and made inroads into the territories of fuch as ftill adhered to the king.Paris. Hoveden. when Brompton. which. v/hich the great prudence and advanced age of that narch render fomewhat improbable. to threaten Philip with laying an interdid on all his dominions. did homajre to the kinn. declared for him.

the duke of Burgundy. inftances of the cowardice or infidelity of his go- vernors. from commit- upon him ^ The king of England was now obliged to defend his dominions by arms. Paris. 104. that his own barons fhould engage to make him obferve this treaty by force. He agreed. p. p. and Chafome difficulty "" teau de Loire. the moft difmal iffue to all his While he was in this ftate of defpondency. and that all his vaffals who had enas a I M. Bened. 105. Hoveden. fhould promife to join Philip and Richard againll him . Richard. fully fenfible of the defperate fituation of his affairs. opened their gates on the appearance Tours was menaced and of Philip and Richard the king. Chaumont. and to engage in a war with France. and had daily ting violence . offered to draw his fword agaiiill the legate. on fuch difadvantageous terms. who had retired to Saumur. a prince of great valour. p. : : . fubdued his fpirit that he fubmitted to all the rigorous terms which were impcfed upon him.462 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. p. »" M. and with his eldeil fon. and which made him . that he himfelf fliould pay twenty thoufand marks to the king of France compenfation for the charges of the war. 543. and in cafe of his violating it. that that prince fliould receive the homage and oath of fealty of all his fubjefts both in England and his tranfmarine dominions . dill more outrageous. FerteBernard fell firfl into the hands of the enemy Mans was next taken by affauli and Henry. the earl of Flanders. Paris.* tered . 652. efcaped with Amboife. Abb. that Richard fhould marry the princefs fo Alice . interpofed with their good offices and the intelligence which he received of the taldng of Tours. expected enterprifes. and was hindred by the "Ti8^7^ interpofition alone of the company. and the archbifhop of Rheims. who had thrown himfelf into that place.

. out into exprellions of the utmoft defpair. broke . Hoveden. attended his corpfe to the nunnery of Fontervrault. C^<^. and this finilhing blow. who had been accuftonied to give the law in moll treaties. Bcned. on account of his afcendant over him. Abb. and who. by depriving him of every comfort in life. Hov-den. who came to vifit the dead body of his father. finding his lafl difappointment in his domeftic tendernefs. in ftate in the abbey-church. and bellowed on his ungrateful and undutiful children a maledidtion which he never could be prevailed on to retra£t^. was not wholly deftitute of gcncrofity.. 463 tered into confederacy with Richard. 6. ^. fnould receive an indemnity for the offence "- chap. p 6s3. Paris. was Itruck with horror and remorfe at the light . received from thefe difadvantageous terms. manded a lift of thofe barons to whom he was bound to grant a pardon for their connexions with Richard. * Hovcdcn. friendlhip and was difpofed to the more he refented the his heart barbarous return which his four fons had fucceffively made to his parental care . was the lead When he dethat he met with on this occafion. who alone had behaved dutifully towards him. that at that very inftant. he was aftonifhed to find at the head of them the name of his fecond fon John" who had always been his favourite.. and threw him into a lingering fever. notwithftanding his criminal ccnduft. of which he expired at the callle of Chinon near Saumur. 54'?. 106. p. blood gulh« *> 6tli July. and as the attendants obferved.HENRY But the mortification which II. often excited the jealoufy of Richard p. p. quite broke his fpirit.^^X^ ns. Henry. and who had even. ^^^^^'^ M. Abb. 541. where it lay Next day Richard.4. The more affeftion. p. His natural fon Geoffrey. p Bciied. whofe intercfts he had ever anxioully at heart. curled the day in which he received his miferable being. p. The unhappy father. already overloaded with cares and forrows. p. ed .

and temperate without auflerity. Thus died. mind. Abb. agreeably to a vulgar fuperftltion. as well as his prince of his time. and by frequent exercife. the greateft prince of Hcuiy. his time for wifdom. His character. vol. is al- mofl without a blemifh fefled . perfuafive. in Bibliotheca p. of body and either eflimable or ami- . very and conduct in war . fevere in the execution of jullice without He prerigour . but poffeffed both bramand. and abilities.464 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. GiralJ.g6. Sic- M. Petri Blef. virtue. antichaI'acitr or and thirty-lifth of his reign. ^ f Bened. 547t Brompton. in the fifty-eighth year of his age. above any His aifeftions. and kept himfelf from corpulency. he recreated himfelf either in learned converfation or in reading and he cultivated his natural talents by lludy. which makes a man He was of a middle flature. were warm and durable . his countenance was lively and enproportioned giiging .^ he was his father's murderer . and he expreffed a deep fenfe. * p. (. and his long experience of the ingratitude and infidelity of men never deitroyed the natural fenfibility of his temper. though too late. 1151. 46. Patrum. particularly hunting. was provident without timidity . p. &c. 107. xxiv. 9J5. His charadfer has been tranfmitted to us by feveral writers who were his contemporaries j and it ex. enmities. and ever at comHe loved peace. and the mofl powerful in extent of dominion of all thofe that had ever filled the throne of England. his converfation affable and entertaining his elocution eafy. of that undutiful be* haviour which had brought his parent to an untimely grave '. that 1189. and he feems both to have pof- every accomplifliment. 47. tremely .Paris. Camb. p. When he could enjoy leifure. ftrong and w^ell able. which dlfpofed him to friendfhip and fociety. to which he was fomewhat inclined.783. in private as well as in public life. ed from the mouth and noflrils of the corpfe % he exclaimed. by an abilemious diet. epift. fcrved health. p.

ing only. when abroad The French gentry and nobility attended him when he refided in England Both nations a£ted in the government as if they were the fame people . fuch as they were. in literature and politenefs. Exceptthat of his maternal grandfather Henry I. The Norman and other foreign families eftabliilied in England. from which his grandfon's conduct was happily exempted. that ambition. and being entirely incorporated ' with Vol. which was a ruling palhon in both.HENRY ir. tranfplanted into England little . therefore. feem now to have been. had taken entire pofleffion of the people By the former. the Romifh fentiments in religion. found not in the firft Henry fuch unexceptionable meaiures of exerting itfelf. by the latter. which were boch criminal in themfelves. on many occafions. L h complifhments. All foreign improvements. As the French exking and all the Englifti barons were of tradfion. the manners of that people acquired the afcendant. in a good mea: Mifcella"j!. : : fure. in its moft remarkable features. except Stephen."^"^ _ tions of ^h'siciga. the legiflatures feem not to have been diltinguinied. and were the caufe of farther crimes. the fenfe of fubmiffion towards princes was fomewhat diminiihed in the barons . to any of its : : H ' . like moft of his predeceifors of the Norman line. had now ftruck deep root . 46j tremely refembles. in laws and arts. the devoted attachment to papal authority was much augmented among the clergy. paiTed more of his time on the continent than in this iiland : He was furrounded with the Englifli gentry and nobility. and were regarded as the models of imitation. The more homely but more fenfible manners and principles of the Saxons. and pufhed that prince into meafures. and that kingdom the fafiiionabie ac- was become inferior i:^ all neighbours on the continent. and. were exchanged for the affedations of chivalry and the fubtilties of fchool philofophy The feudal ideas of civil government. This prince.

gives evident proofs of the diiorders attending the feudal inftitutions . P. they no longer thought that they needed ^^'^ proteflion of the crown for the enjoyment of their poffeffions. then ao. during the continuance of this. whom at firft they oppreflfed and dcfpired. diffuled (till farther the fpirit of liberty. of more independence to themfelves. and expofed to the fame diforders with thofe by which the country was generally infefted. that. could neither be very numerous nor populous . nature. Ihey afpired to the fame liberty and in- dependence which they faw enjoyed by their brethren on the continent. and defired to reflrain thofe exorbitant prerogatives and arbitrary pra6tices^ which the necefiities of war and the violence of conqueft had at firil obliged them to indulge in their monarch. The cities. which remained with the Englilh. 1189. and the hiftory of France. confifts almoft entirely of narrations of this. or confidered their tenure as precarious. and there occiu. the licentioufnefs of the barons. during feveral ages.inftances which feem to evince. And it was not long ere this fecret revolution in the fentiments of men pro- duced. their fpirit of rebellioa again ft the prince and laws.. iirft violent convulfions in the ftate. their police was in general loofe and irregular. and willing to indulge it to the people. though thefe are always thefirft feat of law and liberty.466 G H A ^•^* HISTORY OF ENGLAND. and made the barons both defirous. violent government. It Vv-as a cuftom in London tor great numbers. the preceding kings of Eng- land fmce the conqueft. 8 to . and of anirnofity againit each other : The conduct of the barons ia the tranfmarine dominicns of thofe monarchs. That memory alfo of a more equal governmxent under the Saxon princes. afforded perhaps ftill more liagrant inftances of thefeconvulfions . evident alteration in the The ' hiftory of all maxims of government. to the amount of a hundred or more. with the people. the fons and relations of confiderable citizens.

j'/„. and how open thefe criminals were in committing their robberies. ^ Bened. i\ ^^' break into ricli hoiifes and plunder them. It appears from a flatute of Edward I. and fupported by his faithful fervants. . H h 2 reign. another inftance given by hidorians. •^ Bencd. Abb. By thefe crimes. is There A : hand was taken and was tempted by the promife of pardon to reveal his confederates . which was much more regarded than that that the citizens durfl . and had already entered the houfe fword in hand . all forts no more venture abroad after fun-fet. armed cap-a-pee. . that he fw^ore vengeance againft the criminals. had broken through a (tonewall with hammers and wedges . and made fuch flout refiftance. efteemed among the richefl and bed-born citizens in London.HENRY murder the nity II. 19S.ore rigorous in the execution of the Laws ". of many thoufands of an inferior flation. 467 to form themfelves into n licentious confederacy. which proves to what a height fuch riots had proceeded. band of them h^d attacked the houfe of a rich citizen. and come to his relief. that thefe diforders were not remedied even in that lofl The man who his . 197. it had become fo dangerous to walk the ftreets by night. p. to rob and to commit with impuof diforder. among whom was one John Senex. p. and ordered him to be hanged ^. The brother of the earl of Ferrars had been murdered bv feme of thofe nofturnal rioters and the death of fo eminent a perfon. appeared in the paffage to oppofe them He cut off the right hand of the firft robber that entered . and became thenceforth m. paflengers. when the citizen. to c n A. He was convicted by the ordeal and though he offered five hundred marks for his life. Abb. and . with an intention of plundering it . fo provoked the king. than if they had been expofed to the incurfions of a public enemy. 196. that his neighbours had leifure to affemble. the king refufed the money.

36. p. p. HISTORY OF ENGLAND. iv. or military tenants. Henry made the caufe be examined before his great council. ^ Rymer. vol. that even foreign and diftant princes made him arbiter.-ards carried farther by his fuccelTors. rons. yet ren- The badered vcrv little fcrvice to the lovereipn. came late into the field ^ Obfervp. in cafe the way of duel had been chofen by Henry ^ Henry fo far aboliflied the barbarous and abfurd practice of confifcating fhips which had been wrecked on the coafl.463 reign. p. to carry a weapon. and was attended with the mod imThis prince was difgufted portant confequences.ions on the ancient Statutes. H4J. both by night and by day. and which. was then made penal to go out at night after the hour of the curfew. Thefe two Spaniih kings fent each a ftout champion to the court of England. they . to chufe this prince for a referee and they agreed. confign three caftles into neutral hands. DiceLo. and fubmitted their diiFerences to his judgment. was contented. i. in order to defend his caufe by arms. as a pledge of their not departing from his award. though it was extremely burdenfome to the fubjecl:. with the fpecics of military force which was eilablilhed by the feudal inflitutions. having fome controverfies with Alfonfo king of Caftile. that the veifel and goods fhould be reflored to the owners ^ The reign of Henry was remarkable alfo for art innovation which was afterv. vo!. Bcacd Aob. Brjinptou. or to walk without a light or lanthorn \ It is faid in the preamble to this law. p.t. 43. 597. and gave a fentence. syi. ai6. that he ordained. though Alfonfo had married the daughter of Henry. that. p. there were continual frays in the flreets of London. which was fubmitted to by both parties. Henry's care in adminiftering juflice had gained him fo great a reputation. each of them to It . * Rymcr. if one man or animal were alive in the Tnip. Sanchez king of Navarre. p.

of thefe fcutagcs in h:s fecond. and other writers give us an account of three more of them ^ When the prince had thus obtained money. 469 ^ • were obliged to ferve only forty days they ^ ^. the feveral crowns either lofl or acquired authority. 435> records. ii. Danegelt. This prince was alfo the firll: that levied a tax on the moveables or perfonal eflates of his fubjecls. therefore. p. according to their different /uccefs in the conteft. and eighteenth year ' .i following reigns. he made a contract with fome of thofe adventurers in which Europe at that time abounded Tliey found him foldicrs of the Xame character with themfelves. from the a Madox. fo generally odious to the nation.^---.H E N R Y tiiey II.*—. on >vhich all their power depended : The barons. the ufual method of The tax of fupplying the necefTities of the crown. Kh 1 It . was remitted in this reign. /ought to defend their property: And as the fame jcaufes had nearly the fame effects in the dilferent countries of Europe. feeing no end of exactions. 438. Their zeal for the aiobles as well as commons. to which they were acciiftomed in their civil government. There is mention made. inftead of requiring the perfonal attendance of his valTals. holy wars made them fubmit to this innovation and a precedent being once obtained. 43. Henry.(5. p. 437. who were bound to ferve for a ftipulated time The armies were lefs numerous. .. 466. •> Tyrrel. fifth.A •were unfkilful and dilbrdcrly in all their operations v. than when compofed x)f all the military vaflals of the crown The feuxlal inflitutions began to relax The kings became : : : : rapacious for money. . in the hiftory of the exchequer.aiid they were apt to carry into the camp the fame i-^jrefrafloiy and independent fpirit. vol. . introduced the praftice of making a commutation of their military fervice for moncv and he levied fcutagcs from his baronies and knights fees.^ . this taxation became^ ii. but more ufeful.

p. It was a ufual pra6lice of the kings of England. terbury was obliged to pay a large fum of money to the legate. threw him to the gromid. Swithun threw themfelvfis. this queflion of precedency The monks begat a controverfy between them. p. and other more moderate penalties. V/e are told by Gyraldus Cambrenfis. Chion. 413. and punifhed any tranfgreiTions of them. complaining. The archbifliop of Canfaved from their violence. in the prefence of the cardinal and of the fynod. one day. Cardinal Haguezun being fent. on aflemb'ing the ftates at the three great feftivals. ceremony of then* coronation thrice every year. Gerv. It is confidered as a great aft of grace in this prince. in 1176. never renewed this ceremony. and retainers of archbiiliop Richard fell upon Ro-» ger. when ecclefiaiiics could proceed to fuch extremities. c Bened. im^ prifonments. BromptOR. and his life was. that the monks and prior of St. of the violence of military men and laymen. and fo bruifed him wich blows. Abb. as legate into Britain. Henry. proftrate on the ground and in the mire before Henry. in order to fupprefs all complaints vvith regard to this enormity''. 139. it may not be improper to mention the quarrel between Roger archbifhop of York. and may judge Richard archbifliop of Canterbury. with difficulty. with many tears and We . and which could not fo well enter into the bodv of our hiftory. 138. Since we are here collecting fome detached incidents. p. trampled him under foot. which fliow the genius of the age.470 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. which was found to be very expenfive and very ufelefs. not capitally. Neubrig. that he mitigated the rigour of the forefl laws. that he was taken up half dead. None to repeat the of his fucceilors revived it. p. but by fines. 1105. much . fummoned an affembly of the clergy at London and as both the archbifhops pretended to fit on his right hand. 1433. alter the firfl years of his reign.

How many he you ? faid the king. Hh 4 . lo William king of Sicily ^ Henry is faid by ancient hiflorians to have been of a very amorous difpofition : They mention two of his natural fons . and married to Iphonfo . never "'. commonly •told of that lady. Ten . and married to Elearior. ii. He was in 1 thence commonlv denominated .y_ from their table. gap.king of Caftile . born in 1165. who was alfo their abbot. All the other circumfhmces of the Ilory. diflies E N R Y II. replied the difcon- folate monks. Henry three iegitimate daughters 156. vol. and married /•. in A. 5. only. 471 mticTi doleful lamentation. feem to be fabulous. born Henry duke of Saxony .6i6. tho-ugh his father had often intended to leave him left a part of his extenfive dominions. that the bifliop of Win. or Longcalled from the fword he ufually wore). firfh bifliop of Lincoln. daughter of lord namely. hackland.C three left '~ II A p. Richard who fucceeded him. d Gir. |>-. had cut has ofl' ^^• ~/. Joan. more than three and I enjoin your bifnop to reduce you to the fame number This king left only two legitimate fons. by Rofamond. born in 1162. Clifford fword (fo who was afterwards married to Ela. Maud. and Geoffrey.H chcller. then archbifliop of York. r < Diceto.nglia Sacraj. the daughter und heir of the earl of Salifbury . exclaimed the kiiig. and John who inherited no liave territory. Richard Longefpee. I myfelf. Camb.


acrimony. whom the provincial . from the fimilitude of language and manners.i 473 ] NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. fatisfaftory Caefar and Tacitus. fore the age of hiftory and records. was much iniefted by baijds of robbers or pirates. conclufion. than probable. but It appears more fhall propofe our opinion in a few words. THIS even and We not enter into any detail on fo uninterefting a fubje61. 13. it is a matter of pofitive and undoubted teftimony. Thefe events. It ap- pears that the migrations of that colony of Gauls or Celts. that Britain either was originally peopled. Galloway. and do not merit a higher name) is this conjefture (if it Iriili language. Lancafhire. was originally made from the north-weft parts of Britain . muft be known by which in this cafe feems to be pretty reafoning alone. Cumberland. were guided by : like inferences. and from the language anciently fpoken in South Britain. or was fubdued. p. between the Scotch and Iriih antiquaries. queftion has been difputed with as great zeal. which Jie in a very remote antiquity. NOTE [A]. as they pafTed long beto that Ifland. during the time of the lower empire. as if the honour of their refpedive countries Ihall were the mofl deeply concerned in the decifion. But befides thefe primitive fafts. that the Roman province of Britain. and Ireland from Britain is : The pofition of the feveral countries this an additional reafon that favours alfo probable. not to mention a multitude of other Greek and Roman authors. which is a very diffounded both on the ferent dialeft from the Wehh. and on the vicinity of and Argylefhire. who peopled or fubdued Ireland. by the migration of inhabitants from Gaul.

made a peace. evidence. who repelled thofe invaders: valiantly refifted. in a word. but fuch as they are. Britons called Scots or Scuits . after maiiy defeats. It is in vain to argue again ft theic J^cls from the fuppofed warlike dirpohtion of the Highlanders. that the chief feat of thefe That fome part of the Iri(h freeScots was in Ireland.474cial NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. it is the gehiftory nealogy of natii^MS. and another in Ifidore. We from two paflages in Claudian. of a barbarous people can bs relied on. but infinite numbers more. All hiftory is full ot luch ied by a lew private noblemen. centuries. iiifer are Casfars or Tacitufes . is not fufficient to in perhaps the befl that may be wifhed for. fprang from the We have . 150 years. in the courfe of two or three might find time and opportunities North Britain. in which England. and that We have pofitive the one are a colony from the other. if any part of the traditional rities. though from neutral perfons.been derived in a more remote age. latter : in the third or fourth century. events. though we can neither afTign the Their barbarous period nor caufcs of that revolution. Pi6is and Scots. Nations change very quickly in than the authorities. manner ot life rendered them much fitter than the Romans And. from the language of the two countries. that the clear. booters migrated back to the norih-welt parts of Britain. it is for fubduing thefe mountaineers. and invited over the Saxons for their de^ Yet the fame Britons fence. fettle The Irifh Scots. a name which Avas probably ufed as a term of reproach. try: Scotland was totally fubdued by a fmall handful of Englifli. that the former. was conftrained to acknowledge the independence of his coun^r Yet in no more diltant period than ten years after. that. and which ihefe banmay ditti themfelves did not acknowledge or aifume. is pofitively alTertcd bv Bede. The Britons were unable to refift the thefe particulars. for not only this vi6iorious band of Saxons. that neither Bede nor Gildas plied in Gildas. and imI grant. who poured Robert Bruce in 1322. Highlanders and the Infh are the fame people. which. and therefore muft be relied on for want of better: Happily. and even fometimes that of tarailies. and from one in Orofius. whence their anccftors had probabl}. the frivoloufnefs of the queflion correfponds to the weakncfs of the antho-r Not to mention. they re- main the folc tcftimony on the fuojeci. in upon them from all quarters. and unwarlike of Tiiofe arguments are flill much weaker the ancient irifh.

as fhe is faid to be by rians Malmefbury. and that the lady was afterwards treated with the fingular barbarity above mentioned. How can thefe accounts be retime of Alfred? conciled to probability. though within the degrees prohibited by the It is alio agreed. Wigorn. fays.NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. ANY : of the Englifli hiftorians make Edgar's (hips -*'* amount to an extravagant number. The only difference is. is a certain proof ot • the traditional opinion deli- vered from nally father to Ion. 3600 Brompton. on the day of his coronation. Edgar had 4000 veffels. fecond or third coufm. whom violent pafhon for his he married. that there arc methods of accommodation with the church. that this prince had a of Edwy and Elgiva. 607. that Ofborne and fome others call her his flrumpet. p. Edwy would be : had only kept a miftrefs. that the name of Eife or Irifh. snd would infift So that. contrary to the caon their authority. p. See Hoveden. to 3000. NOTE 'T^HERE -*- [B]. p. given by iner. that he was dragged from a lady canons. have no evidence fprang from tlie for-^ 1 Ihail add. was an infult highell refentment. or Ilor. The fleer of . not his wife. 360. Elgiva. the low country Scots to the language of the Scotch Highat all that the latter 475 landers. amouz^t only to 300. which is more probable. 869. 117. we may efleem If Edwy certain . and called for their NOTE "\/f [C]. that Abbas Rleval. on the that (he could be nothing but his ilrumpet this reprefentation of the matter as whole. p. at leaf!. as by far the moft probable. if But this difTerence is eafily reconciled : For married her contrary to the canons. feeming contradiffion in ancient hiftois a with regard to fome circumftances in the ftory It is agreed. p. that the latter people came origi- from Ireland. which would have prevented the clergy from proceeding to fuch extremities againfl him : nons. 118. it is well known. 426. the monks fure to deny her to be his wife. and to the ftate of the navy in the Thorne makes the whole number W. p. But his marriage.

178. Harold. appears hence. who lives at pther people's expence. reprefentation. which was not the cafe. it was the gscatefl: navy that ever had been feen in Erjgland. Edgar's fon. therefore. 167. that there are few important paffages . in tlje Biographia Britannica. We death. has endeavoured to clear the memory of that nobleman. whom it was much more the Intereft of the Norman caufq to blacken. NOTE [DJ. p. This of the matter is abfulutely impoflible. p. fpeak of this had been univerfal. muft b^ admitted are told. is told fo differently by the ancient writers. p. came from the condud of the Danes. Great refjilance muft have been made. 141. T HE ingenious author much foundation. that the name Luras the only true one. the fole inhabitants in the kingdoms of Nort'jumberland all ALMOST the ancient hiflorians it if and were very numerous in Mercia. This account given by Wallingford. p. NOTE [EJ. of Ethelred. muft have been Ihort of looo fhips. though he ftands fingle. 137. that it was thefe Danes only that were put t* jand Eaft Anglia. ported a military corps of that nation. upon the fuppo(jtion> that all the Englifti annals had been falfified by the Norman hiftoBut that this fuppofition has not rians after the conqueft. NOTE [F]. and violent wars enfued . Tnaffacre of the Dajies as and as if every individual of that nation through. and only fupIt feems probable. of the article Godwin. But the Englifh princes had been entirely maftcrs for feveral generations . yet the SaKon Chronicle. fays.ont EngBut the Danes were almoft land had been put to death. therefore. TH E whole ftory of the tranfaBions between Edward. and the duke of Normandy. dane^ lord Dane^ for an idle lazy fellpv/. that almoft all thefe hiftorians have given a very good charader of his fon Harold.476 NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. who were put to death.

which he was defirous to call a will. torn. Hickes.e emperor At leaft it is of very great antiquity. with regard to a point which. mufl have been agreed upon by all of them. is the moft likely caufe that can be affigned . 1 have followed the account which appeared to me the mofl confiftent and probable. 4. fign of redeeming his brother and nephew. but that taking the air in a pleafure-boat on the coaft. and fuppofed to have been wrought by orders ot Matilda. may employ what pretence he pleafes It is calls himfelf rex hereditarius^ : fuflficient to refute his pretences to obferve. but a prince. page 535. Again. as is It fome. i. poUefled of fo much power.^ does not feem likely. that there is a and variation among hiftorlans. and is accordingly mentioned by Eadmer. Brompton. much lefs that he got it ratified by the dates of the kingdom. It is a tapeftry. Hoveden. There is indeed a charter of the Conqueror preferved by Dr. fome hiftorians. he was driven over by ftrefs of weather to the territories of Guy count of Ponthieu : But befides that this ffory is not probable in itfelf. Harold is there reprefented as taking his de: Edward in execution of fome commifThe de* and mounting his vefTel with a great train. wife to tr. affirm that Harold had no intention of going over to Normandy. ix. For a farther account of this piece of tapeftry.NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. where he affirmed by all. particularly Malmefbury and Matthew of Weftrainfler. The will would have been known to and would have been produced by the Conqueror. vol. and really fo jufl a title . it is contradifted by a very curious and authentic monument lately difgreat difference covered. but the doubtful and ambiguous manner in which he feems always to have mentioned it. pafTages of the Englifh hiftory liable to fo great uncertainty. and attended with fo much fuccefs. . preferved in the ducal palace ot Koiien. parture from king fion. and is contradided by mofl of the ancient hiftorians. fee Hiftoire de I'Academie de Literature. had it been real. and Simeon of Durham. proves that he could only plead the known intentions of that monarch in his iavour. meaning heir by will . to wiiom it gave fo plaufible. who were hoftages. that Edward ever executed a will in the duke's favour.

whereas that of a bifhop and alderman is only 8000 thrimfas. fixed at 15. Though this paper was able to impofe on fuch great antiquaries as Spelman (fee Gloff. Ingulf. TH E R E is a paper or record of the family of Sharne- borne. p. 51. 603. to Petyt. were There is only a claufe in a law of king quite fynonimous. p. p. where an atheling and an archby In another law of bifhop are put upon the fame footing. p. 604. though a pertinacious defender vol. Brady (fee Anfw. a law of Canute. p. Fior. 406. and is allowed as fuch by Tyrrel. though abfent during the time of the conquefl. it is proved by Dr. NOTE [H]. ii. 11. fame Athelffan the weregild of the prince or atheling is the See Wikins. is there equal to that of an archbifhop . that comes in Latin.. that that family. and from king Alfred's tranOation of Bede. from the ancient tranflatlons of the Saxon annals and laws. He is faid to be 15. that very early Hereward.) which has ftumbled fome antiquaries. p.000 thrimfas.). 70. alderman in Saxon. was reflored upon proving their innocence.). v. 201. of his party notions (fee his Hiff. as families which were in the fame fituation. heir to the crown. introd. 118. price of an earl's blood. chap. and has made them imagine that an The weregild. and flood at that tim^ for the atheling or This he confirms prince of the blood. p. . and could not obtain redrefs. in verbo Drenges) and Dugddle (fee Baron. § 55. To folve this difficulty we inuft have recourfe to Selden's conje6ture (fee his Titles of Honour. p.). vol. NOTE 1 T appears [G]. Athelftan's (fee Spelm.000 thrimfas. that the term of earl was in the age of Athelffan jufl beginning to be in ufe in England. William even plundered the monafteries. or the earl was fuperior to an alderman. 12. which pretends. which was well as other Saxon Saxon. tells us. was turned out of all his eflate. Cone.) to have been a forgery . 71. 73. p.^g NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. and earl in Dano-Saxon. therefore the fame who is called earl in the former law. as well as from all the ancient hiilorians. 252. i.

[L]. Burgor. Dun. the inhabitants to put out the fires and lights at certain hours. de NorThe fame law had place in Scotland. Hunt. and no redrefs could be obtained. M. p. is much difputed by antiquaries. upon the fotmdinor of a bell. Wefi. p. Dun^ p. 206. H. 482. Diceto. every reign during a century to have reftored. p.*' Wigorn. 160. 636. .. 5. Knyghton. 48. Beverl. and contain fo few claufes favourable to the fubjeft. which pafs under the name of Edward. that we fee no great realon for their contending for them fo vehemently. -2344. Thofe to be found in Ingulf are genuine . are plainly a poflerior and an ignorant compilation. and our ignorance of them feems one of the greatefl defers in the ancient Englifh hiftory. p. Akired. LL. > lib. 130.^ 357. . Brompton. p. 9. See du Moulin. M. St. Beveil. 284. The moft material articles of it were afterwards comprehended ^ which the Englifli. 967. Alib. 4. Paris. 86. M. called the courfcu^ is reprefentcd by Polydore Virgil. p. 70. 200. 370. 260. Flor. that the Englifh meant the commo-n law. are (old by Ingulf. Petri cle Eurgo. But this all H E obliging of of police. niandie. which we may conje6ture to have been more indulgent to liberty tlianthe Norman inflitutions. The collection ot laws in Wilkins. cap. was a law bliflied in NOTE V^fT" ' [KJ. Neub. Sim. p. p. NOTE N G U L F. p. p. Paris.NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. p. but fo imperfe61. as a mark of the fervitude of the Englifh. Hift. De Gelf. Sim. as it prevailed during the rei?n of Edward . Gul. 124. 372. p. HAT half. It is probable. which William had previoufly eflaNormandy.-. p. p. 253. p. and a defire fo paffionateiy in Magna Chaita. Alur. 333. NOTE fT^ -- [I]. tbefe laws were of Edward the ConfefTor. p. Angl. p. rhat Ivo de Taillebois plundered the monafiery of Croyland of a great part oi its land. We Chron. 225. p. I p.

knight's fee. H. NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. Sacra. Camb. St. p. patria pulfos^ aut effojps oculisy vel (aieris amputatis membrisy opprobrium hominum fa^los^ aut eerie mijerrime affli£ioSy vita privates. Rudborne in Aug. in RofF. ituque fa6ius iVillielmus^ quid cladi fuperejff'e and worth tranfcribing in principes Anglorum. ii. Sacra. 1161. Rex tantcs poteranty dicere^ cum nihil profit. Gul. p. no.000 in England. was entitled to levy a tax for the marrying of his eldeft daughter. p. and he exacted three (hillings a hyde on all England. who : is very ancient. 248. 206. p. 57. the fum would amount to 45. pounds. 16. 270. Gul. 344. cap. Pi6l. of which there were about 60. 801. Spicileg. cadem. by the feudal cuftoms. p. vol. p. ol this lad hiftorian. were very bufy in extending as well as exercifing They nominated .000 See Rudborne. vol. as of delegates. hydes in England.) heedlefsly make this fum amount to above 800. 853. i. 413. they were called. who poflelTed the full the provinces committed to their charge. were a kind power of the pope TH E in all legates a latere. and at the rate of : HENRY. The words vol. p. there were only computed p. In the Saxon times. p.600 three fhillings a NOTE [N]. Some hiftorians (Brady. Elyenfis. p. 2354. are remarkable. Monach. and Tyrrel. p. Orderlcus Vitalis. Hunt. Knyghton. Textus RofFenfis apud Seld. Simili modo utilitate carere cxijlimo eoy dicere quid in ininorem popuhwiy nonjolwn ah et Jed a Juis a£iumftty cum id didu Jciajuus crudelitatem Jortojjis incredihile* difficile^ ch immanem NOTE [M].000 hydes. in Ang. 521. p. 340. p.4go p. 179. 980. Girald. qui fecerit. fometimes lefs.000 of our prefent money. Hifl. vol. 257. confequently near 300. 206. ii.. 666. 962. Gervafe Tilb. i. Thorn. 379. Malmef. Eadmer.000 pounds of our prefent money But it could not Five hydes. ^lid cnivi prodejfety Ji nee unum in toto regno de illis dicerem priflina potefiate uti perwijjhnf Jed onines cut in gravem paupertafis terumnam defrufosi out exharedatos. Epift. ad lib. 182. hyde. or 135. 516. omitto. ii.000. made a exceed 135. p. Brompton. and it. 52. Eadm. 276. Thorn. p. p. p. 243. p.

that Geoffrey had fome title to the counties of Maine and iVnjou. his father. it is found in no other ancient writer. The Norman Chronicle. and are commonly but little acquainted with the public revenues. p. as marriages. which never could be fully protefted without encroachiuoits on the civil power. 377. and had ordered that his body fhould not be buried. iliinated to all was always fuppofed that the civil power was to give way: Every deed. NOTE nPHE to [P]. but churchmen are often guilty of ftrange miftakes of that nature. and could not be canvafTed before a civil magiftrate. GerVafe is indeed a contemporary author . tellamcnts. 995. fays. was induced to do. and where a legate was fent imnjcdifrom Ilome^ he was lure to maintain the papal claims with the utmoft rigour But it was an advantage to the king to have the archbifhop of Canterbury appointed legate. (who is copied by later hillorians). particularly the monk of Marmoutier. promiffory oathsj were brought into the fpiritual court. as it would amount whole land. Thefe were the eftablifhed laws of the church . p. ancmblcd fynods. It the^e were the lead concur) ence or oppofuion. afTerts.NOTES to THE FIRST VOLUME. had left him thefe dominions by a fecret will. ignorant of the contents.000 pounds of our prefent money. See Vita Gauf. p. But befides that this flory is not very likely in itfeif. which he. becaufe the conneftions of that prelate with the kingdom tended to moderate his meafures. who had better opportunities than Newbridge of knowing the truth. Due. This fum would make 540. till Henry fliould fwear to the obfervancc of it. ately : 383. 103. He pretends that count Geoffrey. Norman. and is contradicted by fome of them. 38d. which had the leaft pretence of holding of any it thing fpiritual. and favours of monkifh fiftion. . p. L I i which . L LI AM of Newbridge. "1X7 1 * ' NOTE [O]. vacant benefices. that Henry raifed only 60 Angevin {hillings on each knight's fee irl his foreign dominions This is only a fourth of the fum fum fcarcely appears credible much above half the rent of the : Vol. p. and were anxious to maintain ecclefiaftical privileges.

p. he may be fuf. the declared enmity of the bKhop mull. here the narrative of Fitz-Stephens. with- out a very vifible necefTity. even after the death of that prelate. have rendered him more partial on the other fide. fet him an example of much reprefented as a When Geoffrey was mafter of Norgreater violence. 44. but a fudden and precarious tax can never be impofed to that amount. are. See Eplft. In the fucceeding reign the rent of There a knight's fee was computed at four pounds a year. 232.) The blfliop was moved by intereff. with the blfhop eled. lent [Q_]. were 60. 397. 18. (i. Henry 1-aid ritz-Steph. p. My reafons. to be caftrated. p. p.000 knights fees in England. to proceed to the elefiion ot a biOiop upon which he or- of them. This condua appears viobut was fuitable to the ftrain of ad. efpecially to a prelate: all And no Jnore efFe£lual means than to throw the blame on . which Gervafe fays he levied on England An inequality no wife probable. peftcd of chules to follow the authority ol a manufcript letter. and made all their tefticles be brought him in a platter. In the war of Touloufe. blfliop of London. Thorn. no doubt. as well as enmity. St. of Folliot.] p. to calumniate He had hlmfelf to defend againff the fentence of Becket. Becket partiality excommunication. during his lifetime. His father. dreadful to all. why I give the preference to Fitz-Stephens. though miniftration in thofe days. (2.) If the iricndflilp of Fitz-Stephens might render him partial to Becket. his confent. who was though. or rather manitelio. the chapter of dered all fees prefumed. efpecially in an age fo little accuftomed to taxes. without . NOTE FIT Z-STEP HENS. NOTE I Follow fecretary to [R. 382. mild prince. at the time when the blfhop appealed to the pope from the excommunication pronounced agaiiifl him by his primate. Lord Lyttelton towards his patron. A nation may by degrees be brought to : bear a tax of 15 fhillings in the pound. and arbitrary mandy.48* NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. a heavy and an arbitrary tax on all the churches within his dominions. which is addrclfed to Becket himfelf. Geoffrey.

w!io furely was not deftitute either of courage or of zeal for ecclefiaftical immunities. this does iiot fortify the : \ narrative . appears from the tenor of them. trufting to this arrocontaminate him gance of his primate.) The violence and injuftice of Henry. but never furely Folliot alfo fa)'s. is of a piece with the reft of the Nothing could be more iniquitous. whofe very commerce wbuld and the bifliop. particularly of this letter of Folliot's. would employ in an affembly of his fuffragans might a6l upon thefe principles.) Though Fol- letter. and of much feeming fancHe tity. and do rejolve Howincur a perjury^ and repent afterwards as I may. where there are many pafiTages very little favourInfomuch that the editor of them at BrufTels. profecution. would publickly avow them. but the primate himfelf betrayed them from This is led the way to their fubfcribing. he faid plainly to all the bifliops of England. afcribed to him by Fitz-Stephens. that all the bilhops were refolved timidity. The But not what anfwer was made by Becket : colle£lion of letters cannot be fuppofed quite complete.NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. be addrefted to Becket does not acquire more authority on that ac- count. Becket made no anfwer at all. (6. ever barbaroui the times. and however negligent zealous to churchmen were then of morality. (3.) Though the fentence pronounced on Becket great council implies that he had refufed to make by the any anfwer to the king's court. when Becket fubfcribed the following the Conftitutions of Claiendon. that the colleftion was not made by one (whoever he We know were) very partial to that primate. than. able to him a Jefuit. I reckon He affirms. after two years filence. or rather manifefto.) He has a^ually been guilty of palpable calumnies : in that letter. to make a fudden and unprepared demand upon Becket to the amount of 44. and dire£lly contrary to Becket's chara61er. thefe are not words : wrhich a primate of great fenfe. on his 483 adverfary. // is my majlers pkafure that I fijould forfwear myjelf\ and at prejent I Juhmlt to it. as not deigning to write to an excommunicated perfon. contrary to tiie teftimony of all the hiftorians. If the king was fo palpably opprefiive in one article. (5. and not al- low him the leaft interval to bring in his accounts. thought proper to publifli them with great omifPerhaps fions. he may he prefumed to be equally liot's fo in the reft. and obftinately to oppofe the Conftitutions of Clarendon. might calumniate him the more freely. (4. Among thefe. it himfelf.000 niarks (equal to a fum of near a million in our time). that.

) It may be worth obferving. is All the ancient hif- END OF THE FIRST VOLUME- ili' . that he gave furety. Becket and frivolous. that both Hiftoria quadrapartita. and Gervafe. it fubmitted fo far to the fentence of confifcation of goods and chattels. which is a proof that he meant not at that time to queftion the authority of the king's courts. contemthe author of porary writers. torians give the fame account. (7.484 NOTES TO THE FIRST VOLUME. agree with Fitz-Stephens . and the latter narrative of Folliot : not ufually very partial to Becket. For if his excule was rejedled as falfe would be treated as no anfwer.



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