A case study of contract workers and turnover intentions in Taiwan

Shun Yu Chen Department of Business Administration, Chang Jung Christian University 396, Chang Jung Rd., Sec.1, Kway Jen, Tainan County, Taiwan, ROC sychen@mail.cjcu.edu.tw Li Ju Chen Department of Business Administration, Far East University No.49, Chung Hua Rd., Hsin-Shih, Tainan County 744, Taiwan, ROC lijuchen@cc.feu.edu.tw ABSTRACT

A critical labor market issue in all developed economies is the growth of nonstandard forms of labor such as temporary, fixed term contracts and so on. High employee turnover rate of contract workers has been the most serious problem for the manufacturing industry. Facing such high turnover rates and recruiting costs, any firm must respond to and adjust its human resource policy. This paper deals with the critical factors for unsatisfied employee and reduce employee turnover rate. There are four main factors (working condition, leadership, training & development and pay) effect turnover intention. Payment is the important factor which inversely effect turnover intention. There are some different between junior and senior groups. In junior workers group, working condition is the important factor. Improvement actions are proposed, including job rotation, strengthened leadership and communication, reasonable overtime design, and an encouraging reward system.

Summary:
This paper aims to clarify the relationship between human resource practices and turnover intention of contact workers. Critical factors and reasons for unsatisfied employees are proposed and analyzed by factor analysis. The research confirms the negative relation between job satisfaction and turnover intention. Obviously, satisfied employees tend to be less likely to leave the organization. Offering compensation and rewards significantly inferior to those offered by other organizations for the same type of work can trigger employee movement. In a high turnover culture employees have begun to view exit as a simpler and more viable solution than exercising voice than to share feelings and ideas, in the hopes of improving their work environments. Managers need to discover voice as a viable means through which they alleviate job problems and initiate improvement and corrections in their work environment. To decrease turnover addresses through such as the management of workloads, assignments, rewards, and training and development. Work overload and

UNRAVELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEES¶ PERCEPTION TO ORGANIZATION AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS: EXPLORING THE MEDIATING EFFECTS OF TRUST TO ORGANIZATION Mark Ng Department of Business Administration. the limitations of the study.edu ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the main effects of employees¶ perceived organizational support and external prestige on their turnover intentions. the key to maintain a stable workforce is to make employees perceive the support from the company. Finally. with the mediating effects of their trust to organization.exhaustion can therefore contribute to a high turnover. training programs that incorporate information about the . reasonable overtime design. The sample consists of 402 employees of various levels selected from different companies in Hong Kong. Braemar Hill Road. strengthened leadership and communication. Most importantly. The direct and indirect effects of these constructs on turnover intention are analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM). and an encouraging reward system. directions for future research. and hence. Therefore. and implications of the results are discussed Summary: The findings of this study point to several implications for management practice. less likely to leave the firm. including job rotation. Recent graduates are typically single and more willing and able to work hours of overtime without being constrained by family responsibilities. North Point chng@hksyu. Improvement actions are proposed. and become proud of their company. Those employees with higher level of perceived organizational support and perceived external prestige may have higher level of trust towards the management of their company. For example. Hong Kong Shue Yan University 10 Wai Tsui Crescent. employee recognition programs. and internal communication strategies enhance their feelings of support and cares. this study indicates the possibility that desirable organizational outcomes might be achieved by both strong corporate communication campaigns that promote its position in the society.

6558 Email: slattery@nsuok. OK 74014 918. and hence their behaviors. TX 77479 281. Thus. but also develop trust of employees to the company. The findings also provide support to the view of incorporating corporate social responsibility programs in companies as these programs can have positive effects on employees¶ attitudes. and other ways to enhance the image of the company.3381 Email: selvaragant@uhv. company websites.449. corporations not only avoid the government¶s tighten up of regulatory actions.6000 Ext. Rajan Selvarajan University of Houston-Victoria School of Business 14000 Univeristy Blvd. Sugar Land. are all effective in building up employees¶ trust in organization.T. internal newsletters. it is in the best interests of a company to operate above the moral minimum of the market. Slattery* Northeastern State University-Broken Arrow 3100 East New Orleans Broken Arrow.edu T. Jeffrey P.edu * Address all correspondence to Jeffrey P.accomplishments of the organization and its employees.275. By fulfilling the expectations of society. Slattery Running Head: Attecedents to Temporary Employee¶s Turnover Intentions .

the relationship between organization commitment and turnover intention is stronger for the client organization than the temporary agency. the relationship between job satisfaction and organization commitment is stronger for the client organization than for the temporary agency. they may be disposed to express stronger feelings toward the client organization rather than temporary agency organization. this study examines temporary employee attitudes in relation to turnover intentions for both the temporary agencies and the client organizations. we proposed a structural model depicting hypothesized associations between job satisfaction. Summary: The results indicate one interesting pattern: the strengths of the relationships between variables that are related to client organization are much stronger than the corresponding relationships between variables related to the temporary agency. and turnover intention among temporary employees was the purpose of this study. Abstract Examining the associations between job satisfaction. Thus. organizational commitment and turnover intention for both the temporary agency and client organization. Since temporary employees are employed by temporary agencies but perform their work in client organizations to which they are assigned.Submitted for possible inclusion in the program for the Organizational Behavior and Organizational Theory track at the March 31-April 2. For example. Based on the extant literature on work attitudes. THE EFFECT OF CONFIDANT RELATIONSHIP ON TURNOVER INTENTION AND MODERATED BY EMPLOYEE¶S JOB . 2005 Midwest Academy of Management!s Annual Meeting. Likewise. organizational commitment. This may be because it is common for temporary employees to seek permanent employment quite often with the client organization.

2. and uses employees¶ job involvement to be a moderator.edu. they will care about performances. Changhua City 500. Past researches only put focus on the effect of confidant relationship on turnover intention. Taiwan jackhung@cc. 2. non-confidant roles get involved in their job.ncue. National Changhua University of Education. . For this reason. the more non-confidants get involved in their job. this research takes the job involvement to be a moderator between confidant relationship and turnover intention. Because the confidant roles are very major roles in the organization and a leader places importance on confidant roles. Shi-Da Road. To enlarge the research range. they lose a confident feeling for an organization as well as a leader and produce turnover intentions. In Confucian thoughts and traditional culture. In that way. because non-confidant roles are not paid much attention by a leader. National Changhua University of Education. However. It may be a kindred relationship that is produced by a leadership for the employees because the employees perform so good that a leader appreciates them. Summary: If non-confidants are involved in their job.tw I-Jung Tsai Graduate Institute of Human Resource Management. This relationship isn¶t a blood relationship certainly. they get involved in their job and don¶t have turnover intention.tw ABSTRACT This study examines the confidant relationship influences employees¶ turnover intentions. Taiwan tasimomo@yahoo. Although the relationship between non-confidants and leaders influence nonconfidant¶s loyalty for the organization. Nevertheless. job is more influential than the relationship between non-confidants and leaders. Shi-Da Road. the kindred relationship becomes the confidant relationship. Changhua City 500.com. the less negative relationship between confidant relationship and turnover intention. Chinese emphasize the relationship between people very much so that it would influence the attitude which they treat each other. whether non-confidant roles influence their turnover intention or not.INVOLVEMENT Tsang-kai Hung Graduate Institute of Human Resource Management.

PhD Associate Professor. College of Nursing. Full time lecturer. PhD. Ulsan. South Korea Myungsoo Kim. confidants rarely produce turnover intention. Department of Nursing. +82-11-9501-7756 Fax: +82-51-248-2669 e-mail: haejung@pusan. confidants would like to maintain in the organization. College of Nursing. Pusan National University. confidants get involved in their job very much. Title: Turnover intention of Korean nurses Authors: Haejung Lee. College of Nursing 1-10 Ami-Dong. Ulsan College. South Korea Tel: +82-51-240-7756. MA. PhD. Therefore. Pusan National University Hospital Corresponding Author: Haejung Lee. Associate Professor.ac. Pusan National University. Because leaders and job are important for confidants. Pusan. RN. South Korea Jung-A Yoon. the more confidants get involved in their job. staff nurse. Master graduates. RN. Suh-Gu. RN. Moreover. Pusan.kr . RN.When the relationship between confidants and leaders are good. the more they don¶t produce turnover intention. Pusan National University.

and internal marketing. Korean hospital manager should change the conservative organizational climate such as µseniority system¶ of new promotion policy and valance of effort-reward should be provided. However. For example. Impact of Organizational Justice on Employees Outcomes: An Empirical Evidence Dr Gohar Zaman1 Nadar Ali2 Nazim Ali3 Abstract Employees' dissatisfaction with their job gives rise to many serious problems for the organization. Chairman Department of Management Sciences. Peshawar Lecturer. Peshawar . Abasyn University. To reduce the turnover intention. organizational commitment. increasing OC and reducing job stress lead to lower turnover intention. job related stress due to another nurses¶ turnover should be alleviated by work environment renovation. Islamia College University. we have provided the following conclusions according to discriminating factors in this paper. Department of Management Sciences. Peshawar 2 3 Student of Master of Development Studies. In summary.Abstract Purpose: Internal marketing has been highlighted for its importance in hospital management and its influence of human resources. The purpose of this study was to examine discriminating factors of turnover intention among job stress. dissatisfied employees often involves in counter1 Dr Gohar Zaman. little is known about the role of internal marketing to the intention of turnover along with job stress and organizational commitment among Korean nurses. Abasyn University. our consequences suggest that improving institutional internal marketing such as affair-promotion and reward system. Improving OC management strategies as career development should be developed.

Taiwan ABSTRACT . Pakistan. they report physical disturbances such as tension. depression.. Spector (1997) Dissatisfied employees also complain of stiffness in muscles and joints (O'Driscoll & Beehr.productive behaviors such as theft. organizational commitment and to decrease turnover intention. 1994). It has also been found that when employees are not satisfied. apprehension and sleeplessness (Frese. poor service. The result of Pearson Correlation found a significant positive relationship between distributive justice and job satisfaction. distributive justice and employees¶ commitment. Internal Marketing Practices and Employees¶ Turnover Intentions in Tourism and Leisure Hotels CHANG CHENG-PING. M. Summary: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and employees¶ outcomes which are job satisfaction. employees¶ commitment and turnover intention amongst the teaching staff of private sector schools of KPK. 1997). The management is strongly recommended to improve organizational justice policies so as to increase job satisfaction. lassitude. procedural justice and organizational commitment and a significant negative correlation between distributive justice and turnover intention and procedural justice and turnover intention. destructive rumors and sabotage of equipment (Spector. CHANG WEI-CHEN Institution of technological and vocational education and human resource development Southern Taiwan University. (1985. procedural justice and job satisfaction.

. developed an integrative model.000 workers were surveyed. Organizational Climate of Staff Working Conditions and Safety²An Integrative Model Patricia W.. According to the literature review and questionnaires.g. home health care. and test aspects of the model. Timothy Peng.g. and independently tested selected aspects of the model. Harrison. Results: The investigators who participated had studied acute care. Mark Linzer.. this paper will discuss the correlation between internal marketing practices and the employees¶ turnover intentions. This study attempts to integrate and discuss the existing results and concepts proposed by previous scholars. service quality is decided based on ³human´ qualities. and decrease turnover rates. staffing). Douglas Roblin. Survey items from each study were classified using four climate domains found in a prior literature review. the impact of which was mediated by four process variables: supervision. Nicholas Warren. communication processes and information technology). Thus. promote service quality. The hotel industry as a whole. Stone.g. Jill Scott-Cawiezell. group behavior (e. In addition. More than 80. should strengthen its internal marketing efforts aimed at ensuring employees to establish a high level of customerservice consciousness. the government has actively promoting the 2008 National Development Plan and the overall policy of opening the island for tourist from Mainland China. this study inserts the concept of work adoptability to discuss the relationship between internal marketing practices and employee turnover intentions at different levels. which causes higher personnel expenditures and training costs and increases the probability of losing potential employees. long-term care. Michael I. identify similarities and setting-specific dimensions.. Eric S. two investigators had studied primary care. proposed additional constructs. patient centeredness). quality emphasis (e. the human element is a key resource for the hotel industry. The model¶s core climate domains included leadership (e. satisfaction and intention to leave) and patient .. Penny Feldman.´ therefore. Methods: Investigators who had surveyed health care workers¶ perceptions of organizational climate in six studies funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) were invited to participate. therefore. The authors discussed subconstructs. The hotel industry is typically a service industry and the service object is ³human. This effort increases the importance of the leisure service industry.g.. and work design (e. and multiple settings.In recent years. collaboration).g. These factors affect health care worker outcomes (e. Williams Abstract Objectives: This project sought to compare measures of organizational climate in ongoing patient safety studies.g. The employee turnover rate of the hotel industry is on the higher side. values) and organizational structural characteristics (e. develop a model of climate domains that are hypothesized to affect outcomes across settings.

Our model invites dialogue among researchers and informs agendasetting for future research into organizational climate and the safety of patients and health care employees. information technology. but was not as effective at predicting intention to leave. the full model explained 24 to 65 percent of the variance in employee satisfaction. This integrative model will facilitate cross-study quantification of associations among variables in these important domains. . new domains²quality emphasis. Overall. new subconstructs. Summary: While some of these domains appeared in prior models. and patient centeredness² are emerging.outcomes.

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