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Putting Green Aeration

It is more important than you think.


arsh winter weather may lead to superintendent is tearing up the greens greens, and often background informa-
golfer requests to eliminate or with core aeration and covering them tion is misunderstood by golfers. Com-
reduce spring putting green with sand. Can’t we just skip aeration paction may be the most cited reason
aeration programs. The spring golf bug since the greens are so good?” for performing core aeration and top-
makes many golfers desperate to get Most commonly, golfer requests dressing maintenance practices. One
out on the golf course. Snow cover, tend to range from eliminating core argument often posed by golfers is that
cold weather, and wet, sloppy condi- aeration from spring putting-green the greens do not need to be aerated
tions lead many courses to close for programs to, at least, reducing the size because they have received little play
the entire winter in many areas. Golfers of tines and disruption created by the or traffic since fall aeration, so compac-
are anxious to try out a new driver or process. Eliminating or reducing spring tion is not an issue. Frankly, this is
other equipment accumulated since aeration programs will not cause an correct; however, sand-based putting
the end of the golf season, and when agronomic catastrophe in the short greens, as well as older greens that
the weather breaks, the golfers soon term, but it is important to realize why have been aggressively modified with
follow. Superintendents and their staffs aeration is an essential process and sand topdressing, are not greatly
are cleaning their courses and begin- to understand the ramifications of susceptible to compaction. Aeration
ning to establish grooming programs eliminating any planned aeration. does help to alleviate compaction, but
for the growing season. As the weather compaction is only one reason, and it
warms, the grass starts to grow and WHY DO WE AERATE? probably is ranked towards the bottom
the greens are ready to go. Golfer There are several reasons why aeration of the list in terms of importance for
comments then follow: “Now the is so important, especially on putting putting green aeration.

No maintenance
practice on
golf courses
receives more
scrutiny and
golfer ire than
core aeration,
and the role of
aeration in the
management of
putting greens
is often

Green Section Record Vol. 49 (9)

TGIF Record Number 176474 March 4, 2011 Page 1
Maintaining or even improving
the rate water moves into soils is an
important part of aeration. The proce-
dure creates channels in the upper
portion of the soil profile that allow
water to percolate or move into the
soil profile more rapidly. As the term
aeration implies, the practice also
increases the amount of space avail-
able for oxygen (air) to penetrate the
soil, which is critical for root growth
and, ultimately, plant growth. Improve-
ment in oxygen levels and water
infiltration are achieved through the
removal of organic matter.
In modern putting green mainte-
nance, removal of organic matter (or
thatch) from the upper portion of the
soil profile and replacement with new
sand topdressing to modify the existing
soil may be the most critical reasons to
aerate greens. The grass is constantly
producing organic matter through
A heavy topdressing application allows aeration holes to be filled completely and
normal growth processes. Thatch is
limits the need for excessive dragging. This application completely fills the aeration
like a sponge, holding many times its
holes to maximize the benefit of the aeration practice and limit disruption to play-
weight in water. As organic matter
ability. Completely filled holes also provide a uniform appearance on the putting
increases, more water is held in the
green, which can affect perception of green smoothness as healing progresses.
upper portion of the soil profile. While
a limited amount of thatch is necessary,
when organic matter levels increase to To prevent excessive organic thatch removal. This can be done
3 to 4%, potential turfgrass problems, matter accumulation, research sug- through core aeration or aggressive,
such as diseases and mower scalping, gests that 15 to 20% of the surface deep verticutting. Regardless of the
increase dramatically, especially under area of a putting green needs to be method selected, filling the holes or
hot and wet conditions. impacted via some method of soil/ grooves with sand is essential. The
sand on the surface may be annoying
at times, but it is an important part of
maximizing the benefit of core aeration.
Core aeration and topdressing are
important parts of putting green
maintenance, especially when golfer
expectations for course conditioning
are considered.


Speaking of filling aeration holes with
sand, topdressing is an important
component for healing and playability.
Golfers do not despise aeration; they
rue the resulting 10 to 14+ days of
reduced playability. If putting quality
was disrupted only for a day or two, the
process would not be so reviled. Thus,
superintendents have a responsibility
to ensure that all available programs
are being implemented to restore play-
ability as quickly as possible. Filling
Partially filled aeration holes appear far more disruptive to the green surface aeration holes completely with sand is
compared to completely filled holes. an important start to this process. The

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March 4, 2011 Page 2
A thick organic layer at the surface creates soft conditions and greens that are more susceptible to mechanical damage. Soil
modification to the upper portion of the green profile to reduce organic matter and increase water infiltration and aeration is
the most important aspect of core aeration. The ultimate goal is improved playability.

greens will be smoother and their is performed under cold conditions, soil profile are generally firmer, drain
appearance will be better than partially turf growth and subsequent healing will more quickly after rainfall, and provide
filled or open holes. Completely filling be slow. The goal is to close aeration better playability. Firm greens are less
the holes with sand also maximizes holes as quickly as possible, and it is susceptible to scalping and other
the agronomic benefit of core aeration. important to implement strategies to mechanical damage. So, while you
Excessive dragging of sand can result increase turf growth rate when weather may not have a catastrophe, this does
in severe mechanical damage in some conditions allow. not mean that skipping aeration does
instances, although not as often during It was mentioned that missing not have negative consequences.
cool weather. spring aeration is not necessarily an The bottom line is, aeration is
A slight increase in nitrogen fertility agronomic catastrophe, but it is impor- performed for the health of the grass
to stimulate growth should be made tant to note that by skipping aeration, and, ultimately, the playability of the
immediately prior to aeration. Applying it only means inevitable maintenance putting greens. Greens with less
¼ to ½ lb. of actual nitrogen per 1,000 is deferred. The need for aeration organic matter, properly managed
square feet from a readily available increases with each skipped mainte- through aeration and other techniques,
granular nitrogen source is one way to nance practice. The problem is, aeration will be better greens on a season-long
stimulate growth to decrease the time programs go hand in hand with the basis. Try not to get caught up in the
required for the aeration holes to close. season-long golfer expectations for short-term disruption to playability, and
Some superintendents apply liquid playability. Firm, well-paced greens are focus on the long-term benefits that
fertilizers through the sprayer on a consistently expected. Diluting organic core aeration programs provide.
tighter-than-normal interval to stimulate matter with sand through core aeration,
growth without causing an excessive deep verticutting, and light topdressing
flush. Application of around 1/8 lb. of programs directly impacts a golf DARIN S. BEVARD is a senior
nitrogen per 1,000 square feet every course superintendent’s ability to agronomist in the Mid-Atlantic Region,
five to seven days is common. provide expected conditions. Greens where the occasional harsh winter
Keep in mind that soil temperatures with greater quantities of sand to dilute creates great challenges with early
are important to turf growth. If aeration thatch in the upper portion of the season maintenance operations.

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March 4, 2011 Page 3