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Unsteady-state heat transfer.

Introduction :

Heat transfer is the transfer of thermal energy from a body, at a high


temperature, to another at a lower temperature. This transfer of thermal energy
may occur under steady or unsteady state conditions. Under Steady state
conditions the temperature within the system does not change with time.
Conversely, under unsteady state conditions the temperature within the system does
vary with time.

Unsteady state conditions are a precursor to steady state conditions. No system


exists initially under steady state conditions. Some time must pass, after heat
transfer is initiated, before the system reaches steady state. During that period of
transition the system is under unsteady state conditions.

Clearly, no system can remain under unsteady state conditions perpetually.


The temperature of the system will eventually reach the temperature of the heat
source, and once this happens, the system will be at steady state. Even if the
amount of heat being transferred into the system is increased, at some point the
system reaches its critical temperature and the energy transferred into it the starts
causing phase changes within the system rather than temperatures increases.

Daily application :

Think about when you cook an egg, for those of you who do not cook, just pretend.
When you take an egg out of the refrigerator it is at a temperature of about 5oC . If
you place it in a pot of boiling water, heat is transferred from the egg’s surface to
its center. The temperature throughout the egg is changing with time, eventually
cooking the egg.

You just washed your hair and you need it dry really fast what do you do? You
blow dry it. When blow drying your hair, heat is transferred from the blow dryer to
the hair strands, heating up the hair strands over time until they dry.

Introduction of instant noodles


Convenience foods are designed to be cooked with minimum preparation in the kitchen,
typically just heating in hot water or other sources. Among convenience foods, steamed
and deep-fat fried instant
noodles, that are called as Ramyun in Korea and called as Ramen in Japan, have long
been a popular convenience food in Asian countries due to their reasonable
price and ease of preparation.
The quality of cooked instant noodles prepared from
Ramyun products have been assessed based on organoleptic
properties such as taste, flavour and texture.
Among the determinants, texture plays a key role in
determining the quality of the instant noodles. The
desirable texture of cooked instant noodles, which
includes a relatively strong bite with a firm, smooth
surface and good mouth feel, are dependent on the
cooking procedures (Hou, 2001). Therefore, the use of
an appropriate cooking procedure causes instant
noodles to become more palatable.
The heating method, rate of heat transfer and cooking
time are considered very important parameters that
determine the cooking quality of an instant noodle.
Therefore, instant noodle manufacturers provide
recommended cooking methods and cooking times on
the package. Generally, instant noodles are cooked by
immersion in boiling water on a gas stove, but this may
diminish its convenience as an instant food.
Microwave ovens are widely used to reheat previously
cooked instant food products for their convenience
and speed. Microwave ovens radiate
electromagnetic microwaves that interact with the food
materials in a fashion determined by the dielectric
constant and the dielectric loss factor (Ryyna¨ nen,
1995). The dielectric constant and loss are affected by
the presence of water, surface charges, electrolytes, and
hydrogen bonding in the composite food product
(Shukla & Anantheswaran, 2001). Polar molecules in
foods, which primarily consist of water, interact with
the microwaves to generate heat in the food materials
via ionic polarisation and dipole rotation (George,
1993). Therefore, the energy absorbed by a food is
determined by the power of the microwave oven, water
content of the food and the dissolved organic and
inorganic salt ion content (Sakai et al., 2005).
Microwave processing and cooking of foods is a
recent development, which is rapidly gaining popularity

in households and for large-scale food applications. This