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The objectives for this module are listed here. Please take a moment to review them.
Symmetrix Foundations - 1
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy - All Rights Reserved.
The Symmetrix DMX series includes the Symmetrix DMX-4 950 and the Symmetrix DMX-4 models to meet a wide range of high-end requirements for scalability, performance, and cost. DMX-4 models are ideal for high-end configurations that require performance and the scaling capability to start as small as one Disk Adapter (DA) pair and 96 drives, and grow to a maximum of 4 DA pairs and 2,400 disks. The incremental scalability that the Symmetrix DMX4 provides allows you to meet your growth requirements by adding Disk Adapters, disk id ll t t th i t b ddi Di k Ad t di k channels, and disk drives non-disruptively to the existing DMX frame. This enables true pay-asyou-grow economics for high-growth storage environments. The Symmetrix DMX-4 950 is an ideal entry point for high-end configurations requiring one DA pair and between 32 and 360 drives. The same functionality, storage interoperability, and operational efficiency is maintained across the entire Symmetrix DMX series for the DMX user community. And, the DMX-4 950 supports both Open Systems and Mainframe connectivity. connectivity Key Feature - The massive scalability of Symmetrix is a key feature that enables customer to reap the benefits of consolidation.
Symmetrix Foundations - 2
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy - All Rights Reserved.
The Symmetrix V-Max family. It includes two options for scalability and growth. The V-Max series scales from 48 to 2,400 disks and provide 2 Petabyte of usable protected capacity when configuring all 1TB SATA disks. The V-Max SE scales from 48 to 360 disks and is intended for smaller capacity needs that require Symmetrix performance, availability and functionality. The V-Max system can support up to 8 high availability V-Max engines, with 512GB’s of y pp p g y g , protected, usable global memory. It provides support for Fibre Channel, iSCSI, Gigabit Ethernet, and FICON connected hosts. Front end and back end connectivity has doubled over the DMX-4 with up to 128 host ports and 128 disk channels. The V-Max also leverages 2.3 Gigahertz multi-core processors. The new Virtual Matrix provides the interconnect that enables resources to be shared across all V-Max engines to enable massive scale out.
Symmetrix Foundations - 3
or 64 GigE/iSCSI ports. the system contains 48-360 disk drives. eight FICON ports. and a maximum of 128 Fibre Channel Front End ports. Do not Copy .400 disk drives.All Rights Reserved. g p The Symmetrix V-Max SE array always consists of a single Engine with two Directors. 96-2. p . 64 FICON ports. With this launch. Depending on expansion bay configuration.4 . Symmetrix Foundations . 16 FC Front End ports. The Symmetrix V-Max array may be configured with one to eight Engines. It contains two–16 Directors. and eight GigE/iSCSI ports.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. and the Symmetrix V-Max SE array. EMC announces two variations of the Symmetrix V-Max Series with Enginuity options: Symmetrix V-Max array.
and for remote replication connections. On the back end.All Rights Reserved. Relative to the memory.5 . the Symmetrix V-Max array offers twice the capacity more than 2 PB of usable space. the Symmetrix V-Max array can be configured with up to 472 GB of usable cache. Symmetrix Foundations . Let’s summarize our architectural discussion by comparing the Symmetrix V-Max array with the DMX-4 on various scalability metrics. This can be achieved using 2400 1-TB SATA II drives in a RAID-6 14+2 configuration. while both systems can support up to 2400 drives. The Symmetrix V-Max array can also provide g y y p better performance on the Back End. Front End scalability has improved as well – for all three supported types of host interconnect. since it can be configured with twice as many Back End ports.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy .
All Rights Reserved.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Please take some time to review them. Do not Copy . This slide lists some key terms used to describe Symmetrix systems. Symmetrix Foundations .6 .
Do not Copy . Please take some time to review them. Symmetrix Foundations .7 .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.All Rights Reserved. This slide shows some additional key terms used to describe Symmetrix systems.
As service levels for critical applications escalate exponentially over the next decade.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. to continue to run no matter what.8 . Symmetrix is the gold standard for mission-critical applications. Do not Copy . g .All Rights Reserved. over twelve years. It has proven itself time and again. in the world’s most demanding environments. p Symmetrix was engineered to work flawlessly. insurance and telecommunications companies. proactive monitoring and error detection and correction. so will requirements for information availability and data integrity. Symmetrix Foundations . including the data centers of the largest financial. and to be serviced proactively and non-disruptively. Symmetrix now raises the availability bar even higher with the world’s most advanced faulttolerant design featuring full redundancy.
The matrix mid-plane provides configuration flexibility through the slot configuration. Symmetrix DMX technology is distributed across all channel directors. The Symmetrix DMX systems feature a high-performance Direct Matrix Architecture (DMX) supporting up to 128 point-to-point serial connections within the DMX system. no custom h l b l di t b d Th l f thi hit t i i li it t ASICs to interface between Directors and Global Memory.. Do not Copy . This translates into less potential for component failure.The Direct Matrix Architecture is a key differentiator for Symmetrix. The simplicity of Symmetrix along with support for more hosts and operating systems makes it the right choice for customers today. No lengthy cycles producing and debugging ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits). Compare .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. CLARiiON is uses dual-controllers and the UltraScale architecture. just add more connections and faster CPUs on Directors. and global memory directors in Symmetrix DMX systems. Symmetrix Foundations . scalability is easy. and reliability.9 . providing customers with choices with regard to performance. The elegance of this architecture is simplicity.All Rights Reserved. disk directors. scalability. Memory and Disk and Directors and Hosts . Each director slot port is hard-wired point-to-point to one port on each global memory director board.
growth concerns and performance by directly connecting the key components of the DMX including: Cache Memory. the processors speeds have been increased to 1. With point-point connections as you can see in this diagram.3GHz.10 . but the capacity of each card has increased to 64GB of DDR memory. The number of memory cards remains at 8. we have eliminated potential bottlenecks. The DMX architecture is easy to scale by adding more physical connections as opposed to time-consuming ASICs (A li ti l b ddi h i l ti d t ti i ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) that require more time to design and debug. Symmetrix Foundations . Front-End Channel Directors and Back-End Disk Directors. up by a factor of 2 over the previous Symmetrix model family (DMX-3). Do not Copy . there are now 8 processors per director. a bump of 30%. In addition to increasing the number of processors. EMC’s performance and capacity rise to new levels. Symmetrix DMX-4 is based on the proven Direct Matrix architecture. The number of processors per director has also been doubled. yielding 512 GB total memory. With each new Symmetrix. and each slice incorporates two processors. The connections between the Channel Directors (CDs) and cache. There are still four slices to each Channel Director and Disk Director. and the Disk Directors (DDs) and cache run at 1 GB/sec.All Rights Reserved. but with substantial increases to communication line speeds and component counts.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.
Directors itself. control. It is important to note that the use of industry-standard RapidIO® fabrics represents just one instantiation of part of the logical Virtual Matrix Architecture – i e the communication mechanism for the Directors. The dual highly-available interconnect suffices for all communications between the Directors. Do not Copy .11 . Each Engine contains a pair of y p Symmetrix V-Max Directors. The current implementation uses two fabrics. The use of two RapidIO® fabrics is a design choice that applies to the current Symmetrix V-Max only – these are not restrictions imposed by the architecture. Shown is a logical view of a system that grows to the current maximum of eight engines and 16 directors. The design eliminates the need for separate interconnects for data. Engines represent the basic building blocks of a Symmetrix V-Max array. the Virtual Matrix Architecture can support any number of redundant fabrics. Each Director connects to both RapidIO® fabrics via Virtual Matrix Interface ports. automotive.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. By i. This provides a high degree of flexibility and scalability. digital signal processing and telecommunications. packet-switched fabric architecture. This ensures that there is no single point of failure in the virtual interconnect. Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved.e. The Symmetrix V-Max system is built around a scalable interconnect based on redundant RapidIO® fabrics. Symmetrix V-Max Series with Enginuity is the first implementation of the Virtual Matrix architecture. and any number of switching elements per fabric. thus reducing complexity. environmental and system test. A Symmetrix V-Max system may scale from one to eight engines. It has been adopted in a variety of applications including computer storage. messaging. RapidIO® is an industry-standard.
12 .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Data arrives on the left Front end I/O modules then is sent by the two CPU to the SIB module y which transfers in serial mode to the Virtual matrix for storage. Symmetrix Foundations . Also shown is the raw bandwidth limit for the current generation of each interconnect.All Rights Reserved. This block diagram illustrates the interconnects between the various components within a Symmetrix V-Max system. Of particular interest given the new distributed memory architecture is the achievable aggregate bandwidth of the Virtual Matrix interconnect. Do not Copy .
Access to Global Memory on other directors is by way of highly available. Do not Copy . The Virtual Matrix Interconnect is a core logical construct of the architecture. This Interconnect enables a director to interconnect communicate with every other director. some Global Memory is local and some resides with other directors. Symmetrix Foundations .13 . The Virtual Matrix allows access to all Global Memory from all directors. redundant mesh design in contrast to copper etch on a single backplane. high-speed available low-latency high speed RapidIO® interconnect.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. As with all Symmetrix systems. Global Memory is distributed across all directors. In the Virtual Matrix architecture. The Virtual Matrix Architecture allows direct access to local parts of Global Memory. Symmetrix V-Max array combines front end. track tables and cache entries. back end and memory into a single director. the Global Memory is truly global in nature. Memory on each director stores the Global Memory data structures including: Common area. A distributed Global Memory means that from the viewpoint of a director. low latency. This form of interconnect ensures that the system can scale to large numbers of directors. It also allows for directors to be dispersed geographically as the system grows (in the future). requiring some form of fabric-based. Each director contributes a portion of the total Global y p Memory space. reducing cost and increasing performance.All Rights Reserved.
enabled by a new version of Enginuity. Do not Copy .14 . the new architecture enables significant increases in scalability. As the table shows. The Symmetrix V-Max system implements a virtual matrix interconnect. global memory. g y. Scalability has improved in all aspects: front end connectivity.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Symmetrix Foundations . back end connectivity and p p y. The Symmetrix V-Max system uses engine-based packaging containing front end. back end and memory components. y usable capacity.All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.2-kilowatt standby power supply (SPS) − Three cooling-fan assemblies.15 . each of which has: − A dedicated 2. The Symmetrix DMX-4 System Bay has: Up to 12 channel directors Up to eight disk directors (combined total of directors is 16) Up to 512 GB global memory A 1µ Service Processor with KVM (keyboard. video and mouse) and dedicated UPS (keyboard video. each zone capable of powering the fully-configured system bay Symmetrix Foundations . Do not Copy . Up to eight power supplies.All Rights Reserved. each containing three fans − Two power zones with independent power cables.
a Matrix Interface Board Enclosure (MIBE).Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. and a Server (Service Processor) with Keyboard-Video-Mouse (KVM) assembly.All Rights Reserved. The Symmetrix V-Max SE Series System Bay consists of a single V-Max Engine and eight drive enclosures. one Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS). The system bay for the Symmetrix V-Max array consists of one to eight V-Max Engines (starting with Engine 4) and does not contain any drive enclosures.16 . assembly Symmetrix Foundations . Do not Copy . Both System Bays contain three Standby Power Supply (SPS) trays.
Each Symmetrix drive bay has redundant power supplies with battery backups to provide standby power to y p pp y p p yp components and two power zones with independent power cables. Base configurations are composed of a system bay and independent storage.All Rights Reserved. selections Symmetrix Foundations . The Channel Express Configuration provides the proper number of storage bays. DMX-4 configurations deliver scalable capacity and performance to consolidate systems. always consult PowerLink or Channel Express to determine the latest drive offerings from EMC.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. The DMX-4 Storage Bay is configured for capacities of 120 or 240 disk drives. Each zone is capable of powering the fully-configured drive bay and can be populated with any combination of available drives.17 . Do not Copy . Speaking of drives. applications. and/or hosts while maintaining high service levels. based on drive and RAID selections.
and unique cabling when compared with the DMX Series. power supplies. The Symmetrix V-Max array Storage Bay is configured with capacities of up to 120 disk drives for a half populated bay or 240 disk drives for a fully populated bay. and blower modules are fully redundant and hot swappable. The Symmetrix V-Max array Storage Bay is similar to the Storage Bay of the DMX-3 and DMX-4 systems.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. LCCs. swappable Symmetrix Foundations . Do not Copy . Drives.All Rights Reserved. 48 to 240 drives. It consists of eight to sixteen Drive Enclosures. eight SPS modules.18 .
capacity could be increased by adding one or two storage Bays. The only exception to this is the single DA pair where the maximum number of drives is 240. increasing back-end processing power and enabling an additional 8 drive loops in quadrant 4. the most appropriate way to build out the system might be to add one or more additional DA pairs to support additional workloads. Or. There are two dimensions to DMX-4 scalability: adding capacity by increasing the length of existing drive loops or adding more DA pairs to scale capacity and performance. Each disk director pair has eight redundant FC drive loops –supporting up to 480 drives. DAs 6 and 11 could be added. For example. .All Rights Reserved. scaling performance upward as capacity increases. As an example. The Symmetrix DMX-4 series offers the ultimate in flexible scaling to allow independent growth of performance and capacity to meet workload requirements. a two-DA pair system with 240 drives could grow to 360 drives simply with the addition of another drive bay. if there are high workloads on the initial 240 drives. Symmetrix Foundations . 3A and 4A. and increasing the loop y g g y. if a system were to be configured with 30 drive loops in quadrants 1 and 2.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.19 . If the starting system was a three DA pair configuration. g p lengths to 45 or 60 drives per loop. Do not Copy .
With the doubling in the number of Director-pairs relative to earlier models – 8 i t d of 4 – th d bli i th b f Di t i l ti t li d l instead f we now have the notion of octants. This is conceptually similar to drive quadrants in a DMX-4 system.20 .All Rights Reserved. Do not Copy .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. A fully loaded system – either Symmetrix V-Max system or DMX-4 – can accommodate up to 2400 disk drives. The Symmetrix V-Max system with up to twice as many Back End ports requires shorter daisy chains on the Back End. Symmetrix Foundations . requiring 10 storage bays and one system bay. The drive enclosures behind a given Director-pair constitute one octant.
Do not Copy .All Rights Reserved.21 . Unified Directors can hold different emulations depending on Mezzanine cards in use and can be configured to support various interfaces.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Symmetrix Foundations .
The DMX-4 uses global memory directors that use industry-standard Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DDR SDRAM).Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. The DMX-4 global memory directors work in pairs. All read and write operations transfer data to or from global memory. which greatly reduces the probability of contention for global memory access. and then automatically writes data to the secondary global memory director. and global memory directors are achieved at much greater electronic speeds than transfers involving disks. Each memory director port consists of a pair of full-duplex serial links—two serial links out (TX) and two serial links in (RX). Upon a primary or secondary global memory director failure. All reads are from the primary memory director. The Symmetrix DMX-4 global memory director technology is one of the most crucial components of a Symmetrix system. Do not Copy . simultaneously accessible memory regions. Symmetrix Foundations . all directors drop the failed global memory director and switch to a non-dual write mode. The hardware writes to the primary global memory director first.22 . Each global memory director has 16 ports with point-to-point serial connections between the global memory director and channel or disk directors (16 directors) through the direct matrix. channel directors. d l it d St i i b t l b l di t i d f lt Each Symmetrix DMX-4 global memory director accommodates four separately addressable.All Rights Reserved. Any transfers between the host processor. the latest generation of DDR SDRAM chip technology. Striping between global memory directors is default.
All Rights Reserved. Symmetrix Foundations . Each of the eight director ports on the 16 directors connect to one of the 16 memory ports on each of the eight global memory directors. 16 GB.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. and 64 GB sizes. Individual global memory directors are available in 8 GB. Do not Copy . 32 GB. These 128 individual point-to-point connections facilitate up to 128 concurrent cache operations in the system. When configuring global memory for the Symmetrix DMX systems follow these guidelines: • Very large eight disk director configurations may be limited or restricted by currently available Symmetrix DMX-4 maximum memory. • Global memory directors must be configured in pairs of the same capacity.23 . memory • Global memory directors can be added to the DMX-4 not to exceed the maximum designed for the system’s configuration. The S Th Symmetrix DMX system can support up to eight slots in the mid-plane dedicated to global ti t t t i ht l t i th id l d di t d t l b l memory and 512 GB of global memory (256 GB effective) global memory.
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy - All Rights Reserved.
Let’s take a closer look inside a Symmetrix V-Max Engine, and make some comparisons with DMX-4. A Symmetrix Engine combines the front end, back end, and memory directors of a Symmetrix DMX system into a single component. A single engine combines host ports, memory, and disk channels. It is configured to provide highly available access to drives, as each Director is the primary initiator to ½ the connected disks, and the alternate for the other ½. In addition, the new Symmetrix provides twice as many host ports with up to 128 per system and is capable of supporting thousands of physical and virtual server connections combining Fibre Channel, iSCSI, FICON, and ESCON support. The system also supports twice as many back end connections with up to 128 Point to Point Fibre Channel ports. Twenty-four hundred disks are supported at general availability, and Enterprise Flash Drives, Fibre Channel and SATA disks can be configured with a total usable protected capacity of over 2 PB in a single system. The new Directors introduce support for Multi-core processors that provide a significant increase in processing power within a smaller footprint that can deliver up to 2X more system performance. Because 5GB of local memory is reserved by each Director for control store & buffers, the total amount of Global Cache is up to 944 GB of Global Memory, or 472 GB mirrored, protected memory. Global cache and CPU complexes are redundant across each Director and allows resources to be dynamically accessed and shared. The new Virtual Matrix interface connects resources within and across Engines to share system resources. At general availability, up to eight engines can be combined to provide massive scalability in a single system.
Symmetrix Foundations - 24
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy - All Rights Reserved.
This illustrates the layer levels of Enginuity and their functionality: At the top of the layers is the Host communication point to the Symmetrix, at the bottom is the actual Symmetrix hardware components, such as memory and directors. EMC’s solution enabler APIs are the storage management programming interfaces that provide an access mechanism for managing the S h i f i th Symmetrix, thi d t i third-party storage, switches, and host t t it h dh t storage resources. They enable the creation of storage management applications that don’t have to understand the management details of each piece within the total storage environment. Symmetrix systems support platform software applications for data migration, replication, integration and more.
Symmetrix Foundations - 25
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy - All Rights Reserved.
At the core of all Symmetrix DMX systems is EMC Enginuity, the industry's most proven, innovative storage operating environment. It enables consistency across generations of hardware, and leverages new technologies. An operating environment tied to a time-proven architecture is an operating environment that has captured, retained, and built on an existing and proven code base. Enginuity is the software component which enables all of the advanced storage capabilities that Symmetrix provides, including performance optimization, quality-of-service management, and cache striping. The maturity of Enginuity, along with the innovative use of new technology, allows it to support a wide range of connectivity on both Mainframe and Open Systems.
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It includes a number of intelligent algorithms to manage interface.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Enginuity certainly is not lacking when it comes to the safety of your data.27 . Even thought it is built for speed. Enginuity is built for speed. providing Symmetrix with its industry-leading performance. It provides a plethora of features geared toward ensuring the integrity. availability. cache. y y Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved. and drive usage. and security of your data. Do not Copy .
Do not Copy . the 58 represents the V-MAX hardware. y Symmetrix Foundations . In this example. 121 is the field release level to the microcode.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. 75 is the microcode family.All Rights Reserved. Non-disruptive microcode upgrade and load capabilities are currently available for the Symmetrix. The numbers that define an Enginuity level have specific meaning. and 102 is the field release to the service processor code.28 .
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Please take a moment to read them. Do not Copy . Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved. The objectives for this lesson are shown here.29 .
there are no mechanical delays due to seek and latency. the requested data is not in global memory and must be retrieved from p . The channel director transfers the requested data through the channel interface to the host and updates the global memory directory. In a read miss operation. The disk director stores the data in global memory and updates the directory table. While the channel director creates space in the global memory. In a Read hit operation. Since the data is in global memory. the Symmetrix system must search for data on the disk and then transfer it to the channel adding seek and latency times to the operation. The channel director then reconnects with the host and transfers the data. the disk director reads the data from the disk device. the requested data resides in global memory. Because the data is not in global memory.30 .All Rights Reserved. Do not Copy . q g y a disk device. Symmetrix Foundations .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.
the Symmetrix system disconnects the channel directors from the channels. the percentage of global memory containing modified data is higher than the fast write threshold. the channel director places the incoming block(s) directly into global memory. When sufficient global memory space is available.31 . The disk director then asynchronously de-stages the data from global memory to the disk device. On a host write command. If this situation occurs. For fast write operations. A fast write occurs when the percentage of modified data in global memory is less than the fast write threshold. Do not Copy . the channel director stores the data in global memory and sends a “channel end” and “device end” to the host computer. the channel directors reconnect to their channels and process the host I/O request as a fast write.All Rights Reserved. That is. A delayed fast write occurs only when the fast write threshold has been exceeded. Symmetrix Foundations .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. it restores the image to Global Memory. Five GB on each of the first four drives on every drive loop is reserved for memory vaulting. Symmetrix Foundations . As cache size.32 . Power vault de-stages Global Memory to specific Vault Devices on power down. Power Vault was designed to limit the time necessary to de-stage data and power off the Symmetrix system while on battery power. and power requirements continue to increase. the time required to destage data also increases. Do not Copy .All Rights Reserved. disk size. The total capacity of all vault hypervolumes must be sufficient to keep two logical copies of the persistent part of global memory. Then on P lt d t Gl b l M t ifi V lt D i d Th power up.
When configuring the Symmetrix there are different types of Hyper devices that can be configured.33 .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy . For example: Standard devices (STD) are configured for normal production operations Business Continuance (BCV) devices are configured for TimeFinder/Mirror replication Virtual Devices (VDEV) are configured for TimeFinder/SNAP local pointer-based replication Dynamic Reallocation Volumes (DRV) devices are configured Symmetrix Optimizer hyper re-location Thin devices are virtual cache-only devices that can grow in capacity Save Devices are configured for TimeFinder/SNAP and/or Thin devices R1 and R2 for Remote replication Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved.
A hyper volume could be used as an unprotected Symmetrix logical volume. the Symmetrix Logical volume is a physical drive. Symmetrix y g g y Logical Volumes are defined by the Symmetrix Configuration while Host-based logical are configured by customers through Logical Volume Manager software.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Symmetrix physical drives are split into logical hyper volumes. a remote mirror using SRDF. Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved. and more. a Business Continuance Volume (BCV). Do not confuse Symmetrix Logical Volumes with host-based logical volumes. Hyper volumes are then defined as Symmetrix Logical Volumes and internally labeled with hexadecimal identifiers. a member of a Symmetrix Meta LUN. a mirror of another hyper volume.34 . As far as the host is concerned. Do not Copy . a Drive Reallocation Volume (DRV). a member for Parity RAID. A Symmetrix logical volume is the drive entity presented to a host via a Symmetrix channel director port.
p pp g g y CRC. system!. but also referential information that specifies the LBA and generation of the data block. which uses a 57KB track size. array and verified on every read – in fact it is verified every time the data is moved within the fact. Each system type uses a different size block. These additional bytes are appended to each 512-byte block on writes as the data enters the array. Symmetrix arrays support open systems. DMX-4 uses 512 byte blocks for FBA and CKD data. which is a 512 byte block. And in addition to this.35 . each 512-byte data block (520-byte for iSeries systems) is now digitally signed with an 8-byte data-integrity field using an algorithm based on the T10-DIF standard proposal.All Rights Reserved. When destaging data to drives. CKD. Enginuity uses this info to validate that the content of the block hasn't changed. Mainframes require Count Key Data (CKD) format. and 520 byte blocks for iSeries data. iSeries systems store data using a 520 byte block size. and iSeries logical volume types. which are stored separately from the data and the block . Open systems use the Fixed Block Architecture (FBA). With V-Max.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy . Enginuity also keeps separate check bits on track tables. . Symmetrix DMX-4 arrays store FBA. as a belt-and-suspenders approach to ensuring data integrity. Symmetrix Foundations . and iSeries data in cache using their native block y y . The bytes include not only a strong CRC. g size. main frame. and that it is indeed the block of data from the requested LBA (just in case the drive returned the wrong block of data).
the emulation type. Within the Symmetrix bin file.36 . BCV mirrors. From the Host’s perspective. DRV. count. y p ) y g is assigned a hexadecimal identifier. and the address used to access it. The host is unaware of the bin file. and special flags (like BCV. RAID protection.All Rights Reserved. etc. dynamic sparing. Through careful planning the best performance can be achieved. The bin file also tells the Channel director which volumes are presented on which port. In other words. . words the host “thinks it s getting” an entire physical drive. size in cylinders.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Dynamic Spare) are defined. Planning starts with understanding the host and application requirements. The best possible performance is only achieved if all the resources within the system are being equally utilized. when a device discovery process occurs. the information provided back to the Operating System appears to be referencing a series of drives. remote mirroring. thinks it’s getting drive Symmetrix Foundations . Do not Copy . number of mirrors. Each Symmetrix logical volume p g ( .
Do not Copy . RAID 6 (6+2) has the same useable capacity as RAID 5 (3+1). which ensures a low-cost. and RAID 6 (14+2) has the same useable capacity as RAID 5 (7+1). distributed-parity scheme. such as the low-cost Fibre Channel drives. where. independent. similar to striped RAID 5 technology.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. but high-availability enterprise offering. Only EMC offers support for both RAID 6 and low-cost Fibre Channel drives in the same system.All Rights Reserved. RAID 6 is an ideal protection option for high-capacity drives. Data and parity are striped on a block level across multiple drives. due to the performance and capacity of these drives. RAID 6 is supported in 6+2 and 14+2 configurations.37 . RAID 6 minimizes the data-loss exposure in the event of a dualdrive failure in the same RAID group. Symmetrix Foundations . RAID 6 support adds a second. the RAID rebuild times can become elongated. t i ff i RAID 6 provides an option with higher resiliency that can sustain two simultaneous drive failures within the same RAID group without downtime or data loss.
All Rights Reserved. and then uses the spare until the device can be replaced. The Dynamic Sparing function determines when a logical volume is about to fail. These volumes are not user-addressable. and copies the contents of the disk device on which that volume resides to an available spare without any interruption in processing.38 . Symmetrix systems have Dynamic Sparing data protection that reserves volumes as standby spares.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy . The Symmetrix system notifies the EMC Customer Support Center of p p g y y pp this event with an Environmental-Data Present error. Symmetrix Foundations .
Do not Copy .All Rights Reserved. and M4. For example. M3. M2. Within the Symmetrix. Symmetrix Foundations . an unprotected volume will only use the M1 position to point to the only data copy. a RAID-1 protected volume will use the M1 and M2 positions. These Mirror Positions are actually data structures that point to a physical location of a data mirror and the status of each track of data.39 . all four mirror positions would be used. each logical volume is represented by four mirror positions – M1. Each position either represents a mirror or is unused. If thi volume was also protected with SRDF three mirror positions would be used. ON a DMX system.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. th i iti ld b d d add a BCV to this SRDF protected RAID-1 volume. and if we this l l t t d ith SRDF.
Now.40 . be aware that the optimizer swap process and definition of RAID groups are under RVA architecture and the historical flags for Maintain RAID Groups. the two data devices are replaced by the RAID group representation with each RDF device occupying additional mirror positions. Let’s take a look at how this new architecture changes our concurrent SRDF example. In cases where Concurrent SRDF is implemented.All Rights Reserved. Instead the RAID 1 group occupies one mirror position with the SRDF protection occupying a d h i i ii ih h i i second position. Virtualizing the RAID Architecture is an enabling technology for Symmetrix to implement other features. First. migration Keep in mind that RVA does not introduce new RAID protection levels.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. lets take a look at how mirror position usage is handled in a pre-5874 Symmetrix array. Again. Also. you are left with no available mirror positions. Our initial example of a mirrored device with SRDF no longer has two data devices consuming two mirror positions. This configuration g leaves one mirror position available for operations such as TimeFinder Mirror. Do not Copy . RAID Virtual Architecture implemented with Enginuity 5874 is the new method for handling device mirror position usage and is based on the RAID 6 architecture introduced in the previous release. for example against a mirrored device. are no longer required. or hot sparing. One fairly typical configuration is a mirrored device that is also SRDF protected. a mirror position holds a logical representation of a RAID group rather than a device resulting in additional free mirror positions. and Maintain Mirrors. such as VLUN migration. With this configuration you cannot use TimeFinder mirror or hot sparing. This frees up one mirror position giving the customer more flexibility. Symmetrix Foundations . This frees two mirror positions for other operations. The RAID virtual architecture in Enginuity 5874 expands on the mirror positioning handling implemented with RAID 6.
the CPU moves data from Global Memory to the Store and Forward buffer. Store-and-Forward (S&F) Buffer. With this in mind. and the relevant cache slot is on the same Director. and then is moved to the relevant Global Memory space. Control Store is private memory reserved for control purposes such as hosting the microcode. In this simplest of cases. Our first example here is very simple: We get a read cache hit. The read request from the host experiences a cache hit in a local Global Memory slot. we view the shared memory space as consisting of three main sections: Global Memory. let us consider the various possible data flow scenarios when a host performs an I/O request to a Symmetrix Logical Volume in this version of Enginuity. In our simplified representation of a Director in these diagrams. all I/O is completed from the local S&F buffer. and Control Store. there is no traffic generated on the RapidIO® fabrics since all activity is local to one Director. In this version of the microcode. Symmetrix Foundations .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. To support the new distributed Global Memory implementation.All Rights Reserved.41 . Note that since Global Memory is distributed. or on a different Director. Do not Copy . the relevant Global Memory space may reside either on the Director that received the I/O. and the I/O device moves data from the Store and Forward buffer to the host. Symmetrix V-Max systems use a store-and-forward (S&F) architecture.
the CPU moves data across one of the RapidIO® fabrics from remote Global Memory in Director 2.All Rights Reserved. Do not Copy . the I/O device moves data from the Store and Forward buffer to the host. Symmetrix Foundations . In our second example. But this time. and finally. let’s again consider a read cache hit.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.42 . the process starts with: a read request from the host experiences a cache hit in the remote Global Memory slot (within Director 2 in our picture). to the local Store and Forward buffer in Director 1. the relevant cache slot is on a different Director from the one which provides Front End connectivity to the host. As before. Next.
Our third example considers the general case of a read cache miss. and experiencing a Read Miss on request Director 1.All Rights Reserved. Data is read from disk on Director 3 into the Store and Forward buffer on Director 3.43 . The cache slot happens to be allocated on Director 2 in this case – note that any Director may be selected for this purpose. Symmetrix Foundations . moved over the RapidIO® fabric to the allocated cache slot on Director 2. with three Directors involved: Director 1 where the host is connected. moved over the RapidIO® fabric to the Store and Forward buffer on Director 1. and Director 3 which services the disks requiring I/O activity due to this cache miss. The sequence begins with the host issuing the read request. Do not Copy .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. and finally moved to the host which is connected to Director 1. Director 2 which hosts the cache slot in Global Memory for the I/O block involved in the read request.
read across the fabric into the Store and Forward buffer on Director 4. d gets moved across the RapidIO® fabric to the allocated cache slot on Director 2.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. The write request is sent from the host to Director 1. Do not Copy .All Rights Reserved. Up to four Directors may be involved in the processing of this request. Next. In our example.44 . and the data is placed in the Store and Forward buffer on Director 1. the cache slots happen to be allocated on Directors 2 and 3. Symmetrix Foundations . Now let’s look at the data flow for a write in this general case. Director 1 provides the front-end connection to the host. moved data d h id f bi h ll d h l i d across the RapidIO® fabric to the allocated cache slot on Director 3. Directors 2 and 3 host the mirrored cache slots for the particular I/O block of interest. and Director 4 provides the back-end g connection to the disk drives to which data must be destaged from cache. Our final example deals with the general case of a write I/O request to a Symmetrix Logical Volume. and finally. destaged to disks on Director 4. In this particular case.
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy .All Rights Reserved.45 . Symmetrix Foundations . The objectives for this lesson are shown here. Please take a moment to review them.
Do not Copy . and CAS. planning.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. The ControlCenter family delivers storage resource management (SRM) that simplifies and automates such tasks as reporting. ControlCenter allows IT organizations to manage the service they provide. not just the infrastructure they have. Due to the interoperability of the architecture and the centralized storage of configuration information. NAS. As new Agents are integrated or enhanced. and provisioning for the large. y y g g environment. The storage environment can be managed from end to end with one tool. they are seamlessly integrated into the existing g g . ControlCenter is a complete set of storage management tools. This is the base functionality of ControlCenter. DAS.46 . Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved. complex information infrastructures including SAN.
configuration and provisioning discovery monitoring configuration. Do not Copy .47 .All Rights Reserved. Symmetrix Manager provides: A consolidated view of Symmetrix platforms Real-time performance reporting Extensive windowing capabilities for display of multiple systems Automated discovery.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Alert management for Symmetrix systems down to the component level Symmetrix Foundations . monitoring.
The SYMCLI commands are built on top of SYMAPI library functions.48 . symapi_db.All Rights Reserved. The target storage environments are typically Symmetrix®-based though some features are supported for CLARiiON® arrays as well. Do not Copy . SYMCLI resides on a host system to monitor and perform control operations on Symmetrix arrays. which use system calls that generate low-level I/O SCSI commands to the storage arrays. SYMCLI commands are invoked from the host operating system command line (shell). Symmetrix Foundations . configuration and status th b fi ii f th h t t th t fi ti d t t information is maintained in a Symmetrix host database file (called the Symmetrix configuration database.bin by default).Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. To d T reduce the number of inquiries from the host to the storage arrays.
Do not Copy . while reducing access time to the critical business information. or for those that simply need a lightweight graphical interface to complement their SRM infrastructure. browser-based graphical interface for managing EMC Symmetrix systems. SMC is a key component of the EMC storage system management software portfolio which also includes EMC ControlCenter and EMC z/OS Storage Manager. EMC Symmetrix Management Console (SMC) is an intuitive. For users of the Symmetrix—the most widely deployed high-end storage system—Symmetrix Management Console provides intuitive.49 . enabling to manage the Symmetrix system more efficiently and effectively. browser-based device management.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved. Reduces the complexities associated with a command-line interface for system management. Symmetrix Management Console: Provides full management control of individual Symmetrix systems for those environments that do not need advanced Storage Resource Management capabilities. This will help to effectively improve staff productivity and maximize utilization of the system resources.
By joining the service processor to the corporate network. however. This support for out of band management reduces TCO by eliminating the need for the th customer t purchase an additional server to manage the Symmetrix with SMC and/or SMIt to h dditi l t th S t i ith d/ SMI S Providers. Starting with Enginuity 5874. Note. Symmetrix Management Console can be accessed directly via the service processor of a Symmetrix V-Max system. storage administrators will have immediate access to SMC from anywhere in the enterprise. Communication to the service processor must occur over a secure HTTPS connection. that a traditional implementation via installing SMC provider on a dedicated host continues to be supported.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. or customer's • As EMC/Partner Customer Service Engineer. with RSA credentials.All Rights Reserved. with the default SMC username/password (this may be changed from the default at the customer s discretion).50 . there are two ways to login to SMC: • As a customer. Do not Copy . With this new implementation. Symmetrix Foundations .
Symmetrix Optimizer automatically tunes—monitors.51 . g p g Symmetrix Foundations . Symmetrix Optimizer’s load-balancing automation technology analyzes volume activity to identify hot and cold logical volumes for swaps.All Rights Reserved. and migrates—logical volumes to maintain optimal performance. analyzes.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. with no disruptions to applications or users. then automates the time-consuming tasks of back-end load-balancing and drive performance-tuning. Do not Copy .
and CLARiiON performance—and to manage changes i configuration h in fi ti Symmetrix Foundations .52 . CLARiiON. Its unique architecture gives users complete control over data collection and flexibility in data analysis. possible to: Boost productivity with the software’s extensive automation capability Exceed service levels by pinpointing issues and needs in performance.All Rights Reserved. and capacity planning Plan performance growth based on analysis of key performance variables Use the output to optimize SAN. Do not Copy . Celerra. and HDS performance with the ease offered by Performance Manager. With Performance Manager. implementation. Symmetrix Performance Manager is a performance monitoring software tool. No other performance-analysis tool on the market allows users to analyze Symmetrix.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. it is p g . Symmetrix.
ControlCenter StorageScope also gives access to automated trending analysis and forecasting graphs. With this product.53 . and compress data files. Symmetrix Foundations . Do not Copy . making it easier to identify opportunities to reclaim and reallocate storage capacity. The proactive management of StorageScope File Level Reporter allows you to reclaim storage p g g p p y g capacity stage data to less expensive disk. StorageScope manages the tiered storage in the context of the business.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. users can view usage and asset configuration automatically.All Rights Reserved.
All Rights Reserved.54 . Symmetrix Foundations . This slide contains the objectives for this lesson. Please take a moment to read them.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy .
y g g Monitor — Able to perform read-only (passive) operations on a Symmetrix array excluding the ability to read the audit log or Access Control definitions. Admin — Able to perform all operations on a Symmetrix array. Do not Copy .55 . security settings for a Symmetrix array (including reading the audit log. By utilizing role-based access control (RBAC). Symmetrix Foundations . symacl list. the SE software supports accountability.All Rights Reserved. The principle of “least privilege” states that any person (or process or system) should only be given the privileges to perform the actions needed to do their job. SecurityAdmin — Able to perform security operations on a Symmetrix array in addition to all Monitor operations. which in turn contributes to compliance monitoring and auditing. and symauth) in addition to all Monitor operations. including security operations in addition to all Monitor operations operations. This is the minimum role required to view the Symmetrix audit log. Auditor — Grants the ability to view. and no more. but not modify. and verifying identity for remote users. Solutions Enabler/Symmetrix Management Console defines the following roles.) operations on a Symmetrix array and modify GNS group definitions in addition to all Monitor operations.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. StorageAdmin — Able to perform all management (active. or control.
The Symmetrix Management Console utility leverage the new capabilities provided by Solution Enabler. Symmetrix Foundations . All communication between the client and the Symmetrix is protected by SSL encryption.All Rights Reserved. the Management Console also offers management of the Symmetrix Access Control facility.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.56 . Additionally. Do not Copy .
What can you do with symacl? •List Access Control entries. not the data path between hosts and storage y y . Symacl provides host-based (not user-based) access control.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. this allows gradual implementation of an Access Control Policy by permitting older hosts and applications to continue as before. p g nodes.57 . Do not Copy . symacl can restrict access by unauthorized hosts. Permissions may be specified for all or a subset of Symmetrix devices. Note that when initialized. Hosts are authenticated.All Rights Reserved. when enabled. Symacl restricts Symmetrix control functions. access pools. all permissions are granted to all hosts. access groups •Show state of the Access Control environment •Verify contents of command files for correct syntax •Check command files for appropriateness of the requested Access Control entry against the current state •Commit commands to the Access Control database p •Back-up the Access Control database •Restore the contents of the Access Control database Symmetrix Foundations .
58 . The combination of the symacl and symauth facilities permit access control to the Symmetrix by host identity or by user identity. Symacl allows hosts to be assigned to a access group. both. g p g g p The default state for symacl is to allow all commands from all hosts.All Rights Reserved. Either. Devices on a given Symmetrix are assigned to device groups. Particular access permissions can be established for a particular access group and a given device group. Do not Copy . or none of these capabilities can be enabled. Symmetrix Foundations .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. First is LUN masking: the Symmetrix creates a mapping between various hosts (based on WWNs) and the LUNs that are visible on that devices FA.59 . Do not Copy .All Rights Reserved. Any frame that subsequently arrives at the storage array must contain that same WWN/FCID pair. These mechanisms provide enhanced access control based on WWN above and beyond what is available solely in the switch fabric. When this capability is enabled. if the mapping is not present. p g y switch port than what the server originally connected to the fabric. the I/O request is refused. otherwise. as well as preventing unauthorized access based on WWN spoofing. the Symmetrix creates a mapping in the Volume Configuration Management Database (VCMDB) that records the host WWN and the Fibre-Channel ID (FCID) for that device. S_ID lockdown prevents a server from accessing an array from a different fabric y. Symmetrix Foundations . the frame is dropped. Secondly. Not all hosts are able to see all LUNs. The Symmetrix storage device restricts access to data via two mechanisms.
Certified Data Erasure is a Symmetrix service to securely erase a given drive prior to taking that drive out of service.22-M (1995).60 . This specification indicates how many times data on the drive must be overwritten. since the data cannot be retrieved following this procedure. and with which kinds of data. Do not Copy . This procedure supports data confidentiality.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Data from drives that have been subject to this procedure is deemed to be unrecoverable. The procedure to erase the data meets the requirements of DoD specification 5220. Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. This capability supports accountability. device ID. and time window of operation provides a “shortlived” credential that cannot be reused to gain management control of the device at some future g g time.61 . powered by RSA. Because actions are also recorded in the tamperproof audit log. The combination of user ID. role.All Rights Reserved. Symmetrix Security Credentials. Do not Copy . Service credentials apply to both console login and to remote access via the EMC Secure Remote Support (ESRS) gateway. Symmetrix Foundations . the combination of capabilities means that we have high assurance that not only are activities being performed correctly but also provide proof of compliance. provides a highly secure method of accessing the storage device.
Note that the log file rewrites itself after 40MB capacity limit is reached. physical component changes. The Symmetrix Secure Audit Log is newly available in Enginuity 5772 code release. so data must be captured externally if one wishes to record data beyond the 40MB limit.All Rights Reserved. actions on the service processor. and attempts blocked by security controls. event log contents cannot be altered. and only authorized users (users in the auditor role) can retrieve log contents. The log records host-initiated actions. As a security measure.62 .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. t ll ih t dd t b d th li it Symmetrix Foundations . Do not Copy .
IPSec is a security protocol that encapsulates the entire IP packet over a network between two hardware endpoints. and reduces the security risks associated with transmitting data over IP networks.63 . and limited traffic flow confidentiality. confidentiality (via encryption). detection and rejection of replays. IPsec is integrated into the IPv6 protocol. It provides a standard means of authenticating and encrypting data sent over IP network connections. Do not Copy . since it can provide access it i k i t d ith t itti d t t k i id control.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. The EMC Multi-protocol and GigE IPv4/6 Channel Directors provide support for the latest network protocol standards by integrating IPSec and IPv6. connectionless integrity. data origin authentication. Symmetrix Foundations .All Rights Reserved. and is an additional protocol with IPv4.
Either SMC and SYMCLI can be used to manage IPv6 settings for front end GigE directors Symmetrix Foundations . Session-based encryption keys simplify management while maintaining security for data in transit.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation.64 . Customers can effectively manage Symmetrix communication and encryption with Symmetrix Management Console (SMC) or SYMCLI. Support for IPv6 alongside IPv4 allows customers to pp pp g integrate Symmetrix DMX-4 arrays into their next generation networks when they are deployed. Do not Copy .All Rights Reserved. IPSec can be used with Symmetrix arrays connected via RDF over GigE. This feature is supported both on IPv4 and IPv6 networks. An embedded line-grade encryption co-processor provides strong security without degrading performance.
All Rights Reserved. Symmetrix Foundations .65 . These are the key points covered in this module.Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Do not Copy . Please take a moment to review them.
All Rights Reserved.66 . Do not Copy .Copyright © 2009 EMC Corporation. Symmetrix Foundations .
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