Facts & Figures (Notes) General Knowledge VOL-1

FACTS & FIGURES (NOTES) GENERAL KNOWLEDGE VOL-1 1. Laptop in the Lap cause skin Syndrome – People who work with a laptop computer resulting on their legs have been warned that they could be permanently damage their skin. Toasted skin syndrome is a skin condition that could result from long-term heat exposure. 2. College for Art History – Courtauld institute of Art in London gets its name from the art collector and manufacturer Samuel Courtauld who donated his home with his collection of impressionist paitings to London University in 1931. It is a college for the study of Art history. 3. Woman PM for Australia – Julia Gillard has become the first ever female elected prime minister of Australia. 4. Education is now right – The right of children to Free and compulsory Education Act has come into from April 1, 2010. 5. UID rolls out from Tembhli – prime Minister Manmohan Singh handed over the first set of 12-Digit identification number called Adhaar to 10 tribals at Tembhli village in Nandurbar th District of Maharastra on 29 September , 2010. 6. One Million newborn die a year – According to UNICEF, Indian mortality rate fell from 117 per 1000 live birth in 1990 to 72 in 2007. One million newborns die each year in their first month itself. 7. National Legal Services Authority – The constitution of India provides for free legal aid to the poor and weaker section of the society and ensures justice for all. The Legal services Authorities Act was aimed at establishing a uniform network for free legal services to the weaker section of the society. The National Legal Services Authorities (NALSA) monitors and evaluates implementation of legal Services. Every state has a legal services Authority. 8. Molecules in jeans as solar Cells – Molecules, typically used in blue jeans and ink dyes, have been used for building an organic frameworks that could lead to economical, flexible and versatile solar cell. 9. LIDAR – Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), similar to RADAR, utilizes lasers to determine the distance to an object or surface. It is used to variety of industries, like atmospheric physics, geology, forestry, oceanography and law enforcement. LiDAR used in mobile environment like aircraft and satellites, also incorporates positioning technology. 10. Earth Hour – Earth Hour began in Sydeny, Australia in 2007 with about two million participants. The voluntary one-hour blackout has since grown an international event as a sign of action against global warming. 11. World wide web consortium(W3C) – W3C is an international community that works towards developing world wide web standards in the areas like web design, web application, web architecture, XML technology, web services and devices, browsers ad authoring tools. 12. Composition of Bones – Organic Matter 33.30%, phosphate 51.04%, carbonate of lime 11.30%, fluoride of calcium 2.00%, phosphate of magnesia 1.16%, soda/chloride of sodium 1.00% 13. Brain chip – scientist have developed a brain chip that lets paralyzed patients operate their bionic limbs. It detect nerve message , decode the signal and turn thoughts into action. 14. AIDS Report – India has 27 lakh HIV patient per national Aids Control Organization (NACO) estimates. NACO records fresh cases every year, nearly 40% of which are women. Women constitute 50% of all new HIV cases globally. 15. Universal Blood Type – A team of Danish, English and French scientist has found a way to convert types A,B and AB blood into Type O – the universal donor blood group that can be given to anybody. The enzymatic blood conversion system enables the precise and permanent conversions of groups to enzyme converted group O, known as ECO red cells and is safe. 16. Naming on the internet – The internet corporation for Assigned Names and numbers – the organization tasked with assigning domain names and IP addresses- has approved the domain type .xxx for porn sites. The site that doesn’t want to use it still be able to register under the classic .com.

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17. Second poorest country - Afghanistan is the world’s second poorest contry. Sierra leone is the poorer than Afghanistan, according to the UN Human Development Index for 2009. 18. Longest natural beach – Cox’s Bazar Beach, the unbroken 125 Km sandy beach in Bangladesh, is considered the longest natural beach in the world. 19. Largest producer of Diamonds – Botswana is the world’s largest producer of diamonds. The trade has transformed it into a middle-income nation. It launched its own diamond trading company- Diamond Trading Company of Bostwana – in joint venture with diamond giant De Beers. 20. Free calls on internet – Skype, designed by Estonian developers, offers free calls over the internet to millions of people. Skype has also become popular for its additional features which include instant messaging, file transfer and video conferencing. 21. The Hindu College of Varanasi – Central Hindu college was established at Varanasi in 1898 by Mrs. Annie Besant. It formed the nucleus of Banaras Hindu University. 22. The First University – Takshashila, established in 700 B.C. is supposed to be the world’s first university. Students from foreign countries also registered for studies in more than 60 streams of knowledge here. 23. The Largest Technopark india’s first technopark at Thiruvananthapuram, which is celebrating 20 years of its establishment, is the second largest IT park in the country with 4.5 mn. Sq.ft. build up area with 180 companies operating in the premises, employing about 28,000 professionals. 24. National Law schools – every state in India is to have a world class law school. These are institution of excellence in the field of legal education and research, essential to the realization of values enshrined in the constitution. 25. Top Business School in the World – Harvard, Wharton, Stanford, MIT Sloan, Kellogg, Chicago, Columbia, New York University stern(all in US), London Business School, Insead(France), IE(spain), Ceibs(China), IMD(Switzerland) and Indian School of Business are the top business school in the world. 26. Fertility Rate – the rate at which women expect to have children in their lifetime – was 5.5(children) in 1970. It felt to 4 in 1990 and to 2.7 by 2008(india) 27. Gandhiji’s First Arrest – Gandhiji was arrested for the first time in India on March 10, 1922 by the order of viceroy Lord Reading, near Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmadabad. 28. India and Junk Mails – India has been ranked second in the list of spam- relaying countries, accounting for over seven percent of global junk mails sent during the first quarter of the year, says a new survey. 29. Dependency Ratio – the number of dependents to working people is called dependency ratio. In India, the ratio is 0.6, which is very low compared with the developed countries. 30. India, a Growing Wine Market – India is one of the growing wine markets. It is to become the first Asian countries to join international organization of Vine and wine (OIV), based in paris. 31. Gandhiji’s Dandi March or ‘Salt Satyagaraha’ began on March 12,1930. He and his 78 followers reached Dandi, 388 Km from Sabarmati Asharam of Ahmedabad, on April 5 and broke the salt law. He was arrested on April 6. 32. Rashtrapati Bhawan – Rashtrapati Bhawan, Delhi was completed in 1929. It was formely the Viceroy’s house. Now it is the official residence of the president of India. It was designed by Lutyens. 33. In 1930, January 26 was observed as ‘Swaraj Day’ for the first time. In 1929, at midnight on Dec. 31 Gandhiji led congress members in Lahore to take a Vow for ‘Swaraj’- nothing less than full independence. 34. What is Literacy ? – Literacy is not just identifying the letters of the alphabets, but acquiring the skill of reading , writing and arithmetic and the ability to apply them to one’s day to day life. 35. Gandhiji switches to Lion Cloth – in 1921, Gandhiji told a meeting of students in Madurai if they found wearing ‘Khadi’ too expensive, they must wear less clothes. He set an example by discarding the dhoti and kurta and switches over to the lion cloth.

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36. Jugnu – Kanpur IIT’s mechanical and nuclear engineering and technology departments were instrumented in designing Jugnu, a 3.5 Kg nanosatellite.Jugnu was handed over to the ISRO in March, 2010. 37. Unique Identification - The Unique Identification Authority of India(UIDAI) is to give UID numbers to 1.2 billion people. The project will save the government more than 20,000 cr. A year by eliminating duplication under various schemes. 38. Mohan Began – India’s oldest football club is Mohan Bagan, formed in 1889, Mohammedan Sporting came in 1891. 39. Harijan Replaces Young India – Young India was replaced in 1933 by the new English journal Harijan. This was brought out by Mahatma Gandhi. 40. Beginning of Film Industry – Harishchandra S.Bhatvadekar is often considered the first Indian filmmaker. His two short films – The Wrestlers and Man and Monkey – were released in Nov. 1899. The Lumiere Brothers cinematographe had unveiled six soundless short movie in Mumbai on July, 1896. 41. Durand Cup – The football Association (FA) Cup began in Englad in 1897. It was the first in the world. The Durand cup tournament, which started in 1888 at shimla, is the second oldest in the world. 42. A satellite build by Engineering Students – Of the five PSL-V-C15 launched satellites in August, two were indigenous ones, the studsat and cartsat was build by 35 students of seven engineering colleges, in india. 43. The Federal Court- In 1937 Federal Court of India was created as the highest judicial authority in the country. It became the supreme court of India on January 26, 1950. 44. Largest Postal Network – The world’s Largest postal network is india post. It has over 1.55 lakh post offices, 89.76 percent of which are in rural areas. A post office serves 7,175 people on an average and cover an area of 21.21 sq km. 45. V.P.Menon – It was a civil servant named V.P.menon who helped sardar patel in persuading many princely states to accede to india. 46. Plastic Industry – Indian Plastic industry had its beginning in 1926. Combs, soap boxes and ashtrays were among the first plastic items made in india. 47. Burma as part of india – Burma was separated from india only in 1937. When the last Mughal emperor bahadur Shah Zafar was sent ot Rangoon in 1858, and the last Burmese King Thibaw Min to Ratnagiri in 1887, they were being exiled within the same country. 48. Broadcasting – Regular broadcasting in India first started in Bombay in July 23, 1927 and later in Calcutta by india broadcasting company. 49. Boat Races – Hiyang Tannaba is a seasonal boat race held during the Lai haraoba festival in Manipur. In kerela, the snake boat (Chundan Vallom) race is held during the festival of Onam. 50. Saving Rate – India has a saving rate of over 30 percent. This is the highest in the world. As india’s population will remain young for a couple of decades, there will be an increase in the number of breadwinners. As the rate of income earners to dependents rises, the savings rate also rises. 51. First Air Mail – J.R.D. Tata embarked upon an epochal journey from Karachi to Bombay on Oct. 15, 1932 carrying India’s first Airmail. 52. Michael O’Dwyer Assassinated – Sir Michael O’Dwyer the governor of Punjab during the jalianwala Bagh massacre of 1919, was assassinated by Udham singh in 1940. 53. Poona Act – the poona act was an agreement signed by Dr. Ambedkar, D. Rajati and Bombay Cricketer P.Baloo with the congress on Sept. 24, 1932. 54. Early Film Studios – Important studios emerged in india around 1929. These include the prabhat Film company, Ranjit Movietone, British Dominion Film Studio, the General Pictures. 55. The Jallianwala Bagh Gathering – The Gathering on jallianwala bagh at Amritsar on April 13, 1919 had collected to protest against the arrest of Dr. Saifudding Kichlew and Dr. Satyapal. 56. Accident on the rise – the National Crime Record Bureau reports that accidents and injuries that snuff out or damage lives are rising three percent a year in India. 57. A top technology cluster – Bangalore , the silicon valley and biotech capital of India, is ranked among the top technology cluster of the worlds. 2184 IT companies, 743 MNCs over

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500,000 IT professionals. The state accounts for nearly 35% of india’s software exports. There are 33 approved SEZs for IT Zone. Mental Health of Indian Soldier – one Indian soldier killed himself every third day. In there years till May 2010, 368 soldier ended their lives. Crores of rupees are being spent on suide prevention programmes. Religious Festivals – Many religious festival in India depend on the phases of the moon . full moon days are particularly significant. There is crowding and merrymaking in temple across towns throughout India on festivals. Nehru Memorial Museum – The teen murti house in New Delhi was converted into the Nehru Memorial Museum in 1974. On Jan 27, president V.V.Giri dedicated it to nation. Jawaharlal Nehru lived in the teen murti house as the first prime minister of India. Teacher’s Day – President S. Radhakrishnan’s birthday Spetember 5 was declared as Teacher’s Day in 1962. He became the second president of india in May, 1962. Nationalization of Airlines – All airlines of india were nationalized on August 1, 1953. Two separate corporations, Indian airlines and Air lines , were formed for domestic and international services respectively. First same sex marriage fails – India’s first –ever public same-sex marriage took place in Manipur in April, 2010 between sandeep soiban, 25 and bride Nikhil Sharma, 28, but ended in divorce after two days. Electronic Voting Machines – the electronic voting machines produced by Electronics corporation of india were used for the first time in the Kerela Assembly by – election in April, 1982. Auroville, the international township of sri Aurobindo Ashram was innaugrated in Feb, 1968 with the assistance of all the states of India. UNESCO and 121 countries of the world. Soils form the respective land were poured into a lotus-shaped urn. The first financial daily – India’s first financial daily the Economics Times was launched by the Times of India Group in Bombay on March 6, 1961. Tribal Population – According to the 1981 census, tribal population formed 79 pc. Pf Arunachal Pradesh , as against an average of 7 p.c. for the whole country. Delhi – Mumbai Air traffic – it is estimated that about 40 percent of air traffic is between the two cities Delhi and Mumbai. The First ISD – International Subscriber Dialing was introduced in 1976. The first call was made from Bombay to London. Public private initiative – India’s first public- private initiative is a $100m. toll bridge. It is the Delhi Noida toll bridge. Yanam Speaks Telgu – Yanam which belongs to the union territory of Pondicherry, speaks Telgu. T is in Andhra pradesh near Kakinada. The first coal-based fertilizer plant – in 1970, telchar in Orissa witnessed the foundation stone lying of india’s first and world’s largest coal based fertilizer plant. th The 17 Indian Railway Zone – Southern(Chennai), Western(Mumbai[Church Gate]), Central(Mumbai CST), Northen(New Delhi), Easter(Kolkata), South- Eastern(Gorakhpur), South-Central(Secundrabad), North-East Frontier Maligaon(Guwahati), North Central(Hajipur), North- Western(Jaipur), East-Coast(Bhubaneswar), South-Western(Hubli), West-Central(Jabalpur), South-East Central(Bilaspur), Konkan Railway(Navi Mumbai). Honor Killing – A haryana court give five prople the death penality on a 2007 honor killing case. Manoj and babli, who has eloped, were murdered after a Khap panchayat edict. High Courts – The High court of Bombay, Calcutta and madras were established in 1862. New States – on the partition of Bengal in 1905, assam was united to the eastern districts of Bengal. In 1948 the north east frontier agency was separated from assam. In 1963, Nagaland was carved out of assam as a full-fledged state in 1972, Meghalaya was cut out of Assam as separate state and Mizoram become a Union territory in 1987, Mizorom was granted statehood. Calorific value of the Indian diet – according to writer Robert Fogel, the calorific value of the typical English diet in 1850 was roughly equivalent to the average Indian diet today. State Bank of Indore merged with SBI in 2010. Bank of Rajasthan merged with ICICI in 2010.

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79. A tourism ministry project on satyajit rai films locations is to give fans on opportunity to visit the sites of the Oscar winning film maker’s movie as tourist attraction under the stayajit Ray trail project. 80. Obama the Author – President obama earned between $1 m and $5 m. each for his two books Dreams from My Father and Audacity of Hope in 2009. 81. Ping Pong – It is another name for table tennis, which was invented in England in the early th 20 century. Since the mid- 1950s east Asian countries had dominated the sport. In 1988, table tennis became an olymic sport for men and women. 82. Cycling – the first classical professional cycling race was held in paris in 1868. The first US cycling competition, a six-day race was held in 1891. The first Tour de France, the premier race was held in 1903. since 1896, cycling has been part of the Olympics. 83. P.T.Usha – P.T.Usha is the first woman to enter an Olympic final. Her full name is Pilavullakandi Thekeparambil Usha. She took 54.42 seconds, only one-hundredth of a second more, to come forth in 400 meter hurdle race in Los Angeles. 84. National Advisory Council – National Advisory Council (NAC) was set up on 4 June, 2004 by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to implement the common minimum programme of the first UPA government. It is an advisory body comprising distinguished professional drawn from diverse fields of development activity who serve their individual capacities. 85. Graphite and Diamond – The soft gray graphite used in pencil lead and sometimes as a lubricant consists of the same substances as diamond, the hardest substance in nature. 86. Diamonds are forever – Diamonds are a form of carbon that has been centralized under great pressure and very high temperatures. Diamond the hardest and the most lustrous gem, retains its brilliance and polish for generations. 87. Herbert Murrill’s Orchestra tune of the National Anthem Jana Gana Mana was accepted after an international competition in 1950. 88. Chittranajan, the locomotive town and a model industrial colony was inaugurated on January 26, 1950. The first steam locomotive came out of the assembly line on Nov. 1. 89. The youngest woman in Space – the first woman in space, valentine Tereshkova, was only 26 years when she became the world famous in 1963. She was also the youngest woman in space. 90. Homophones – These are the word that sound like or nearly alike but have different meaning and different spellings. Example : council and counsel, plain and plane, forward and foreword, vain, vein and vane. 91. Jaiprakash Narain – Indian Freedom fighter and political leader jai prakash narain was born on oct. 11,1902 in sitabdiara village of Bihar. He took the lead to form the congress socialist party in 1934. He died in 1979. 92. First cinema Hall – J.F.Madan opened the first cinema hall in india, Elphinstone Picture palace, Calcutta in 1907. The first talkie film was shown in india at Elphinstone in 1929. The film was melody of love. 93. Lollywood – just as it is Bollywood for Hindi. Marathi and Gujrati film produced in Bombay. It is lollywood for the pak film industry which is based in Lahore. 94. New Delhi is the capital – The capital of India shifted from Old Delhi to New Delhi, the ninth city in 1931. The formal inauguration was in Feb 10. The city was designed by E.L.Lutyens and Hebert Baker. th 95. Three new state of 2000 - the 26 Indian state chhatisgarh was born on Nov,1,2000 and the th th 27 state uttarakhand(Uttaranchal) on Nov,9,2000. Jharkhand is the 28 state which came into being on Nov,15 that year. 96. Jantar Mantar , Jaipur – Jantar Mantar, Jaipur the world’s largest stone structure has been included in the UNESCO world heritage list- its latest addition from India. 97. Lal, Bal, Pal – The three Indian leaders Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal are known in the history of Indian freedom movement as ‘Lal, Bal, Pal’ . 98. Mumtaz Mahal – Mumtaz Mahal bore Moghul Emperor shah Jahan 14 children. She died in childbirth at the age of 39, In 1630. The Emperor build Taj Mahal, a mausoleum of pure white marble at Agra beside the Yamuna River for her.

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99. Gini Index – Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income among individuals households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. The value of a Gini index that is close to zero denotes closeness to perfect equality in income distribution while value that close to 100 denotes closeness to perfect inequality. 100. Bi-Modal Strategy – An Agriculture strategy in which both large and small sized landholdings coexist for natural growth and development.

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