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DEPT OF ECE
SCADA based Industrial Automation
INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................2 1.1 Problem Definition:..................................................................................................................2
2.1.5 POWER SUPPLY...............................................14
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Definition:
DEPT OF ECE 2
SCADA based Industrial Automation There are two distinct threats to a modern SCADA system. First is the threat of unauthorized access to the control software, whether it be human access or changes induced intentionally or accidentally by virus infections and other software threats residing on the control host machine. Second is the threat of packet access to the network segments hosting SCADA devices. In many cases, there is rudimentary or no security on the actual packet control protocol, so anyone who can send packets to the SCADA device can control it. In many cases SCADA users assume that a VPN is sufficient protection and are unaware that physical access to SCADA-related network jacks and switches provides the ability to totally bypass all security on the control software and fully control those SCADA networks. These kinds of physical access attacks bypass firewall and VPN security and are best addressed by endpoint-to-endpoint authentication and authorization such as are commonly provided in the non-SCADA world by in-device SSL or other cryptographic techniques. The reliable function of SCADA systems in our modern infrastructure may be crucial to public health and safety. As such, attacks on these systems may directly or indirectly threaten public health and safety. Such an attack has already occurred, carried out on Maroochy Shire Council's sewage control system in Queensland, Australia. Shortly after a contractor installed a SCADA system there in January 2000 system components began to function erratically. Pumps did not run when needed and alarms were not reported. More critically, sewage flooded a nearby park and contaminated an open surface-water drainage ditch and flowed 500 meters to a tidal canal. The SCADA system was directing sewage valves to open when the design protocol should have kept them closed. Initially this was believed to be a system bug. Monitoring of the system logs revealed the malfunctions were the result of cyber attacks. Investigators reported DEPT OF ECE 46 separate instances of malicious 3 outside
SCADA based Industrial Automation interference before the culprit was identified. The attacks were made by a disgruntled employee of the company that had installed the SCADA system. The employee was hoping to be hired full time to help solve the problem.
The real advantages of a SCADA system is that you have a realtime control of inventories and can program a system to "see ahead", to notify you that the tank will be empty in "76 hrs". It also will take most operator errors (or neglect) out of the process. The system doesn't tire, take breaks, or go on vacation. You can monitor the system over a network, from a remote site over the Internet or through a dial-up line. It can decide who to notify and if the situation is not corrected, be programmed to alert personal at higher levels of responsibility. Systems have multiple levels of security available so that screens can be locked, hidden or display only depending on the security level. Higher levels of authorization can change setpoints and timing. Updating software is a dial-up operation and is easily done without a site visit. Once a system is running, program changes are easily made at little cost. We can remotely monitor a system to debug or update software in real time. The system stays running while we work. The potential is endless, only limited by your imagination. Costs are relative low and the new object oriented systems can be programmed
DEPT OF ECE
SCADA based Industrial Automation rapidly. You can have a 50 point system running is a few weeks, a 500 point system in a few months.
Chapter 2 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
DEPT OF ECE Code VB running in Max 232 the PC
1 Microcontroller DEPT OF ECE 6 .SCADA based Industrial Automation Block Diagram of SCADA Based Industrial Automation 74HC14 Schmitt Trigger Temperature Sensing 1 LM35 Analog to Digital Converter ADC0809 Panic sensor Micro-controller 89C51 Fire sensor Relay control mechanism DC Motor 1 DC Motor 2 The Block diagram of the SCADA based Industrial Automation consists of following components: 2.1.
It allows the isolation of 2 separate sections of a system with 2 different voltage sources. NC is given 5V . one such relay is called an electromagnetic or electromechanical relay Relays are used to allow a low power circuit to switch a relatively high current on and off • 1 CO (SPDT). C2 is connected to microcontroller.1.C1. the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many set of contacts. C1 is given 12V. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. 2.normally open(NO).A relay is an electrically controllable switch. NO is grounded.SCADA based Industrial Automation This is the heart of the circuit which controls and co-ordinates a every activity of ALBP & PSM. The IC used here is AT89S52. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact.5 V. and can accept ±30-V inputs. 2. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.C2 and pole.3 Relay and Drivers A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. It controlles the operation of the all peripheral devices connected to this controller board. Relay has 5 pins normally connect(NC). 10 A Sugar cube size PCB mounts relay is used to serve the purpose of level converter between DEPT OF ECE 7 .2 MAX232 The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.3 V and a typical hysteretic of 0. pole is connected to motor.1.
thus allowing operation directly with TTL or CMOS operating at supply voltages of 5. Relays can switch many contacts at once.3 Cubic Relays can switch AC and DC. the link is magnetic and mechanical. ULN 2003 is used has a series base resistor to each Darlington pair. transistors cannot. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. Relays are better choice for switching large currents. Relays can switch high voltages. Fig 4. transistors can only switch DC. 2 Disadvantage of Relays DEPT OF ECE 8 . Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contact. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits.SCADA based Industrial Automation microcontroller TTL logic and relay excitation voltage.2 Cubic Relay Relay 1 Advantage of Relays Fig 4. Relay Switch A relay is an electrically operated switch.0V.
SCADA based Industrial Automation Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents."Sugar cube" package • DC coil . Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil. 3 Features Printed circuit mounts 10 A relay • 1 Pole changeover contacts or 1 Pole normally open contact • Miniature .4 ADC0809 DEPT OF ECE 9 .1.360 mW •Wash tight: RT III • Cadmium Free contact material option 2.
The Voltage sensors are connected from channel 0 to Channel 3. U 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 + 5 V 1 1 1 1 1 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 I N I N I N I N I N S E D O C V R G D T O 3 E L C E N 1 K C F D + R D 2 3 4 5 6 7 A C R T A D D D D D E 2 I N I N I N A A A L 7 6 5 4 0 F 0 1 2 E 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 F T T T T T T T r o m o o o o o o o M M M M M M M M i c i c i c i c i c i c i c ic M r o r o r o r o r o r o r o r o i c r o C C C C C C C C o o o o o o o C o n t r o ll e ll e ll e ll e ll e ll e ll e r r r r r r r ll e P P P P P P P P r in in in in in in in i n P in 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 F r o m M i c r o C o n t r o ll e r P in V T T o l t a e m e m g e p e p e r a r a t u r e t u r e _ 2 _ 1 n t r o n t r o n t r o n t r o n t r o n t r o n t r o T o A D C 0 8 0 9 o n t r o l l e r R U 4 31 3 K B 3 C 4 0 1 4 . It is an 8 channel ADC.SCADA based Industrial Automation ADC0809 is an 8-bit analog to digital converter. The reference voltage of ADC0809 is 5V.4 ADC with the clock generation Ckt DEPT OF ECE 10 . It is used to convert the analog voltage of temperature sensor and battery circuit. 0 0 1 u F ( 1 0 2 ) 7 4 H C Fig: 3.
SCADA based Industrial Automation D 1 T 1 1 5 6 4 T R 8 A N S F O D R 2 M E R C T 5+ 1 0 0 u F C + C 6 1 u F D I O D E T o A D C P i n 2 8 230V AC D I O D E + 5 V 1 U V 4 L S M VO U T + 3 G 5 / N T e m 3 D p e r a t u r e S e n s o r _ 2 2 T o A D C P i n 2 7 + 5 V U 1 V 5 L S M VO U T + 3 G 5 / N T e m 3 D p e r a t u r e S e n s o r _ 1 2 T o A D C P i n 2 6 Fig: 3.4 Values Temperature and Voltage Inputs to the ADC DEPT OF ECE 11 .
7/1x10³x0.7/R3C.3 Analog to digital converter DESIGN OF CLOCK GENERATION: f=0.01x10^-6.SCADA based Industrial Automation ADC SECTION (ADC0809) Figure4. f=0. DEPT OF ECE 12 .
excellent long. ADC0809 offers high speed. minimal temperature dependence. ADC0809 allows monitoring into 8 different analog inputs using only a single chip. Analog to digital converters are among the most widely used devices for data acquisition.term accuracy and repeatability. Transducers are also referred to as sensors. One important element in ADC0809 on the board is the analog comparator.7x10^5 F=700 KHz. The main function of this section is to convert analog voltage generated by rectifier output to their corresponding digital output. ADC0809 data acquisition component is a CMOS device with an 8 bit analog to digital converter. Therefore we need an analog to digital converter to translate the analog signals to digital numbers so that the micro controller can read and process them... generated by the Schmitt trigger circuit .SCADA based Industrial Automation F=0. B. A clock of 700 KHz.C. C.The analog input channel IN0 is selected by grounding the three address pins A. A physical quantity is converted to electrical voltage/current using a device called transducers. The difference is that it accepts analog inputs but produces a digital output . It also has 8 bit data outputs. The 8 analog input channels are multiplexed and selected using 3 address pins A. and consumes minimal power. the 8 bit A/D converter uses successive approximation as the conversion technique. It looks like an opamp schematically.is given to pin number 10 of ADC . Input at IN0 is the DEPT OF ECE 13 .B.Its output will be high if the +ve analog level is greater than –ve analog level. 8 channels multiplexer and microprocessor compatible control logic. else its output will be low.
so that they always transmit high signal. LM7805 is used for 5V regulated supply. The analog input channel IN1 is selected by grounding the pins B and C. IR transmitters are also connected to 5V supply. + 1 2 1 V R 1 1 K L E D 2 1 L E D 1 2 1 U 4 S O C K E T B R I D 3 G C O 1 2 3 N 1 1 + E 4 7 0 u 2 + 1 2 V U 1 V 2 G N D I N L V M O 7 U 8 0 3 T 5 1 + 5 V 1 2 3 P I N D C C F 2 +3 2 C 4 . we have developed a 5V regulator circuit. Input at IN1 is the data from the weight sensor. 2. In mother board.5 POWER SUPPLY An AC to DC adaptor as been used to get DC input for the mother board.1. Output enable (OE) is always made high to produce a digital output for equivalent analog input .SCADA based Industrial Automation temperature data. 1 u F + C 2 1 0 u 2 F / 6 3 V DEPT OF ECE 14 1 / 3 5 V0 . which is needed for microcontroller as supply voltage. The 8-bit data outputs are given as inputs to the microcontroller.
SCADA based Industrial Automation LM7805 Positive Voltage Regulator General Description The LM78XX series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220 package and with several fixed output voltages. making it essentially indestructible. making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting. thermal shut down and safe operating area protection. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators. Features DEPT OF ECE 15 . they can deliver over 1A output current. If adequate heat sinking is provided. these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.
The R1in (pin 13) is the RS232 side that is connected to the RXD pin of the microcontroller. Notice in max232 that the T1 line driver has a designation of T1 in and T1 out on pin numbers 11 and 14. and 15V 2. IBM introduced the DB-9 version of the serial I/O standard. respectively. and the second set is left unused.5A No external components Internal thermal overload protection Internal short circuit current-limiting Output transistor safe-area compensation Available in TO-220. and TO-252 D-PAK packages Output voltages of 5V. Since not all the pins are used in pc cables. T1 and R1 are used together for TXD and RXD of the 89C51. which uses 9 pins only. 12V. For example. respectively . In many applications only one of each is used.6 DB-9 CONNECTOR Figure DB-9 connector Many Pcs today use DB-9 connectors since all you need in asynchronous mode is 9 signals.The T1 in pin is the TTL side and is connected to the RXD pin of the RS232 DB-9 connector. DEPT OF ECE 16 .1.SCADA based Industrial Automation • • • • • • • Output current in excess of 0. The R1 line driver has a designation of R1in and R1 out on pin number 13 and 12. TO-39.
where it is used in a few species of bacteria. and superalloys. Tungsten is the only metal from the third transition series that is known to occur in biomolecules. The unalloyed elemental form is used mainly in electrical applications.SCADA based Industrial Automation 2. However.7 SENSORS 1. comparable to that of uranium and gold. especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the non-alloyed metals and the second highest of all the elements after carbon. Also remarkable is its high density of 19.1. most notably in incandescent light bulb filaments. and can be cut with a hacksaw. Tungsten's many alloys have numerous applications. and first isolated as a metal in 1783. Tungsten compounds are most often used industrially as catalysts. very pure tungsten is more ductile. Tungsten with minor amounts of impurities is often brittle and hard. X-ray tubes (as both the filament and target). Fire Sensor Tungsten A steel-gray metal under standard conditions when uncombined. It was identified as a new element in 1781.7 times) than that of lead. tungsten is found naturally on Earth only in chemical compounds. The free element is remarkable for its robustness. It is the heaviest element known to be used by any living organism. and much higher (about 1. However. Its important ores include wolframite and scheelite. Tungsten's hardness and high density give it military applications in penetrating projectiles. tungsten it is also used as a fire sensor in many industrial area. DEPT OF ECE 17 . making it difficult to work.3 times that of water.
police or emergency services.085 °C. A panic sensor is frequently but not always controlled by a concealed panic sensor button.358 K (1.SCADA based Industrial Automation 2. Some systems can also activate closed-circuit television to record or assess the event. −458.5 °F) to approximately 1. It extends from 0. 1.65 K (−272. DEPT OF ECE 18 . 3.985 °F). Many panic sensor buttons lock on when pressed.5 °C. based on fixed points and interpolating thermometers. Panic Sensor: A panic sensor is an electronic device designed to assist in alerting somebody in emergency situations where a threat to persons or property exists. The most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990. the readings on two thermometers cannot be compared unless they conform to an agreed scale. and require a key to reset them. Temperature Sensor While an individual thermometer is able to measure degrees of hotness. There is today an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. These buttons can be connected to a monitoring center or locally via a silent alarm or an audible bell/siren. Internationally agreed temperature scales are designed to approximate this closely. The alarm can be used to request emergency assistance from local security.
SCADA based Industrial Automation DEPT OF ECE 19 .
and thus GSM is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system.5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. The GSM Association estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. This also facilitates the wide-spread implementation of data communication applications into the system. This ubiquity means that subscribers can use their phones throughout the world.SCADA based Industrial Automation Chapter 3 GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications. GSM differs from its predecessor technologies in that both signaling and speech channels are digital. is the world's most popular standard for mobile telephone systems. DEPT OF ECE 20 . GSM is used by over 1. enabled by international roaming arrangements between mobile network operators. or GSM (originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile).
only one person is actually using the channel at a specific moment. uses a special type of digital modulation called spread spectrum which spreads the voice data over a very wide channel in pseudorandom fashion.underlying technology used in GSM's 3G and IS-95's 2G) on the other hand. which has since been supported on other mobile phone standards as well. and also to network operators.SCADA based Industrial Automation The GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers. GSM and IS-95 (aka cdmaOne) are the two most prevalent mobile communication technologies. who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors. For example. DEPT OF ECE 21 . also called text messaging. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access . GSM also pioneered low-cost implementation of the short message service (SMS). Each user of the channel takes turns to transmit and receive signals. Both technologies have to solve the same problem: to divide the finite RF spectrum among multiple users. who may benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones. Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access . Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM system. The receiver undoes the randomization to collect the bits together and produce the sound. The standard includes a worldwide emergency telephone number feature (112).underlying technology used in GSM's 2G) does it by chopping up the channel into sequential time slices. In reality. This is analogous to time-sharing on a large computer server. Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).
where couples are talking to each other in a single room. a speaker takes turns talking to a listener. * GSM covers virtually all parts of the world so international roaming is not a problem.SCADA based Industrial Automation As a trivial comparison imagine a cocktail party. any speaker can talk at any time. In CDMA. * Ability to use repeaters. The speaker talks for a short time and then stops to let another pair talk. Advantagesof 2G GSM * GSM is mature. As more and more couples talk. no one has to worry about two conversations mixing. conversations do not mix. * The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks and handsets at will. but because of the difference in languages. 3G uses W-CDMA now. Disadvantages of 2G GSM * Pulse nature of TDMA transmission used in 2G interferes with some electronics. especially certain audio amplifiers. the background noise (representing the noise floor) gets louder. There is never more than one speaker talking in the room. The room represents the available bandwidth. In GSM. * Talktime is generally higher in GSM phones due to the pulse nature of transmission. * Less signal deterioration inside buildings. DEPT OF ECE 22 . Each listener can only understand the language of their partner. this maturity means a more stable network with robust features. however each uses a different language.
SCADA based Industrial Automation * Intellectual property is concentrated among a few industry participants. which is imposed by technical limitations. DEPT OF ECE 23 . creating barriers to entry for new entrants and limiting competition among phone manufacturers. * GSM has a fixed maximum cell site range of 35 km.
SCADA based Industrial Automation Chapter 4 Software 1. DEPT OF ECE 24 . the new IDE from Keil Software combines Project management. KEIL Development Tool Keil software provides the ease of writing the code in either C or ASSEMBLY. Select New Project. Source Code Editing and Program Debugging in one powerful environment. 1. U-VISION 2. Select the Project from the menu bar.1 How to Create a New Project 1. 2. It acts as a CROSS-COMPILER.
A project with extension of .SCADA based Industrial Automation 3.uv2 will be created DEPT OF ECE 25 . Give the File Name.
2 Selecting the Device 1. DEPT OF ECE 26 . Select the respective company’s microcontroller IC that is going to be implemented in hardware. The data sheets and user manuals are automatically added. Now the target is ready. 3. From the drop down arrow.SCADA based Industrial Automation 1. Choose the appropriate one. 4. 5. we get a list of all the chips from that particular manufacturer. 2. After giving the file name the device list windows opens.
2.0592Hz. The Output tab has the option to create the HEX file. Confirm the check box given beside it. 4. Right Click on Target to view the options for Target 1. The Target tab enables to give the Starting address and size of RAM and ROM. The A166 and C51 tabs shows the compiler options.SCADA based Industrial Automation 1. We also have to specify the frequency of the crystal used which in our case is 11. DEPT OF ECE 27 . 3.3 Configuring the essentials 1.
SCADA based Industrial Automation 1. Right click on source group and select add files to include the program.a51 or . 2. Select the assembler files created earlier and confirm the action.4 Addition of files in Source group 1. The selected files appear in the left-hand side project window. These assembler files are the ones recognized by the compiler. Select the file menu and choose the ‘New’ option in it to get a page. DEPT OF ECE 28 . After the Target is created the source group is added to it.asm extension. Save the same with a . 3.
SCADA based Industrial Automation 4. A DEPT OF ECE 29 . 1. To run the program right click on it and select Build Target. These files will contain your actual program in assembly or in embedded C language 5. µVision2 will display errors and warning messages in the Output Window – Build page. Options for source group includes the compilers C51 and A51 paths. When you build an application with syntax errors. Any number of sub programs can be added to source group. 2.5 Running the program 1.
This hex file is then used to download to the microcontroller using a programmer kit. After the target is built. In the Output Window – Command page you can use the Go. Pstep. With the Run till Cursor line command in the local menu. 3. With the Rebuild Target command. modifications.SCADA based Industrial Automation double click on a message line opens the source file on the correct location in a µVision2 editor window. The local menu opens with a right mouse click on the code line in the Editor or Disassembly window. After all the debugging the file is built again which creates a hex file. Ostep. Then select rebuild all the target files too.7 Watch Window The Watch window lets you to view and modify program variables and lists the current function call nesting. and Tstep commands. 5.6 Target Program Execution & Debugging µVision2 lets execute your application program in several different ways: With the Debug Toolbar buttons and the “Debug Menu and Debug Commands”. regardless of 1. The contents of the Watch DEPT OF ECE 30 . all source files are translated. 1. debugging is done. 4.
µVision2 automatically selects the variable name under the cursor position. The current function call nesting is shown in the Call Stack page. You can enable View Periodic Window Update to update variable values while a target program is running. In an editor window open the context menu with a right mouse click and use Add to Watch Window. The Watch pages display user-specify program variables. In the Output Window – Command page you can use the Watch Set command to enter variable names. You add variables in three different ways: Select the text <enter here> with a mouse click and wait a second. click on the line and press the Delete key. The Locals page shows all local function variables of the current function. In the same way you can modify variable values. Double clicking on a line shows the invocation an editor window. To remove a variable. DEPT OF ECE 31 . Another mouse click enters edit mode that allows you to add variables.SCADA based Industrial Automation Window are automatically updated whenever program execution stops. alternatively you may mark an expression before using that command.
link and locate object modules and libraries. KEIL SOFTWARE 2.keil. Evaluation Kits include evaluation versions of our 8051 tools along with this user’s guide. powerful environment. assemble your assembly source files. and debug your target program μVision2 for Windows™ is an Integrated Development Environment that combines project management. Keil Software delivers software in two types of kits: evaluation kits and production kits. The tools in the evaluation kit let you generate applications up to 2 Kbytes in size. The production kits include 1 year of free technical support and product updates.com Product Overview DEPT OF ECE 32 . This kit allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of our 8051 tools and generate small target applications. source code editing. and program debugging in one single.1 INTRODUCTION The Keil Software 8051 development tools listed below are programs you use to compile your C code.SCADA based Industrial Automation 2. create HEX files. Updates are available at www. Production Kits (discussed in “Product Overview” on page 16) include the unlimited versions of our 8051 tools along with a full manual set (including this user’s guide).
The kit includes everything you need to create embedded applications and can be configured for all 8051 derivatives. DK51 Developer’s Kit The DK51 Developer’s Kit is a reduced version of PK51 and does not include the RTX51 Tiny real-time operating system. CA51 Compiler Kit The CA51 Compiler Kit is the best choice for developers who need a C compiler but not a debugging system. Each kit and its contents are described below. We bundle our software development tools into different packages or tool kits. It can be configured for all 8051 derivatives. A51 Assembler Kit The A51 Assembler Kit includes an assembler and all the utilities you need to create embedded applications. The CA51 package contains only the μVision2 IDE. The professional developer’s kit can be configured for all 8051 derivatives. The developer’s kit can be configured for all 8051 derivatives. The μVision2 Debugger features are not available in CA51. The “Comparison Chart” on page 17 shows the full extent of the Keil Software 8051 development tools. RTX51 Real-Time Operating System (FR51) DEPT OF ECE 33 .SCADA based Industrial Automation Keil Software provides the premier development tools for the 8051 family of microcontrollers. PK51 Professional Developer’s Kit The PK51 Professional Developer’s Kit includes everything the professional developer needs to create and debug sophisticated embedded applications for the 8051 family of microcontrollers.
variable scope. as well as more powerful. And we will examine the structure of a Visual Basic program. In other words. Never before had Windows programming been so easy just build the program you want. it created a revolution in Windows programming. In time. We will also get an overview of essential Visual Basic concepts like forms. methods. including how to create Visual Basic projects and seeing what’s in such projects. DEPT OF ECE 34 . Visual Basic 3. we are going to lay bare the anatomy of a Visual Basic program here. Visual Basic introduced unheard-of ease to Windows programming and changed programming from a chore to something very fun. taking a look at variables. events. and modules. We will create the foundation we will relyon later as we take a look at the basics of Visual Basic.SCADA based Industrial Automation The RTX51 Real-Time Operating Systems is a real-time kernel for the 8051 family of microcontrollers. properties. we will organize it the way programmers want it task by task.1 INTRODUCTION It is no secret that Visual Basic is the favorite programming environment of many programmers. and so on. Instead of superimposing some abstract structure on the material in this book. controls. and that revolution continues to this day. RTX51 Full provides a superset of the features found in RTX51 Tiny and includes CAN communication protocol interface routines. 3. Visual Basic has gotten more complex. This is the best way to write about programming. right before your eyes. When Visual Basic first appeared. and then run it.
1 visual Basic Front End DEPT OF ECE 35 .SCADA based Industrial Automation Fig: 6.
SCADA based Industrial Automation DEPT OF ECE 36 .
6 1 .SCADA based Industrial Automation Chapter 5 Schematic Diagram + 5 V R 1 1 0 C K4 7 3+ u F 4 . 5 / A 1 2 5 2 . 1 2 . 2 / A 1 2 . 2 1 . 2 / A D 3 6 . 5 / A D . 4 / A 3 5 D 3 4 . 4 / A 1 2 4 2 . 0 X 1 5 9 2 M H z C 2 3 3 P F C 1 3 3 P F DEPT OF ECE 37 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . 6 / W 3 . 5 / T 1 3 . 7 / R L 2 L 1 D T 0 T 1 2 8 2 . 7 V P P P P P P P P T o T o M M A A X 2 3 2 X 2 3 2 P P i n i n 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 A P P P P P P P P 3 . 6 / A 1 2 6 2 . 0 / A . 3 / I N 3 . 1 1 . 0 1 . 3 / A D . 6 / A 3 3 D 3 2 . 3 1 . 7 K S R I P N R 1 1 e s is t o r U T o H T 1 2 E D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P P P P P P P P 1 9 R ST 1 . 0 2 2 / A 9 2 1 / A 8 X T A X T A G N T 8 9 C 1 1 . 2 / I N 3 . 1 / A 3 7 . 7 / A 1 2 7 2 . 1 / T X D 3 . 4 1 . 7 / A D 3 1 / V P P / P S 3 0 R O 2 9 E N 5 4 3 2 1 0 T o T o A A D D C C S A t a d d r t A G 3 . 0 / R X D A E L E P P P P R D P P P P P 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A C C 4 0 3 9 D 3 8 D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F F F F F F F F r o r o r o r o r o r o r o r o m m m m m m m m A A A A A A A A D D D D D D D D C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 3 / A 1 2 3 2 . 4 / T 0 3 . 5 1 .
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip.2 schematic diagram of Main Controller The ATMEL 89C51 Microcontroller 1 Introduction The AT89C51 is a low-power. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer.SCADA based Industrial Automation Fig: 3.000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-bit Timer/Counters DEPT OF ECE 38 . the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications 2 Features of AT89C51 • Compatible with MCS-51™ Products • 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1.
GND DEPT OF ECE 39 .1 Pin Description of AT89C51 VCC Supply voltage.SCADA based Industrial Automation • Six Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial Channel 3 Pin Description Fig: 4.
In this application. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. External pull-ups are required during program verification. During accesses to external data memories DEPT OF ECE 40 . As inputs. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. As an output port. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memories that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.SCADA based Industrial Automation Ground. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. and outputs the code bytes during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. As inputs. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming.
1 TXD (serial output port) P3. Port Pin Alternate Functions P3. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3. ALE/PROG DEPT OF ECE 41 .0 RXD (serial input port) P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) RST Reset input. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs.4 T0 (timer 0 external input) P3. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. As inputs. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.SCADA based Industrial Automation that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI).
Note. With the bit set. XTAL1 DEPT OF ECE 42 . for parts that require 12-volt VPP. however. EA will be internally latched on reset. that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6the oscillator frequency. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.SCADA based Industrial Automation Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. Note. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR locations 8EH. and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. If desired. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. however. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash Programming. Otherwise. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. Setting the ALEdisable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. the pin is weakly pulled high.
Features Seven high gain Darlington pairs High output voltage (VCE = 50V) High output current (IC = 350 mA) DEPT OF ECE 43 . lamps.0V. these units contain suppression diodes for inductive loads and appropriate emitter base resistors for leakage. Applications requiring sink currents beyond the capability of a single output may be accommodated by paralleling the outputs. 4. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.SCADA based Industrial Automation Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. open collector outputs. relays. All units feature common emitter. thus allowing operation directly with TTL or CMOS operating at supply voltages of 5. To maximize their effectiveness. high current NPN Darlington transistor pairs. The DS2003 has a series base resistor to each Darlington pair. The DS2003 offers solutions to a great many interface needs.2 DS2003 High Current/Voltage Darlington Drivers General Description The DS2003 is comprised of seven high voltage. including solenoids. small motors. and LEDs.
C1.A relay is an electrically controllable switch.normally open(NO). one such relay is called an electromagnetic or electromechanical relay DEPT OF ECE 44 . C1 is given 12V. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contact. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. the link is magnetic and mechanical. Relay has 5 pins normally connect(NC). The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits. pole is connected to motor. PMOS.C2 and pole. CMOS compatible Suppression diodes for inductive loads Extended temperature range 4 Relay Switch A relay is an electrically operated switch. It allows the isolation of 2 separate sections of a system with 2 different voltage sources. A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. NC is given 5V . C2 is connected to microcontroller. NO is grounded. the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many set of contacts.SCADA based Industrial Automation TTL.
SCADA based Industrial Automation Fig 4. Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil.2 Disadvantage of Relays Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents."Sugar cube" package • DC coil . transistors cannot. Relays are better choice for switching large currents. 4.4.3 Cubic Relays can switch AC and DC.1 Advantage of Relays Fig 4.2 Cubic Relay Relay 4. 4. Relays can switch high voltages.4. Relays can switch many contacts at once.4. transistors can only switch DC.3 Features Printed circuit mounts 10 A relay • 1 Pole changeover contacts or 1 Pole normally open contact • Miniature .360 mW •Wash tight: RT III • Cadmium Free contact material option DEPT OF ECE 45 .
SCADA based Industrial Automation DEPT OF ECE 46 .
SCADA based Industrial Automation Chapter 6 Code of Microcontroller DEPT OF ECE 47 .
SCADA based Industrial Automation DEPT OF ECE 48 .
weight. endurance. space. • • • DEPT OF ECE 49 . when an enterprise invests in automation. Automation may improve in economy of enterprises. speed. Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i. technology recovers its investment. etc. For example.e. underwater. etc. fire. Economy improvement. volcanoes.SCADA based Industrial Automation Chapter 7 Advantages • Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work. society or most of humanity.) Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size. or when a state or country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century. nuclear facilities.
SCADA based Industrial Automation DEPT OF ECE 50 .
Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones. and include water treatment and distribution. or discrete modes. production. and energy consumption • • DEPT OF ECE 51 . oil and gas pipelines. ships. and may run in continuous. civil defense siren systems. fabrication. wastewater collection and treatment. Infrastructure processes may be public or private. They monitor and control HVAC. Wind farms. including buildings. and refining. access. and large communication systems. airports. electrical power transmission and distribution. batch.SCADA based Industrial Automation Chapter 8 Applications • Industrial processes include those of manufacturing. power generation. repetitive. and space stations.
SCADA based Industrial Automation DEPT OF ECE 52 .
The code is open source and we are providing for development by others for application in several ways. stereo control. the advantages we have over them are twofold. this is an obvious advantage. In particular. First. Secondly.SCADA based Industrial Automation Chapter 9 CONCLUSION In conclusion. we are able to run all devices using the Palm Pilot. and even control of applications on the computer. our project allows for greater development of products. than a Palmpad remote (often in addition to a Palm they may already be carrying). and Smarthome come closest to matching our project. VCR setup and usage. The advantage of our product is that there are no known competitors out there. With our software. Hence we feel that there is no better product available in the market. we could develop it for more complicated applications such as TV control. DEPT OF ECE 53 . we feel that our product is completely sound and has great market value. we will provide installation instructions on setting up Home Surveillance. The company that manufactures the X10 devices also produces a remote device called the Palmpad. as users are more likely to carry a Palm around with them. Even though we were unable to complete that application in time for this Presentation. However. we have the system almost complete and ready to go within a week.
of Energy: http://www. Thomas Moore US Dept. Felipe Martins.pserc.edu/ecow/get/generalinf/presentati/smartgride/ India-specific Min.google. 3rd edition 2007  Muhammad Ali Mazidi “8051 micro-controller”  J. Inst.nist. Johnson learning publication.efy.com  http://www.SCADA based Industrial Automation BIBILOGRAPHY Reference Books:  Kennet Ayalla “8051 micro-controller”.com DEPT OF ECE 54 .energy. “Spectral analysis of speech by linear prediction”. of Standards and Technology: http://www.Makhoul.com  http://www.htm Natl.pdf Reference Websites:  http://www.vsnl.gov/smartgrid/ PSERC: http://www. Senior Author Corby Jordan. IEEE Trans on Audio and acoustics  VISUAL BASIC 6 MCSD Howard Hawhee.com  http://www.cstep. of Power (Report by CSTEP and Infosys): http://www.oe.wisc.atmel.gov/smartgrid.ieee.in/docs/Power_Sector_Report. Richard Hundhausen .com  http://www.
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SCADA based Industrial Automation DEPT OF ECE 56 .
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