# First Steps in Vibration Analysis Using ANSYS

Ulrike Zwiers Spring 2007
Referring to the two-mass-spring system sketched below, the basic steps in performing a vibration analysis with ANSYS are outlined. To validate the results of the modal analysis, the natural frequencies, amplitude ratios and the particular solution are also computed analytically. Furthermore, ANSYS is used to determine the system response resulting from an harmonic excitation.

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Equations of Motion and Closed-Form Solution

Formulating the balance of linear momentum for the free-body diagrams shown in Figure 2 yields the following equations of motion: m1 x1 = −k1 x1 + k2 (x2 − x1 ) ¨ m2 x2 = −k3 x2 − k2 (x2 − x1 ) ¨ The corresponding matrix equation reads as ¨ M x + Kx = 0 , with the mass matrix M and the stiﬀness matrix K being given by M= respectively. m1 k1 k2 m2 k3 m1 0 0 m2 and K= k1 + k2 −k2 −k2 k2 + k3 ,

Figure 1: Two-mass-spring system

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− 1 2 k =0. an ansatz function of the form x(t) = xest may be chosen. det(K − ω 2 M ) = 0. i. x2 ˆ . 25 This equation is quadratic in ω 2 and may therefore be solved. However. k3 = k1 = k . but the ratios of the amplitude components corresponding to the frequencies ω1 and ω2 can be determined. the determinant of the matrix of the coeﬃcients must vanish. by using the so-called pq-formula resulting in 2 ω1 = k m and 2 ω2 = 7k . since the considered system is undamped. Thus. and k2 = k1 /5 = k/5 . namely. the masses and stiﬀness coeﬃcients are assumed in the form m2 = m1 = m . Substituting this ansatz into the matrix equation of motion yields (K − ω 2 M )ˆ = 0 . one may express the solution ˆ directly in terms of the natural frequency ω as x(t) = xeiωt .. x ˆ To obtain solutions other than the trivial solution x = 0. Consequently. it is known in advance that the two roots s1 and s2 will turn out to be purely imaginary. which gives for the problem at hand the characteristic equation 6 k − ω2m 5 2 1 0 0 1 and K= k 5 6 −1 −1 6 .1 EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND CLOSED-FORM SOLUTION 2 m1 k1 x1 k2 (x2 − x1 ) k2 (x2 − x1 ) m2 k3 x2 x1 Figure 2: Free-body diagrams x2 To simplify the further notation. for example. x1 ˆ =1 x2 ˆ and x1 ˆ = −1 . 5m ˆ The amplitude vector x is not uniquely deﬁned.e. the mass and stiﬀness matrices may be written as M =m respectively. ˆ As for the analytical solution.

the natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a structure. k2 = k1 /5 = k/5). k3 = k1 = k. a modal analysis is also the starting point for other.. Substituting this ansatz into the equation of motion yields (K − Ω2 M )ˆ = f . the ﬁrst mass m1 is now assumed to be harmonically excited in horizontal direction by an external force of the form ˆ F = F sin Ωt . with f= ˆ F 0 . dynamic analyses.2 MODAL ANALYSIS USING ANSYS 3 respectively. one mode represents an in-phase vibration. x For the simplifying assumptions introduced before (m2 = m1 = m. As an example for forced vibrations.e. 2 Modal Analysis Using ANSYS A modal analysis is performed to determine the vibration characteristics (i. Thus. In ANSYS.MODAL. The corresponding eigenvalue problem is typically of order 105 − 106 . such as a harmonic response or a transient analysis. the amplitudes are computed as x1 = ˆ 6 k 5 6 k 5 ˆ − Ω2 m F 2 − Ω2 m k ˆ F 5 − k2 25 . . The modal analysis options may then be speciﬁed by the command MODOPT. The mass and stiﬀness matrices arising in the modal analysis of elastic structures are usually large but sparse. the type of analysis is to be speciﬁed by using the command line ANTYPE. x2 = ˆ 6 k 5 − Ω2 m 2 − k2 25 . more detailed. The steady-state response is given by the particular solution of this inhomogeneous diﬀerential equation for which an ansatz function of the form ˆ x = x sin Ωt is chosen. The governing equations of motion may now be expressed in matrix notation as ¨ M x + Kx = f sin Ωt . where Ω represents the excitation frequency. First. while the other one represents an out-of-phase vibration.

3 HARMONIC ANALYSIS USING ANSYS 4 and several hundred to thousand eigenvectors are often required as the frequency range of interest for the modal analysis increases. whereas the frequencies determined in the previous section represent angular frequencies specifying the number of radians per second.LIST. other algorithms might be more suitable. 3 Harmonic Analysis Using ANSYS An harmonic response analysis (ANTYPE.HARMIC) yields solutions of time-dependent equations of motion associated with linear structures undergoing steady-state vibration. The unit of frequencies computed by ANSYS is Hz specifying the number of cycles per second. the modal analysis of simple problems like the two-mass-spring system considered here does not require any special solution method. it is essential to designate frequencies in the correct unit. the number of modes to extract must be speciﬁed. the default setting (Block-Lanczos algorithm) may be used. To this end. . The enclosed APDL-input ﬁle modal schwingerkette. for which an amplitude-versusfrequency plot should be generated using the Time-History Postprocessor (\post26). For a certain mode (selected by using the SET-command). while for more complex problems. However. the frequency fn and the angular frequency ωn are related through fn = ωn . the corresponding mode shape may be animated (via the ANMODE-command). Since there are 2π radians in one revolution. The ANSYS-element type MASS21 models a point mass in space. The natural frequencies are listed in the Results Summary SET. The mass and stiﬀness parameters are to be input as Real Constants. thus. where each set is associated with a natural mode. for validation of the results. all loads and displacements are assumed to vary sinusoidally at the same known frequency. The spring lengths can be arbitrarily selected since they are used only to deﬁne the spring direction. which is also done by the command MODOPT. Of course. in any case. while simple springdamper-combinations are represented by the element type COMBIN14. Several algorithms for solving such large eigenvalue problems have been implemented in ANSYS. the ﬁrst mass m1 is now assumed to be harmonically excited in horizontal direction by an external force as discussed in the ﬁrst section. the results of a modal analysis may be reviewed in the General Postprocessor (\post1). The excitation frequency Ω is now supposed to vary within a certain frequency range (to be deﬁned by the HARFRQ-command).txt documents the modal analysis of the two-mass-spring system at hand. As for the two-mass-spring system introduced above. 2π Thus. After successful computation.

In addition.. The enclosed APDL-input ﬁle harm schwingerkette. a suitable number of substeps is to be speciﬁed (using the NSUBST-command).1). Here. 4 Reference Results The results obtained from the modal analysis and the harmonic analysis performed in ANSYS are validated by comparing them against the corresponding analytical solutions derived in the ﬁrst section. (1) It is pointed out that the units of these parameters can be arbitrarily chosen as long as they are consistent. k = 2000 N/m and ˆ F = 100 N . i. harmonic analysis options may be speciﬁed by the command HROPT. it is essential to specify a stepped loading (KBC.txt documents the harmonic response analysis of the two-mass-spring system at hand. solutions at speciﬁc intervals are to be determined. the following parameters are chosen m = 10 kg . since otherwise. the load amplitude is gradually increased with each substep.e.4 REFERENCE RESULTS 5 To get an adequate response curve. Figure 3: Harmonic response of the two-mass-spring system . To this end.

7332 [s−1 ].6632 [Hz]. which agrees perfectly with the natural frequencies computed by ANSYS: f1 = 2.0875 [m] and x2 = −0.4 [Hz].1421 [s−1 ] and ω2 = 16. the amplitudes x1 and x2 at a certain excitation frequency ˆ ˆ should be compared. both the analytical solution and the ANSYS computation yield concordantly x1 = −0. These values are also conﬁrmed by the amplitude-versus-frequency plot shown in Figure 3.2508 [Hz] and f2 = 2. As a further validation. for example.2776 [m].4 REFERENCE RESULTS 6 The two natural angular frequencies of the considered system are ω1 = 14. At Ω = 2. ˆ ˆ .