CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor Overview

Jon Hall Novaspect, Inc.

Failure Curve
Infant Mortality Expected Life End of Life Protection System Probability of Failure

Time

Failure Curve
Infant Mortality Expected Life End of Life Protection System

Predictive System
Probability of Failure

Failure

ion ress Prog ault F

Time

Control Room Online Watch Maintenance Engineering AMS Machinery Online Watch Manager PDM Group AMS Machinery Manager Plant Network MHM Server Dedicated Ethernet JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX .

Control Room Online Watch Maintenance Engineering AMS Machinery Online Watch Manager PDM Group AMS Machinery Manager Plant Network MHM Server Dedicated Ethernet JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX .

Why Online/Continuous Monitoring Critical Equipment Hard to Access – Distance – Safety Man Power Repeatability .

Protection System
Normally based on overall vibration levels Designed to prevent additional damage after failure REACTIVE

Predictive System
Identifies faults prior to failures. Allows for planning to repair fault, or correct a condition that will lead to a fault. Allows user to track the progression of faults PROACTIVE

Machinery Applications in a Typical Plant
Total # Machines 2,500
Typical Industrial Process Plant

Turbines Generators Compressors

~125 Machines

5% Critical

Online Monitoring
Loss of machine means > 40% lost plant capacity
Automated Data Collection Periodic Data Collection

CSI 4500 Monitor

Motors Pumps Fans Gears

~625 Machines

25% Essential

CSI 9210 Transmitter

~750 Machines

30% Important

Portable Portable
CSI 2130 Analyzer

~500 Machines ~500 Machines

20% Secondary 20% Non-Essential

Run to Fail

vibration is displayed as displacement over time. in Mils. .Introduction to vibration Vibration – The motion of a body about a reference point At it’s simplest.

Simple Vibration at 60 Hz .Displacement 1.5 Freq= 1/Period .5 0 Displacement 60Hz -0.5 -1 Amplitude -1.5 Period 1 0.

5 1 0.5 0 Displacement 180Hz Velocity 180 Hz -0.5 -1 -1.Velocity at 180 Hz 1.5 .

5 1 0.5 Displacement 60Hz 0 Velocity 60 Hz Acceleration 60Hz -0.Acceleration – Rate of Change of Velocity 1.5 -1 -1.5 .

Mils Acceleration accentuates the higher frequencies (g’s) Velocity is consistent across all frequencies (in/sec or mm/sec) Most vibration is analyzed in Velocity .The units Displacement accentuates the low frequencies .

Types of Data – Time Waveform 1.5 1 0.5 Turning Speed Time Waveform .5 -1 -1.5 0 Turning Speed -0.

5 -1 -1.Types of Data – Time Waveform 1.5 1 0.5 0 Turning Speed 2x TS -0.5 Add twice turning speed vibration .

5 Add blade pass vibration .5 1 0.5 -1 -1.5 Turning Speed 0 2x TS 7x TS -0.Types of Data – Time Waveform 1.

5 -1 -1.5 1 0.Types of Data – Time Waveform 1.5 Turning Speed 0 2x TS 7x TS Brg -0.5 Add Bearing Vibration .

Types of Data – Time Waveform Total Vibration 3 2 1 0 Total Vibration -1 -2 -3 Complex Time Waveform .

If all machines are frequency generators. Then what components would I expect to see? .

If all machines are frequency generators. Then what components would I expect to see? .

5 4 x 0. BPFI 2.91 4.5 5.23 .638 7.09 2.Collection of Data… Data… What would I expect to see? Component RPM Frequency Hz ( / 60) Orders (Motor Speed) Motor Belts Fan Shaft Fan Blades Roller Brgs 1. Cage 1800 720 900 4 x 900 10. BPFO 3.409 Structure 420 7 0.3 1. BSF 4.362 4.752 736 30 12 15 4 x 15 177.0 0.3 122.7 79.2 12.64 0.4 0.

BSF 4.91 4.4 0.638 7.5 5. BPFI 2.752 736 30 12 15 4 x 15 177.7 79.5 4 x 0. BPFO 3.0 0.362 4. Cage 1800 720 900 4 x 900 10.23 .2 12.409 Structure 420 7 0.Collection of Data… Data… What would I expect to see? Component RPM Frequency Hz ( / 60) Orders (Motor Speed) Motor Belts Fan Shaft Fan Blades Roller Brgs 1.64 0.09 2.3 122.3 1.

A Typical Waveform Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics. not just Overall vibration meter .

A Fourier transform is performed on the waveform to put the data is a format that is easier to understand.Spectrum The complex time waveform is difficult to analyze.Types of Data . 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 Complex Time Waveform .

5 0 FFT 0 -1 -0. creating the Spectum .Types of Data .5 2 1 1 0.Spectrum The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) takes the complex waveform and breaks it down into the component sine waves 3 1.5 -2 -1 -3 -1.5 The amplitudes for each sine wave is then plotted at the frequency of the sine wave.

6 Blade Pass 0.2 0 1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133 144 155 166 177 188 199 210 221 232 243 254 265 276 287 298 309 320 331 342 353 364 375 386 397 .8 0.2 Twice Turning Speed Turning Speed 1 0.4 Bearing Frequency 0.4 1.Spectrum (Fast Fourier Transform) Spectrum (FFT) 1.

all of which will be included in the spectrum and waveform.67 180 .04 0.Actual Spectra & Waveform PK Velocity in In/Sec Industrial equipment have numerous sources of vibration.2551 PK(+/-) = .03 0.29 H 20 30 40 50 60 Frequency in Orders 70 80 Acceleration in G-s 0.05 0.5 -1.07 0.01 0 0 1.5 0 -0.08 0.06 0.0 RPM = 1757.8398/.9374 CRESTF= 3. (29.02 0.1341 LOAD = 100.0 10 Lake .Cooling Tower #1 Fan Motor CT1 -M1A Motor Outboard Axial Route Spectrum 02-Jul-04 10:03:14 OVERALL= .0 -1.1344 V-DG PK = .5 0 30 60 90 120 Time in mSecs 150 Route Waveform 02-Jul-04 10:03:14 RMS = . 0.

Signal Acquisition/Processing Transducer Amplitude Amplitude Frequency Waveform Overall Energy Time FFT Spectrum FFT = Fast Fourier Transform .

Sources of Vibration Simplest Rotating Machine – Mass spinning on an axis .

Sources of Vibration Imbalance – Center of Mass is not the Center of rotation Heavy Spot .

Sources of Vibration Misalignment – Two Masses spinning on a coupled axis .

Sources of Vibration Rolling Element Bearing .

Sources of Vibration Rolling Element Bearing .

Sources of Vibration Fundamental Train (FTF) = S/2 x(1-Bd/Pd x cosθ) Inner Race (BPFI) = Nb/2 x S x (1+Bd/Pd x cosθ) Outer Race (BPFO) = Nb/2 x S x (1-Bd/Pd x cosθ) Roller Pass (BSF)=Pd/2BdxSx[1-(Bd/Pd)2 x (cosθ)2 S = Speed Bd = Roller Diameter Nb = Number of Rollers Pd = Pitch Diameters Θ = Contact Angle .

Sources of Vibration Flow Related – Vane Pass – Blade Pass .

Sources of Vibration Gear Vibration – Gearmesh = # Teeth x turning speed – Shaft speeds .

Sources of Vibration Structural – Looseness – Resonance .

Measuring Vibration Three common types of sensors that measure the three components of vibration: – Displacement Probes – Velocity Probes – Accelerometers .

. connected with adhesive. or magnets Sensors can be connected to portable equipment or continuous monitoring systems.Measuring Vibration Sensors can be permanently or temporarily mounted Bolted to equipment.

Example of an Accelerometer on a Pump .

Example of a Displacement Probe on a Turbine Bearing .

Proximity Probe .

Accelerometer .

Types of Vibration Data Monitoring Overall Vibration Parameter Banding. Alarms and Trending Spectral Analysis .

2 1 0.2 0 1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133 144 155 166 177 188 199 210 221 232 243 254 265 276 287 298 309 320 331 342 353 364 375 386 397 Total Vibration 3 2 1 0 Total Vibration -1 -2 -3 .4 0.Types of data – Overall Vibration Overall Vibration is the sum total of all vibration measured It includes all vibration in the spectrum or waveform (depending on the type of overall) and is independent of frequency Spectrum (FFT) 1.4 1.8 0.6 0.

8 Amplitude Amplitude 0.2 1.4 0.2 0 1 13 25 37 49 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145 157 169 181 193 205 217 229 241 253 265 277 289 301 313 325 337 349 361 373 385 397 Frequency 0 1 14 27 40 53 66 79 92 105 118 131 144 157 170 183 196 209 222 235 248 261 274 287 300 313 326 339 352 365 378 391 Frequency Overall Vibration 11.0 .7 Overall Vibration 12.2 1 1 0.2 0.8 0.Overall Vibration Levels 1.4 Bearing Defect 0.6 0.6 0.

Overall Monitoring Instruments Benefits – Easy to use – Gives an empirical indication of overall condition Limitations – Unable to isolate background vibration – Unable to identify sources of vibration – Detection is limited to late stage faults .

4 0 1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133 144 155 166 177 188 199 1 1 2 3 4 5 210 221 232 243 254 265 276 287 298 309 320 331 342 Spectrum (FFT) 6 7 353 364 375 386 397 .8 1.4 0.Parameter Banding/Alarming Band 0.6 0.2 0.2 1.

Parameter Banding/Alarming Band 0.2 0.8 1.2 1.6 0.4 0 1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133 144 155 166 177 188 199 210 221 232 243 254 265 276 287 298 309 320 331 342 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 353 364 375 386 397 Imbalance Misalignment Electrical Outer Race Spectrum (FFT) Inner Race .4 0.

0608 LOAD = 100.Tending Side Brg(Outer Race) TSBRG -R1H ROLL BRG.0 -0.2060/.1977 CRESTF= 3.3 Acceleration in G-s 0.012 0.004 0 0 0.3 0 200 400 600 Time in mSecs 800 1000 100 200 300 Frequency in Hz 400 500 A2 .2 0.0 FPM = 10669.1 -0.HORIZONTAL Route Spectrum 07-Jun-96 12:26:02 OVERALL= .016 0.1 0. RPM) Route Waveform 07-Jun-96 12:26:02 RMS = .2 -0. #1 .0584 V-DG PK = .0615 PK(+/-) = .020 0. (383.35 .008 0.Spectral Analysis 0.024 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0.

0584 V-DG PK = .0 FPM = 10669.024 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0.1977 CRESTF= 3.2060/.3 0 200 400 600 Time in mSecs 800 1000 100 200 300 Frequency in Hz 400 500 C A2 .016 0.1 -0.35 .2 0.008 0.020 0.2 -0.1 0.3 Acceleration in G-s 0. RPM) >TMK 688TD C=BPFO: 65. (383.0615 PK(+/-) = . #1 .0608 LOAD = 100.Spectral Analysis 0.0 -0.012 0.HORIZONTAL C C C C Route Spectrum 07-Jun-96 12:26:02 OVERALL= .38 Route Waveform 07-Jun-96 12:26:02 RMS = .Tending Side Brg(Outer Race) TSBRG -R1H ROLL BRG.004 0 0 0.

Spectral Analysis Benefits – Identify faults – Determine severity Limitations – Time consuming – Requires training and experience .

A balance of technology Baseline all equipment with Spectral Analysis Use parameter banding and trending as a screening tool Only do detailed analysis on equipment with alarms or increasing trends Use overall vibration as a trip setting .

Input and outputs .Ethernet HUB and NIC .New Local Display 32 Sensor monitors Alerts in less than 100mSec .Accelerometers .auto-locks on speed auto- Processor / Comm 16 Digital I/O .Displacement probes .Adaptive tach feature .1 Processor feeding live updates .AC signal .DC signal .Velocity probes .1 Predictive Processor .OPTOTM relay modules .Pulse-type speed inputs Pulse.Up to 32 Mb memory .CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor Technical Details 16 Tach Channels 1x Peak and Phase .Flux/Dynamic pressure .Frequency divider .24 Vdc +/(Displacement probes) Unit Input Power 24 Vdc OR 110 / 220 VAC .Temperature/Load Aux Power +/.

CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor Technical Details Uses all three levels of vibration analysis – Gross Scan (Overall) – Parameter banding. trending and alarming – Spectrum and waveform You determine the conditions under which data is collected and how often it is stored. .

16. and 32 analog input channels available .CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor Technical Details 12.

CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor Technical Details Plant Control System Control Room Online Watch Maintenance Engineering AMS Machinery Online Watch Manager PDM Group AMS Machinery Manager Plant Network Common Server for MHM Online and LAN Software MHM Server Dedicated Ethernet (or wireless) provided by customer Digital I/O to DCS JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX JBOX Boiler Feed Water Pumps Option 1 Option 2 8 Proximity 5 Accelerometers Probes and one and one tachometer per tachometer per pump pump Cooling Water Pumps 5 Accelerometers and one Tachometer per pump .

4500 Connectivity AMS Asset Portal Other Control Systems Operations AMS Device Manager XML* Maintenance AMS Machinery Manager Ethernet CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor Critical Machinery .

CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor Technical Details Predicate based data collection Speed Digital I/O Analog Input .

8 Amplitude 0.4 0.2 1 0.6 0.Predicate Based Data Collection Overall Vibration 1.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time .

8 0.4 RPM Overall 1.2 1 .Predicate Based Data Collection Overall Vibration w/ RPM 4000 3500 3000 2500 RPM 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time 0.2 0 0.6 0.

4 0.8 Amplitude 0.2 High Speed Alarm 1 0.Predicate Based Data Collection Overall Value by Speed 1.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time .6 Low Speed Alarm High speed Low Speed 0.

Failure Curve Infant Mortality Expected Life End of Life Protection System Predictive System Probability of Failure Failure ion ress Prog ault F Time .

500 Typical Industrial Process Plant Turbines Generators Compressors ~125 Machines 5% Critical Online Monitoring Loss of machine means > 40% lost plant capacity Automated Data Collection Periodic Data Collection CSI 4500 Monitor Motors Pumps Fans Gears ~625 Machines 25% Essential CSI 9210 Transmitter ~750 Machines 30% Important Portable Portable CSI 2130 Analyzer ~500 Machines ~500 Machines 20% Secondary 20% Non-Essential Run to Fail .Machinery Applications in a Typical Plant Total # Machines 2.

Installed Systems & Applications Summary of Customers by Industry .

Questions?? .

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