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CSI 4500 Machinery

Health Monitor Overview


Jon Hall
Novaspect, Inc.
Failure Curve

Infant Mortality Expected Life End of Life

Protection
System
Probability of Failure

Time
Failure Curve

Infant Mortality Expected Life End of Life

Protection
Predictive System System
Probability of Failure

Failure

r ession
og
a ult Pr
F

Time
Maintenance PDM Group
Control Room Engineering AMS Machinery AMS Machinery
Online Watch Online Watch Manager Manager

Plant Network

MHM
Server
Dedicated
Ethernet

JBOX JBOX JBOX


JBOX JBOX JBOX

JBOX JBOX JBOX


JBOX
Maintenance PDM Group
Control Room Engineering AMS Machinery AMS Machinery
Online Watch Online Watch Manager Manager

Plant Network

MHM
Server
Dedicated
Ethernet

JBOX JBOX JBOX


JBOX JBOX JBOX

JBOX JBOX JBOX


JBOX
Why Online/Continuous Monitoring
z Critical Equipment
z Hard to Access
– Distance
– Safety
z Man Power
z Repeatability
Protection System
z Normally based on overall vibration levels
z Designed to prevent additional damage after
failure
z REACTIVE
Predictive System
z Identifies faults prior to failures.
z Allows for planning to repair fault, or correct a
condition that will lead to a fault.
z Allows user to track the progression of faults
z PROACTIVE
Machinery Applications
in a Typical Plant
Total # Machines 2,500
Typical Industrial Process Plant

Turbines
Generators ~125 Machines 5% Online CSI 4500
Compressors Critical Monitoring Monitor

Motors ~625 Machines 25% Loss of machine means


> 40% lost plant capacity
Pumps Essential CSI 9210
Transmitter
Fans Automated Data Collection
Gears Periodic Data Collection

~750 Machines 30%


Important
Portable
CSI 2130
Analyzer
Portable
20%
~500 Machines Secondary
Run to Fail
20%
~500 Machines Non-Essential
Introduction to vibration
z Vibration – The motion of
a body about a reference
point
z At it’s simplest, vibration
is displayed as
displacement over time, in
Mils.
Simple Vibration at 60 Hz - Displacement
1.5

Period
1

0.5

0 Displacement 60Hz

-0.5

-1

Amplitude
-1.5

Freq= 1/Period
Velocity at 180 Hz
1.5

0.5

Displacement 180Hz
0
Velocity 180 Hz

-0.5

-1

-1.5
Acceleration – Rate of Change of Velocity
1.5

0.5

Displacement 60Hz
0 Velocity 60 Hz
Acceleration 60Hz

-0.5

-1

-1.5
The units
z Displacement
accentuates the low
frequencies - Mils
z Acceleration accentuates
the higher frequencies
(g’s)
z Velocity is consistent
across all frequencies
(in/sec or mm/sec)

z Most vibration is analyzed


in Velocity
Types of Data – Time Waveform
1.5

0.5

0 Turning Speed

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Turning Speed Time Waveform


Types of Data – Time Waveform
1.5

0.5

Turning Speed
0
2x TS

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Add twice turning speed vibration


Types of Data – Time Waveform
1.5

0.5

Turning Speed
0 2x TS
7x TS

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Add blade pass vibration


Types of Data – Time Waveform
1.5

0.5

Turning Speed
2x TS
0
7x TS
Brg

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Add Bearing Vibration


Types of Data – Time Waveform
Total Vibration

0 Total Vibration

-1

-2

-3

Complex Time Waveform


If all machines are frequency generators,
Then what components would I expect to see?
If all machines are frequency generators,
Then what components would I expect to see?
Collection of Data…
Data…
What would I expect to see?

Component Frequency
RPM Hz Orders
( / 60) (Motor Speed)
Motor 1800 30 1.0
Belts 720 12 0.4
Fan Shaft 900 15 0.5
Fan Blades 4 x 900 4 x 15 4 x 0.5
Roller Brgs
1. BPFI 10,638 177.3 5.91
2. BPFO 7,362 122.7 4.09
3. BSF 4,752 79.2 2.64
4. Cage 736 12.3 0.409
Structure 420 7 0.23
Collection of Data…
Data…
What would I expect to see?

Component Frequency
RPM Hz Orders
( / 60) (Motor Speed)
Motor 1800 30 1.0
Belts 720 12 0.4
Fan Shaft 900 15 0.5
Fan Blades 4 x 900 4 x 15 4 x 0.5
Roller Brgs
1. BPFI 10,638 177.3 5.91
2. BPFO 7,362 122.7 4.09
3. BSF 4,752 79.2 2.64
4. Cage 736 12.3 0.409
Structure 420 7 0.23
A Typical Waveform

Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics, not just Overall vibration meter
Types of Data - Spectrum
z The complex time
waveform is difficult to
analyze. 3

z A Fourier transform is 2

performed on the 1

waveform to put the data


is a format that is easier 0

to understand, -1

-2

-3

Complex Time Waveform


Types of Data - Spectrum
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) takes the complex
waveform and breaks it down into the component sine waves
3 1.5

2 1

1 0.5

0
FFT 0

-1 -0.5

-2 -1

-3 -1.5

The amplitudes for each sine wave is then plotted at the


frequency of the sine wave, creating the Spectum
Spectrum (Fast Fourier Transform)
Spectrum (FFT)

1.4
Twice
Turning
Speed
1.2

Turning
Speed
1

0.8

0.6
Blade
Pass
0.4

Bearing
Frequency
0.2

0
1
12
23
34
45
56
67
78
89
100
111
122
133
144
155
166
177
188
199
210
221
232
243
254
265
276
287
298
309
320
331
342
353
364
375
386
397
Actual Spectra & Waveform
z Industrial equipment have
numerous sources of 0.08
Lake - Cooling Tower #1 Fan Motor
CT1 -M1A Motor Outboard Axial
Route Spectrum

vibration, all of which will


0.07
02-Jul-04 10:03:14

PK Velocity in In/Sec
0.06 OVERALL= .1344 V-DG

be included in the 0.05 PK = .1341


LOAD = 100.0
0.04 RPM = 1757. (29.29 H

spectrum and waveform. 0.03


0.02
0.01
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Frequency in Orders
1.0
Route Waveform
0.5 02-Jul-04 10:03:14

Acceleration in G-s
RMS = .2551
PK(+/-) = .8398/.9374
0 CRESTF= 3.67

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Time in mSecs
Signal Acquisition/Processing
Transducer Waveform

Amplitude
Overall
Energy Time

FFT
Spectrum

Amplitude

Frequency

FFT = Fast Fourier Transform


Sources of Vibration
z Simplest Rotating
Machine
– Mass spinning on an axis
Sources of Vibration
z Imbalance
– Center of Mass is not the
Center of rotation

Heavy Spot
Sources of Vibration
z Misalignment
– Two Masses spinning on a coupled axis
Sources of Vibration
z Rolling Element Bearing
Sources of Vibration
z Rolling Element Bearing
Sources of Vibration
Fundamental Train (FTF) = S/2 x(1-Bd/Pd x cosθ)
Inner Race (BPFI) = Nb/2 x S x (1+Bd/Pd x cosθ)
Outer Race (BPFO) = Nb/2 x S x (1-Bd/Pd x cosθ)
Roller Pass (BSF)=Pd/2BdxSx[1-(Bd/Pd)2 x (cosθ)2

S = Speed
Bd = Roller Diameter
Nb = Number of Rollers
Pd = Pitch Diameters
Θ = Contact Angle
Sources of Vibration
z Flow Related
– Vane Pass
– Blade Pass
Sources of Vibration
z Gear Vibration
– Gearmesh = # Teeth x
turning speed
– Shaft speeds
Sources of Vibration
z Structural
– Looseness
– Resonance
Measuring Vibration
z Three common types of
sensors that measure the
three components of
vibration:
– Displacement Probes
– Velocity Probes
– Accelerometers
Measuring Vibration
z Sensors can be permanently or temporarily
mounted
z Bolted to equipment, connected with adhesive, or
magnets
z Sensors can be connected to portable equipment
or continuous monitoring systems.
Example of an Accelerometer on a
Pump
Example of a Displacement Probe on a
Turbine Bearing
Proximity Probe
Accelerometer
Types of Vibration Data
z Monitoring Overall Vibration
z Parameter Banding, Alarms and Trending
z Spectral Analysis
Types of data – Overall Vibration
Overall Vibration is the
Spectrum (FFT)

z 1.4

sum total of all vibration 1.2

measured
1

0.8

z It includes all vibration in 0.6

the spectrum or waveform


0.4

0.2

(depending on the type of 0

1
12
23
34
45
56
67
78
89
100
111
122
133
144
155
166
177
188
199
210
221
232
243
254
265
276
287
298
309
320
331
342
353
364
375
386
397
overall) and is 3
Total Vibration

independent of frequency 2

0 Total Vibration

-1

-2

-3
Overall Vibration Levels

1.2 1.2

1 1

0.8 0.8
Amplitude

Amplitude
0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

Bearing Defect
0.2 0.2

0 0
1 14 27 40 53 66 79 92 105 118 131 144 157 170 183 196 209 222 235 248 261 274 287 300 313 326 339 352 365 378 391
1
13
25
37
49
61
73
85
97
109
121
133
145
157
169
181
193
205
217
229
241
253
265
277
289
301
313
325
337
349
361
373
385
397

Frequency Frequency

Overall Vibration 11.7 Overall Vibration 12.0


Overall Monitoring Instruments
z Benefits
– Easy to use
– Gives an empirical indication of overall condition
z Limitations
– Unable to isolate background vibration
– Unable to identify sources of vibration
– Detection is limited to late stage faults
Band
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4

1
12
23

1
34
45
56

2
67
78
89

3
100
111
122
133
144

4
155
166
177
188
199

5
210
Spectrum (FFT)

221
232
243
254
265
6 276
287
298
Parameter Banding/Alarming

309
320
331
342
353
7

364
375
386
397
Band
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4

1
12
23

1
34 Imbalance
45
56

2
67 Misalignment
78
89

3
100 Electrical
111
122
133
144 Outer Race

4
155
166
177
188
199
Inner Race

5
210
Spectrum (FFT)

221
232
243
254
265
6 276
287
298
Parameter Banding/Alarming

309
320
331
342
353
7

364
375
386
397
Spectral Analysis
A2 - Tending Side Brg(Outer Race)
TSBRG -R1H ROLL BRG. #1 - HORIZONTAL
0.024
Route Spectrum
0.020 07-Jun-96 12:26:02
PK Velocity in In/Sec

OVERALL= .0584 V-DG


0.016 PK = .0608
LOAD = 100.0
0.012 FPM = 10669. (383. RPM)

0.008

0.004

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Frequency in Hz
0.3
Route Waveform
0.2 07-Jun-96 12:26:02
Acceleration in G-s

RMS = .0615
0.1 PK(+/-) = .2060/.1977
CRESTF= 3.35
0.0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Time in mSecs
Spectral Analysis
A2 - Tending Side Brg(Outer Race)
TSBRG -R1H ROLL BRG. #1 - HORIZONTAL
0.024
Route Spectrum
C C C C C
0.020 07-Jun-96 12:26:02
PK Velocity in In/Sec

OVERALL= .0584 V-DG


0.016 PK = .0608
LOAD = 100.0
0.012 FPM = 10669. (383. RPM)
>TMK 688TD
0.008 C=BPFO: 65.38

0.004

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Frequency in Hz
0.3
Route Waveform
0.2 07-Jun-96 12:26:02
Acceleration in G-s

RMS = .0615
0.1 PK(+/-) = .2060/.1977
CRESTF= 3.35
0.0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Time in mSecs
Spectral Analysis
z Benefits
– Identify faults
– Determine severity
z Limitations
– Time consuming
– Requires training and experience
A balance of technology
z Baseline all equipment with Spectral Analysis
z Use parameter banding and trending as a
screening tool
z Only do detailed analysis on equipment with
alarms or increasing trends
z Use overall vibration as a trip setting
CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor
Technical Details

Processor / Comm
16 Tach Channels
1x Peak and Phase 16 Digital I/O - Ethernet HUB and NIC
- 1 Predictive Processor
- Pulse-
Pulse-type speed inputs - Input and outputs
- 1 Processor feeding live updates
- Frequency divider - OPTOTM relay modules
- Up to 32 Mb memory
- Adaptive tach feature - New Local Display
- auto-
auto-locks on speed

Aux Power
32 Sensor monitors +/-
+/- 24 Vdc
Alerts in less than (Displacement probes)
100mSec
- Accelerometers Unit Input Power
- Velocity probes 24 Vdc
OR
- Displacement probes
- AC signal 110 / 220 VAC
- Flux/Dynamic pressure
- DC signal
- Temperature/Load
CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor
Technical Details
z Uses all three levels of
vibration analysis
– Gross Scan (Overall)
– Parameter banding,
trending and alarming
– Spectrum and waveform
z You determine the
conditions under which
data is collected and how
often it is stored.
CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor
Technical Details
z 12, 16, and 32 analog input channels available
CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor
Technical Details
Maintenance PDM Group
Control Room Engineering AMS Machinery AMS Machinery
Plant Control Online Watch Online Watch Manager Manager
System

Plant Network

Common Server for


MHM Online and LAN MHM
Software Server

Dedicated Ethernet (or


wireless) provided by
customer

Digital I/O to DCS

JBOX JBOX JBOX

JBOX JBOX

Boiler Feed Water Pumps


Option 1 Option 2
8 Proximity 5 Accelerometers Cooling Water Pumps
Probes and one and one 5 Accelerometers and one
tachometer per tachometer per Tachometer per pump
pump pump
4500 Connectivity
AMS
Asset Portal

Other Control Systems


XML*

Operations Maintenance

AMS AMS
Device Machinery
Manager Manager

Ethernet

CSI 4500
Machinery Health
Monitor

Critical Machinery
CSI 4500 Machinery Health Monitor
Technical Details
z Predicate based data collection

Speed Digital I/O

Analog
Input
Predicate Based Data Collection
Overall Vibration

1.2

0.8
Amplitude

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Time
Predicate Based Data Collection
Overall Vibration w/ RPM

4000 1.2

3500
1
3000
0.8
2500
RPM
RPM

2000 0.6
Overall
1500
0.4
1000
0.2
500

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Time
Predicate Based Data Collection
Overall Value by Speed

1.2
High Speed Alarm
1

0.8
Amplitude

High speed
0.6
Low Speed Alarm Low Speed

0.4

0.2

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Time
Failure Curve

Infant Mortality Expected Life End of Life

Protection
Predictive System System
Probability of Failure

Failure

r ession
og
a ult Pr
F

Time
Machinery Applications
in a Typical Plant
Total # Machines 2,500
Typical Industrial Process Plant

Turbines
Generators ~125 Machines 5% Online CSI 4500
Compressors Critical Monitoring Monitor

Motors ~625 Machines 25% Loss of machine means


> 40% lost plant capacity
Pumps Essential CSI 9210
Transmitter
Fans Automated Data Collection
Gears Periodic Data Collection

~750 Machines 30%


Important
Portable
CSI 2130
Analyzer
Portable
20%
~500 Machines Secondary
Run to Fail
20%
~500 Machines Non-Essential
Installed Systems & Applications
Summary of Customers by Industry
Questions??