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Forces and Motions in Rolling Bearings

bearing clearance Example: V IR > V RE > V OR > V RC f IR
bearing clearance
Example:
V IR > V RE > V OR > V RC
f IR > f RE > f OR > f RC
bearing type 62222
C3
C3
V c
= 0.05 mm
gap
F centrifugal, rolling
element
V b
v(f n )
F dyn., rotor
housing
shaft
F stat, rotor
acceleration impulse
roller leaves load zone
breaking impulse
roller enters load zone
Hertz
surface pressure
vibration
load zone = measuring zone
contact
no air gap

Overall values for Bearing condition

Acceleration - Crest Factor Spike Energy Value BCU - Value Kurtosis Factor gSE - Value SEE - Value

Shock Pulse

Measurement

Normalising with… Shaft speed (rpm) Shaft Diameter (Bearing Size)

Overall values for Bearing condition Acceleration - Crest Factor Spike Energy Value BCU - Value Kurtosis
Overall values for Bearing condition Acceleration - Crest Factor Spike Energy Value BCU - Value Kurtosis
Overall values for Bearing condition Acceleration - Crest Factor Spike Energy Value BCU - Value Kurtosis
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Time

Time

A Typical Bearing Life Cycle

A Typical Bearing Life Cycle

Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (1)

Damages types/ Causes

1 Wear
1 Wear
  • - lifetime expired

  • - overloading

  • - assembly / manufacturing error

  • - greasing deficiency

2 Damage to rolling track

3 Contaminated lubricant

  • - lifetime expired

  • - bearing overloaded

  • - bearing under-loaded

  • - greasing deficiency

  • - Damaged rolling track

  • - damaged sealing

  • - contaminated lubricant

Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (1) Damages types/ Causes 1 Wear - lifetime expired - overloading

wear

shock pulses
shock pulses

wear

shock pulses damage envelope
shock pulses
damage
envelope
high variation in shock pulse levels and defect frequencies
high variation in
shock pulse levels
and defect
frequencies

Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2)

Damages types/ Causes

  • 4 Greasing deficiency

5 Unround deformation of bearing race

  • 6 Jammed loose bearing

  • - greasing deficiency

  • - Under-loading

    • - assembly error

    • - manufacturing defect in shaft or bearing housing

      • - in bearing housing (sliding fit)

      • - mis-calculation of housing design

Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2) Damages types/ Causes 4 Greasing deficiency 5 Unround deformation of
Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2) Damages types/ Causes 4 Greasing deficiency 5 Unround deformation of
Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2) Damages types/ Causes 4 Greasing deficiency 5 Unround deformation of

air gap

Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2) Damages types/ Causes 4 Greasing deficiency 5 Unround deformation of
temperature rises very late shock pulses damage frequencies in envelope
temperature
rises very late
shock pulses
damage
frequencies
in envelope
Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2) Damages types/ Causes 4 Greasing deficiency 5 Unround deformation of
Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2) Damages types/ Causes 4 Greasing deficiency 5 Unround deformation of

dirt

Types of Rolling Bearing Damages (2) Damages types/ Causes 4 Greasing deficiency 5 Unround deformation of

fixed bearing

loose bearing

high vibration increasing bearing temperature
high vibration
increasing bearing
temperature

VIBSCANNER ® Bearing Condition Measurement

in
in

Normalising of Shock Pulse Measurements

Normalising of Shock Pulse Measurements

Bearing Condition : Location & Preparation

Bearing Condition : Location & Preparation
Bearing Condition : Location & Preparation
Bearing Condition : Location & Preparation
Bearing Condition : Location & Preparation
Bearing Condition : Location & Preparation
Bearing Condition : Location & Preparation

Extent of rolling bearing surface damage

0
0

good

d
d
0 good d
 
0 good d 1 very small
1
1

very small

2
2

small

Extent of rolling bearing surface damage 0 good d 1 very small 2 n - number

n - number of rolling elements in contact

with damage

Extent of rolling bearing surface damage 0 good d 1 very small 2 n - number

a - extent of damage to rolling bearing component

b

Extent of rolling bearing surface damage 0 good d 1 very small 2 n - number
Extent of rolling bearing surface damage 0 good d 1 very small 2 n - number

a c

a t

  • - small material defects

  • - several pitting

  • - defect frequencies are visible in envelope spectrum

- slight material splintering

  • - Max values of shock pulses begin to rise when rolling element passes over defect

Extent of rolling bearing surface damage

3
3

medium

4
4

large

5
5

very large

Extent of rolling bearing surface damage 3 4 large 5 very large - one roller drops
Extent of rolling bearing surface damage 3 4 large 5 very large - one roller drops
Extent of rolling bearing surface damage 3 4 large 5 very large - one roller drops

- one roller drops into slight depression

caused by damage to rolling track

- maximum values rise perceptibly

- one or more rollers drop into

large depression by damage to rolling track

- maximumvalues rise dramatically carpet values rise continuously

  • - carpet values rise substantially

  • - bearing approaching crash

  • - componentsmay break

  • - increasing machine vibrations

  • - rotor drops into very large depression

  • - several rollers drop into severe

Envelope Analysis – Rolling Bearings Fault Detection

No rolling track defect:

Envelope Analysis – Rolling Bearings Fault Detection No rolling track defect: a m/s Time signal: t

a

m/s 2

Time signal:

t (s)
t (s)
Rectification t (s) Enveloping
Rectification
t (s)
Enveloping

a

m/s 2

a

m/s 2

Envelope t (s)
Envelope
t (s)
a Envelope spectrum: m/s 2 f (Hz)
a
Envelope spectrum:
m/s 2
f (Hz)

Envelope Analysis – Rolling Bearings Fault Detection

Rolling track defect:

Envelope Analysis – Rolling Bearings Fault Detection Rolling track defect: Time signal: a m/s 2 t
Time signal: a m/s 2 t (s)
Time signal:
a
m/s 2
t (s)
Rectification t (s) Enveloping
Rectification
t (s)
Enveloping

a

m/s 2

t (s)
t (s)

a

m/s 2

Envelope

a

m/s 2

Envelope Analysis – Rolling Bearings Fault Detection Rolling track defect: Time signal: a m/s 2 t
Envelope spectrum: Defect frequency f RPOF 2 • 3• 4 • f (Hz) f RPOF f
Envelope spectrum:
Defect frequency
f RPOF 2 •
3•
4
f (Hz)
f RPOF
f RPOF
f RPOF

f RPOF

(Hz)

=

1

T RPOF

Roller Bearing Race Track Defects

Outer Race Defect:

Roller Bearing Race Track Defects Outer Race Defect: a m/s² Envelope Spectrum: RPOF RPOF RPOF RPOF
a m/s² Envelope Spectrum:
a
m/s²
Envelope Spectrum:

f RPOF 2f RPOF 3f RPOF 4f RPOF 5f RPOF

f (Hz)

Rolling element pass outer race f RPOF and harmonics clearly visible

if only f RPOF appears, then it can also be an unround deformation of the outer race track

In the case of very big unbalance, side bands with interval f n appear because of periodic load changes (in the load zone modulation with f n as the unbalance runs periodically through the load zone)

Inner Race Defect:

Roller Bearing Race Track Defects Outer Race Defect: a m/s² Envelope Spectrum: RPOF RPOF RPOF RPOF

a

m/s²

Envelope Spectrum: f 2xf RPIF f (Hz) RPIF
Envelope Spectrum:
f
2xf RPIF
f (Hz)
RPIF

Rolling element pass inner race frequency f RPIF and many side bands with interval f n

Modulated with the fundamental frequency f n as the inner race defect runs periodically through the load zone with f n

Fundamental modulation frequency f n and harmonics are visible

Roller Bearing Defects – Part 3

Rolling element defect:

Roller Bearing Defects – Part 3 Rolling element defect: a m/s² Envelope Spectrum: f 3• f
a m/s² Envelope Spectrum: f 3• f RPF RPF RPF 1.5• f RPF 2• f f
a
m/s²
Envelope Spectrum:
f
3• f
RPF
RPF
RPF 1.5• f RPF 2• f
f (Hz)
0.5 •
f
2.5• f
RPF
RPF

Rolling element pass frequency f RPF with harmonics And side bands with interval f CRF

f RPF can be also visible because of too small bearing clearance

or insufficient lubrication

Modulation with cage rotational speed f CRF , as the rolling

element runs periodically through the load zone with f CRF

Sub-harmonics of f RPF exist always with the harmonics, because the

pulse on outer race gives a higher level as pulses on the inner race

Fundamental modulation frequency f CRF and harmonics are visible

Cage Defect:

a

m/s²

Roller Bearing Defects – Part 3 Rolling element defect: a m/s² Envelope Spectrum: f 3• f
Envelope Spectrum: f 3 f 4 f (Hz) CRF 2 f CRF CRF f CRF
Envelope Spectrum:
f
3 f
4
f (Hz)
CRF
2 f CRF
CRF
f CRF

Cage rotational frequency f CRF and harmonics visible

f CRF cage rotational frequency is cage defect

frequency

coming out of the load zone: the rolling element

is accelerated and slides on the cage defect

or coming into the load zone: the rolling element

is braked and slideson the cage defect