World Wide Rice Production

Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for millions of households around the globe, and several countries of Asia and Africa are highly dependent on rice as a source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenue. Rice is the second largest produced cereal in the world. At the beginning of the 1990s, annual production was around 350 million tons and by the end of the century it had reached 410 million tons. Production is geographically concentrated in Western and Eastern Asia. Asia is the biggest rice producer, accounting for 90% of the world's production and consumption of rice. China and India, which account for more than one-third of global population supply over half of the world's rice. Brazil is the most important non-Asian producer, followed by the United States. Italy ranks first in Europe. The world's major rice-producing countries - including the two most populous nations, China and India - have emphasized the importance of continuing to develop new rice varieties to guarantee Asia's food security and support the region's economic development. Today, rice is grown and harvested on every continent except Antarctica, where conditions make its growth impossible. The majority of all rice produced comes from India, China, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, and Bangladesh. Asian farmers still account for 92percent of the world's total rice production. More than 550 million tons of rice is produced annually around the globe. In the United States, farmers have been successfully harvesting rice for more than 300 years. There are thousands of strains of rice today, including those grown in the wild and those which are cultivated as a crop. Forms of Processed Rice Major Rice Producing Countries Types and Forms of Rice

World Rice Production World Rice Production (in '000 metric tonnes) Country 1999/2000 2000/01 2001/02 China 138,936 131,536 124,320 India 89,700 84,871 91,600 Indonesia 33,445 32,548 32,422 Bangladesh 23,066 25,086 25,500 Vietnam 20,926 20,473 20,670 Thailand 16,500 16,901 16,500 Burma 9,860 10,771 10,440 Philippines 7,772 8,135 8,450 Japan 8,350 8,636 8,242 Brazil 7,768 7,062 7,480 United States 6,502 5,941 6,764

2002/03 123,200 80,000 32,500 26,000 20,500 16,500 10,440 8,300 8,200 7,600 6,457

Korea, South Egypt Pakistan EU Taiwan Australia Others WORLD TOTAL
Source: USDA, Foreign Agricultural Services (FAS).

5,263 3,787 5,156 1,751 1,349 787 28,282 409,200

5,291 3,965 4,700 1,567 1,342 1,259 27,270 397,354

5,515 3,575 3,740 1,620 1,245 930 27,575 396,588

5,300 3,800 3,500 1,792 1,197 965 28,156 384,407

World Rice Production 2009-2010
Rice is a grain belonging to the grass family. It is related to other grass plants such as wheat, oats and barley which produce grain for food and are known as cereals. Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans. The plant, which needs both warmth and moisture to grow, measures 2-6 feet tall and has long, flat, pointy leaves and stalk-bearing flowers which produce the grain known as rice. Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Throughout history rice has been one of man's most important foods. Today, this unique grain helps sustain two-thirds of the world's population. It is life for thousands of millions of people. It is deeply embedded in the cultural heritage of their societies. About four-fifths of the world's rice is produced by small-scale farmers and is consumed locally. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa

August 3, 2010- According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the U.N., 80% of the world rice production comes from 7 countries. However, if we talk about world rice production 2009-2010, the figures below show the worldwide rice production by countries- in fact, the top ten countries of world counted for their rice production. Country Rice Production

China

Mt: 166,417,000 (32.7%)

India

Mt: 132,013,000 (26.0%)

Indonesia

Mt: 52,078,832 (10.2%)

740.060.Bangladesh Mt: 38.000 (4.3%) Myanmar Mt: 24.India and the Philippines.9%) There has been a major decline in world rice production since late 2007 due to many reasons including climatic conditions in many top rice producing countries as well as policy decisions regarding rice export by the governments of countries with considerable rice production.198. .518.have been the primary reason for low world production of rice and the reversal of price trend.000 (5.000 (2.640. Reasons for Low World Rice Production in 2009 Global rice prices started increasing in November 2009 after months of steadily declining since reaching an all time high in May 2008.000 (7.8%) Brazil Mt: 10.8%) Philippines Mt: 14.8%) Thailand Mt: 27.600 (6.000 (1.900 (2.5%) Vietnam Mt: 34.031.0%) Japan Mt: 9.000. Problems related to rice supply in two major rice producing countries.

This increase is supported by a strong import demand from Asian countries. Indian stocks. rice importing countries like Indonesia and the Republic of Korea. while deliveries to African countries could diminish. Conversely. Most of these increase in world rice stocks is accounted to China. planting of paddy crops was already well advanced in southern hemisphere countries. As a result of the improved 2009 production estimates. are predicted to close the year with a 24% draw down to 24. which. Rice remains a staple food for the majority of the world's population. however. representing a 1% drop from opening levels. the United States and Uruguay. would not be available to the international market but will provide relief to the Indian domestic rice market as the country doesn't need to turn to import in the near future. It is also feared that drought related to El Nino may decrease rice production in Indonesia. compensating for reduced shipments from Cambodia. as a group. The 2010 trade recovery would be sustained by increased rice exports by Thailand which and also by China. . The rice production outlook is uncertain in southern African countries in view of the January and March cyclone period there. the current global rice stocks are much higher than in 2007. Relative to world consumption. Purchases by Brazil and the United States might also rise.5 million tons in 2009. Much of the contraction is expected to be in the five major exporting countries. As a result of low rice production in the two major rice producing countries of world. Therefore.5 million tonnes. Myanmar and Viet Nam. Approximately one million tons of rice in storage also got damaged. are expected to build their inventories. the Philippines got hit by two major typhoons causing damage to rice crops on ground. however. the Philippines and India were in the market to purchase rice than to sell rice. the rice market should be more stable now than in 2007. the FAO forecast of world rice stocks at the close of the marketing years ending in 2010 has been raised by 6 million tonnes to 123 million tonnes.Rice Martket In September-October 2009. In the last two years.5 million tonnes. one of the major rice production state of India was affected first by drought and then by flood. Current World Rice Stocks Despite a low world rice production in 2009. Indonesia and Thailand. especially the Philippines. Thus. In South America. rice stocks have increased by more than 16 million tonsfrom 75 million tons in 2006 91. Australia is expected to show an increase in rice production though its output would remain below the highs of the early-2000s. India. India too saw the worst drought since 1972 that reduced its 2009 Kharif (wet-season) crop by at least 15 million tons from a total of 85 million tons in the previous kharif season. rice cultivation in India saw a real setback in 2009. There were also major floods in southern states of India Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. global rice reserves appear ample and sufficient to cover roughly 27 percent of utilization in 2010. Andhra Pradesh. World Rice Production in 2010 As of January 2010. World trade in rice in 2010 is predicted to recover slightly to 30. Rice is very nutritious. This important carbohydrate is the staple food for more than two-thirds of the world's population who rely on the nutritional benefits of rice which are many. the season opened negatively due to drought or excessive rainfall that have delayed sowing of the main crops.

Low fat.26 1.79 1. riboflavin.31 0. All rice is gluten free. Contains resistant starch: Rice also contains resistant starch. which is an important source of the fuel our bodies need. The progress made by agriculture in the . Rice is a low-sodium food for those with hypertension.30 3. brown rice and parboiled rice. making rice the essential choice for people with gluten free dietary requirements.Rice Nutrition Chart The following rice nutrition chart gives an idea about the basic nutritional value of three types of rice. India today is self-sufficient in grain production and also has a substantial reserve. and fiber. that are present in brown rice. No additives and preservatives: Rice contains no additives or preservatives.98 37. Good energy source: Carbohydrates are broken down to glucose. This encourages the growth of beneficial bacteria.80 35. Non-allergenic Cancer prevention and diet: Whole grains (such as brown rice) contain high amounts of insoluble fiber-the type of fiber some scientists believe may help protect against a variety of cancers. The nutrients components of white and parboiled rice are those of unenriched rice which are different from enriched rice. iron. Rice has no fat. which is the starch that reaches the bowel undigested. Rice is an excellent food to include in a balanced diet.64 White Rice (Unenriched) 169 Parboiled (Unenriched) Brown Rice 172 171 Source: USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Rice Nutritional Benefits: • • • • • • • • • • • • Excellent source of carbohydrates: Rice is a great source of complex carbohydrates.60 0. Low salt. Rice (1/4 Cup Raw) Calories (kcal) Carbohydrates(g Fat ) (g) 36.62 3. vitamin D. keeping the bowel healthy. niacin. Enriched rice are given back vitamins B1.72 0. It is a fair source of protein containing all eight amino acids. making it an excellent inclusion in a healthy and balanced diet. no cholesterol and is sodium free. Production of Rice in India From a nation dependent on food imports to feed its population. most of which is used as energy for exercise and as essential fuel for the brain.14 3. calcium. B3 and iron that are lost during processing of rice but it lacks in some minerals like magnesium etc.white rice. No cholesterol: Rice is healthful for what it does not contain. A good source of vitamins and minerals such as thiamine.35 Fiber(g Protein (g) ) 0. Low sugar No gluten: Rice is gluten free.

08 The demand for rice in India is projected at 128 million tonnes for the year 2012 and will require a production level of 3.27 8.08 Rajasthan 10.39 9.29 82. Agriculture is the means of livelihood of about two-thirds of the work force in the country. Statewise Production of Rice in India Production (in million tonnes) State 2000-01 Uttar Pradesh 42. The production of rice in India has shown an increasing trend which is evident from the Table given below: YEAR 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 PRODUCTION (in million tonnes) 20. Government of India is targeting to achieve production of 129 million tonnes of rice by 2011-12 with the growth rate of 3.08 89.65 25. almost 33% of it.86 12. Agriculture and allied activities constitute the single largest contributor to the Gross Domestic Product.68 21. followed by China.92 13.53 West Bengal 13.70 10.22 53.04 Madhya Pradesh 8.83 Haryana 13. India is the world's second largest rice producer.32 Punjab 25.98 93.68 84.06 Karnataka 10.20 13.06 14.25 Bihar 12.98 Assam 4.62 4.7% along with other foodgrains.93 Tamil Nadu 8.97 5.58 34.70 14.000 kg/hectare significantly greater than the present average yield of 1.17 1999-00 45.54 86.04 .63 74.last four decades has been one of the biggest success stories of free India.90 Orissa 4.95 Maharashtra 10.58 42.32 Andhra Pradesh 14.930 kg/hectare.

is the world's best rice that one can use for cooking and the leading aromatic fine quality rice in the world trade. Basmati rice is characterized by extra long.Gujarat 3. This type of rice has been grown in the foothills of the Himalayas for thousands of years. Let us browse though the wide varieties of rice available in all parts of the country with their characteristics.73 Others 5.5. soft texture. Rice cultivation is found in all the states of India. sweet taste. a variety of long grain rice with a fine texture. The harvesting area of rice in India is the largest in the world.71 Rice forms an integral part of the life of all Indians. Basmati rice means the "queen of fragrance" or the perfumed one.05 Chhatisgarh 3. Find out everything you could possibly know about Basmati rice in India under the following heads: History of Basmati Rice Characteristics of Basmati Rice Agronomic Features of Basmati Rice Areas Producing Basmati Rice in India The Basmati Patent .49 2. In India. ASD-16 Rice Gayatri Rice HKR-120 Rice Jaya Rice Karna Rice Mahaveera Rice Narendra Dhan-118 Rice Pathara Rice Ratnagiri-2 Rice Sravani Rice Vanaprabha Rice Vivek Dhan-62 Rice ASD-17 Rice Hari Rice IET-10222 Rice Kalyani-II Rice Kshira Rice MDU-3 Rice Padmini Rice Prasanna Rice Seshu Rice Srinivas Rice Vikas Rice VL Dhan-163 Rice Gauri Rice Heera Rice IET-8548 Rice Kanak Rice Lalat Rice Moti Rice Panvel-2 Rice Ratnagiri-1 Rice Sonasali Rice Tara Rice Vikramarya Rice Basmati Rice in India Basmati Rice. delicate curvature and an extra elongation with least breadth-wise swelling on cooking.68 4.01 Uttaranchal 1. superfine slender grains having a length to breadth ratio of more than 3.65 Jharkhand 2. This highly aromatic rice is India's gift to the whole world.

Research studies show that the indica variety of rice was first domesticated in south of the Himalayas within a region spanning eastern India. that is more than one-third of rice produced in India in 1998/99. the Eastern part of India is of special importance with regard to food security in India. Myanmar and Thailand. Almost all the states in East India cultivate rice but there are four major states.Production of Basmati Rice in India Export of Basmati Rice from India Basmati Rice Brands of India Varieties of Basmati Rice India in World Basmati Rice Industry Rice Varieties in East India It is said that the roots of rice lie in East India. Ajaya Rice Annada Rice Birsa Dhan-202 Rice BR-34 Rice Dharitri Rice IET-2233 Rice Jaladhi-1 Rice Jayamati Rice Kunti Rice Laxmi Rice Patna Rice Rajendra Dhan Rice Saraswati Rice Sugandha Rice Amulya Rice Birsa Dhan-101 Rice Birsa Gora-102 Rice Chelarai Rice Golak Rice IR-20 Rice Jaladhi-2 Rice Ketaki joha Rice Lachit rice Luit Rice Phou-oibi Rice Ratna Rice Sita Rice Tulsi Rice Anjali Rice Birsa Dhan-201 Rice Boro Rice CNM Rice IET-1136 Rice IR-36 Rice Janki Rice Konark Rice Lakhimi Rice Monoharsali Rice Punsi Rice Salivahana Rice Sneha Rice Uydyagiri Rice . They are : • • • • West Bengal Bihar Orissa Assam Let us browse through various varieties of rice cultivated in East India with their important characteristics. Today. About 30 million tonnes of the total 82 million tonnes. were contributed by East Indian States.

It is the main grain cultivated in this region and it is a nourishing food that people subsist on every day of their life. We describe in the following pages some of the famous varieties of rice available in Southern part of our country with their characteristics : ADT (R) 46 ADT-39 Rice Chengalpattu Sirumani Rice Kadaikazhuthan Rice Kallundai Rice ADT-37 Rice Amrut Rice Improved White Ponni Rice Kaliyan Samba Rice Kappa Samba Rice ADT-38 Rice Annapurna-28 Rice Jagannath Rice Kallimadaiyan Rice Karnataka Hill Paddy-5 Rice . rice plays an important role. Particularly in South India. the man's best partner and the elements earth.Rice Varieties in North India Rice forms an integral part of the life of all Indians. Infact in India rice is worshipped. who make. Harvest festival or Sankranthi is all about celebrating rice in India. sun and water. It is no wonder that there is a festival dedicated to the almighty rice. The main states covering rice cultivation in North India are • • • • • Punjab Haryana Uttar Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Let us now browse through some rice varieties with their characteristics available in this part of the country: Aditya Rice Chakia-59 Rice Dhan Narendra-1 Rice Himalaya Rice Jalmagan Rice Malviya Dhan-36 Rice PR 106 Rice Prasad Rice Taichung Native-1 Rice Type-3 Rice VLK-Dhan-39 Rice Barkat Rice China Rice Giza-14 Rice Indian Basmati Rice Jhona-349 Rice N-8 Rice PR-103 Rice Pusa-169 Rice Tawi Rice USAR-1 Rice Cauveri Rice Cross-116 Rice Govind Rice IR-579 Rice Karishma Rice Narendra-80 Rice PR-4141 Rice Saket-4 Rice Type-21 Rice VL Dhan Rice Rice Varieties in South India Rice is the staple food of all Indians. growing and cultivating of rice possible. Equally worshipped are the cow.

The increase in productivity of Rice is about 209% and this increase is due to introduction of high yielding rice varieties responsive to high dose of fertilizers coupled with improved package of practices evolved by Agricultural Scientists for various regions. Rice contributes 43% of total food grain production and 46% of the total cereal production of the country. Korea. Pakistan. The productivity of rice which was 668 kg/ha in 1950-51 has reached to 2. soil fertility. China. and Indonesia. flood. These are various factors.066 kg/ha during 200102. Rice is the staple food of more than 60% of the world's population especially for most of the people of South-East Asia. which is about 23% below the world average productivity of 2563 kg/ha during the same year. Average rice productivity in India during 1999-2000 was 1986 kg/ha. It occupies about 23. Among the rice growing countries in the world. there is considerable increase in productivity of rice in the country but there are still certain areas. India has the largest area under rice crop and ranks second in production next to China. The productivity of rice in India is higher than Thailand.3% of gross cropped area of the country. In the analysis triennium average data as mentioned above has been used. Bangladesh and Nepal but much below the productivity in Japan. first the productivity has been classified into various groups and then various rice growing zones have been identified along with States/Union-Territories falling in a particular zone and their percentage share in area and production of rice in the country. Therefore.Kattu Kuthalam Rice Krishna Anjana Rice Kuzhiyadichan Rice Neelan Samba Rice Prakash Rice Rohini Rice Samba Mahsuri Rice Seeraga Samba Rice Thangam Samba Rice Kaum Rice Kudaivazhai Rice Lakshmi Kajal Rice Phalguna Rice Pusa-44 Rice Sabari Rice Samba Mosanam Rice Sivappu kuruvikar Rice Thooyamallee Rice Kothmala-Golukulu Rice Kullakkar Rice Nagarjuna Rice Pitchavari Rice Ravi Rice Sadakar Rice Samba Rice Sona Masuri Rice Rice Productivity Analysis in India Introduction Rice is the most important cereal food crop of India. Rice productivity in such areas fluctuates significantly from region to region due to various factors such as soil type. an attempt has been made in this analysis to determine a particular factor /factors responsible for low productivity of rice in certain area. production and yield/productivity data for the year 1998-99. There is considerable increase in productivity of rice in India during the recent past. climatic conditions etc. where rice productivity is low and very low. In fact. which affect the rice crop resulting in low productivity.A.S. The productivity/yield of each zone has also been worked out for the purpose of . production and productivity per hectare. water logging. rainfall pattern. 1999-2000 and 2000-01 has been pooled together to arrive at triennium average of area. U. It plays vital role in the national food grain supply. In the process of analysis. In this process area.

500 kg/ha.4 times from 20. the average yield per unit area of high productivity districts during the triennium ending 2001 has been worked out to 3. Classification of Productivity Group Rice is grown under varying eco-system on a variety of soils under varying climatic and hydrological conditions ranging from waterlogged and poorly drained situations. which was 42.05 million tonnes during 2001-02. which was 26.06 million ha. The Districts falling under the high productivity group accounts for the major production as compared to other productivity groups.103 kg/ha. High Productivity Group Rice is grown in 534 districts in the country spread over 30 States and Union Territories. which was 59% higher than the national average productivity of 1. Production and Productivity of all rice growing districts in the country from 1998-99 to 2000-01 have been pooled together to arrive at triennium average. productivity status has been classified into the following groups for the purpose of analysis : • • • • • High Productivity Group ( Yield > 2500 kg/ha ) Medium Productivity Group ( Yield 2000-2500 kg/ha ) Medium-Low Productivity Group ( Yield 1500-2000 kg/ha ) Low Productivity Group ( Yield 1000-1500 kg/ha ) Very Low Productivity Group ( Yield < 1000 kg/ha ) Detailed explanation of these productivity groups has been provided below. Under high productivity group 110 districts are falling and the productivity of these districts is more than 2. rice is also grown under rainfed and irrigated conditions. based on the productivity levels of rice. production and productivity have been used. under high productivity group during the triennium ending 2001 was 12.analysis. The area. organizations and other related departments. Besides. govt. traders. Thus.8% of all India total production of rice. analysis has been further carried out State-wise and District-wise for all rice growing areas. where it is grown under different eco-systems and climatic conditions. In this analysis the triennium average in respect of area. In fact .9% of total area under rice in the country. Triennium average production of rice was 37. Thus.58 million tonnes in 1950 to nearly 91.42 million tonnes in 110 districts falling under high productivity group. Medium Productivity Group . The status paper is expected to serve as a reference document for agricultural scientists and workers.947 kg/ha during the same period. Reasons for low productivity have also been determined with the possible suggestions to improve the productivity of rice in different rice growing eco-systems of the country. Rice production in India has increased during the last 51 years by nearly 441% or 4. Therefore. planners. rice area under high productivity group in the country constitute major share as compared to other productivity groups. The total area of rice in 110 districts.

Very-Low Productivity Group Very low productivity group comprises of 94 districts of various states and triennium average of area under rice in this group was 5.2% of national average area under rice.775 kg/ha.3% of average national production of rice during the same period.54 million hectares.6% of national average production of rice in the country.A total of 81 districts of various states are falling under medium productivity group.500 kg/ha.947 kg/ha. The productivity of this group ranges from 1500-2000 kg/ha. Triennium average area under rice in 155 districts of low productivity was 11. The production of medium productivity group accounts for 20% of national total average production of rice. The average production of 17. out of 534 rice growing districts of the country.38 million tonnes was recorded under medium-low productivity group during triennium ending 2001. Medium-Low Productivity Group Medium-low productivity group is comprising of 94 districts of various states of the country. 155 districts are having low productivity ranging from 1.3% of total area under rice in the country. Thus. area-wise low productivity group ranks second after high productivity group but being the yield per unit area low.228 kg/ha. The medium productivity group ranks second from production point of view. total production of rice in this group is also the lowest. Triennium average production of 14.3% of average national production of rice during the same period. The average production of 13. which was 25. which was much below the average national productivity of rice during the same period. after high productivity group.45 million tonnes of rice has been recorded from 81 districts of medium productivity group. Among all productivity group.77 million ha.000-1. which was 13. which was 5. In fact. total production of this group is less compared to area.246 kg/ha as against the national average productivity of 1. which was 17. The districts having productivity in the range of 2000-2500 kg/ha are falling under medium productivity group. Triennium average productivity of medium productivity group covering 81 districts of various states has been worked out to 2. which was 16. which was 15. which was below the average national productivity of rice during the same period. very low productivity group constitute the lowest area under rice. The average area under rice in medium productivity group covering 81 districts of various states during triennium ending 2001 was 7.90 million tonnes. Triennium average rice area of 94 districts of medium-low productivity group was 7. Triennium average production of rice in this group was recorded 4. Triennium average productivity of this group has been worked out to 826 .. Similarly. Low Productivity Group Maximum number of districts are falling under low productivity group. which was 16.58 million hectares.8% of national total average area under rice.8% of total area under rice in the country.22 million tonnes has been recorded in this group.93 million hectares. Triennium average productivity of this group has been worked out to 1. Triennium average productivity of this group has been worked out to 1. the average productivity of medium productivity groups was 15% higher than the national average productivity during triennium ending 2001.

kg/ha. No. Production and Productivity along with number of districts under different productivity groups SL Productivity Groups Number Area Percent Production Percent of Productivity of (Million Ha.) Districts India Tonnes Production . 1. of districts under different productivity group and percentage share of area and production are depicted in Pie Diagram No. Table-1 : Triennium Average (1998-1999 to 2000-2001) of Area. which was more than 50% less as compared to the national average productivity of rice during the same period. production and productivity along with number of districts under different productivity groups are given in Table-1 and state-wise number of districts based on various productivity groups during triennium ending 2001 are given in Table-2.) of All in Million All India (Kg/Ha. 2 & 3 respectively. Triennium average (1998-2001) of area.

ir 9.0% 14. (> 1.78 25.22 4.42 17.54 16.9% 17.500-2. Bihar 5.500 Kg/Ha) Medium Productivity 2.775 155 94 534 11.3% 37.3% 5.) 2.) Kg/ha.Rice Area High Productivity (> 2.500 (1.2% 100.500 Districts Kg/Ha. Haryana Himachal Prades h Jammu & Kashm 10.000-1.45 42. Goa 7.500 Kg/H a) Medium-Low Productivity 3. Arunachal Prades h 22 13 23 37 18 2 14 18 10 12 14 1 2 1 7 4 5 4 7 1 1 2 1 11 4 1 3 2 2 5 1 6 11 25 10 5 2 7 1 6 1 3 7 5 1 3.06 7.228 826 1.0% 1.940 Table-2 : State-wise no.500 Kg/Ha) Very-Low Productivi 5.77 26.000 2.103 2.000 Kg/Ha.6% 100.000 Kg/Ha) Low Productivity 4. Gujrat 8.38 15. Andhra Pradesh 2.000 Kg/Ha) TOTAL 1.88 16. .500 1.500(< 1.90 86. of Districts based on Productivity Level during Triennium ending 2000-01 MediumMedium Low Total High Low Very Low Productivit Productivit Rice Productivit productivit Productivit State/ y Districts y Districts SL Growin y Districts y Districts y Districts Union Territories (2.3% 1. 110 81 12.) Kg/Ha.000(1.58 5.000-2. (> 2.000g (> 2.) 1.93 44.0% 3.8% 13. Jharkhand 6.) Kg/Ha. Assam 4. ty (< 1.8% 13.246 94 7.8% 20. (1.

Pondicherry TOTAL 27 14 41 16 32 9 7 5 7 30 17 18 4 28 4 70 13 18 2 3 534 14 3 4 17 27 7 1 4 1 3 110 5 5 2 5 1 1 1 2 29 3 9 81 6 5 2 1 1 4 3 2 3 1 1 2 26 2 3 1 94 1 1 6 9 11 5 2 1 5 17 11 3 1 5 7 2 155 1 31 6 15 10 5 3 94 Regional Variations of Rice Productivity Rice is grown from Kashmir to Kanyakumari and Amritsar to Nagaland almost in every district with variations in area of cultivation. Tamil Nadu 25. Karnataka 12. A&N Islands 30. Uttranchal 28. Nagaland 20. The entire country has been divided into five rice growing zones. Orissa 21. Kerala 13. Sikkim 24.11. Madhya Pradesh 14. These zones are mentioned below along with the states falling in each zone. West Bengal 29. Tripura 26. Chhattisgarh 15. Manipur 17. Mizoram 19. Eastern Bihar . Uttar Pradesh 27. Maharashtra 16. Rajasthan 23. Punjab 22. Southern Andhra Pradesh SL Name of the Zon Name of the States e 4. SL Name of the Zon Name of the States e 1. Meghalaya 18.

The productivity of rice in Southern region is the highest as compared to other regions. The cultivation of rice is spread over in 96 districts of southern region.82 million tonnes.31 million hectares. rice is cultivated in 70 districts. Northern Region Northern region is comprising of five states viz.6% of national average area of 44. production and yield of rice per hectare during the year 1998-99 to 2000-2001 have been pooled together to arrive at triennium average and triennium average thus worked out for area. rice is the most important crop and it is grown in this region more than one crop in a year. Northern Zone 3.2% of average national production of rice i. Average area under rice in Southern region was 8. North-Eastern Zone Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Orissa Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Assam Arunachal Pradesh Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura There is is significant variation in the productivity of rice between rice growing regions in the country.88 million hectares during . which was 18. which was 27.88 million hectares during the triennium ending 2001. (1) Haryana (2) Himachal Pradesh (3) Jammu & Kashmir (4) Punjab and (5) Uttranchal. (1) Andhra Pradesh (2) Karnataka (3) Tamil Nadu and (4) Kerala and two Union Territory viz. The average productivity of rice for three years (199899 to 2000-01) has been worked out to 2901 kg/ha in Southern region.e. Western Zone Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu Pondicherry Andman & Nicobar Islands Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Punjab Uttranchal Goa Gujrat Maharashtra Rajasthan Zone 5. (1) Pondicherry and (2) Andaman & Nicobar Islands are coming in this region.37 million tonnes. Area.21 million hectares during the triennium ending 2001.3% of national triennium average area of 44. which was 49% higher than the average productivity of 1947 kg/ha for whole country. production and yield/ha have been used for analysis of regional variation of rice productivity in this chapter. which was 9. The average total production of rice in the states of Southern region was 23. Average area under rice in these districts during triennium ending 2001 was 4. In these states. 87. Four states viz.Zone 2. Southern Region In southern region..

In this region. North-Eastern Region Eight states viz.0% of national average production of rice . (1) Goa (2) Gujarat (3) Maharastra and (4) Rajasthan. which was 48. The lower productivity of this region is attributed to various reasons such as every year occurrence of flood or drought. Rice cultivation is spread over in 66 districts of four states. the total production of rice is affected significantly due to low productivity. Average area under rice in Western region was 2. Rice is one of the main crops of this region and in Bihar. incidence of insect/pests etc. the productivity of 1448 kg /ha was achieved as against the national productivity of 1947 kg/ha. Average production of rice in Northern region during the triennium ending 2001 was 12.5% of national average production of rice. Area and production of rice in Eastern region are the highest as compared to other rice growing regions of the country. the productivity of 1598 kg/ha was recorded.45 million hectares.3% during the triennium ending 2001. Assam state is growing more than one crop in a year. (1) Assam (2) Arunachal Pradesh (3) Manipur (4) Meghalaya (5) Mizoram (6) Nagaland (7) Sikkim and (8) Tripura are coming under North-Eastern region. West Bengal and Orissa more than one crop of rice is cultivated in a year. which was 59. Average area under rice during triennium ending 2001 was 26.88 million hectares.39 million hectares during triennium ending 2001.7% of total area under rice in the country during the same year. Area under rice in this region is lowest as compared to other regions of the country. The share of Western region in the total production of rice is the lowest as compared to other rice growing regions.46 million tonnes of rice was recorded during the triennium ending 2001. (1) Bihar (2) Jharkhand (3) Madhya Pradesh (4) Chhattisgarh (5) Orissa (6) Uttar Pradesh and (7) West Bengal and this region was growing rice in 230 districts on large area. During the triennium ending 2001. The productivity of rice in the Northern region during the triennium ending 2001 was 2893 kg/ha. which was 5. From production point of view. This region receives very heavy rainfall and rice is grown under rainfed condition. rice is grown in 72 districts. which was 6. average total production of 42.6% higher than the national productivity of rice. During the triennium ending 2001. Total production of 3. Eastern Region Eastern region comprises of seven states viz. lack of irrigation facilities. Western Region There are four states in the Western region viz. Thus. The productivity of rice in this region is the lowest. In these states.37 million tonnes of rice. During the triennium ending 2001. The share of the Northern region in total production of rice in the country was 14.3% of total area under rice during the same year. Average total production of rice in this region during triennium ending 2001 was 5. but the productivity is much lower than the national average productivity of 1947 kg/ha.37 million tonnes was recorded. Eastern region contributes the highest production in the country. which accounted for 7. The productivity of rice in Northern region is slightly lower than the productivity of Southern region. which was 4.25 million tonnes.52 million hectares.0% of the national average production of 87.47 million tonnes.1% of national average area of 44.the same year. The Productivity of rice in . which was 48. Area under rice in this region during triennium ending 2001 was 3.

598 Madhya Pradesh. Maharashtra. 1. 3.893 Jammu & Kashmir.21 18.3% 2. Bihar.this region was 1522 kg/ha during triennium ending 2001. 70 4. Himachal Pradesh. and Pondicherry Haryana.) s Tonnes n Area Andhra Pradesh.31 9. 2.5% 1. 66 2.901 A&N Islands. Chhattisgarh.47 14. Jharkhand.46 4. Kerela. which was much below the national average productivity of 1947 kg/ha.37 48.52 59. Table-3 : Regional Variations of Rice Productivity during Triennium ending 2000-01 Percent Number Productio Percent of Area of All Productivit States/Union Territorie of n in All India SL (Million Ha.6% 12.3% 23.3% 3. 96 8.1% 42. Orissa.2% 2.39 5. Regional variations of rice productivity during triennium ending 2001 are given in Table-3 and region-wise percentage share of area and production is depicted in Bar Diagram below. Karnataka. . Punjab and Uttranchal Goa.82 27. Tamil Nadu.0% 1.448 Rajasthan and Gujrat 4. India y s District Million Productio ) Rice (Kg/Ha. 230 26.

Analysis of individual states have been organized under the following links : Zones States/Union Territories Southern Andhra Pradesh | A&N Islands | Karnataka | Kerala | Tamil Nadu | Pondicherry Northern Haryana | Himachal Pradesh | Jammu & Kashmir | Punjab | Uttranchal Western Goa | Gujrat | Maharashtra | Rajasthan Bihar | Jharkhand | Madhya Pradesh | Chhattisgarh | Orissa | Uttar Pradesh | West Ben Eastern gal North. Mizoram. Three years area and production. production and productivity for different productivity groups.88 100.947 This chapter focuses on the analysis of state-wise rice productivity. 5. Meghalaya.0% 1.7% 5. Triennium average productivity thus worked out has been used for the productivity analysis in this chapter.0 % 87. Tripura. Arunachal Pradesh. that is. production and productivity of those districts falling under different five productivity groups have been pooled together to arrive at average of area.0% 1. In this chapter district-wise productivity data under different productivity groups have been used for district-wise productivity analysis as given below:- Andhra Pradesh . Number of districts growing rice in every State/Union Territory have been taken together and then classified/divided as per different productivity groups for the purpose of productivity analysis at State level. Manipur. 1998-99 to 2000-2001 of individual district as per productivity group have been pooled together to arrive at triennium average of area and production of rice and then triennium average production has been divided by triennium average area to get triennium average productivity. Nagaland and Sikkim TOTAL State-wise Analysis of Rice Productivity 72 3.45 7.Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal Assam.25 6.Assam | Arunachal Pradesh | Manipur | Meghalaya | Mizoram | Nagaland | Sikkim | Tr Eastern ipura District-wise Analysis of Rice Productivity In previous chapter.37 100. rice productivity has been discussed/analyzed at State level and in that chapter area.522 534 44.

597 kg/ha) and Khagaria district is having the lowest productivity (611 kg/ha). Himachal Pradesh .430 kg/ha). Rice productivity of both the districts are higher than the average productivity of the country.947 kg/ha and two districts are having productivity below average productivity of the country. Rice productivity of 14 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1. Rice Productivity of 20 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1. Haryana Kurukshetra district is having the highest productivity (2.550 kg/ha) and South Goa is having the lowest productivity (2.322 kg/ha. Rice productivity of all 13 districts are below the national average productivity of 1.947 kg/ha and 4 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.947 kg/ha and 13 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country. Gujrat Gandhinagar district is having the highest productivity (2.644 kg/ha) and U/Subansiri district is having the lowest productivity (628 kg/ha). Rice productivity of only one district is higher than the national productivity of 1.) and Vishakhapatnam district is having the lowest productivity (1.896 kg/ha) and Rohtak is having the lowest productivity (1.953 kg/ha) and Bongaigaon district is having the lowest productivity (994 kg/ha). Bihar Rohtas district is having the highest productivity (2.603 kg/ha) and Baroda is having the lowest productivity (615 kg/ha). Rice productivity of only one district is higher than the national productivity of 1.West Godavari district is having the highest productivity (3.947 kg/ha and 31 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.947 kg/ha and 22 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.434 kg/ha). Rice productivity of 6 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1. Assam Cachar district is having the highest productivity (1. Arunachal Pradesh East Siang district is having the highest productivity (1.531 kg/ha).947 kg/ha. Goa North Goa is having the highest productivity (2.

947 kg/ha and 5 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.418 kg/ha) and Doda district is having the lowest productivity (992 kg/ha). Rice productivity of 4 districts are higher than the national productivity and 5 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country. Madhya Pradesh Gwalior district is having the highest productivity (2.947 kg/ha and 7 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.947 kg/ha and 7 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.197 kg/ha) and Churchandrapur district is having the lowest productivity (1. Rice productivity of 5 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1.000 kg/ha).947 kg/ha and 39 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country. Kerala Pathanamthitta district is having the highest productivity (2. Manipur East Imphal district is having the highest productivity (3.Una district is having the highest productivity (2. Jammu & Kashmir Anantnag district is having the highest productivity (3.308 kg/ha). Rice productivity of 9 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1. Rice productivity of 5 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1.107 kg/ha). .255 kg/ha) and Khargone district is having the lowest productivity (373 kg/ha). Rice productivity of 2 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1. Karnataka Koppal district is having the highest productivity (3. Rice productivity of only one district is higher than the national productivity and 9 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country. Maharashtra Sangli district is having the highest productivity (2.115 kg/ha) and Shimla district is having the lowest productivity (1.462 kg/ha) and Bidar district is having the lowest productivity (637 kg/ha).718 kg/ha) and Kozhikode district is having the lowest productivity (1. Rice productivity of 20 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1.947 kg/ha and 27 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.393 kg/ha) and Nondurbar district is having the lowest productivity (336 kg/ha).

Rice productivity of all the district are below the national productivity of 1.017 kg/ha) and Chimtuipui district is having the lowest productivity (1. Rice productivity of all the districts are below the national productivity of a1. Rajasthan Hanumangarh district is having the highest productivity (2. Mizoram East Aizawal district is having the highest productivity (2.Meghalaya Ribhoi district is having the highest productivity (2. Punjab Fatehgarh district is having the highest productivity (3.769 kg/ha).278 kg/ha). Rice productivity of all 4 district are below the national productivity of 1.947 kg/ha. Sikkim East Sikkim district is having the highest productivity (1.947 kg/ha. Orissa Gajapati district is having the highest productivity (1.422 kg/ha).707 kg/ha) and Gurudaspur district is having the lowest productivity (2.110 kg/ha ).947 kg/ha.947 kg/ha. Nagaland Phek district is having the highest productivity (1.735 kg/ha) and Nawapara district is having the lowest productivity (727 kg/ha).571 kg/ha) and Zunhebato district is having the lowest productivity (1. Rice productivity of Ribhoi district is higher than the national productivity and 6 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country. Rice productivity of all the district are higher than the national productivity of 1.042 kg/ha) and South Garo Hills district is having the lowest productivity (1.349 kg/ha).538 kg/ha) and West Sikkim district is having the lowest productivity (1.330 kg/ha) and Dungarpur district is having the lowest productivity (285 kg/ha) and also the lowest productivity in the country. Rice productivity of only one district (Chimtuipui) is higher than the national productivity and 4 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country. . Rice productivity of only one district (Hanumangarh) is higher than the national productivity and 17 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.

Tripura West Tripura district is having the highest productivity (2.585 kg/ha) and West Singhbhum district is having the lowest productivity (645 kg/ha).792 kg/ha) and Jhansi district is having the lowest productivity (800 kg/ha). .947 kg/ha and Ramnathpuram the only one district is having the productivity below the average productivity of the country.947 kg/ha and 32 districts are having the productivity below the average productivity of the country.911 kg/ha) and Ramnathpuram district is having the lowest productivity (1.842 kg/ha) and Darjeeling district is having the lowest productivity (1. Chhattisgarh Dhamtari district is having the highest productivity (1.Tamil Nadu Dindigul district is having the highest productivity (4.766 kg/ha). Dindigul district is also having the highest productivity in the country. Rice productivity of 27 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1. Rice productivity of all 18 districts are below the average productivity of the country. Rice productivity of all district are below the average productivity of the country.040 kg/ha).674 kg/ha) and Kabardha district is having the lowest productivity (884 kg/ha). Rice productivity of 4 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1.776 kg/ha) and Almora district is having the lowest productivity (1.947 kg/ha and 5 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country. Jharkhand Sahebganj district is having the highest productivity (1. Rice productivity of 3 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1. Rice productivity of 13 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1.353 kg/ha). Rice productivity of 38 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1.947 kg/ha and one district is having the productivity below the average productivity of the country. Uttranchal Udham Singh Nagar district is having the highest productivity (2.154 kg/ha) and Dhalia district is having the lowest productivity (1.430 kg/ha). Uttar Pradesh Bijnaur district is having the highest productivity (2. West Bengal Burdwan district is having the highest productivity (2.947 kg/ha and 9 districts are having productivity below the average productivity of the country.

.452 kg/ha) and Yaman district is having the lowest productivity (2.947 kg/ha.Andaman & Nicobar Islands Andaman district is having higher productivity (2.000 kg/ha). Rice productivity of all 3 districts are higher than the national productivity of 1.709 kg/ha) than Nicobar district (2. Pondicherry Pondicherry district is having the highest productivity (3.947 kg/ha.962 kg/ha). Productivity of both the districts are higher than the national average productivity of 1.

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