E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective

An Oracle White Paper Oct 2007

E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective
Purpose ............................................................................................................... 3 Overview............................................................................................................. 3 Prior Tax Structure............................................................................................ 4 Key Concepts..................................................................................................... 6 Integration With Purchasing............................................................................ 8 Tax Events ..................................................................................................... 8 Configuration Owner Tax Options............................................................ 8 Party Tax Profile ........................................................................................... 9 Implementation Considerations........................................................... 10 Country Defaults......................................................................................... 11 Tax Defaulting............................................................................................. 12 Displaying Tax Information...................................................................... 14 Modifying Tax Information ...................................................................... 15 Overriding Tax ....................................................................................... 15 Application Tax Options - Tax Hierarchy .............................................. 17 Supplier .................................................................................................... 17 Supplier Site ............................................................................................ 18 Item .......................................................................................................... 18 Tax Rules...................................................................................................... 19 Expert Rule ............................................................................................. 20 Guided Rule ............................................................................................ 21 Fiscal Classification..................................................................................... 22 Party Fiscal Classification...................................................................... 22 Product Fiscal Classification................................................................. 25 Transaction Fiscal Classification .......................................................... 33 Tax in Interface ........................................................................................... 34 Requisition Import................................................................................. 34 PDOI ....................................................................................................... 34 Tax During AutoCreate ............................................................................. 34 Quantity Based Tax .................................................................................... 34 Tax Setup.......................................................................................................... 36 Upgrade considerations .................................................................................. 41 Data Flow ......................................................................................................... 42 Troubleshooting .............................................................................................. 45 Tax Simulator.......................................................................................... 45 Troubleshooting Tips ............................................................................ 45 Tax Log and File Versions.................................................................... 46 Appendix .......................................................................................................... 48 References.................................................................................................... 48 Oracle Internal References ........................................................................ 48 Tax Determination Attributes................................................................... 49

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E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective

PURPOSE
Ebusiness Tax provides a repository to store tax information and record tax events. Individual applications (for e.g. Purchasing) avails the tax services provided by Ebusiness Tax to create/update/display tax information for its transactions.

Purpose of creating this document is to review impact of Ebusiness Tax introduced in R12 to Oracle Purchasing. This document will help you in implementing tax solution in Purchasing using R12 Ebusiness Tax solutions. This document will also help you in understanding the integration and troubleshooting your tax setups in Oracle Purchasing.
OVERVIEW

In release 12 EBusiness Tax has been introduced to provide an improved Tax solution to customers. Ebusiness Tax provides a repository to store tax information and record tax events. Individual applications (for e.g. Purchasing) avails the tax services provided by Ebusiness Tax to create/update/display tax information for its transactions. The tax services that can be availed from Ebusiness Tax are listed below.

a. Define Tax Content b. Determine Tax c. Manage Tax d. Record Tax e. Report Tax f. Reconcile Tax

Architecture has been built considering country specific tax requirements and applicability of rules for determining taxes. Based on the tax laws of a specific country, the transaction tax rates may vary by jurisdictions, products or product category, how the product will be used, type of transacting parties, type of transactions, the place of supply etc. Various rules are applicable for determining the appropriate tax on a specific transaction.

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The Tax Setups including rules are based on requirements used by the Tax Rules Engine, which will create/update Tax Lines. These lines are later reported using EBusiness Tax Reporting features. Figure below shows the e-business structure.

E-Business Suite Transaction
Oracle E-Business Tax
Tax Services Request Manager

Transaction Tax

Content Repository

STaxvices er
Record Repository
Content Services

Tax Determination Services

Tax Recovery Services

Tax Reporting

Tax Reporting Services

Partner Tax Content Interface

Tax Partner
Tax Content

Figure 1: E-Business Tax Architecture

PRIOR TAX STRUCTURE
Prior to release 12, tax was defined in Accounts Payables module. Taxes were associated with rates, non-recoverable ratio and recovery rules. Country Specific tax requirements could not be incorporated seamlessly into the application.

Prior to release 12, tax was defined in Accounts Payables module. A tax component on the document total could be associated with the purchasing documents for portion of the tax which was non recoverable. Purchasing would default taxes based on hierarchy defined either in Oracle Payables (Setup > Options > Payables > Tax code defaults) or in Oracle Purchasing (Setup > Organization > Purchasing Options > Tax Default Alternate Region) if "Enforce Tax From Purchase Order" box in Payable Options (Setup > Options > Payables > Tax code defaults) was checked. Taxes were associated with rates, non-recoverable ratio and recovery rules. Taxes were then defined in at least one of the levels (also called the tax source) for e.g. Item, Supplier, Supplier Site, and Location etc. The order of defaulting was decided by the hierarchy defined in the Payables/Purchasing options discussed previously. Tax calculation was called on a Requisition/ Standard Purchase order or a Blanket release based on the hierarchy, recovery rules and rates. Tax calculation is performed using the AP Tax Engine, which was called from the distribution, or

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PO/Requisition. Once the tax is defaulted and saved tax cannot be redefaulted even on changing the tax source in the document. It was possible to override the tax defaulted on Purchasing documents prior to receipt or prior to reservation on funds on the document incase of encumbrance accounting. To override tax we need to have the profile option Tax: Allow Override of Tax Code set to Yes. Profile "Tax: Allow Override of Recovery Rate" allows override of recovery rate if the values of this profile is set to "Yes". Due to complexity of the tax specifications based on country/product, Oracle used to provide certain country/product specific solutions for diverse tax related requirements. (For e.g. Latin Tax Engine in GTE, Brazil AP/PO Tax Engine, India R11i localizations) E-business tax design was completely new for release 12. Most of the features available in 11i have been accommodated in release 12 e-business tax. Following are some of the features that will not be available in release 12 e-business tax as compared the 11i features: 1. Tax Code is removed from the ‘Enter Purchase Order’ form. Instead tax classification field will be available in tax page available through ‘Manage Tax’ link. Users can no longer make a purchase order shipment nontaxable by removing the tax code from the PO shipment. Recovery Rate field at the distributions level will no longer be defaulted based on the Tax Code and will no longer display the default recovery rate of the transaction. Override of recovery rate will be subject to controls setup within e-business tax. User updated Tax Code on the requisition lines will no longer be carried over to the PO document during autocreate. The Tax Classification will always be re-defaulted on the PO document. Summarized tax information on purchase order has been eliminated. Only detailed tax line can be viewed on the purchase order. Tax Code cannot be populated through the purchase order Preferences form. Tax cannot be modified through AutoCreate requisition 'Modify' action, as the tax is re-defaulted on the PO regardless of the tax in the requisition. Detailed tax information based on tax classification will not be available in the requisition. For requisitions, users will only be able to view the tax amounts (total, recoverable and non-recoverable). Tax code has been removed from RFQs and Quotations form. Tax will be defaulted when a quotation is autocreated to a standard purchase order. PO documents cannot be reserved or submitted for approval if tax calculation error has occurred.

2.

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Additional VAT. For e. Tax calculation error in Requisition Import will create imported requisitions with interface authorization status in ‘Approved’ status as ‘Incomplete’.g.25% E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 6 . Tax Regime: A Tax Regime contains the set of tax rules that determine the treatment of one or more taxes that have been grouped together for administration or other purposes. 11. the tax rate can be expressed as a percentage or as a value per unit quantity. It serves more as a way to direct payment of portion of the taxes already owed. Withholding tax will no longer be supported. VAT Regime in Argentina that sets the rules for Standard VAT. For e. While importing documents in the interface with Authorization status ‘Approved’ using PDOI.g. County and City/District taxes. a tax calculation error will result in creation of a document with ‘Incomplete’ status or in updating of an already ‘Approved’ document to ‘Requires Reapproval’ status. Zero Rated. For e.10. 12. KEY CONCEPTS Following are some of the key concepts in eBusiness tax as provided by this product.: Standard VAT. County and City/District sales/use taxes in US Tax Status: Tax Status is the taxable nature of a product or service in the context of a transaction for a tax. Standard Rated etc. and Perception VAT and US Sales Tax Regime in US with State. For e. Tax: A classification of a charge imposed by a government through a fiscal or tax authority. if the ‘Initiate Approval’ parameter was set to ‘Yes’. Tax Rate: The rate specified for a tax status in effect for a period of time.g. Sweden Standard Rate VAT is 25% or US California State Sales/Use Tax Standard Rate is 7. so there is no significance to the organization’s accounts/budgeting. Withholding Tax does not affect any taxes that organizations owe the tax authority. This will be used further in this discussion. and Perception VAT in Argentina and State.g. Additional VAT.

Spain).g.Tax Jurisdiction: A geographic area where a tax is levied by a specific tax authority. Party Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize a party for a tax. Commercial. The Jurisdiction for the US California County Sales Tax for Imperial County is Imperial County.g.g. Brazil Intended Use (e. Fiscal Classifications: Transaction Business Category: A business classification used by Oracle to identify and categorize an external transaction into a Tax transaction.g.g. Commercialization. For e. Consumption. ESA78211646 (VAT .Sweden) etc. For e. SE123456789012 (VAT . Manufacturing) Product Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize a product for a tax. Fiscal Classifications : Provides for the definition of tax fiscal classifications. Party Tax Profile: Holds all party tax related information. Brazil Product Nature (e. Brazil Establishment Type (e. Document Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize the documents associated with a transaction for a tax.g. For e. non-professional fees) Intended Use Fiscal Classifications: The purpose for which a product may be used. For e. Registrations: The registration of a party with a tax authority that confers tax rights and imposes certain obligations.g. Industrial. Party Profile for Suppliers and Sites or Party Profile for Customers and Sites. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 7 . For e. dairy goods. For e. Industrialization) User defined Fiscal Classifications: A user defined Transaction Fiscal Classification Type. electronic goods. A fiscal classification is a way that a tax authority classifies each part of a transaction. professional fees.g.g. Party Profile for Establishments.

In Purchase Orders/Releases. tax will be defaulted based on the tax setups in eTax and cannot be overridden. which determine application of a tax. Therefore it is necessary that the available options (for update) through configuration owner tax options and defaulting rule should both be set with the same value for the option to E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 8 . e-business Tax uses the tax option settings of the configuration owner and application event class instead of the default settings. Intended Use. These attributes. Product Fiscal Classification (Seen on the ‘Additional Tax Information’ Page) and other internal factors determine the calculation of tax. along with ‘Additional Tax Attributes’ for e. Tax will be calculated by calling tax services available through ebusiness tax at the following events: 1. Purchase and Internal Requisition (REQUISITION) Purchase Orders and Agreements (PO_PA) Blanket and Scheduled Release (RELEASE) The above event classes are based on the consideration of whether any tax determination is necessary and the similarity in the handling of the tax information. Receipt transactions (Charges) Tax recalculation will be supported on a PO shipment line has been received/accrued or matched to invoice provided retroactive pricing is enabled. tax is calculated at the PO shipment level and distributed to recoverable and non-recoverable components that determine tax amount at the PO distribution level. POs. Document creation and update (Requisitions. The requisition line and distribution will have the summary tax amount(total. In requisitions. Tax configurations can subscribe to the event class and additional options available based on each application using the ‘Configuration Owner Tax Options’. Configuration Owner Tax Options The event class is associated with a first party legal entity/operating unit owning tax content. Tax Events Based on similarity in handling tax information and tax determination tax events are classified based on purchasing document types. recoverable and nonrecoverable). These 'Tax determination attributes' on purchasing documents are used to calculate the applicable taxes on the transaction. The tax is calculated in e-business tax by calling e-business Tax services and stored in e-business tax repository as mentioned in the 'Overview of EBusiness Tax Architecture in R12' section in this article.g. At transaction time. Releases) 2.INTEGRATION WITH PURCHASING There are a few fields on purchasing documents. Tax is recalculated if there are any changes that affect the tax calculation. Tax events are classified in purchasing based on the purchasing document types. Tax calculation is initiated on creation (saving/importing) of the purchasing document. Following are the event classes in purchasing.

For purchasing application only the following option is available for updating. A parties involved in e-business tax is classified into four types: 1. One of the responsibilities of this entity is to pay and report tax liabilities to the legal authority. 1. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 9 . This will be the standard behavior in release 12. This entity has rights to enter into transactions with other parties. First Party Legal Entity: An entity identified though registration with a legal authority within a jurisdiction. configuration owner tax options must be setup to use STCC as the regime determination set. own property and incur debt. 2. Allow Tax Applicability Offset Tax Basis Figure 2: Configuration Tax Owner Option Other options are not updatable for purchasing application and will not available. It is important for the party definitions to exist in party tax profile so that it can be used in the tax transactions with e-business tax. using ‘Direct Tax Rate Determination’ with tax classification codes. For migrated tax. By default the ‘Regime Determination Set’ is ‘Determine Applicable Regimes’ which uses the location based taxes. Party Tax Profile This is a centralized repository that holds information related to parties involved in tax transaction.take effect.

Operating Unit Owning Tax Content: This option allows you to enter and maintain tax content for an operating unit. Tax Authority: A government entity that regulates tax law. and/or audits one or more taxes. You may need to create additional establishments based on registrations required within local level jurisdiction. A tax authority promulgates a set of tax rules and regulations. for taxes under a given tax regime. It is necessary to associate a first party legal entity and its main legal establishment in party tax profiles. In releases prior to R12. Local level jurisdictions can have separate tax requirements for the establishments registered under it. Receivables and other applications that had data stripped by operating unit. Now follow the instructions under chapter ‘Managing Tax Profiles and Registrations’ in Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide to create a new tax profile for both the legal entity and its main legal establishment. division. 6. This is called the main establishment of the legal entity. Third Party Site: For e. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 10 . If you had been using tax configurations defined under the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. Implementation Considerations 1.g. then tax content defined under the ‘First Party Legal Entity’ will not be applicable. inventory organization or physical location) are building blocks of a legal entity. an establishment is automatically linked to it. You may choose to use the tax content 2. supplier for purchasing business transactions. Click on the icon under the label titled ‘Create Tax Profile’. In case they have not been associated a tax calculation error will result while saving the transaction. 3. Upon upgrade the tax is migrated to ebusiness tax as operating unit owning tax content. query the legal entity and choose the party type as first party legal entity or first party legal establishment for legal entity and legal establish respectively. E-business tax rules identify tax registration status of legal establishments involved in a transaction and through Party Tax Profile. The tax authority party tax profile identifies a tax authority party as a collecting authority and/or a reporting authority. 5. Third party can operate from multiple sites. 4. A legal entity is made up of at least one legal establishment. administers. Third Party: External parties involved in a transaction are third party to tax configuration owners for e. the tax content was owned by Payables. First Party Legal Establishment: Legal establishments (also called branch. A collecting tax authority manages the administration of tax remittances.g. Tax calculation can differ based on the location of the site.2. When a legal entity is created. To create a new first party legal entity / legal establishment. supplier site for purchasing business transactions. A reporting tax authority receives and processes all company transaction tax reports.

all tax content subscribed to ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ will no longer be applicable. navigate to party tax profile page and choose the party type as ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ and query the operating unit concerned. In order to use tax regimes subscribed under ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. please refer to the Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide.3. You can default tax regime and tax for tax registrations belonging to the legal establishment in the applicable country by choosing the option against the tax regime or tax you entered as the default tax. Before using the third party tax profiles. Country Defaults Country default controls let you default the transaction tax-related values in the countries that you do business. You can create / update the third party information from the e-business tax page. You can also setup the default ‘Tax Authority’ for the country. it is necessary to set up the party / party site. For more details about this option. of its associated legal entity. Please follow the instructions under chapter ‘Managing Tax Profiles and Registrations’ in Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide to create a third party tax profile. Click on the icon under the label titled ‘Update Tax Profile’. Check the ‘Use Subscription of the Legal Entity’ box and save the party tax profile. To start using tax defined for the legal entity. add the ‘First Party Legal Entity’ to the regimes party subscription. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 11 . After setting this checkbox. Once you associate the operating unit with its legal entity. you cannot update the operating unit tax profile or maintain separate tax content for this operating unit. Warning: Checking the ‘Use Subscription of the Legal Entity’ box for the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ is an irreversible setting.

The purchase documents makes a call to eTax services for tax calculation even if there are no tax definitions available in tax repository. Purchase documents call the eTax services for tax calculation on saving the purchase documents (Requisition/PO/Releases). If calculation results in applicable tax lines. Following is the error message that appears.Figure 3: Country Defaults Tax Defaulting Purchase documents call the eTax services for tax calculation every time the purchase order is saved regardless of the taxability of the document line/schedule/distribution. and ‘Additional Tax Attribute’ available on both purchase order and requisitions are available in the ‘Appendix’ section below. Please correct the problem or contact your System Administrator. When saving the purchase document. Therefore ebusiness tax determines the tax applicability and purchasing only controls calls to the eBTax services. An error occurred during Tax Calculation. the tax lines will not be defaulted. Once the purchase document is saved the Manage Tax menu is enabled. Tax will be recalculated when the document is submitted for Approval. Your transactions have been saved. then these tax lines are defaulted on the purchase document. if there are tax calculation errors in ebusiness tax. a message will be displayed to the user. Subsequently. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 12 . The 'Tax determination attributes'. The eTax API is called to avail the eBTax services to calculate the tax applicability. Tax calculation is based on the values of the 'Tax determination attributes' along with the ‘Additional Tax Attributes’ on purchasing documents. Regardless of the availability of tax definitions in e-business tax.

Setup Ebusiness tax. Save the purchase document (PO/Release/Requisition) Tax information will be displayed only after the purchase document is saved. If the tax calculation is still erroring the document cannot be submitted for approval. Enter the purchase document details. The following error message will be display on clicking the 'Approve' button. For troubleshooting the tax setups. Please correct the problem or contact your System Administrator.The tax will be recalculated on submission for approval. Please contact your system administrator.An unexpected error has occurred. which navigates to a web page where the tax details can be viewed. Error Messages: Unexpected error occurred during Tax Calculation Exception: xxx . Steps: 1. 2. Figure 4: Manage Tax link on purchase order entry form E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 13 .(PO/Release/Requisition) 3. please refer the troubleshooting section of this article. The ‘Manage Tax’ link is enabled.

E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 14 . We can no longer make a shipment as non-taxable by setting the tax classification to NULL in ebusiness tax. Lines 2. The Tax page will have the following tabs for requisition. Manage Tax is available as a drop down in the ‘Professional Buyer’s Workcenter’. Also the taxability of a shipment (schedule) can be seen from the purchase order summary (Shipment window > Taxable flag can be added to the ‘Folder View’). This is the only place where we can find the ‘Taxable Flag’ unlike the previous versions where they could be viewed from the distributions and purchase order entry form. In other places. 1. In purchase order summary form ‘Taxable Flag’ will be displayed. Overriding the defaulted tax with a zero-rated tax classification is intended to minimize regression due to non-availability of this functionality. This is no longer available in the ‘Enter Purchase Order’ screen as seen in releases prior to R12. This page has the following two tabs for PO/Releases. Distributions The above tabs will display the tax line details for each shipment in the Schedules tab and non-recoverable and recoverable tax distributions for each distribution in the distributions tab. Distributions If there are no taxes applicable for the purchase document the Manage Tax menu will still be enabled.Displaying Tax Information Tax information will be displayed only after the purchase document is saved. 1. if the tax is applied on the purchase order then the details of the tax on schedule / distributions are available through the ‘Manage Tax’ link. There will be no tax lines seen on expanding the 'Details' in the 'Schedules Tab' of this 'Tax' page. The 'Manage Tax' link on the toolbar of the purchase document will be enabled on saving the purchase document and the users can navigate to the "Tax" page where defaulted tax information can be viewed. Schedules 2. Tax code details and recovery rate cannot be viewed from the Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary form.

E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 15 . Modifying Tax Information Overriding Tax Defaulted Tax information can be overridden in purchase orders and releases.Figure 5: Purchase Order Tax Page Steps: 1. If there is a tax calculation error while saving the purchase documents. Tax line can be manually added to the purchase orders/releases even if they have not been defaulted. Click on Actions > Manage Tax from the toolbar from Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL) forms and Tools > Manage Tax for Requisition Entry (POXRQERQ) form.1. the additional tax information page will be greyed out and the tax cannot be overridden in such a case. There is a ‘Additional Tax Information’ button available from the ‘Manage Tax’ page. Override behaviour will be governed e-business tax as described in Note 458218. Query the purchase document or save the purchase document (Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL)) 2. This link is available after saving the purchase document.

Click on Actions > Manage Tax (Tools > Manage Tax for Requisition) from the toolbar from Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary/Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL) forms. Choose the new tax from the LOV. Query the purchase document (Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary form) or save the purchase document (Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL)) 2. This field will have the existing tax classification for each tax line. 3. Click on the 'Additional Tax Information' button. 4.Figure 6: Additional Tax Information Page Steps: 1. This page will have the new tax calculation based on the new tax classification rate. Click on Apply and this will navigate you back to the manage tax page. Locate the tax classification field. 5. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 16 . The tax page will appear with details of tax lines.

If you are using complex tax rules you may choose to disable the application tax options. it would not possible to re-enable this option again for that operating unit. This is similar to defining the tax hierarchy in ‘Purchasing Options’ prior to release 12. 1. For purchasing application we can choose up to the following 5 sources to default the tax. 2.Application Tax Options . This is similar to defining the tax hierarchy in ‘Purchasing Options’ prior to release 12. The tax hierarchy is now available in ebusiness tax through ‘Application Tax Options’ available by each operating unit for Purchasing application. This is a one-time option. The tax will be defaulted based on the defaulting order and the source option specified. which would determine the source and the order of defaulting on purchase orders. Application Tax Options is available only for backward compatibility of the former Tax Defaulting Hierarchy. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 17 . Application Tax Options is available only for backward compatibility of the former Tax Defaulting Hierarchy. Prior to ebusiness tax. Once the application tax option has been disabled. 5. 4.Tax Hierarchy The tax hierarchy is now available in ebusiness tax through ‘Application Tax Options’ available by each operating unit for Purchasing application. a tax hierarchy would be defined either in payable options or in purchasing options. 3. Supplier Supplier Site Item Ship-To Location Payables Financial Option Figure 7: Application Tax Options Supplier You can attach tax to the supplier using the following steps.

Now choose the tax from ‘Input Tax Classification Code’ field LOV*. 2. Navigate to the ‘Purchasing’ tab. Navigate to Inventory/Purchasing Responsibility.1. Item You can attach tax to the item using the following steps. 5. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. 2. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party” and query the Supplier in the ‘Party Name’ for whom you like to define the tax. Choose the site for which you want to define the tax and click on update icon (Pencil icon). 4. In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’. 5. 6. 2. * A self-assessed tax is a tax calculated and remitted for a transaction. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a self-assessed tax*. Click on update icon (Pencil icon). where tax was not levied but it is deemed as due. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. Navigate to Items > Master Items Query the item for which you want to define the tax. Supplier Site You can attach tax to the supplier site using the following steps. 6. 3. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 18 . 3. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a self-assessed tax*. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier. 5. 1. 4. where tax was not levied but it is deemed as due. 3. Choose ‘Yes’ from drop down for the ‘Taxable’ field. 4. 6. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party Site” and query the Supplier (using the ‘Party Name’ field) for whom you like to define the tax. * A self-assessed tax is a tax calculated and remitted for a transaction. 1. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier site. In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’.

Following are mandatory tax rule types required before enabling the tax for transactions.* The tax will only be available in ‘Input Tax Classification Code’ field LOV if the tax has been associated with a ‘Tax Type’ in the tax configuration for this tax prior to enabling the tax.The specific jurisdiction where the supply of goods or services is deemed to have taken place for tax purposes. quantity or action. Tax engine requires some of the mandatory tax rule types to be defined either by definining defaults available for these rule types. The place of supply rule determines the tax on the ship-to location based on the tax jurisdiction for the tax. Determine Place of Supply . Determine Taxable Basis . These rules may include deductions.The process and the data that identifies all the taxes that need to be determined/levied for a given transaction. the tax engine will first use the rule. Rules can be defined even after the tax is live. the result will be an ordered list of applicable taxes. Tax Rules Tax rules provide flexibility to use the tax as required by the business / tax authority. after the tax rules which would affect it have been taken into consideration for a specific tax. or by defining tax rules that will determine the value for these mandatory tax rule types. Calculate Tax Amounts . on which tax is calculated. Determine Tax Registration .The arrived at value. E-business tax provides flexibility to define all kinds of taxation rules that you normally encounter in your business scenario.The registration of a party with a tax authority to ensure tax rights. modifications.The calculation of tax amount and formula to be used for calculating this amount. for a given tax. exemptions and discounts. responsibilities and rights are upheld. the default for the tax rule will be used. it is the result of the place of supply derivation. Tax for the Payables Financial Option can be applied through the ‘Application Tax Options’ where tax to be applied can be selected for this option. In case the rule does not evaluate a value. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 19 . Determine Tax Applicability . This is available though the subscription owner profile in ebusiness tax. If both are defined. The User-friendly interface makes it easier for the implementation team to configure rules based on their requirements.

g. Tax Determining Factor Set: <Enter a code for your Tax Determining Factor Set> b. Expert Rule Guided Rule Expert Rule The below steps will guide you through a step-by-step process to create a tax rule using the expert rule.Figure 8: Tax Rules There are 2 methods available to define a rule. Go to responsibility 'Tax Managers' Navigate to Advanced Setup Options > Tax Determining Factor Sets Click on 'Create' button Enter the following values a. You can alternatively use the ‘Guided Rule Entry’ option to define tax rules. 4. 1. 2. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 20 . Enter the following values a. Regime Code: <Regime code where the rule will be applicable> Scroll down to the 'Associate Tax Determining Factors' region. 2. Name: <Enter a name for your Tax Determining Factor Set> Set Usage: Tax Rules Optionally Enter: a. 8. For e. define applicability of tax only for ship to location as New York City 1. 6. 3. Class Qualifier: <In our case it is 'Ship To'> 5. 7. Determining Factor Class: <In our case it is 'Geography'> b.

10. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 21 . Operator: Not Equal To b. This step guides you through a step-by-step process to create a tax rule.g. Determining Factor Name: <In our case it will be 'City'> Click on 'Apply' to save the 'Tax Determining Factor Set' Navigate to Advanced Setup Options > Tax Condition Sets Click on 'Create' button Enter the following a. 11. Name: <Enter a Rule Code> c. define applicability of tax only for ship to location as New York City 1. Guided Rule You can also use the Guided Rule entry to define the rules for each tax. 2. 14. Determining Factor Set: <Enter the value from the LOV for the 'Tax Determining Factor Set' defined in step 4 above> Click on 'Continue' button We will see the 'Determining Factor Class'. 22. Value/From Range: NEW YORK Click on 'Finish' button. Effective From: <Enter the effective date for this rule> d. 19. Condition Set Code: <Select the 'Tax Condition Set' defined in step 12 above from the LOV> b. 18. Provide a name for the tax rule code and the effectivity. Result: <for our case the value is 'Not Applicable'> Click on Next to complete Step 2 of 3 Enter the value of Rule Order and check the 'Enable' checkbox Click on 'Finish' to create the rule. 21. You can choose to apply this rule for all transactions or only for specific transactions. 23. 15. c. For e. 3. You can alternatively use the ‘Expert Rule Entry’ option to define tax rules. Determining Factor Set Code: <Choose the 'Determining Factor Set Code' defined in step 4 above from the LOV> Click on Next to complete Step 1 of 3 Enter the following details: a. Query the tax in the Tax Configuration > Tax Rules page Click on Guided Rule Entry icon against the ‘Determine Tax Applicability’ rule. Query the tax in the Tax Configuration > Tax Rules page Click on Expert Rule Entry icon against the ‘Determine Tax Applicability’ rule. 20. Enter the following values: a. 16. Rule Code: <Enter a Rule Code> b. 13. 24. 'Class Qualifier' and 'Determining Factor Name' defaulted and greyed out Enter the following values: a. 12. Tax Condition Set: <Enter a code for 'Tax Condition Set'> b. 4. 17.9.

Product Fiscal Classification Nature of the transaction .g. As already defined ‘Key Concepts’ section. In our case choose not equal to. In our case it will be New York.Party Fiscal Classification Products involved in the transaction . 7.Transaction Fiscal Classification Party Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize parties. Define Party Classification in TCA a. In our case the rule combined with operation was: If Ship To not equal to New York. So choose the option ‘Not Applicable’. 10. E-business tax allows you classifications based on party. It is not necessary to define fiscal classification to setup taxes in e-business tax. product and nature of transaction. So the rule becomes: If Ship To not equal to New York the tax is ‘Not Applicable’. Fiscal Classification is a way that tax authority classifies each part of a transaction. Parties involved in the transaction . Click on Next and choose Enable to apply this rule. 2. It only allows you to classify each part of a transaction so that you may create rules based on them for specific tax requirements. 11. We can model three types of fiscal classification in e-business tax. d. equal to/not equal to. 8. Enter the condition set code and the order of preference for this rule. 6. Steps: The below is an example of defining a rule for party fiscal classification for the above mentioned example: 1. Enter the following details E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 22 . 9. 1. For example a tax authority could claim a reduced tax rate for transaction in which the goods are purchased from a supplier establishment that have been classified as ‘Research and Development’ organization by the tax authority in order to promote research activities. For e. Fiscal Classification Fiscal Classification allows you a way to classify each part of your transaction and define tax rules based on these classifications. Click on ‘Create Class Category’ button.5. Click on ‘Next’ button. 3. Choose the result for the rule and its operation. Go to responsibility ‘Trading Community Manager’ b. In the ‘Transactions’ tab enter the details for the location. Also choose the operations. The result for this rule is that tax will not be applicable in such a case. Navigate to Trading Community > Administration > Classifications c. Click on Enable and the click on ‘Next’ button.

Create Fiscal Classification for the party in e-business tax a. Class Category Name: <Enter a name for you party classifications> ii. Meaning: <Enter the name for meaning of your party classification> iii. Click on Compile and this would submit concurrent program to define your party classification in TCA. In the Tax regimes define all regimes to which this party fiscal classification will be applicable. Description: <Enter the description for your party classification> e. For this example the following needs to be entered to define a party classification of type ‘Research and Development’: i. Name: <Define a name for your party fiscal classification code> g. Click on ‘Create’ button. i.i. Meaning: Research and Development iii. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the party fiscal classification. Go to responsibility ‘Tax Managers’ b. Navigate to Parties > Party Classification c. d. Class Code: Research and Development ii. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 23 . Enter the following details for each regime: i. Description: Research and Development g. Effective From i. Click on ‘Apply and Create Class Codes’ f. Fiscal Classification Type Code: <Define a code for your party fiscal classification code> f. Party Classification: <Choose the ‘Party Classification’ defined in TCA during step 1 above> e. Click on ‘Apply’ button. 2. Regime Code ii. Enter the value for Class Code. Click on ‘OK’. Meaning and Description (Description is optional) by which you would like to define your supplier establishment. h. Effective From: <Enter the effective date> h. (This step also returns the concurrent request id submitted for definition to take effect).

Attach the Party Fiscal Classification to the party in PTP (Party Tax Profile) a. d. Select the party type and party from the LOV and click on ‘Go’.Figure 9: Party Fiscal Classification Figure 10: Party Fiscal Classification (Supplier Type) 3. Go to responsibility ‘Tax Managers’ b. Navigate to the ‘Classifications’ tab. In our case choose Party Type as ‘Third Party’ and Party as the supplier that needs to be defined as a ‘Research and Development’ type organization. e. Navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles c. Click on Update pencil icon. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 24 .

i. Inventory Based Non-Inventory Based Intended Use Classification Inventory Based This is used to classify categories defined in Oracle Inventory. will be sold at a lower rate. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Research and Development'> c. Steps: E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 25 . Tax Rate: < Defined in step 4> Therefore the rule becomes: When Ship From Party has a Party Fiscal Classification Value of ‘Research and Development’ then apply the tax rate defined in step 4 above. 1. Class Qualifier: Ship From Party iii. all domestically purchased items that are used as office supplies. a.f. Product Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize a product. This can only be used if Oracle Inventory is in installed status. There are three types of product classification available in e-business tax. g. Create a new tax status and tax rate. 5. Click on button ‘Add Another Row’. 5 and optionally 6 in-case recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. Tax Determining Factor Set i. Please use the following specification to create the rule. Choose the ‘Fiscal Classification Code’ for the supplier based on the available codes defined in TCA. Choose the ‘Fiscal Classification Type Code’ defined step 2 above from the LOV. Determining Factor Class: Party Fiscal Classification ii. Operator: Equal To ii. Determining Factor Name: <'Fiscal Classification Type Code' defined in step 3 above> b. For example. 3. 4. (Follow steps 3. h. Tax Condition Sets i. In our example the supplier ‘Fiscal Classification Code’ is ‘Research and Development’. Tax Status: <Defined in step 4> d. 2. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the party tax profile.

b. 4. For e. Name: <Define a name for your product fiscal classification code> g. e. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 26 .e. we will associate the category ‘Office Supplies’ in the Purchasing Category Set. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the product fiscal classification. 3. Effective From i. Enter the following details for each regime: i.g. in our case we will create an item ‘File 6x6’ which is a purchased item with the category ‘Office Supplies’.1. in our case we will define a category called ‘Office Supplies’. Click on ‘Create’ button to create a new ‘Product Fiscal Classification’. Inventory Category Set: <Choose the category set defined in step 2 above>. Go to ‘Tax Managers’ responsibility. a. d. Navigate to Products > Product Classifications c. (Please refer to the page 4-66 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to create an inventory category) Create a new category set and associate the category set with the category created in step 1 above. Effective From: <Enter the effective date> h.g. Fiscal Classification Type Code: <Define a code for your product fiscal classification > f. (Please refer to the page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for Assigning Items to Categories and page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for defining an item) Define a ‘Product Fiscal Classification’ for the above category in ebusiness tax. In our example associate the category defined in step 1 above to the Purchase Category Set (This is a seeded category set available by default i. Regime Code ii. 2. In Oracle Inventory define a category. In our example we need to choose Purchasing (Purchasing Category Set) against which we have defined a category ‘Office Supplies’. For e. (Please refer to the page 4-68 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to update an inventory category to a category set) Assign items to the category defined in step 1. In the Tax regimes define all regimes to which this product fiscal classification will be applicable.

Please use the following specification to create the rule. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 27 . Operator: Equal To ii. 5 and optionally 6 incase recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. Determining Factor Name: <'Fiscal Classification Type Code' defined in step 4 above > f. The rate should be one created in step 5 above. Tax Determining Factor Set i.Figure 11: Product Fiscal Classification (Inventory Based) 5. Tax Rate: < Defined in step 5> Create a purchase order with category ‘Office Supplies’. Determining Factor Class: Product – Inventory Linked ii. Tax Condition Sets i. Tax Status: <Defined in step 5> h. 7. e. 6. (Follow steps 3. Create a new tax status and tax rate. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Office Supplies'> (Please note the value of the category segments are concatenated without delimiters therefore query this LOV with value of one of the segments and use the category description to choose the correct segment) g.

This would retrieve the seeded fiscal classification type code: PRODUCT_CATEGORY. g. You will now be able to view the ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’. Enter the following details E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 28 . The advantage of such a classification is that. For example in our case we will create a sub-category called ‘STATIONARIES’. Click the Next 5 arrow to check the entire list under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’). will be sold at a lower rate. l. Click on ‘Go’ button. it can also be used if Oracle Inventory is not in installed status. a. all purchased items that are used as stationary materials for your office supplies. to update the information in this category. b. Product Classification Source: From the drop down ensure to choose Oracle E-Business Tax. h. In our example we will define it as ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ ii.Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the category used in purchase order is ‘Office Supplies’ then apply the rate used in step 5 above. In our example we will define it as ‘Office Supplies’ iii. We will continue to use the above example we without using Oracle inventory example. Navigate to Products > Product Classifications c. d. Go to ‘Tax Managers’ responsibility. Enter the following details i. e. f. Fiscal Classification Code: <Enter a code for the fiscal classification which will be used as the category>. Steps: 1. You may create sub categories by clicking on the ‘+’ icon under ‘Create Sub – Level’ heading. Effective From: <Enter an effective date> i. Define a ‘Product Fiscal Classification’ for the non-inventory category in e-business tax. Name: <Enter a name for the fiscal classification which will be used as the category>. k. (If you are not able to view it. Click on ‘Apply’ j. Click on the pencil icon below the ‘Update’ field of PRODUCT_CATEGORY fiscal classification code. Click on ‘Create’ button to create a new category. Non-Inventory Based This is used to classify categories that are not defined in Oracle Inventory.

a. In our example we will define it as ‘Stationeries’ iii. Tax Condition Sets i. You will now be able to view the ‘STATIONARIES’ under ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ category of ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’. Determining Factor Class: Product – Non-Inventory Linked ii. (If you are not able to view it. Create a new tax status and tax rate.i. Click the Next 5 arrow to check the entire list under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’). Click on ‘Apply’ n. Tax Determining Factor Set i. (Follow steps 3. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the fiscal classification. Name: <Enter a name for the fiscal classification which will be used as the sub-category>. Determining Factor Name: ‘Product Category’ b. o. Fiscal Classification Code: <Enter a code for the fiscal classification which will be used as the sub-category>. In our example we will define it as ‘STATIONARIES’ ii. Figure 12: Product Fiscal Classification (Non-Inventory Based) 2. 3. 5 and optionally 6 incase recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. Effective From: <Enter an effective date> m. Please use the following specification to create the rule. Operator: Equal To E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 29 .

4. Scroll to the ‘Product Classification’ field and choose the product classification ‘Office Supplies/Stationeries’ from the LOV. the codes for ‘Intended Use’ must be created in e-business tax. Tax Status: <Defined in step 5> d. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Office Supplies/Stationeries'> c. 5. 2. ii. Inventory Based Non-Inventory Based For upgraded instances intended use is always inventory based. Tax Rate: < Defined in step 5> Create a purchase order and save. Click on the Actions > Manage Tax link from menu. For non-upgrade customers this choice can be made only once. 8. If it is used for ‘Industrial Manufacturing’. Intended Use This is used to classify transactions based on purpose for which a product maybe used. in our case we will define a category called ‘Industrial Use’ and ‘Retail Sales’. 1. Steps: 1. the Intended use must be explicitly specified from the ‘Intended Use’ field seen from the ‘Additional Tax Information’ page after navigating to the tax page though the ‘Manage Tax’ link. the recovery rate will be higher than when it is used for direct ‘Retail Sale’. While for noninventory based intended use. (Please refer to the page 4-66 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to create an inventory category) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 30 . Example of Intended Use can be recovery tax on alcohol is based on its use. 7. For e. 6. Click on Apply and the new tax rate will be used based on the rule created above. In Oracle Inventory define categories for intended use.g. There are two types of intended use. Click on ‘Additional Tax Information’ button. Also for non-inventory based intended use. Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the ‘Product Classification’ field entered in additional tax information page from the ‘Manage Tax’ link on the purchase order is ‘Office Supplies/Stationeries ’ then apply the rate used in step 2 above. The difference is that for inventory based defaulting automatically occurs when we choose the inventory-based items. In this whitepaper we will discuss example of inventory based ‘Intended Use’.

In our example associate the categories defined in step 1 above to the INTENDED_USE Category Set (This is a seeded category set available by default i. Create a new category set and associate the category set with the category created in step 1 above or use the default INTENDED_USE category set.e. Assign items to the categories defined in step 1. we will associate the category ‘Industrial Use’ and ‘Retail Sales’ in the INTENDED_USE Category Set.2. (Please refer to the page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for Assigning Items to Categories and page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for defining an item) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 31 .g. in our case we will create an item ‘Industrial Alcohol’ which is a purchased item with the category ‘Industrial Use’. (Please refer to the page 468 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to update an inventory category to a category set) Figure 13: Intended Use (Inventory Category) 3. For e.

(Follow step 6 in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. Operator: Equal To E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 32 . Determining Factor Class: Transaction Input Factor ii.Figure 14: Intended Use (Item Assignment) 4. Create a new recovery rate for your tax. a. Determining Factor Name: Intended Use b. 5. Tax Condition Sets i. Tax Determining Factor Set i. Please use the following specification to create the rule.

Transaction Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize transactions according to the requirements of a tax authority. Export Sales User Defined Fiscal Classification: Used for defining transaction based on any other classifications from transaction other then the above mentioned. Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the ‘Intended Use’ of the item in purchase order is ‘Industrial Use’ then apply the recovery rate used in step 4 above. For e.6. Tax Recovery Rate: < Defined in step 4> Create a purchase order with category ‘Office Supplies’. The recovery rate should be defaulted from the one created in step 4 above. The ‘Transaction Fiscal Classification’ must be entered manually from the ‘Additional Tax Information’ page (Purchase Orders > Manage Tax > Click on ‘Additional Tax Information’ button). This is used when the nature of the transaction itself determines the tax and the tax rate that applies. So users can define a user defined fiscal classification of type ‘Sample Sales’ and create rules to define tax rates for such a transaction. Seeded Transaction Business Categories • Expense Report • Purchase pre-payment transaction • Purchase transaction • Sales transaction • Sales transaction adjustment • Intercompany transaction New categories can be created under the seeded categories. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 33 . Value/From Range: <In our case ‘Industrial Use’> (Please note the value of the category segments are concatenated without delimiters therefore query this LOV with value of one of the segments and use the category description to choose the correct segment) c. Transaction Business Category: To classify transactions based on the nature of business. Three Types of Transaction Fiscal Classification’ can be defined in e-business. ii.g. a sample sale may invite a lower tax. Document Fiscal Classification: To classify based on the documents required / the type of documents used for the transaction.g. For e.

then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. TAX_CODE_ID field is supported on the data import for backward compatibility. then the tax classification will be derived and passed on to ebusiness tax. If tax details are not specified in the interface.Tax in Interface . Tax classification can be provided for overriding the tax line information. If the PO lines interface (PO_LINES_INTERFACE) does not specify any tax details. as was the functionality prior to release 12. Tax will not be part of shipment grouping criteria so it is possible to have requisition lines with different tax values being grouped into a single PO shipment. then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. A new field TAX_NAME is introduced in release 12. Tax overridden on the requisition will no longer be passed to the purchase order. However. PDOI Tax classification can be provided in the PO_LINES_INTERFACE for overriding the tax line information using the TAX_NAME. Tax overridden on the requisition will no longer be passed to the purchase order. taxable flag on the PO document transaction table. Quantity Based Tax One of the features of e-business tax for purchasing is the capability to define tax on the basis of quantity instead of the Line amount. During AutoCreate the tax will be redefaulted on the purchase order based on the tax determining attributes of the purchase order. TAXABLE_FLAG will be used as an item attribute for item creation in Oracle Inventory to update the taxability of the item. Tax During AutoCreate During AutoCreate the tax will be redefaulted on the purchase order based on the tax determining attributes of the purchase order. If TAX_CODE_ID field based on the old AP tax codes is specified. In order to define tax based on quantity we can follow the steps mentioned in the ‘TAX SETUP’ section below. Tax Rate: In tax rate define the following (Step 5 in ‘TAX SETUP’ section): a) Rate Type: Quantity b) UOM: <Unit of Measure for the purchase> c) Quantity Rate: <Rate of tax per quantity> E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 34 . which will be derived based on the existence of tax lines on the shipment and will not be affected by the TAXABLE_FLAG provided in the interface. Tax information provided through the interface will be considered as an override and not defaulting information. Please follow the below mentioned changes in the 1. then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. Tax will be recalculated on the PO document created through autocreate. Tax information provided through the interface will be considered as an override and not defaulting information. Requisition Import If the requisition lines interface (PO_REQUISITIONS_INTERFACE_ALL) does not specify any tax details. Therefore it should fulfill all the criteria for overriding a tax as mentioned in above under the heading ‘Modifying Tax Information’ (Overriding Tax). unlike the functionality prior to release 12.

Tax Rule: In tax rules of for the tax. use the following as default value (Step 7 in ‘TAX SETUP’ section): a) Determine Taxable Basis: STANDARD_QUANTITY Figure 16: Quantity Based Tax (Tax Rules) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 35 .Figure 15: Quantity Based Tax (Tax Rate) 2.

Click on ‘Next’ to choose the subscriptions for the regime. Tax setups will be available for tax across legal entities / operating units (use ‘Global Configuration Owner’ as the Configuration Owner in the rest of the setups) or you may use ‘Party Specific’ that only allows tax setups to be used for the specific legal Entity / operating unit or you E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 36 .TAX SETUP Following are the brief setup steps for defaulting basic tax in purchasing. ii. Define the parties (legal Entity / operating unit) that subscribe to this tax. Allow Tax Exceptions c. Configuration for Taxes and Rules: Choose if the regime will be available as ‘Common Configuration’ i.e. d. Party Subscription Options i. These steps can be used for performing quick tests for using tax in purchasing. Instead of replicating choices for different OUs. Allow Tax Recovery ii. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Regime) a. Regime Level . 1. Based on the business requirement the setups can be complex involving multiple tax rules.A Tax Regime is usually defined for a country b. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Controls and defaults – Following options can be checked. Allow Tax Exemptions iii. define which regimes need to support recovery / Exemptions / Exceptions / Overrides Set up Tax Regime i.

Allow Entry of Manual Tax Lines g. Save the Tax details by clicking on ‘Apply’ E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 37 . Tax Exceptions/Exemptions Controls: Check the following options to allow Tax Exceptions and Tax Exemptions. f. Allow Tax Recovery ii.e. (Responsibility: Tax Managers.g. i. Allow Tax Exemptions h. Once the allow recovery rate tab is checked for a tax then it will not be live till recovery rate is defined. Geography Type: Based on the applicability of the tax to a geography c.g. d. Tax Type: Based on the type of tax for e. Tax Recovery Controls: Recovery rate is not mandatory and is totally optional. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Set up Tax Taxes) a. i. iii. 2. Defaults: Set the following options/defaults. For e. Allow Tax Rate Rules: Checked ii. Allow Tax Exceptions ii. Click on ‘Finish’ to save the tax regime. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. Allow Override for Calculated Tax Lines iii. Check the following options to allow tax recovery and override. Allow Tax Recovery Rate Override i. Controls: Check the options required for your tax. e. Sales etc. the following can be checked for overriding tax rounding/tax line and entry of manual tax line. Allow Tax Rounding Override ii. i. Parent Geography Type: Based on the geography of the tax regime. Configurations for Product Exceptions: Choose if the product exceptions can be ‘Common Configuration’ to allow the regime to use product exceptions across all the legal entities / operating units units (use ‘Global Configuration Owner’ as the Configuration Owner when setting up product exceptions) or choose ‘Party-Specific Configuration’ to configure party specific product exceptions. Default Recovery Settlement: Immediate j. Applied Amount Handling: Recalculated is set by default. Set to Prorated for tax to arrive at an amount calculated previously. may use ‘Common Configuration with Party Overrides’ which will allow you to define portion of the tax setups to be overridden and available only for your specific legal Entity / operating unit. i. VAT.

(Responsibility: Tax Managers. i. the geography name could be United States. Save the Tax Status details by clicking on ‘Apply’ Setup Tax Status 4. Setup Tax Jurisdiction Code 5. Default Recovery Settlement: Immediate e. Geography Name: Name of the jurisdiction geography. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Set as default Tax Jurisdiction: Checked ii.g. if the geography type was country. For e. Allow Tax Exceptions iii. c. Rate Details: Click on the icon under the ‘Rate Details’ and set the following. Geography Type: Based on the applicability of the tax to a geography b. Set as Default Tax Status: Checked (For defaulting it as the tax status) c. Choose the options required for your tax. Allow Tax Rate Override d. India etc (based on your tax). Set as Default Rate: Checked Setup Tax Rate E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 38 .3. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Status) a. For e. UK. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Parent Geography Type: Based on the geography of the tax regime. d. Default Controls: Following options are available. Percentage Rate: <Set the rate for the tax> d. if the parent geography type was country. Effective From: <specify the effective date> f. Tax Rate Defaults: Set the following option. i. i. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Rate) a. Rate Type: Percentage (For calculating the tax rate based on percentage) c. the geography name could be United States. Default Effective From: <specify the effective date> * There should be at least one default jurisdiction. UK. Parent Geography Name: Name of the parent geography.g. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. Allow Tax Exemptions ii. e. Default Tax Jurisdiction Settings: Set the following options / defaults i. India etc (based on your tax). Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Jurisdiction) a. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b.

Setup the following default rule types i. Set as Default Rate: Yes iv. Setup Tax Recovery Rate* (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Default Effective From: <specify the effective date> *Recovery rate is not mandatory and is totally optional. Recovery rate can to be defined at the tax and rate level. Recovery Rate Periods: Set up the following values i. i. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. a. Determine Tax Applicability: Applicable iii. to make it available for transactions Query the Tax E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 39 . Click on ‘Apply’ *Tax accounts can to be defined at the tax and rate level. Determine Taxable Basis: STANDARD_TB v. Effective From: <specify the effective date> iii. 7. 6. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Recovery Rate) a. Ledger: Primary Ledger Name ii. Default Effective From: <Date effective> Tax Accounts: Click on the icon under the ‘Tax Accounts’ and set the following. If defined at both the places then rate level takes precedence. Determine Tax Registration: Ship From Party iv. Query the tax for the Configuration Owner (Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1) b. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Click on ‘Create’ iii. ii. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Recovery Rules) a. Click on ‘Apply’ vi.e. f. Percentage Recovery Rate: <Recovery Rate%> ii. If defined at both the places then rate level takes precedence. Calculate Tax Amounts: STANDARD_TC Setup Tax Rules Update Tax 8. Tax Recoverable/Liability: <Enter the code combination for this account> v. Operating Unit: <Enter the value of Operating Unit> iv. Determine Place of Supply: Ship To ii. Save the Tax Rate details by clicking on ‘Apply’ *There can be multiple taxes under a regime. Once the allow recovery rate tab is checked for a tax then it will not be live till recovery rate is defined. multiple statuses under a tax and multiple tax rates under a status.

E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 40 . Navigation: Defaults and Controls > Application Tax Options) i. Supplier Site. Ship-To Location or Payables Financial Options). Application Tax Options: <Operating Unit> ii. Default Primary Recovery Rate*: <Choose the setup in step 6 from the LOV> c. Application Name: Purchasing iv. Defaulting Order 5: <Choose from the drop down list> *Defining ‘Application Owner Tax Options’ is optional 11. Operating Unit: Vision <Operating Unit> iii. Defaulting Order 1: <Choose from the drop down list> v. Item. Event Class: Purchase Order and Agreement vi. following setups are required. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier. Configuration Owner: <As defined in the tax regime> ii. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party” and query the Supplier in the ‘Party Name’ for whom you like to define the tax. Supplier.Tax Hierarchy’. (i. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a selfassessed tax. Effective From: <specify the effective date> v. Defaulting Order 3: <Choose from the drop down list> vii. for supplier. Defaulting Order 2: <Choose from the drop down list> vi. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. Apply the changes. f. Make Tax Available for Transactions: Checked ii. Application Name: Purchasing iv. Defaulting Order 4: <Choose from the drop down list> viii.e. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. please define the setups as mentioned in the section for ‘Application Tax Options . e. For e. Setup Tax on Source: Depending on the source from where tax needs to be defaulted. d.b. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. a. Update the following option: i. Enabled: Checked Setup Configuration Owner Tax Options Setup Application Tax Options* 10. Entity Name: Purchase Order iii. Navigation: Defaults and Controls > Configuration Owner Tax Options) a. Set up the following for enabling tax on Purchase Orders i. c. Click on update icon (Pencil icon). b.g. 9. In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’.

All other Regime Determination Templates must use location based determining factors. receivables etc. UPGRADE CONSIDERATIONS Following are some of the important impacts upon upgrade. 2. this article would discuss only impacts on purchasing perspective. A new Regime Determination Template Standard Tax Classification Code (STCC) will be created during migration using determining factor of Tax Classification Code -which will indicate that the tax calculation would be based on the old Release 11i approach. Also. a shortcut approach is used to calculate taxes based on the passed Tax Classification Code. including the tax codes within a tax group. The tax setup will be upgraded as partyspecific configuration owners. In release 12 a centralized repository will be used to store taxes from across applications. Each tax code. The tax used in purchasing was stored in payables and tax calculation API’s from payables were called for determining tax amount. This means that the tax regimes for migrated taxes will subscribe to party with ‘Operating Unit Owning the Tax Setup’ i. This is a special Regime Determination Template which does not use Location based Determining Factors. a direct rate determination rule is created during migration that will be based on the tax classification code that has the same name as tax group code. The tax group will also be migrated as a tax classification. Create a Purchase Order You could also view a demonstration of the tax setups for purchasing though the viewlets attached with this white paper. The tax was operating unit based. 1. migrates to EBusiness Tax as a tax classification code. If tax codes are not part of any tax groups then there will be no Direct Rate Determination rule. This will be available as ‘Regime Determination Set’ on the configuration tax owner option for the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. the operating unit will still continue to own the tax. Since the upgrade path for release 12 is only though 11i. with the operating unit owning the tax setup. with a supplier defined in step 11 above and save the purchase order.e. Click on Actions > Manage Tax to navigate to the tax details page. tax was maintained separately for payables. 3.12. we will only be considering this release in our considerations for upgrade. Each tax code will be migrated with each tax code having its regime to rate flow. To group all related taxes classifications under its related tax group. You may define additional rules to determine taxes to be defaulted on a transaction. but will not have an associated regime to rate flow in e-business tax. In release 11i. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 41 . When the template is STCC. Payables and Purchasing tax codes migrate as input tax classification codes.

5. The data from the global temporary tables will be deleted. Both these hierarchies will be independent of the other unlike 11i tax hierarchy where payables based hierarchy could be used in purchasing.4. The upgrade will automatically create Tax Jurisdictions for each Tax Zone within the context of a Regime and Tax. 7. as well as the ability in Release 12 to define registration status that can be used in rules. location values will be upgraded into the Trading Community Architecture (TCA) Geography model as legislative geography elements such as STATE. DATA FLOW Following is the mechanism of calls to the ebusiness tax to calculate tax. Once the tax lines are calculated. Supplier and supplier sites migrate to Trading Community Architecture (TCA) as TCA parties and party sites. The current recovery rates will be upgraded as "primary" recovery rates with the Release 11i Accounting based recovery rules upgraded as Recovery Rate Rules. Tax Registrations defined at HR locations or HR Organization levels in Release 11i are upgraded as Tax Registrations at Party Tax Profile for Legal Establishments. COUNTY. appropriate tables in ebusiness tax is populated with tax details and the purchasing tables are updated to indicate taxable line. For each of these Tax Jurisdictions. taxes or jurisdictions. Direct Rate Determination Rules for the defaulted tax classification code would determine the applicability of one or more taxes on a taxable line. 3. E-Business Tax includes the tax classification code field as part of the supplier or supplier site party tax profile. 4. Additional Release 12 functionality is available to define multiple registrations for the same party and different regimes. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 42 . Purchasing will populate tax-determining attributes to global temporary tables. For these parties. 2. the upgrade will create a Tax Jurisdiction Rate with a percentage rate associated with the relevant tax Regime. For Location based taxes. 1. Tax Status (STANDARD) and Tax Jurisdiction. Release 11i Purchasing and Payables defaulting hierarchy are upgraded to Application Tax Options for each OU separately for Purchasing and Payables respectively. 6. For more detailed impact please refer to the Oracle Applications Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 and Oracle Financials and Oracle Procurement Functional Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12. CITY and POSTAL CODES as well as TAX ZONES to cover ZIP code ranges or groups of ZIP ranges with the same GEO code. Tax. It will then call ebusiness tax API's to calculate tax. 9. 8.

tax) = nvl('&tax_name'. Taxes: ZX_TAXES_B c.'xxx'. Tax Rules: ZX_RULES_B To get a dump of the eTax setups. Tax Status: ZX_STATUS_B d. SELECT * FROM zx_taxes_b WHERE DECODE('&tax_name'. SELECT * FROM zx_rules_b E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 43 .'xxx') AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'.null. SELECT * FROM zx_regimes_b WHERE tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. Please provide the tax regime code when prompted. Tax Regimes: ZX_REGIMES_B b. you can use the following set of queries. SELECT * FROM zx_rates_b WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. SELECT * FROM zx_jurisdictions_b WHERE DECODE('&tax_name'.'xxx'. SELECT * FROM zx_status_b WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'.Following are the main ebusiness tax tables that will contain the setup information that will help support in troubleshooting ebusiness tax information. Tax Rates: ZX_RATES_B e.tax) = nvl('&tax_name'. Tax Jurisdictions: ZX_JURISDICTIONS_B f. a.null.'xxx') AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. If the issue is limited to a tax then provide the tax name when prompted else please leave it blank.

PO_DISTRIBUTION_ID RECOVERABLE_FLAG: Recoverable Flag. This is linked to the PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. ZX_REC_NREC_DIST: This table will have the tax distributions for associated with PO/Release distributions. ZX_LINES_DET_FACTORS: This table holds all the information of the tax line transaction for both the requisitions as well as the purchase orders/releases. Following are the main ebusiness tax tables that will contain the transaction information that will have the tax details after tax is calculated. ZX_LINES: This table will have the tax lines for associated with PO/Release schedules. This is linked to the PO_REQUISITION_HEADERS_ALL. This is linked to the PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. RECOVERABLE_TAX: Recoverable tax amount NONRECOVERABLE_TAX: Non Recoverable tax amount d. c. If the distribution is recoverable then the flag will be set to Y and there will be values in the RECOVERY_TYPE_CODE and RECOVERY_RATE_CODE.LINE_LOCATION_ID TRX_LINE_DIST_ID: Transaction Line Distribution ID. TRX_ID: Transaction ID. This is linked to the PO_HEADERS_ALL. This is linked to the PO_HEADERS_ALL. This is linked to the PO_DISTRIBUTIONS_ALL.PO_HEADER_ID TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. PO_REQ_DISTRIBUTIONS_ALL: This table will have the tax distributions for associated with Requisition distribution.PO_HEADER_ID TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. TRX_ID: Transaction ID.PO_HEADER_ID E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 44 . a. TRX_ID: Transaction ID.WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'.LINE_LOCATION_ID b.REQUISITION_HEADER_ID / PO_HEADERS_ALL.

4. Check the configuration option e. Check that every set up entity is effective for the transaction date. 3. Check the Tax Applicability flag.REQUISITION_LINE_ID / PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. Click on ‘Tax Lines’ to display the tax lines for your tax. Tax Simulator helps on audit trail with respect to which Tax Rules were satisfied in calculating a particular tax. Check whether the OU has subscribed to LE setups. For detailed steps please review the tax simulator viewlet attached to metalink Document ID (Note) for this whitepaper.TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. Useful Tips: 1. Check the Party Tax Profile of the Third Party (supplier) and third party site (supplier site). Check that one status is default and every status has a default 2. Troubleshooting Tips 1. Depending upon the set up above check whether the configuration owner has subscribed to the regime. For the configuration owner (OU or LE) as determined above check the Configuration Owner Tax Option for the event class. You can start using the Oracle Tax Simulator by attaching this responsibility to your user.g. common configuration or common with party override. check following tax set ups. It gives flexibility to test new and/or changed tax rules. Ship from Ship to and Bill From Bill to LOVs change depending upon the application selected. Check for the Tax Applicability flag at main tab and at registration tab Regime to Rate Flow: Depending upon the regime subscription option e.g. Navigate to the Oracle Tax Simulator and enter the Header and Line information as appropriate. First Party locations need to be associated with the legal establishment for the tax simulator to calculate tax. Check the Regime Determination Set. 2. Determine the configuration owner subscription .Party tax profile of Operating Unit. party specific. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 45 .LINE_LOCATION_ID TROUBLESHOOTING Tax Simulator Simulator is a powerful user interface too that can be used to simulate Tax Calculation based on what-if scenarios. party specific configurations. Ship To/Bill To information is required for calculation of location-based tax. This is linked to the PO_REQUISITION_LINES_ALL. For location-based taxes it should be Determine Applicable Regime.

Set the following profile options on at user level for the user saving the purchase order. check that every jurisdiction has a default rate.out explain=<found username/password> E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 46 . Check whether the tax is by default Applicable. Obtain the AUDSID for your login. In case of jurisdiction specific rates. SQL> select max(log_sequence) from fnd_log_messages. FND: Debug Log Enabled = 'Y' FND: Debug Log Level = 'Statement' FND: Debug Log Module = % 2. perform the following from just before opening Purchase Order / Requisition form. Help > Diagnostics > Trace > No Trace 8.rate. Below are the information that will be sufficient for Oracle Support to progress the service request for any ebusiness tax calculation issues. Go to Help->About Oracle Applications. 9. Now change the responsibility to purchasing and open the Purchase Order/Requisition Form where this issue is happening and enter the details. Just before saving the PO/Requisition. Please retrieve trace with tkprof. There should be at least one valid jurisdiction for the place of supply determined. 5. Save the purchase order / requisition and then stop immediately afterwards by. 3.trc <filename>. For obtaining this. Tax Rules: Check the default place of supply or the rule for the tax. Run the trace file through tkprof as follows: tkprof <filename>. turn trace on by: Help > Diagnostics > Trace > Trace with Binds 6. you will find the AUDSID field. 5.1 to obtain the tax debug log. If not then at least one rule must be satisfied. Obtain the max log sequence using the following query. 1. (* Sometime AUDSID is not available for a few customers Please ignore this step in such a case) 4. Tax Log and File Versions If there is an error while calculation please use the Note 417238. You will get a message showing the location of the trace file.

SQL> select * from fnd_log_messages where log_sequence > <output from step1> and (module like 'ZX%' or module like 'zx%) and audsid = <audsid from step 3 above> order by log_sequence. Please get the debug log using the following query. Navigate to Purchasing/Purchasing Super User/System Administrator Responsibility. Click on View > Request and Click on Submit a New Request Click on OK for option Single Request Choose the concurrent program Diagnostics: Apps Check Select the following parameters Application1= Ebusiness Tax Application2 = Purchasing Submit the Request and upload the output of the program for validating the file version information. Provide the output of ‘Diagnostics: Appscheck’ concurrent program. 11.trc file1234. * If the AUDSID is not available please use the following query to retrieve the tax log.out explain=<apps/apps> 10. SQL> select * from fnd_log_messages where log_sequence > <output from step1> and (module like 'ZX%' or module like 'zx%) and user_id = (SELECT user_id FROM fnd_user where user_name = ‘&Username’) order by log_sequence. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 47 .example: tkprof file1234.

Tax Log Shows 'Error Unable To Get The HQ_ESTB_PARTY_TAX_PROF_ID For Legal_Entity xx' Oracle E-Business Tax Documentation Resources.1 Note 397158. some new features and resource material R12 Unexpected Error Occurred During Tax Calculation R12 Oracle E-Business Tax Configuration Defaulted Tax Rate From E-Business Tax Cannot Be Overriden E-Business Tax Calculation Issues After Entering The Next Line/ Deleting Shipments/ Adding New Shipments in Purchase Order Defaulted Tax Rate From E-Business Tax Cannot Be Overriden E-Business Tax Calculation Error Occurs.1 Note 417238.1 Note 398841.APPENDIX References Note 406376.1 Oracle E-Business Tax Release 12 Known Issues How to obtain tax debug logfile when using application version 12 or higher FAQ: Purchasing Integration With E-Business Tax Oracle E-Business Tax key benefits.1 Note 437693.1 Note 415698.1 Note 458320. 3.1 What to do with E-Business tax and Legal Entity SRs? E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 48 . 4.1 Note 461844. Release 12 1.1 Note 456310. Oracle E-Business Tax Implementation Guide Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide Oracle Financials and Oracle Procurement Functional Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 Oracle Applications Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 (zipped) Note 458218.1 Note 458218. 2.1 Oracle Internal References Note 419415.

Tax Determination Attributes Requisitions ======= Header ---------Requisition Type Transaction Currency Tax Header (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax) ---------------Taxation Country Document Sub-type Line ------Item Unit of Measure Quantity Unit Price Amount Need-by Date Tax Classification Ship-to Organization Ship-to Location Supplier Supplier Site Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) --------------------------------Business Category Intended Use User-defined Fiscal Classification Product Fiscal Classification Product Category Assessable Value Distribution --------------Quantity Amount Charge Account Tax Recovery Rate Project Task E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 49 .

Award Expenditure Type Expenditure Organization Expenditure Date Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Intended Use POs/Releases ========= Header ----------PO Document Type Transaction Currency Rate Type Rate Date Rate FOB Supplier Supplier Site Bill-to Location Provisional Tax Determination Date (for Consumption Advice Orders) Tax Header (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax) ---------------Taxation Country Document Sub-type Line -----Item Unit of Measure Unit Price Shipment ------------Quantity Amount Need-by Date Tax Classification Ship-to Organization Ship-to Location Source Document (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 50 .

Selvan and Subhashini for all their help and feedback in completing this document. Thanks to Anand Naik for providing guidance at various situations. Also Anand Naik and Vasvi Kedia from Product Management. Muhittin. A Special thankyou to Andrea Balasuriya from Product Release Readiness Team for constantly providing help from every direction. I am very grateful to Chandu Tadanki for his constant encouragement and support. and Clarina Allen and Janet Flores from Procurement Support team for reviewing this whitepaper. Ranjith Palani and Rajalingam Ramaswamy of Product Development Team. Mani.Source Shipment (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Business Category Intended Use User-defined Fiscal Classification Product Fiscal Classification Product Category Assessable Value Distribution ---------------Quantity Amount Account CCID Tax Recovery Rate Project Task Award Expenditure Type Expenditure Organization Expenditure Date Source Distribution (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Intended Use (defaults from shipment level) Acknowledgement I wish to record my sincere appreciation towards: My team mates Ajith. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 51 .

Worldwide Inquiries: Phone: +1. This document is not warranted to be error-free. Oracle.7200 oracle. All rights reserved. whether expressed orally or implied in law.650.650. without our prior written permission.com Copyright © 2007. for any purpose.7000 Fax: +1.506.A.506. We specifically disclaim any liability with respect to this document and no contractual obligations are formed either directly or indirectly by this document. and Siebel are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. nor subject to any other warranties or conditions. electronic or mechanical. Oracle. PeopleSoft. This document is provided for information purposes only and the contents hereof are subject to change without notice. JD Edwards.E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective October 2007 Author: Varkey Joseph Oracle Corporation World Headquarters 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. . CA 94065 U. including implied warranties and conditions of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.S. This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

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