E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective

An Oracle White Paper Oct 2007

E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective
Purpose ............................................................................................................... 3 Overview............................................................................................................. 3 Prior Tax Structure............................................................................................ 4 Key Concepts..................................................................................................... 6 Integration With Purchasing............................................................................ 8 Tax Events ..................................................................................................... 8 Configuration Owner Tax Options............................................................ 8 Party Tax Profile ........................................................................................... 9 Implementation Considerations........................................................... 10 Country Defaults......................................................................................... 11 Tax Defaulting............................................................................................. 12 Displaying Tax Information...................................................................... 14 Modifying Tax Information ...................................................................... 15 Overriding Tax ....................................................................................... 15 Application Tax Options - Tax Hierarchy .............................................. 17 Supplier .................................................................................................... 17 Supplier Site ............................................................................................ 18 Item .......................................................................................................... 18 Tax Rules...................................................................................................... 19 Expert Rule ............................................................................................. 20 Guided Rule ............................................................................................ 21 Fiscal Classification..................................................................................... 22 Party Fiscal Classification...................................................................... 22 Product Fiscal Classification................................................................. 25 Transaction Fiscal Classification .......................................................... 33 Tax in Interface ........................................................................................... 34 Requisition Import................................................................................. 34 PDOI ....................................................................................................... 34 Tax During AutoCreate ............................................................................. 34 Quantity Based Tax .................................................................................... 34 Tax Setup.......................................................................................................... 36 Upgrade considerations .................................................................................. 41 Data Flow ......................................................................................................... 42 Troubleshooting .............................................................................................. 45 Tax Simulator.......................................................................................... 45 Troubleshooting Tips ............................................................................ 45 Tax Log and File Versions.................................................................... 46 Appendix .......................................................................................................... 48 References.................................................................................................... 48 Oracle Internal References ........................................................................ 48 Tax Determination Attributes................................................................... 49

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E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective

PURPOSE
Ebusiness Tax provides a repository to store tax information and record tax events. Individual applications (for e.g. Purchasing) avails the tax services provided by Ebusiness Tax to create/update/display tax information for its transactions.

Purpose of creating this document is to review impact of Ebusiness Tax introduced in R12 to Oracle Purchasing. This document will help you in implementing tax solution in Purchasing using R12 Ebusiness Tax solutions. This document will also help you in understanding the integration and troubleshooting your tax setups in Oracle Purchasing.
OVERVIEW

In release 12 EBusiness Tax has been introduced to provide an improved Tax solution to customers. Ebusiness Tax provides a repository to store tax information and record tax events. Individual applications (for e.g. Purchasing) avails the tax services provided by Ebusiness Tax to create/update/display tax information for its transactions. The tax services that can be availed from Ebusiness Tax are listed below.

a. Define Tax Content b. Determine Tax c. Manage Tax d. Record Tax e. Report Tax f. Reconcile Tax

Architecture has been built considering country specific tax requirements and applicability of rules for determining taxes. Based on the tax laws of a specific country, the transaction tax rates may vary by jurisdictions, products or product category, how the product will be used, type of transacting parties, type of transactions, the place of supply etc. Various rules are applicable for determining the appropriate tax on a specific transaction.

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The Tax Setups including rules are based on requirements used by the Tax Rules Engine, which will create/update Tax Lines. These lines are later reported using EBusiness Tax Reporting features. Figure below shows the e-business structure.

E-Business Suite Transaction
Oracle E-Business Tax
Tax Services Request Manager

Transaction Tax

Content Repository

STaxvices er
Record Repository
Content Services

Tax Determination Services

Tax Recovery Services

Tax Reporting

Tax Reporting Services

Partner Tax Content Interface

Tax Partner
Tax Content

Figure 1: E-Business Tax Architecture

PRIOR TAX STRUCTURE
Prior to release 12, tax was defined in Accounts Payables module. Taxes were associated with rates, non-recoverable ratio and recovery rules. Country Specific tax requirements could not be incorporated seamlessly into the application.

Prior to release 12, tax was defined in Accounts Payables module. A tax component on the document total could be associated with the purchasing documents for portion of the tax which was non recoverable. Purchasing would default taxes based on hierarchy defined either in Oracle Payables (Setup > Options > Payables > Tax code defaults) or in Oracle Purchasing (Setup > Organization > Purchasing Options > Tax Default Alternate Region) if "Enforce Tax From Purchase Order" box in Payable Options (Setup > Options > Payables > Tax code defaults) was checked. Taxes were associated with rates, non-recoverable ratio and recovery rules. Taxes were then defined in at least one of the levels (also called the tax source) for e.g. Item, Supplier, Supplier Site, and Location etc. The order of defaulting was decided by the hierarchy defined in the Payables/Purchasing options discussed previously. Tax calculation was called on a Requisition/ Standard Purchase order or a Blanket release based on the hierarchy, recovery rules and rates. Tax calculation is performed using the AP Tax Engine, which was called from the distribution, or

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PO/Requisition. Once the tax is defaulted and saved tax cannot be redefaulted even on changing the tax source in the document. It was possible to override the tax defaulted on Purchasing documents prior to receipt or prior to reservation on funds on the document incase of encumbrance accounting. To override tax we need to have the profile option Tax: Allow Override of Tax Code set to Yes. Profile "Tax: Allow Override of Recovery Rate" allows override of recovery rate if the values of this profile is set to "Yes". Due to complexity of the tax specifications based on country/product, Oracle used to provide certain country/product specific solutions for diverse tax related requirements. (For e.g. Latin Tax Engine in GTE, Brazil AP/PO Tax Engine, India R11i localizations) E-business tax design was completely new for release 12. Most of the features available in 11i have been accommodated in release 12 e-business tax. Following are some of the features that will not be available in release 12 e-business tax as compared the 11i features: 1. Tax Code is removed from the ‘Enter Purchase Order’ form. Instead tax classification field will be available in tax page available through ‘Manage Tax’ link. Users can no longer make a purchase order shipment nontaxable by removing the tax code from the PO shipment. Recovery Rate field at the distributions level will no longer be defaulted based on the Tax Code and will no longer display the default recovery rate of the transaction. Override of recovery rate will be subject to controls setup within e-business tax. User updated Tax Code on the requisition lines will no longer be carried over to the PO document during autocreate. The Tax Classification will always be re-defaulted on the PO document. Summarized tax information on purchase order has been eliminated. Only detailed tax line can be viewed on the purchase order. Tax Code cannot be populated through the purchase order Preferences form. Tax cannot be modified through AutoCreate requisition 'Modify' action, as the tax is re-defaulted on the PO regardless of the tax in the requisition. Detailed tax information based on tax classification will not be available in the requisition. For requisitions, users will only be able to view the tax amounts (total, recoverable and non-recoverable). Tax code has been removed from RFQs and Quotations form. Tax will be defaulted when a quotation is autocreated to a standard purchase order. PO documents cannot be reserved or submitted for approval if tax calculation error has occurred.

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This will be used further in this discussion. if the ‘Initiate Approval’ parameter was set to ‘Yes’. While importing documents in the interface with Authorization status ‘Approved’ using PDOI. It serves more as a way to direct payment of portion of the taxes already owed. Zero Rated. Additional VAT.g. For e. KEY CONCEPTS Following are some of the key concepts in eBusiness tax as provided by this product. Tax Rate: The rate specified for a tax status in effect for a period of time. and Perception VAT and US Sales Tax Regime in US with State. Additional VAT. For e. Withholding Tax does not affect any taxes that organizations owe the tax authority. Standard Rated etc. 11.g. For e. a tax calculation error will result in creation of a document with ‘Incomplete’ status or in updating of an already ‘Approved’ document to ‘Requires Reapproval’ status. Tax calculation error in Requisition Import will create imported requisitions with interface authorization status in ‘Approved’ status as ‘Incomplete’.10.g. the tax rate can be expressed as a percentage or as a value per unit quantity. Withholding tax will no longer be supported. Tax: A classification of a charge imposed by a government through a fiscal or tax authority.25% E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 6 . Sweden Standard Rate VAT is 25% or US California State Sales/Use Tax Standard Rate is 7. 12. County and City/District taxes. and Perception VAT in Argentina and State.g. For e.: Standard VAT. County and City/District sales/use taxes in US Tax Status: Tax Status is the taxable nature of a product or service in the context of a transaction for a tax. VAT Regime in Argentina that sets the rules for Standard VAT. Tax Regime: A Tax Regime contains the set of tax rules that determine the treatment of one or more taxes that have been grouped together for administration or other purposes. so there is no significance to the organization’s accounts/budgeting.

SE123456789012 (VAT . Document Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize the documents associated with a transaction for a tax.g. Brazil Product Nature (e.Spain). For e.g. Brazil Establishment Type (e. For e. For e.g. non-professional fees) Intended Use Fiscal Classifications: The purpose for which a product may be used. Commercialization. Party Profile for Suppliers and Sites or Party Profile for Customers and Sites. For e. electronic goods. Industrial. Industrialization) User defined Fiscal Classifications: A user defined Transaction Fiscal Classification Type.g. Registrations: The registration of a party with a tax authority that confers tax rights and imposes certain obligations. ESA78211646 (VAT . Fiscal Classifications : Provides for the definition of tax fiscal classifications.Sweden) etc. The Jurisdiction for the US California County Sales Tax for Imperial County is Imperial County. For e. Party Profile for Establishments.g. Manufacturing) Product Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize a product for a tax.g. Party Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize a party for a tax. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 7 . Party Tax Profile: Holds all party tax related information. professional fees. Fiscal Classifications: Transaction Business Category: A business classification used by Oracle to identify and categorize an external transaction into a Tax transaction.g. dairy goods.g. A fiscal classification is a way that a tax authority classifies each part of a transaction.Tax Jurisdiction: A geographic area where a tax is levied by a specific tax authority.g. Commercial. Brazil Intended Use (e. For e. Consumption.

Releases) 2. The requisition line and distribution will have the summary tax amount(total. Tax calculation is initiated on creation (saving/importing) of the purchasing document. Product Fiscal Classification (Seen on the ‘Additional Tax Information’ Page) and other internal factors determine the calculation of tax. Purchase and Internal Requisition (REQUISITION) Purchase Orders and Agreements (PO_PA) Blanket and Scheduled Release (RELEASE) The above event classes are based on the consideration of whether any tax determination is necessary and the similarity in the handling of the tax information. along with ‘Additional Tax Attributes’ for e.g. Document creation and update (Requisitions. These 'Tax determination attributes' on purchasing documents are used to calculate the applicable taxes on the transaction. tax is calculated at the PO shipment level and distributed to recoverable and non-recoverable components that determine tax amount at the PO distribution level. Tax configurations can subscribe to the event class and additional options available based on each application using the ‘Configuration Owner Tax Options’. These attributes. In requisitions. Tax is recalculated if there are any changes that affect the tax calculation. Tax events are classified in purchasing based on the purchasing document types. e-business Tax uses the tax option settings of the configuration owner and application event class instead of the default settings. recoverable and nonrecoverable). In Purchase Orders/Releases. Receipt transactions (Charges) Tax recalculation will be supported on a PO shipment line has been received/accrued or matched to invoice provided retroactive pricing is enabled.INTEGRATION WITH PURCHASING There are a few fields on purchasing documents. Therefore it is necessary that the available options (for update) through configuration owner tax options and defaulting rule should both be set with the same value for the option to E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 8 . The tax is calculated in e-business tax by calling e-business Tax services and stored in e-business tax repository as mentioned in the 'Overview of EBusiness Tax Architecture in R12' section in this article. POs. Intended Use. which determine application of a tax. tax will be defaulted based on the tax setups in eTax and cannot be overridden. At transaction time. Following are the event classes in purchasing. Tax Events Based on similarity in handling tax information and tax determination tax events are classified based on purchasing document types. Configuration Owner Tax Options The event class is associated with a first party legal entity/operating unit owning tax content. Tax will be calculated by calling tax services available through ebusiness tax at the following events: 1.

take effect. This entity has rights to enter into transactions with other parties. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 9 . own property and incur debt. configuration owner tax options must be setup to use STCC as the regime determination set. For purchasing application only the following option is available for updating. By default the ‘Regime Determination Set’ is ‘Determine Applicable Regimes’ which uses the location based taxes. This will be the standard behavior in release 12. First Party Legal Entity: An entity identified though registration with a legal authority within a jurisdiction. Party Tax Profile This is a centralized repository that holds information related to parties involved in tax transaction. Allow Tax Applicability Offset Tax Basis Figure 2: Configuration Tax Owner Option Other options are not updatable for purchasing application and will not available. 2. A parties involved in e-business tax is classified into four types: 1. One of the responsibilities of this entity is to pay and report tax liabilities to the legal authority. 1. using ‘Direct Tax Rate Determination’ with tax classification codes. It is important for the party definitions to exist in party tax profile so that it can be used in the tax transactions with e-business tax. For migrated tax.

Third party can operate from multiple sites. Operating Unit Owning Tax Content: This option allows you to enter and maintain tax content for an operating unit. A collecting tax authority manages the administration of tax remittances.g. Third Party Site: For e. E-business tax rules identify tax registration status of legal establishments involved in a transaction and through Party Tax Profile. Third Party: External parties involved in a transaction are third party to tax configuration owners for e. Implementation Considerations 1. an establishment is automatically linked to it. Now follow the instructions under chapter ‘Managing Tax Profiles and Registrations’ in Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide to create a new tax profile for both the legal entity and its main legal establishment. A reporting tax authority receives and processes all company transaction tax reports. 6.g. You may choose to use the tax content 2. You may need to create additional establishments based on registrations required within local level jurisdiction. then tax content defined under the ‘First Party Legal Entity’ will not be applicable. and/or audits one or more taxes. division. administers. In releases prior to R12. Tax calculation can differ based on the location of the site. When a legal entity is created. query the legal entity and choose the party type as first party legal entity or first party legal establishment for legal entity and legal establish respectively. Upon upgrade the tax is migrated to ebusiness tax as operating unit owning tax content. A legal entity is made up of at least one legal establishment. First Party Legal Establishment: Legal establishments (also called branch. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 10 . Receivables and other applications that had data stripped by operating unit. A tax authority promulgates a set of tax rules and regulations. It is necessary to associate a first party legal entity and its main legal establishment in party tax profiles. the tax content was owned by Payables. Local level jurisdictions can have separate tax requirements for the establishments registered under it. supplier site for purchasing business transactions.2. 3. In case they have not been associated a tax calculation error will result while saving the transaction. 5. supplier for purchasing business transactions. The tax authority party tax profile identifies a tax authority party as a collecting authority and/or a reporting authority. If you had been using tax configurations defined under the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. Click on the icon under the label titled ‘Create Tax Profile’. Tax Authority: A government entity that regulates tax law. inventory organization or physical location) are building blocks of a legal entity. 4. This is called the main establishment of the legal entity. To create a new first party legal entity / legal establishment. for taxes under a given tax regime.

You can default tax regime and tax for tax registrations belonging to the legal establishment in the applicable country by choosing the option against the tax regime or tax you entered as the default tax. Once you associate the operating unit with its legal entity. of its associated legal entity. it is necessary to set up the party / party site. For more details about this option. After setting this checkbox. please refer to the Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide. Country Defaults Country default controls let you default the transaction tax-related values in the countries that you do business. Click on the icon under the label titled ‘Update Tax Profile’. Please follow the instructions under chapter ‘Managing Tax Profiles and Registrations’ in Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide to create a third party tax profile. Warning: Checking the ‘Use Subscription of the Legal Entity’ box for the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ is an irreversible setting.3. Check the ‘Use Subscription of the Legal Entity’ box and save the party tax profile. You can also setup the default ‘Tax Authority’ for the country. Before using the third party tax profiles. all tax content subscribed to ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ will no longer be applicable. navigate to party tax profile page and choose the party type as ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ and query the operating unit concerned. You can create / update the third party information from the e-business tax page. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 11 . you cannot update the operating unit tax profile or maintain separate tax content for this operating unit. To start using tax defined for the legal entity. In order to use tax regimes subscribed under ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. add the ‘First Party Legal Entity’ to the regimes party subscription.

If calculation results in applicable tax lines. The purchase documents makes a call to eTax services for tax calculation even if there are no tax definitions available in tax repository. Regardless of the availability of tax definitions in e-business tax. Subsequently. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 12 . Please correct the problem or contact your System Administrator. a message will be displayed to the user. Tax calculation is based on the values of the 'Tax determination attributes' along with the ‘Additional Tax Attributes’ on purchasing documents. Purchase documents call the eTax services for tax calculation on saving the purchase documents (Requisition/PO/Releases). Once the purchase document is saved the Manage Tax menu is enabled. Tax will be recalculated when the document is submitted for Approval. Following is the error message that appears. The eTax API is called to avail the eBTax services to calculate the tax applicability.Figure 3: Country Defaults Tax Defaulting Purchase documents call the eTax services for tax calculation every time the purchase order is saved regardless of the taxability of the document line/schedule/distribution. Therefore ebusiness tax determines the tax applicability and purchasing only controls calls to the eBTax services. The 'Tax determination attributes'. then these tax lines are defaulted on the purchase document. When saving the purchase document. Your transactions have been saved. if there are tax calculation errors in ebusiness tax. the tax lines will not be defaulted. An error occurred during Tax Calculation. and ‘Additional Tax Attribute’ available on both purchase order and requisitions are available in the ‘Appendix’ section below.

which navigates to a web page where the tax details can be viewed.An unexpected error has occurred. Enter the purchase document details. Setup Ebusiness tax. The following error message will be display on clicking the 'Approve' button.(PO/Release/Requisition) 3. Steps: 1. Save the purchase document (PO/Release/Requisition) Tax information will be displayed only after the purchase document is saved. please refer the troubleshooting section of this article. Please contact your system administrator. Please correct the problem or contact your System Administrator. Figure 4: Manage Tax link on purchase order entry form E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 13 . The ‘Manage Tax’ link is enabled. Error Messages: Unexpected error occurred during Tax Calculation Exception: xxx . 2. For troubleshooting the tax setups.The tax will be recalculated on submission for approval. If the tax calculation is still erroring the document cannot be submitted for approval.

The 'Manage Tax' link on the toolbar of the purchase document will be enabled on saving the purchase document and the users can navigate to the "Tax" page where defaulted tax information can be viewed. Lines 2. There will be no tax lines seen on expanding the 'Details' in the 'Schedules Tab' of this 'Tax' page.Displaying Tax Information Tax information will be displayed only after the purchase document is saved. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 14 . Distributions If there are no taxes applicable for the purchase document the Manage Tax menu will still be enabled. Schedules 2. Overriding the defaulted tax with a zero-rated tax classification is intended to minimize regression due to non-availability of this functionality. We can no longer make a shipment as non-taxable by setting the tax classification to NULL in ebusiness tax. 1. if the tax is applied on the purchase order then the details of the tax on schedule / distributions are available through the ‘Manage Tax’ link. Also the taxability of a shipment (schedule) can be seen from the purchase order summary (Shipment window > Taxable flag can be added to the ‘Folder View’). Distributions The above tabs will display the tax line details for each shipment in the Schedules tab and non-recoverable and recoverable tax distributions for each distribution in the distributions tab. This page has the following two tabs for PO/Releases. This is no longer available in the ‘Enter Purchase Order’ screen as seen in releases prior to R12. The Tax page will have the following tabs for requisition. In other places. 1. Manage Tax is available as a drop down in the ‘Professional Buyer’s Workcenter’. This is the only place where we can find the ‘Taxable Flag’ unlike the previous versions where they could be viewed from the distributions and purchase order entry form. Tax code details and recovery rate cannot be viewed from the Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary form. In purchase order summary form ‘Taxable Flag’ will be displayed.

Click on Actions > Manage Tax from the toolbar from Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL) forms and Tools > Manage Tax for Requisition Entry (POXRQERQ) form.1. If there is a tax calculation error while saving the purchase documents. Tax line can be manually added to the purchase orders/releases even if they have not been defaulted. Override behaviour will be governed e-business tax as described in Note 458218. There is a ‘Additional Tax Information’ button available from the ‘Manage Tax’ page. the additional tax information page will be greyed out and the tax cannot be overridden in such a case.Figure 5: Purchase Order Tax Page Steps: 1. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 15 . Query the purchase document or save the purchase document (Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL)) 2. This link is available after saving the purchase document. Modifying Tax Information Overriding Tax Defaulted Tax information can be overridden in purchase orders and releases.

Figure 6: Additional Tax Information Page Steps: 1. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 16 . Query the purchase document (Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary form) or save the purchase document (Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL)) 2. Choose the new tax from the LOV. 5. Locate the tax classification field. Click on Actions > Manage Tax (Tools > Manage Tax for Requisition) from the toolbar from Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary/Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL) forms. Click on Apply and this will navigate you back to the manage tax page. The tax page will appear with details of tax lines. Click on the 'Additional Tax Information' button. 4. 3. This field will have the existing tax classification for each tax line. This page will have the new tax calculation based on the new tax classification rate.

If you are using complex tax rules you may choose to disable the application tax options. a tax hierarchy would be defined either in payable options or in purchasing options. Supplier Supplier Site Item Ship-To Location Payables Financial Option Figure 7: Application Tax Options Supplier You can attach tax to the supplier using the following steps. Application Tax Options is available only for backward compatibility of the former Tax Defaulting Hierarchy. The tax will be defaulted based on the defaulting order and the source option specified. 2. This is similar to defining the tax hierarchy in ‘Purchasing Options’ prior to release 12. 5. The tax hierarchy is now available in ebusiness tax through ‘Application Tax Options’ available by each operating unit for Purchasing application. which would determine the source and the order of defaulting on purchase orders. it would not possible to re-enable this option again for that operating unit. This is similar to defining the tax hierarchy in ‘Purchasing Options’ prior to release 12. This is a one-time option. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 17 . 3. 4.Tax Hierarchy The tax hierarchy is now available in ebusiness tax through ‘Application Tax Options’ available by each operating unit for Purchasing application. For purchasing application we can choose up to the following 5 sources to default the tax.Application Tax Options . 1. Once the application tax option has been disabled. Prior to ebusiness tax. Application Tax Options is available only for backward compatibility of the former Tax Defaulting Hierarchy.

In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. 2. Choose ‘Yes’ from drop down for the ‘Taxable’ field. 5. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 18 . 2. Item You can attach tax to the item using the following steps. Navigate to Inventory/Purchasing Responsibility. Click on update icon (Pencil icon). 5. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a self-assessed tax*. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party” and query the Supplier in the ‘Party Name’ for whom you like to define the tax. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a self-assessed tax*. * A self-assessed tax is a tax calculated and remitted for a transaction. 4. 1. Choose the site for which you want to define the tax and click on update icon (Pencil icon). In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’. 6. 4. 3. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. 3. * A self-assessed tax is a tax calculated and remitted for a transaction. 4. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party Site” and query the Supplier (using the ‘Party Name’ field) for whom you like to define the tax. where tax was not levied but it is deemed as due. where tax was not levied but it is deemed as due. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier. 5.1. Supplier Site You can attach tax to the supplier site using the following steps. 3. In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’. Now choose the tax from ‘Input Tax Classification Code’ field LOV*. 1. 6. 6. Navigate to the ‘Purchasing’ tab. 2. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier site. Navigate to Items > Master Items Query the item for which you want to define the tax.

or by defining tax rules that will determine the value for these mandatory tax rule types. on which tax is calculated. The User-friendly interface makes it easier for the implementation team to configure rules based on their requirements.The specific jurisdiction where the supply of goods or services is deemed to have taken place for tax purposes. These rules may include deductions. Tax engine requires some of the mandatory tax rule types to be defined either by definining defaults available for these rule types. Determine Tax Applicability . This is available though the subscription owner profile in ebusiness tax. Tax for the Payables Financial Option can be applied through the ‘Application Tax Options’ where tax to be applied can be selected for this option. Rules can be defined even after the tax is live. Determine Taxable Basis . for a given tax.The arrived at value. Tax Rules Tax rules provide flexibility to use the tax as required by the business / tax authority. exemptions and discounts. Calculate Tax Amounts . E-business tax provides flexibility to define all kinds of taxation rules that you normally encounter in your business scenario.The registration of a party with a tax authority to ensure tax rights. Determine Tax Registration . the tax engine will first use the rule. Determine Place of Supply . E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 19 .The process and the data that identifies all the taxes that need to be determined/levied for a given transaction. In case the rule does not evaluate a value. the result will be an ordered list of applicable taxes. responsibilities and rights are upheld.The calculation of tax amount and formula to be used for calculating this amount. The place of supply rule determines the tax on the ship-to location based on the tax jurisdiction for the tax. it is the result of the place of supply derivation. Following are mandatory tax rule types required before enabling the tax for transactions. after the tax rules which would affect it have been taken into consideration for a specific tax. quantity or action. If both are defined.* The tax will only be available in ‘Input Tax Classification Code’ field LOV if the tax has been associated with a ‘Tax Type’ in the tax configuration for this tax prior to enabling the tax. modifications. the default for the tax rule will be used.

3. Regime Code: <Regime code where the rule will be applicable> Scroll down to the 'Associate Tax Determining Factors' region. define applicability of tax only for ship to location as New York City 1. 2. Go to responsibility 'Tax Managers' Navigate to Advanced Setup Options > Tax Determining Factor Sets Click on 'Create' button Enter the following values a. 6. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 20 . 7. Enter the following values a.g. Name: <Enter a name for your Tax Determining Factor Set> Set Usage: Tax Rules Optionally Enter: a. 4. Class Qualifier: <In our case it is 'Ship To'> 5. 1. 2. For e. Determining Factor Class: <In our case it is 'Geography'> b. 8. Expert Rule Guided Rule Expert Rule The below steps will guide you through a step-by-step process to create a tax rule using the expert rule.Figure 8: Tax Rules There are 2 methods available to define a rule. You can alternatively use the ‘Guided Rule Entry’ option to define tax rules. Tax Determining Factor Set: <Enter a code for your Tax Determining Factor Set> b.

g. 2. 13. Name: <Enter a Rule Code> c. Determining Factor Set Code: <Choose the 'Determining Factor Set Code' defined in step 4 above from the LOV> Click on Next to complete Step 1 of 3 Enter the following details: a. 15. 18. Query the tax in the Tax Configuration > Tax Rules page Click on Guided Rule Entry icon against the ‘Determine Tax Applicability’ rule. 23. For e. You can alternatively use the ‘Expert Rule Entry’ option to define tax rules. 'Class Qualifier' and 'Determining Factor Name' defaulted and greyed out Enter the following values: a. This step guides you through a step-by-step process to create a tax rule. 22. 3. Effective From: <Enter the effective date for this rule> d. Enter the following values: a. Value/From Range: NEW YORK Click on 'Finish' button. 14. 21. 20. Condition Set Code: <Select the 'Tax Condition Set' defined in step 12 above from the LOV> b. 24. 11. Determining Factor Set: <Enter the value from the LOV for the 'Tax Determining Factor Set' defined in step 4 above> Click on 'Continue' button We will see the 'Determining Factor Class'. Tax Condition Set: <Enter a code for 'Tax Condition Set'> b. define applicability of tax only for ship to location as New York City 1. Query the tax in the Tax Configuration > Tax Rules page Click on Expert Rule Entry icon against the ‘Determine Tax Applicability’ rule. 16. Rule Code: <Enter a Rule Code> b. 4. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 21 . You can choose to apply this rule for all transactions or only for specific transactions. Determining Factor Name: <In our case it will be 'City'> Click on 'Apply' to save the 'Tax Determining Factor Set' Navigate to Advanced Setup Options > Tax Condition Sets Click on 'Create' button Enter the following a. 12. 17. Operator: Not Equal To b. 19. 10. c. Provide a name for the tax rule code and the effectivity. Guided Rule You can also use the Guided Rule entry to define the rules for each tax. Result: <for our case the value is 'Not Applicable'> Click on Next to complete Step 2 of 3 Enter the value of Rule Order and check the 'Enable' checkbox Click on 'Finish' to create the rule.9.

We can model three types of fiscal classification in e-business tax. 3. In our case choose not equal to. In the ‘Transactions’ tab enter the details for the location. Click on Next and choose Enable to apply this rule. 7. Choose the result for the rule and its operation.Party Fiscal Classification Products involved in the transaction . Click on ‘Next’ button. product and nature of transaction. It is not necessary to define fiscal classification to setup taxes in e-business tax. 10. 8. Parties involved in the transaction . So choose the option ‘Not Applicable’. Fiscal Classification Fiscal Classification allows you a way to classify each part of your transaction and define tax rules based on these classifications. For e. 1. As already defined ‘Key Concepts’ section. 2. Click on Enable and the click on ‘Next’ button. Enter the condition set code and the order of preference for this rule.5. 6. Navigate to Trading Community > Administration > Classifications c. It only allows you to classify each part of a transaction so that you may create rules based on them for specific tax requirements. Also choose the operations. Click on ‘Create Class Category’ button. 11. 9. In our case the rule combined with operation was: If Ship To not equal to New York. E-business tax allows you classifications based on party. d. For example a tax authority could claim a reduced tax rate for transaction in which the goods are purchased from a supplier establishment that have been classified as ‘Research and Development’ organization by the tax authority in order to promote research activities.g. Fiscal Classification is a way that tax authority classifies each part of a transaction. So the rule becomes: If Ship To not equal to New York the tax is ‘Not Applicable’. Define Party Classification in TCA a. The result for this rule is that tax will not be applicable in such a case. equal to/not equal to.Transaction Fiscal Classification Party Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize parties. Steps: The below is an example of defining a rule for party fiscal classification for the above mentioned example: 1.Product Fiscal Classification Nature of the transaction . Go to responsibility ‘Trading Community Manager’ b. Enter the following details E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 22 . In our case it will be New York.

Enter the value for Class Code. Click on Compile and this would submit concurrent program to define your party classification in TCA. Create Fiscal Classification for the party in e-business tax a. In the Tax regimes define all regimes to which this party fiscal classification will be applicable. Go to responsibility ‘Tax Managers’ b. Click on ‘Apply and Create Class Codes’ f. Click on ‘Create’ button. Meaning and Description (Description is optional) by which you would like to define your supplier establishment. Click on ‘Apply’ button. Click on ‘OK’. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 23 . Meaning: Research and Development iii. (This step also returns the concurrent request id submitted for definition to take effect). Description: <Enter the description for your party classification> e. Regime Code ii. For this example the following needs to be entered to define a party classification of type ‘Research and Development’: i. Description: Research and Development g. Party Classification: <Choose the ‘Party Classification’ defined in TCA during step 1 above> e. Effective From: <Enter the effective date> h. Name: <Define a name for your party fiscal classification code> g.i. Meaning: <Enter the name for meaning of your party classification> iii. Class Code: Research and Development ii. Fiscal Classification Type Code: <Define a code for your party fiscal classification code> f. h. Navigate to Parties > Party Classification c. i. 2. Enter the following details for each regime: i. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the party fiscal classification. Class Category Name: <Enter a name for you party classifications> ii. d. Effective From i.

Navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles c. Navigate to the ‘Classifications’ tab. Click on Update pencil icon. Attach the Party Fiscal Classification to the party in PTP (Party Tax Profile) a. Go to responsibility ‘Tax Managers’ b. e. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 24 . d. In our case choose Party Type as ‘Third Party’ and Party as the supplier that needs to be defined as a ‘Research and Development’ type organization.Figure 9: Party Fiscal Classification Figure 10: Party Fiscal Classification (Supplier Type) 3. Select the party type and party from the LOV and click on ‘Go’.

Please use the following specification to create the rule. 5. Product Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize a product. Operator: Equal To ii. This can only be used if Oracle Inventory is in installed status. 3. 4. Create a new tax status and tax rate. Tax Status: <Defined in step 4> d. Tax Determining Factor Set i. Tax Condition Sets i. i. will be sold at a lower rate. h. In our example the supplier ‘Fiscal Classification Code’ is ‘Research and Development’. Steps: E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 25 . Inventory Based Non-Inventory Based Intended Use Classification Inventory Based This is used to classify categories defined in Oracle Inventory. Determining Factor Name: <'Fiscal Classification Type Code' defined in step 3 above> b. Choose the ‘Fiscal Classification Code’ for the supplier based on the available codes defined in TCA. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the party tax profile. Tax Rate: < Defined in step 4> Therefore the rule becomes: When Ship From Party has a Party Fiscal Classification Value of ‘Research and Development’ then apply the tax rate defined in step 4 above. g. Class Qualifier: Ship From Party iii. Click on button ‘Add Another Row’. 5 and optionally 6 in-case recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. a. 2. Determining Factor Class: Party Fiscal Classification ii. For example. Choose the ‘Fiscal Classification Type Code’ defined step 2 above from the LOV. There are three types of product classification available in e-business tax.f. (Follow steps 3. 1. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Research and Development'> c. all domestically purchased items that are used as office supplies.

(Please refer to the page 4-66 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to create an inventory category) Create a new category set and associate the category set with the category created in step 1 above. Click on ‘Create’ button to create a new ‘Product Fiscal Classification’. d. b. 4. In Oracle Inventory define a category. Effective From i. (Please refer to the page 4-68 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to update an inventory category to a category set) Assign items to the category defined in step 1. Effective From: <Enter the effective date> h. Go to ‘Tax Managers’ responsibility. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the product fiscal classification. Inventory Category Set: <Choose the category set defined in step 2 above>. For e. 2. Fiscal Classification Type Code: <Define a code for your product fiscal classification > f. Navigate to Products > Product Classifications c. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 26 . In the Tax regimes define all regimes to which this product fiscal classification will be applicable. (Please refer to the page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for Assigning Items to Categories and page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for defining an item) Define a ‘Product Fiscal Classification’ for the above category in ebusiness tax. we will associate the category ‘Office Supplies’ in the Purchasing Category Set. in our case we will define a category called ‘Office Supplies’.e.g. In our example we need to choose Purchasing (Purchasing Category Set) against which we have defined a category ‘Office Supplies’. Enter the following details for each regime: i. Name: <Define a name for your product fiscal classification code> g. e. In our example associate the category defined in step 1 above to the Purchase Category Set (This is a seeded category set available by default i.1. in our case we will create an item ‘File 6x6’ which is a purchased item with the category ‘Office Supplies’. a. For e. 3.g. Regime Code ii.

6. Tax Rate: < Defined in step 5> Create a purchase order with category ‘Office Supplies’. Create a new tax status and tax rate. e. 7. Tax Status: <Defined in step 5> h. Please use the following specification to create the rule. Tax Condition Sets i. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Office Supplies'> (Please note the value of the category segments are concatenated without delimiters therefore query this LOV with value of one of the segments and use the category description to choose the correct segment) g. Determining Factor Class: Product – Inventory Linked ii. 5 and optionally 6 incase recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. The rate should be one created in step 5 above. Tax Determining Factor Set i. Operator: Equal To ii. (Follow steps 3. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 27 . Determining Factor Name: <'Fiscal Classification Type Code' defined in step 4 above > f.Figure 11: Product Fiscal Classification (Inventory Based) 5.

h. The advantage of such a classification is that. Define a ‘Product Fiscal Classification’ for the non-inventory category in e-business tax. You will now be able to view the ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’. Go to ‘Tax Managers’ responsibility. (If you are not able to view it. You may create sub categories by clicking on the ‘+’ icon under ‘Create Sub – Level’ heading. f. This would retrieve the seeded fiscal classification type code: PRODUCT_CATEGORY. a. We will continue to use the above example we without using Oracle inventory example. Click on ‘Go’ button. For example in our case we will create a sub-category called ‘STATIONARIES’. to update the information in this category. e. will be sold at a lower rate. Enter the following details i. k. Name: <Enter a name for the fiscal classification which will be used as the category>. Click on ‘Create’ button to create a new category. Steps: 1. Click on ‘Apply’ j. d. Click on the pencil icon below the ‘Update’ field of PRODUCT_CATEGORY fiscal classification code. Product Classification Source: From the drop down ensure to choose Oracle E-Business Tax. Click the Next 5 arrow to check the entire list under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’).Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the category used in purchase order is ‘Office Supplies’ then apply the rate used in step 5 above. Non-Inventory Based This is used to classify categories that are not defined in Oracle Inventory. Enter the following details E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 28 . Fiscal Classification Code: <Enter a code for the fiscal classification which will be used as the category>. Navigate to Products > Product Classifications c. In our example we will define it as ‘Office Supplies’ iii. l. it can also be used if Oracle Inventory is not in installed status. b. Effective From: <Enter an effective date> i. all purchased items that are used as stationary materials for your office supplies. In our example we will define it as ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ ii. g.

Tax Condition Sets i. You will now be able to view the ‘STATIONARIES’ under ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ category of ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’. (If you are not able to view it. Tax Determining Factor Set i. Create a new tax status and tax rate. 5 and optionally 6 incase recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. o.i. In our example we will define it as ‘Stationeries’ iii. In our example we will define it as ‘STATIONARIES’ ii. Determining Factor Class: Product – Non-Inventory Linked ii. Please use the following specification to create the rule. Effective From: <Enter an effective date> m. Figure 12: Product Fiscal Classification (Non-Inventory Based) 2. Click the Next 5 arrow to check the entire list under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’). Name: <Enter a name for the fiscal classification which will be used as the sub-category>. 3. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the fiscal classification. Determining Factor Name: ‘Product Category’ b. a. Fiscal Classification Code: <Enter a code for the fiscal classification which will be used as the sub-category>. Click on ‘Apply’ n. (Follow steps 3. Operator: Equal To E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 29 .

Example of Intended Use can be recovery tax on alcohol is based on its use. Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the ‘Product Classification’ field entered in additional tax information page from the ‘Manage Tax’ link on the purchase order is ‘Office Supplies/Stationeries ’ then apply the rate used in step 2 above. Inventory Based Non-Inventory Based For upgraded instances intended use is always inventory based. 6. Intended Use This is used to classify transactions based on purpose for which a product maybe used. For e. Tax Rate: < Defined in step 5> Create a purchase order and save. the codes for ‘Intended Use’ must be created in e-business tax. in our case we will define a category called ‘Industrial Use’ and ‘Retail Sales’. 2. Click on the Actions > Manage Tax link from menu. For non-upgrade customers this choice can be made only once. 7. 5.4. Click on Apply and the new tax rate will be used based on the rule created above. the recovery rate will be higher than when it is used for direct ‘Retail Sale’. the Intended use must be explicitly specified from the ‘Intended Use’ field seen from the ‘Additional Tax Information’ page after navigating to the tax page though the ‘Manage Tax’ link. The difference is that for inventory based defaulting automatically occurs when we choose the inventory-based items.g. 8. Also for non-inventory based intended use. If it is used for ‘Industrial Manufacturing’. In this whitepaper we will discuss example of inventory based ‘Intended Use’. There are two types of intended use. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Office Supplies/Stationeries'> c. In Oracle Inventory define categories for intended use. ii. Steps: 1. Click on ‘Additional Tax Information’ button. Scroll to the ‘Product Classification’ field and choose the product classification ‘Office Supplies/Stationeries’ from the LOV. While for noninventory based intended use. Tax Status: <Defined in step 5> d. 1. (Please refer to the page 4-66 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to create an inventory category) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 30 .

Assign items to the categories defined in step 1. (Please refer to the page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for Assigning Items to Categories and page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for defining an item) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 31 .e. In our example associate the categories defined in step 1 above to the INTENDED_USE Category Set (This is a seeded category set available by default i. For e. in our case we will create an item ‘Industrial Alcohol’ which is a purchased item with the category ‘Industrial Use’. (Please refer to the page 468 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to update an inventory category to a category set) Figure 13: Intended Use (Inventory Category) 3.2. we will associate the category ‘Industrial Use’ and ‘Retail Sales’ in the INTENDED_USE Category Set.g. Create a new category set and associate the category set with the category created in step 1 above or use the default INTENDED_USE category set.

Create a new recovery rate for your tax. Determining Factor Class: Transaction Input Factor ii. (Follow step 6 in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. Please use the following specification to create the rule. Operator: Equal To E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 32 . Determining Factor Name: Intended Use b. 5. a. Tax Condition Sets i.Figure 14: Intended Use (Item Assignment) 4. Tax Determining Factor Set i.

Seeded Transaction Business Categories • Expense Report • Purchase pre-payment transaction • Purchase transaction • Sales transaction • Sales transaction adjustment • Intercompany transaction New categories can be created under the seeded categories. ii. Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the ‘Intended Use’ of the item in purchase order is ‘Industrial Use’ then apply the recovery rate used in step 4 above. The recovery rate should be defaulted from the one created in step 4 above. a sample sale may invite a lower tax. Transaction Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize transactions according to the requirements of a tax authority. For e. For e.6. This is used when the nature of the transaction itself determines the tax and the tax rate that applies. Tax Recovery Rate: < Defined in step 4> Create a purchase order with category ‘Office Supplies’. Three Types of Transaction Fiscal Classification’ can be defined in e-business. Export Sales User Defined Fiscal Classification: Used for defining transaction based on any other classifications from transaction other then the above mentioned. Value/From Range: <In our case ‘Industrial Use’> (Please note the value of the category segments are concatenated without delimiters therefore query this LOV with value of one of the segments and use the category description to choose the correct segment) c. Transaction Business Category: To classify transactions based on the nature of business. The ‘Transaction Fiscal Classification’ must be entered manually from the ‘Additional Tax Information’ page (Purchase Orders > Manage Tax > Click on ‘Additional Tax Information’ button). E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 33 .g. Document Fiscal Classification: To classify based on the documents required / the type of documents used for the transaction.g. So users can define a user defined fiscal classification of type ‘Sample Sales’ and create rules to define tax rates for such a transaction.

Tax will not be part of shipment grouping criteria so it is possible to have requisition lines with different tax values being grouped into a single PO shipment. Tax will be recalculated on the PO document created through autocreate. TAX_CODE_ID field is supported on the data import for backward compatibility. A new field TAX_NAME is introduced in release 12. then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. Requisition Import If the requisition lines interface (PO_REQUISITIONS_INTERFACE_ALL) does not specify any tax details. If tax details are not specified in the interface. then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. TAXABLE_FLAG will be used as an item attribute for item creation in Oracle Inventory to update the taxability of the item. Tax During AutoCreate During AutoCreate the tax will be redefaulted on the purchase order based on the tax determining attributes of the purchase order. Tax overridden on the requisition will no longer be passed to the purchase order.Tax in Interface . taxable flag on the PO document transaction table. unlike the functionality prior to release 12. During AutoCreate the tax will be redefaulted on the purchase order based on the tax determining attributes of the purchase order. Therefore it should fulfill all the criteria for overriding a tax as mentioned in above under the heading ‘Modifying Tax Information’ (Overriding Tax). Tax information provided through the interface will be considered as an override and not defaulting information. then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. Tax overridden on the requisition will no longer be passed to the purchase order. Quantity Based Tax One of the features of e-business tax for purchasing is the capability to define tax on the basis of quantity instead of the Line amount. which will be derived based on the existence of tax lines on the shipment and will not be affected by the TAXABLE_FLAG provided in the interface. In order to define tax based on quantity we can follow the steps mentioned in the ‘TAX SETUP’ section below. Tax Rate: In tax rate define the following (Step 5 in ‘TAX SETUP’ section): a) Rate Type: Quantity b) UOM: <Unit of Measure for the purchase> c) Quantity Rate: <Rate of tax per quantity> E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 34 . If TAX_CODE_ID field based on the old AP tax codes is specified. However. If the PO lines interface (PO_LINES_INTERFACE) does not specify any tax details. then the tax classification will be derived and passed on to ebusiness tax. PDOI Tax classification can be provided in the PO_LINES_INTERFACE for overriding the tax line information using the TAX_NAME. Tax classification can be provided for overriding the tax line information. Please follow the below mentioned changes in the 1. as was the functionality prior to release 12. Tax information provided through the interface will be considered as an override and not defaulting information.

use the following as default value (Step 7 in ‘TAX SETUP’ section): a) Determine Taxable Basis: STANDARD_QUANTITY Figure 16: Quantity Based Tax (Tax Rules) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 35 . Tax Rule: In tax rules of for the tax.Figure 15: Quantity Based Tax (Tax Rate) 2.

d.TAX SETUP Following are the brief setup steps for defaulting basic tax in purchasing. Allow Tax Exemptions iii. ii. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Define the parties (legal Entity / operating unit) that subscribe to this tax. Allow Tax Exceptions c.A Tax Regime is usually defined for a country b. Tax setups will be available for tax across legal entities / operating units (use ‘Global Configuration Owner’ as the Configuration Owner in the rest of the setups) or you may use ‘Party Specific’ that only allows tax setups to be used for the specific legal Entity / operating unit or you E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 36 . Configuration for Taxes and Rules: Choose if the regime will be available as ‘Common Configuration’ i. Regime Level . 1.e. Allow Tax Recovery ii. Party Subscription Options i. define which regimes need to support recovery / Exemptions / Exceptions / Overrides Set up Tax Regime i. These steps can be used for performing quick tests for using tax in purchasing. Click on ‘Next’ to choose the subscriptions for the regime. Based on the business requirement the setups can be complex involving multiple tax rules. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Regime) a. Instead of replicating choices for different OUs. Controls and defaults – Following options can be checked.

Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. i. Default Recovery Settlement: Immediate j. may use ‘Common Configuration with Party Overrides’ which will allow you to define portion of the tax setups to be overridden and available only for your specific legal Entity / operating unit.g. Click on ‘Finish’ to save the tax regime. Allow Tax Exceptions ii.e. Allow Tax Rate Rules: Checked ii. Geography Type: Based on the applicability of the tax to a geography c. Save the Tax details by clicking on ‘Apply’ E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 37 . For e. e. (Responsibility: Tax Managers.g. 2. Set to Prorated for tax to arrive at an amount calculated previously. Allow Entry of Manual Tax Lines g. Configurations for Product Exceptions: Choose if the product exceptions can be ‘Common Configuration’ to allow the regime to use product exceptions across all the legal entities / operating units units (use ‘Global Configuration Owner’ as the Configuration Owner when setting up product exceptions) or choose ‘Party-Specific Configuration’ to configure party specific product exceptions. Allow Tax Exemptions h. Parent Geography Type: Based on the geography of the tax regime. Tax Recovery Controls: Recovery rate is not mandatory and is totally optional. VAT. f. Allow Tax Recovery Rate Override i. Check the following options to allow tax recovery and override. Tax Exceptions/Exemptions Controls: Check the following options to allow Tax Exceptions and Tax Exemptions. i. Tax Type: Based on the type of tax for e. i. Sales etc. Allow Override for Calculated Tax Lines iii. Applied Amount Handling: Recalculated is set by default. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Set up Tax Taxes) a. Allow Tax Recovery ii. the following can be checked for overriding tax rounding/tax line and entry of manual tax line. iii. Once the allow recovery rate tab is checked for a tax then it will not be live till recovery rate is defined. Allow Tax Rounding Override ii. d. Defaults: Set the following options/defaults. i. Controls: Check the options required for your tax.

Setup Tax Jurisdiction Code 5. Rate Details: Click on the icon under the ‘Rate Details’ and set the following. the geography name could be United States. UK. c. Percentage Rate: <Set the rate for the tax> d. India etc (based on your tax). India etc (based on your tax).g. Set as Default Tax Status: Checked (For defaulting it as the tax status) c.3. Default Recovery Settlement: Immediate e. UK. e. d. Parent Geography Name: Name of the parent geography. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. if the parent geography type was country. For e. Allow Tax Rate Override d. Parent Geography Type: Based on the geography of the tax regime. if the geography type was country. i. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Status) a. Geography Name: Name of the jurisdiction geography. For e. Geography Type: Based on the applicability of the tax to a geography b. Choose the options required for your tax. Effective From: <specify the effective date> f. Default Controls: Following options are available. Allow Tax Exceptions iii. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Save the Tax Status details by clicking on ‘Apply’ Setup Tax Status 4. Set as default Tax Jurisdiction: Checked ii. Allow Tax Exemptions ii. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Rate) a. i. Tax Rate Defaults: Set the following option. the geography name could be United States. Default Effective From: <specify the effective date> * There should be at least one default jurisdiction. Rate Type: Percentage (For calculating the tax rate based on percentage) c.g. i. Set as Default Rate: Checked Setup Tax Rate E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 38 . Default Tax Jurisdiction Settings: Set the following options / defaults i. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Jurisdiction) a.

Default Effective From: <specify the effective date> *Recovery rate is not mandatory and is totally optional. Operating Unit: <Enter the value of Operating Unit> iv. to make it available for transactions Query the Tax E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 39 . If defined at both the places then rate level takes precedence. Default Effective From: <Date effective> Tax Accounts: Click on the icon under the ‘Tax Accounts’ and set the following. ii. Click on ‘Apply’ vi. Effective From: <specify the effective date> iii. 7.e. If defined at both the places then rate level takes precedence. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Recovery Rate) a. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. f. Determine Place of Supply: Ship To ii. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. Determine Tax Registration: Ship From Party iv. Calculate Tax Amounts: STANDARD_TC Setup Tax Rules Update Tax 8. Click on ‘Create’ iii. Setup Tax Recovery Rate* (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Tax Recoverable/Liability: <Enter the code combination for this account> v. Click on ‘Apply’ *Tax accounts can to be defined at the tax and rate level. Percentage Recovery Rate: <Recovery Rate%> ii. Recovery rate can to be defined at the tax and rate level. Setup the following default rule types i. multiple statuses under a tax and multiple tax rates under a status. Ledger: Primary Ledger Name ii. i. Query the tax for the Configuration Owner (Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1) b. Recovery Rate Periods: Set up the following values i. Determine Tax Applicability: Applicable iii. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Recovery Rules) a. Set as Default Rate: Yes iv. 6. Once the allow recovery rate tab is checked for a tax then it will not be live till recovery rate is defined. a. Save the Tax Rate details by clicking on ‘Apply’ *There can be multiple taxes under a regime. Determine Taxable Basis: STANDARD_TB v.

In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’. Defaulting Order 3: <Choose from the drop down list> vii. Apply the changes. Effective From: <specify the effective date> v. following setups are required. Application Tax Options: <Operating Unit> ii.b. Make Tax Available for Transactions: Checked ii. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier. Defaulting Order 2: <Choose from the drop down list> vi. Enabled: Checked Setup Configuration Owner Tax Options Setup Application Tax Options* 10.e.Tax Hierarchy’. Defaulting Order 1: <Choose from the drop down list> v. f. for supplier. a. Event Class: Purchase Order and Agreement vi. Navigation: Defaults and Controls > Configuration Owner Tax Options) a. Entity Name: Purchase Order iii. Defaulting Order 4: <Choose from the drop down list> viii. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Supplier. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. Navigation: Defaults and Controls > Application Tax Options) i. Set up the following for enabling tax on Purchase Orders i. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 40 . Item. Update the following option: i. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party” and query the Supplier in the ‘Party Name’ for whom you like to define the tax.g. 9. d. Ship-To Location or Payables Financial Options). Default Primary Recovery Rate*: <Choose the setup in step 6 from the LOV> c. Application Name: Purchasing iv. Supplier Site. (i. c. please define the setups as mentioned in the section for ‘Application Tax Options . Defaulting Order 5: <Choose from the drop down list> *Defining ‘Application Owner Tax Options’ is optional 11. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a selfassessed tax. Click on update icon (Pencil icon). Operating Unit: Vision <Operating Unit> iii. For e. b. Application Name: Purchasing iv. Configuration Owner: <As defined in the tax regime> ii. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Setup Tax on Source: Depending on the source from where tax needs to be defaulted. e.

but will not have an associated regime to rate flow in e-business tax. When the template is STCC. with the operating unit owning the tax setup. In release 11i. tax was maintained separately for payables. This is a special Regime Determination Template which does not use Location based Determining Factors. Each tax code will be migrated with each tax code having its regime to rate flow. Also. The tax used in purchasing was stored in payables and tax calculation API’s from payables were called for determining tax amount. Payables and Purchasing tax codes migrate as input tax classification codes. including the tax codes within a tax group. The tax group will also be migrated as a tax classification. Each tax code. this article would discuss only impacts on purchasing perspective. This will be available as ‘Regime Determination Set’ on the configuration tax owner option for the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. Click on Actions > Manage Tax to navigate to the tax details page. Since the upgrade path for release 12 is only though 11i. a direct rate determination rule is created during migration that will be based on the tax classification code that has the same name as tax group code. This means that the tax regimes for migrated taxes will subscribe to party with ‘Operating Unit Owning the Tax Setup’ i. migrates to EBusiness Tax as a tax classification code. 2.12. In release 12 a centralized repository will be used to store taxes from across applications. Create a Purchase Order You could also view a demonstration of the tax setups for purchasing though the viewlets attached with this white paper. UPGRADE CONSIDERATIONS Following are some of the important impacts upon upgrade.e. All other Regime Determination Templates must use location based determining factors. receivables etc. 1. To group all related taxes classifications under its related tax group. A new Regime Determination Template Standard Tax Classification Code (STCC) will be created during migration using determining factor of Tax Classification Code -which will indicate that the tax calculation would be based on the old Release 11i approach. with a supplier defined in step 11 above and save the purchase order. 3. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 41 . The tax setup will be upgraded as partyspecific configuration owners. You may define additional rules to determine taxes to be defaulted on a transaction. If tax codes are not part of any tax groups then there will be no Direct Rate Determination rule. The tax was operating unit based. we will only be considering this release in our considerations for upgrade. the operating unit will still continue to own the tax. a shortcut approach is used to calculate taxes based on the passed Tax Classification Code.

For more detailed impact please refer to the Oracle Applications Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 and Oracle Financials and Oracle Procurement Functional Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12. taxes or jurisdictions. The current recovery rates will be upgraded as "primary" recovery rates with the Release 11i Accounting based recovery rules upgraded as Recovery Rate Rules. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 42 . The upgrade will automatically create Tax Jurisdictions for each Tax Zone within the context of a Regime and Tax. Both these hierarchies will be independent of the other unlike 11i tax hierarchy where payables based hierarchy could be used in purchasing. appropriate tables in ebusiness tax is populated with tax details and the purchasing tables are updated to indicate taxable line. Additional Release 12 functionality is available to define multiple registrations for the same party and different regimes. Purchasing will populate tax-determining attributes to global temporary tables. The data from the global temporary tables will be deleted. E-Business Tax includes the tax classification code field as part of the supplier or supplier site party tax profile. 4. Direct Rate Determination Rules for the defaulted tax classification code would determine the applicability of one or more taxes on a taxable line. For each of these Tax Jurisdictions. location values will be upgraded into the Trading Community Architecture (TCA) Geography model as legislative geography elements such as STATE. Supplier and supplier sites migrate to Trading Community Architecture (TCA) as TCA parties and party sites. Tax Registrations defined at HR locations or HR Organization levels in Release 11i are upgraded as Tax Registrations at Party Tax Profile for Legal Establishments. 8. 9. 3. as well as the ability in Release 12 to define registration status that can be used in rules. For Location based taxes. Release 11i Purchasing and Payables defaulting hierarchy are upgraded to Application Tax Options for each OU separately for Purchasing and Payables respectively. 6. Tax. 7. COUNTY. DATA FLOW Following is the mechanism of calls to the ebusiness tax to calculate tax. Tax Status (STANDARD) and Tax Jurisdiction. 1. For these parties. 5. CITY and POSTAL CODES as well as TAX ZONES to cover ZIP code ranges or groups of ZIP ranges with the same GEO code. 2. Once the tax lines are calculated. the upgrade will create a Tax Jurisdiction Rate with a percentage rate associated with the relevant tax Regime. It will then call ebusiness tax API's to calculate tax.4.

Tax Regimes: ZX_REGIMES_B b. SELECT * FROM zx_rates_b WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'.tax) = nvl('&tax_name'.'xxx') AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'.'xxx') AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. SELECT * FROM zx_status_b WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. Tax Rates: ZX_RATES_B e.'xxx'.'xxx'.null.Following are the main ebusiness tax tables that will contain the setup information that will help support in troubleshooting ebusiness tax information. a. SELECT * FROM zx_rules_b E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 43 . Please provide the tax regime code when prompted.tax) = nvl('&tax_name'. SELECT * FROM zx_taxes_b WHERE DECODE('&tax_name'. Tax Rules: ZX_RULES_B To get a dump of the eTax setups. Taxes: ZX_TAXES_B c. Tax Jurisdictions: ZX_JURISDICTIONS_B f. SELECT * FROM zx_regimes_b WHERE tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. Tax Status: ZX_STATUS_B d. SELECT * FROM zx_jurisdictions_b WHERE DECODE('&tax_name'. If the issue is limited to a tax then provide the tax name when prompted else please leave it blank. you can use the following set of queries.null.

LINE_LOCATION_ID b. ZX_REC_NREC_DIST: This table will have the tax distributions for associated with PO/Release distributions.REQUISITION_HEADER_ID / PO_HEADERS_ALL. TRX_ID: Transaction ID. This is linked to the PO_DISTRIBUTIONS_ALL. This is linked to the PO_REQUISITION_HEADERS_ALL. If the distribution is recoverable then the flag will be set to Y and there will be values in the RECOVERY_TYPE_CODE and RECOVERY_RATE_CODE.PO_HEADER_ID E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 44 . a. PO_REQ_DISTRIBUTIONS_ALL: This table will have the tax distributions for associated with Requisition distribution. This is linked to the PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. This is linked to the PO_HEADERS_ALL.WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. This is linked to the PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. Following are the main ebusiness tax tables that will contain the transaction information that will have the tax details after tax is calculated. ZX_LINES: This table will have the tax lines for associated with PO/Release schedules. c. ZX_LINES_DET_FACTORS: This table holds all the information of the tax line transaction for both the requisitions as well as the purchase orders/releases.PO_HEADER_ID TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. TRX_ID: Transaction ID.LINE_LOCATION_ID TRX_LINE_DIST_ID: Transaction Line Distribution ID. RECOVERABLE_TAX: Recoverable tax amount NONRECOVERABLE_TAX: Non Recoverable tax amount d.PO_HEADER_ID TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. TRX_ID: Transaction ID. This is linked to the PO_HEADERS_ALL.PO_DISTRIBUTION_ID RECOVERABLE_FLAG: Recoverable Flag.

Tax Simulator helps on audit trail with respect to which Tax Rules were satisfied in calculating a particular tax.g. For the configuration owner (OU or LE) as determined above check the Configuration Owner Tax Option for the event class. check following tax set ups. 4.LINE_LOCATION_ID TROUBLESHOOTING Tax Simulator Simulator is a powerful user interface too that can be used to simulate Tax Calculation based on what-if scenarios. You can start using the Oracle Tax Simulator by attaching this responsibility to your user.REQUISITION_LINE_ID / PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. 3. For location-based taxes it should be Determine Applicable Regime. common configuration or common with party override.g. Check that one status is default and every status has a default 2. Click on ‘Tax Lines’ to display the tax lines for your tax. Ship from Ship to and Bill From Bill to LOVs change depending upon the application selected. Check that every set up entity is effective for the transaction date. This is linked to the PO_REQUISITION_LINES_ALL.Party tax profile of Operating Unit. party specific. Check for the Tax Applicability flag at main tab and at registration tab Regime to Rate Flow: Depending upon the regime subscription option e. It gives flexibility to test new and/or changed tax rules.TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. Useful Tips: 1. For detailed steps please review the tax simulator viewlet attached to metalink Document ID (Note) for this whitepaper. Depending upon the set up above check whether the configuration owner has subscribed to the regime. Ship To/Bill To information is required for calculation of location-based tax. party specific configurations. Determine the configuration owner subscription . Check the configuration option e. 2. Check the Tax Applicability flag. Check whether the OU has subscribed to LE setups. Check the Regime Determination Set. First Party locations need to be associated with the legal establishment for the tax simulator to calculate tax. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 45 . Navigate to the Oracle Tax Simulator and enter the Header and Line information as appropriate. Check the Party Tax Profile of the Third Party (supplier) and third party site (supplier site). Troubleshooting Tips 1.

5. 9. 5. Tax Log and File Versions If there is an error while calculation please use the Note 417238. For obtaining this. FND: Debug Log Enabled = 'Y' FND: Debug Log Level = 'Statement' FND: Debug Log Module = % 2. SQL> select max(log_sequence) from fnd_log_messages. There should be at least one valid jurisdiction for the place of supply determined. Run the trace file through tkprof as follows: tkprof <filename>. Obtain the max log sequence using the following query. Obtain the AUDSID for your login. Below are the information that will be sufficient for Oracle Support to progress the service request for any ebusiness tax calculation issues. turn trace on by: Help > Diagnostics > Trace > Trace with Binds 6. Tax Rules: Check the default place of supply or the rule for the tax. Go to Help->About Oracle Applications.1 to obtain the tax debug log. 1. Just before saving the PO/Requisition. you will find the AUDSID field. check that every jurisdiction has a default rate.trc <filename>.rate. Help > Diagnostics > Trace > No Trace 8. perform the following from just before opening Purchase Order / Requisition form. If not then at least one rule must be satisfied. 3. Check whether the tax is by default Applicable. In case of jurisdiction specific rates. Save the purchase order / requisition and then stop immediately afterwards by. Please retrieve trace with tkprof. Set the following profile options on at user level for the user saving the purchase order.out explain=<found username/password> E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 46 . Now change the responsibility to purchasing and open the Purchase Order/Requisition Form where this issue is happening and enter the details. You will get a message showing the location of the trace file. (* Sometime AUDSID is not available for a few customers Please ignore this step in such a case) 4.

trc file1234. * If the AUDSID is not available please use the following query to retrieve the tax log. Click on View > Request and Click on Submit a New Request Click on OK for option Single Request Choose the concurrent program Diagnostics: Apps Check Select the following parameters Application1= Ebusiness Tax Application2 = Purchasing Submit the Request and upload the output of the program for validating the file version information. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 47 . Provide the output of ‘Diagnostics: Appscheck’ concurrent program. Navigate to Purchasing/Purchasing Super User/System Administrator Responsibility. SQL> select * from fnd_log_messages where log_sequence > <output from step1> and (module like 'ZX%' or module like 'zx%) and user_id = (SELECT user_id FROM fnd_user where user_name = ‘&Username’) order by log_sequence.example: tkprof file1234.out explain=<apps/apps> 10. SQL> select * from fnd_log_messages where log_sequence > <output from step1> and (module like 'ZX%' or module like 'zx%) and audsid = <audsid from step 3 above> order by log_sequence. Please get the debug log using the following query. 11.

3. 2.1 Oracle E-Business Tax Release 12 Known Issues How to obtain tax debug logfile when using application version 12 or higher FAQ: Purchasing Integration With E-Business Tax Oracle E-Business Tax key benefits. Oracle E-Business Tax Implementation Guide Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide Oracle Financials and Oracle Procurement Functional Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 Oracle Applications Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 (zipped) Note 458218.1 Note 458320.1 Note 456310. some new features and resource material R12 Unexpected Error Occurred During Tax Calculation R12 Oracle E-Business Tax Configuration Defaulted Tax Rate From E-Business Tax Cannot Be Overriden E-Business Tax Calculation Issues After Entering The Next Line/ Deleting Shipments/ Adding New Shipments in Purchase Order Defaulted Tax Rate From E-Business Tax Cannot Be Overriden E-Business Tax Calculation Error Occurs.1 Oracle Internal References Note 419415.1 Note 458218. Tax Log Shows 'Error Unable To Get The HQ_ESTB_PARTY_TAX_PROF_ID For Legal_Entity xx' Oracle E-Business Tax Documentation Resources.1 Note 437693. 4.1 Note 417238.1 What to do with E-Business tax and Legal Entity SRs? E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 48 .1 Note 415698.1 Note 397158.APPENDIX References Note 406376.1 Note 398841. Release 12 1.1 Note 461844.

Tax Determination Attributes Requisitions ======= Header ---------Requisition Type Transaction Currency Tax Header (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax) ---------------Taxation Country Document Sub-type Line ------Item Unit of Measure Quantity Unit Price Amount Need-by Date Tax Classification Ship-to Organization Ship-to Location Supplier Supplier Site Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) --------------------------------Business Category Intended Use User-defined Fiscal Classification Product Fiscal Classification Product Category Assessable Value Distribution --------------Quantity Amount Charge Account Tax Recovery Rate Project Task E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 49 .

Award Expenditure Type Expenditure Organization Expenditure Date Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Intended Use POs/Releases ========= Header ----------PO Document Type Transaction Currency Rate Type Rate Date Rate FOB Supplier Supplier Site Bill-to Location Provisional Tax Determination Date (for Consumption Advice Orders) Tax Header (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax) ---------------Taxation Country Document Sub-type Line -----Item Unit of Measure Unit Price Shipment ------------Quantity Amount Need-by Date Tax Classification Ship-to Organization Ship-to Location Source Document (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 50 .

Source Shipment (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Business Category Intended Use User-defined Fiscal Classification Product Fiscal Classification Product Category Assessable Value Distribution ---------------Quantity Amount Account CCID Tax Recovery Rate Project Task Award Expenditure Type Expenditure Organization Expenditure Date Source Distribution (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Intended Use (defaults from shipment level) Acknowledgement I wish to record my sincere appreciation towards: My team mates Ajith. A Special thankyou to Andrea Balasuriya from Product Release Readiness Team for constantly providing help from every direction. Muhittin. Also Anand Naik and Vasvi Kedia from Product Management. and Clarina Allen and Janet Flores from Procurement Support team for reviewing this whitepaper. I am very grateful to Chandu Tadanki for his constant encouragement and support. Ranjith Palani and Rajalingam Ramaswamy of Product Development Team. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 51 . Mani. Thanks to Anand Naik for providing guidance at various situations. Selvan and Subhashini for all their help and feedback in completing this document.

PeopleSoft. electronic or mechanical. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. CA 94065 U.E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective October 2007 Author: Varkey Joseph Oracle Corporation World Headquarters 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. This document is not warranted to be error-free. JD Edwards.7000 Fax: +1. Oracle. for any purpose. This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. We specifically disclaim any liability with respect to this document and no contractual obligations are formed either directly or indirectly by this document.650. Oracle.506. and Siebel are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates.506. .7200 oracle. All rights reserved. without our prior written permission. including implied warranties and conditions of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.A. Worldwide Inquiries: Phone: +1. This document is provided for information purposes only and the contents hereof are subject to change without notice.com Copyright © 2007.650. nor subject to any other warranties or conditions. whether expressed orally or implied in law.S.

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