E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective

An Oracle White Paper Oct 2007

E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective
Purpose ............................................................................................................... 3 Overview............................................................................................................. 3 Prior Tax Structure............................................................................................ 4 Key Concepts..................................................................................................... 6 Integration With Purchasing............................................................................ 8 Tax Events ..................................................................................................... 8 Configuration Owner Tax Options............................................................ 8 Party Tax Profile ........................................................................................... 9 Implementation Considerations........................................................... 10 Country Defaults......................................................................................... 11 Tax Defaulting............................................................................................. 12 Displaying Tax Information...................................................................... 14 Modifying Tax Information ...................................................................... 15 Overriding Tax ....................................................................................... 15 Application Tax Options - Tax Hierarchy .............................................. 17 Supplier .................................................................................................... 17 Supplier Site ............................................................................................ 18 Item .......................................................................................................... 18 Tax Rules...................................................................................................... 19 Expert Rule ............................................................................................. 20 Guided Rule ............................................................................................ 21 Fiscal Classification..................................................................................... 22 Party Fiscal Classification...................................................................... 22 Product Fiscal Classification................................................................. 25 Transaction Fiscal Classification .......................................................... 33 Tax in Interface ........................................................................................... 34 Requisition Import................................................................................. 34 PDOI ....................................................................................................... 34 Tax During AutoCreate ............................................................................. 34 Quantity Based Tax .................................................................................... 34 Tax Setup.......................................................................................................... 36 Upgrade considerations .................................................................................. 41 Data Flow ......................................................................................................... 42 Troubleshooting .............................................................................................. 45 Tax Simulator.......................................................................................... 45 Troubleshooting Tips ............................................................................ 45 Tax Log and File Versions.................................................................... 46 Appendix .......................................................................................................... 48 References.................................................................................................... 48 Oracle Internal References ........................................................................ 48 Tax Determination Attributes................................................................... 49

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E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective

PURPOSE
Ebusiness Tax provides a repository to store tax information and record tax events. Individual applications (for e.g. Purchasing) avails the tax services provided by Ebusiness Tax to create/update/display tax information for its transactions.

Purpose of creating this document is to review impact of Ebusiness Tax introduced in R12 to Oracle Purchasing. This document will help you in implementing tax solution in Purchasing using R12 Ebusiness Tax solutions. This document will also help you in understanding the integration and troubleshooting your tax setups in Oracle Purchasing.
OVERVIEW

In release 12 EBusiness Tax has been introduced to provide an improved Tax solution to customers. Ebusiness Tax provides a repository to store tax information and record tax events. Individual applications (for e.g. Purchasing) avails the tax services provided by Ebusiness Tax to create/update/display tax information for its transactions. The tax services that can be availed from Ebusiness Tax are listed below.

a. Define Tax Content b. Determine Tax c. Manage Tax d. Record Tax e. Report Tax f. Reconcile Tax

Architecture has been built considering country specific tax requirements and applicability of rules for determining taxes. Based on the tax laws of a specific country, the transaction tax rates may vary by jurisdictions, products or product category, how the product will be used, type of transacting parties, type of transactions, the place of supply etc. Various rules are applicable for determining the appropriate tax on a specific transaction.

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The Tax Setups including rules are based on requirements used by the Tax Rules Engine, which will create/update Tax Lines. These lines are later reported using EBusiness Tax Reporting features. Figure below shows the e-business structure.

E-Business Suite Transaction
Oracle E-Business Tax
Tax Services Request Manager

Transaction Tax

Content Repository

STaxvices er
Record Repository
Content Services

Tax Determination Services

Tax Recovery Services

Tax Reporting

Tax Reporting Services

Partner Tax Content Interface

Tax Partner
Tax Content

Figure 1: E-Business Tax Architecture

PRIOR TAX STRUCTURE
Prior to release 12, tax was defined in Accounts Payables module. Taxes were associated with rates, non-recoverable ratio and recovery rules. Country Specific tax requirements could not be incorporated seamlessly into the application.

Prior to release 12, tax was defined in Accounts Payables module. A tax component on the document total could be associated with the purchasing documents for portion of the tax which was non recoverable. Purchasing would default taxes based on hierarchy defined either in Oracle Payables (Setup > Options > Payables > Tax code defaults) or in Oracle Purchasing (Setup > Organization > Purchasing Options > Tax Default Alternate Region) if "Enforce Tax From Purchase Order" box in Payable Options (Setup > Options > Payables > Tax code defaults) was checked. Taxes were associated with rates, non-recoverable ratio and recovery rules. Taxes were then defined in at least one of the levels (also called the tax source) for e.g. Item, Supplier, Supplier Site, and Location etc. The order of defaulting was decided by the hierarchy defined in the Payables/Purchasing options discussed previously. Tax calculation was called on a Requisition/ Standard Purchase order or a Blanket release based on the hierarchy, recovery rules and rates. Tax calculation is performed using the AP Tax Engine, which was called from the distribution, or

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PO/Requisition. Once the tax is defaulted and saved tax cannot be redefaulted even on changing the tax source in the document. It was possible to override the tax defaulted on Purchasing documents prior to receipt or prior to reservation on funds on the document incase of encumbrance accounting. To override tax we need to have the profile option Tax: Allow Override of Tax Code set to Yes. Profile "Tax: Allow Override of Recovery Rate" allows override of recovery rate if the values of this profile is set to "Yes". Due to complexity of the tax specifications based on country/product, Oracle used to provide certain country/product specific solutions for diverse tax related requirements. (For e.g. Latin Tax Engine in GTE, Brazil AP/PO Tax Engine, India R11i localizations) E-business tax design was completely new for release 12. Most of the features available in 11i have been accommodated in release 12 e-business tax. Following are some of the features that will not be available in release 12 e-business tax as compared the 11i features: 1. Tax Code is removed from the ‘Enter Purchase Order’ form. Instead tax classification field will be available in tax page available through ‘Manage Tax’ link. Users can no longer make a purchase order shipment nontaxable by removing the tax code from the PO shipment. Recovery Rate field at the distributions level will no longer be defaulted based on the Tax Code and will no longer display the default recovery rate of the transaction. Override of recovery rate will be subject to controls setup within e-business tax. User updated Tax Code on the requisition lines will no longer be carried over to the PO document during autocreate. The Tax Classification will always be re-defaulted on the PO document. Summarized tax information on purchase order has been eliminated. Only detailed tax line can be viewed on the purchase order. Tax Code cannot be populated through the purchase order Preferences form. Tax cannot be modified through AutoCreate requisition 'Modify' action, as the tax is re-defaulted on the PO regardless of the tax in the requisition. Detailed tax information based on tax classification will not be available in the requisition. For requisitions, users will only be able to view the tax amounts (total, recoverable and non-recoverable). Tax code has been removed from RFQs and Quotations form. Tax will be defaulted when a quotation is autocreated to a standard purchase order. PO documents cannot be reserved or submitted for approval if tax calculation error has occurred.

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and Perception VAT and US Sales Tax Regime in US with State. Additional VAT. KEY CONCEPTS Following are some of the key concepts in eBusiness tax as provided by this product. and Perception VAT in Argentina and State. Additional VAT.10. County and City/District taxes.g. Tax Regime: A Tax Regime contains the set of tax rules that determine the treatment of one or more taxes that have been grouped together for administration or other purposes. Standard Rated etc. the tax rate can be expressed as a percentage or as a value per unit quantity. For e. It serves more as a way to direct payment of portion of the taxes already owed.g. a tax calculation error will result in creation of a document with ‘Incomplete’ status or in updating of an already ‘Approved’ document to ‘Requires Reapproval’ status.g. For e. Withholding Tax does not affect any taxes that organizations owe the tax authority. Tax Rate: The rate specified for a tax status in effect for a period of time.25% E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 6 . 11. Sweden Standard Rate VAT is 25% or US California State Sales/Use Tax Standard Rate is 7.: Standard VAT. Tax calculation error in Requisition Import will create imported requisitions with interface authorization status in ‘Approved’ status as ‘Incomplete’. Tax: A classification of a charge imposed by a government through a fiscal or tax authority. This will be used further in this discussion. For e. Withholding tax will no longer be supported.g. if the ‘Initiate Approval’ parameter was set to ‘Yes’. While importing documents in the interface with Authorization status ‘Approved’ using PDOI. VAT Regime in Argentina that sets the rules for Standard VAT. 12. so there is no significance to the organization’s accounts/budgeting. County and City/District sales/use taxes in US Tax Status: Tax Status is the taxable nature of a product or service in the context of a transaction for a tax. Zero Rated. For e.

g. The Jurisdiction for the US California County Sales Tax for Imperial County is Imperial County.g. electronic goods.g. Brazil Establishment Type (e.Spain). Registrations: The registration of a party with a tax authority that confers tax rights and imposes certain obligations. SE123456789012 (VAT .g.g. dairy goods. For e.g.g. A fiscal classification is a way that a tax authority classifies each part of a transaction. For e. Consumption.g. For e. For e.g. Party Profile for Establishments. Manufacturing) Product Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize a product for a tax. Fiscal Classifications : Provides for the definition of tax fiscal classifications. ESA78211646 (VAT . Party Profile for Suppliers and Sites or Party Profile for Customers and Sites. Document Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize the documents associated with a transaction for a tax. Party Fiscal Classifications: A classification used by a tax authority to categorize a party for a tax. For e. Industrialization) User defined Fiscal Classifications: A user defined Transaction Fiscal Classification Type. Fiscal Classifications: Transaction Business Category: A business classification used by Oracle to identify and categorize an external transaction into a Tax transaction. Party Tax Profile: Holds all party tax related information. Brazil Product Nature (e. For e. Commercial.Tax Jurisdiction: A geographic area where a tax is levied by a specific tax authority.Sweden) etc. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 7 . non-professional fees) Intended Use Fiscal Classifications: The purpose for which a product may be used. professional fees. Industrial. Commercialization. Brazil Intended Use (e.

POs. Purchase and Internal Requisition (REQUISITION) Purchase Orders and Agreements (PO_PA) Blanket and Scheduled Release (RELEASE) The above event classes are based on the consideration of whether any tax determination is necessary and the similarity in the handling of the tax information. Document creation and update (Requisitions. e-business Tax uses the tax option settings of the configuration owner and application event class instead of the default settings. tax is calculated at the PO shipment level and distributed to recoverable and non-recoverable components that determine tax amount at the PO distribution level. which determine application of a tax. The tax is calculated in e-business tax by calling e-business Tax services and stored in e-business tax repository as mentioned in the 'Overview of EBusiness Tax Architecture in R12' section in this article. These attributes. Tax configurations can subscribe to the event class and additional options available based on each application using the ‘Configuration Owner Tax Options’. recoverable and nonrecoverable). In Purchase Orders/Releases.INTEGRATION WITH PURCHASING There are a few fields on purchasing documents.g. Intended Use. Configuration Owner Tax Options The event class is associated with a first party legal entity/operating unit owning tax content. Tax calculation is initiated on creation (saving/importing) of the purchasing document. tax will be defaulted based on the tax setups in eTax and cannot be overridden. Releases) 2. At transaction time. In requisitions. Therefore it is necessary that the available options (for update) through configuration owner tax options and defaulting rule should both be set with the same value for the option to E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 8 . The requisition line and distribution will have the summary tax amount(total. Tax is recalculated if there are any changes that affect the tax calculation. Following are the event classes in purchasing. These 'Tax determination attributes' on purchasing documents are used to calculate the applicable taxes on the transaction. Tax Events Based on similarity in handling tax information and tax determination tax events are classified based on purchasing document types. Tax will be calculated by calling tax services available through ebusiness tax at the following events: 1. Product Fiscal Classification (Seen on the ‘Additional Tax Information’ Page) and other internal factors determine the calculation of tax. Tax events are classified in purchasing based on the purchasing document types. along with ‘Additional Tax Attributes’ for e. Receipt transactions (Charges) Tax recalculation will be supported on a PO shipment line has been received/accrued or matched to invoice provided retroactive pricing is enabled.

For purchasing application only the following option is available for updating. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 9 . First Party Legal Entity: An entity identified though registration with a legal authority within a jurisdiction. This will be the standard behavior in release 12. 2. One of the responsibilities of this entity is to pay and report tax liabilities to the legal authority.take effect. By default the ‘Regime Determination Set’ is ‘Determine Applicable Regimes’ which uses the location based taxes. A parties involved in e-business tax is classified into four types: 1. 1. Allow Tax Applicability Offset Tax Basis Figure 2: Configuration Tax Owner Option Other options are not updatable for purchasing application and will not available. This entity has rights to enter into transactions with other parties. own property and incur debt. For migrated tax. configuration owner tax options must be setup to use STCC as the regime determination set. using ‘Direct Tax Rate Determination’ with tax classification codes. It is important for the party definitions to exist in party tax profile so that it can be used in the tax transactions with e-business tax. Party Tax Profile This is a centralized repository that holds information related to parties involved in tax transaction.

Local level jurisdictions can have separate tax requirements for the establishments registered under it. then tax content defined under the ‘First Party Legal Entity’ will not be applicable. To create a new first party legal entity / legal establishment. Third Party: External parties involved in a transaction are third party to tax configuration owners for e. Third party can operate from multiple sites. A tax authority promulgates a set of tax rules and regulations. If you had been using tax configurations defined under the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. division. First Party Legal Establishment: Legal establishments (also called branch. 5.g. Now follow the instructions under chapter ‘Managing Tax Profiles and Registrations’ in Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide to create a new tax profile for both the legal entity and its main legal establishment. It is necessary to associate a first party legal entity and its main legal establishment in party tax profiles. Click on the icon under the label titled ‘Create Tax Profile’. Implementation Considerations 1. supplier for purchasing business transactions. In case they have not been associated a tax calculation error will result while saving the transaction.g. The tax authority party tax profile identifies a tax authority party as a collecting authority and/or a reporting authority. Tax Authority: A government entity that regulates tax law. You may need to create additional establishments based on registrations required within local level jurisdiction. inventory organization or physical location) are building blocks of a legal entity. the tax content was owned by Payables. In releases prior to R12. A collecting tax authority manages the administration of tax remittances. 4. for taxes under a given tax regime. an establishment is automatically linked to it. When a legal entity is created. A legal entity is made up of at least one legal establishment. This is called the main establishment of the legal entity. A reporting tax authority receives and processes all company transaction tax reports. query the legal entity and choose the party type as first party legal entity or first party legal establishment for legal entity and legal establish respectively. E-business tax rules identify tax registration status of legal establishments involved in a transaction and through Party Tax Profile. supplier site for purchasing business transactions.2. Upon upgrade the tax is migrated to ebusiness tax as operating unit owning tax content. You may choose to use the tax content 2. administers. Third Party Site: For e. Operating Unit Owning Tax Content: This option allows you to enter and maintain tax content for an operating unit. Receivables and other applications that had data stripped by operating unit. 6. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 10 . Tax calculation can differ based on the location of the site. 3. and/or audits one or more taxes.

add the ‘First Party Legal Entity’ to the regimes party subscription. Check the ‘Use Subscription of the Legal Entity’ box and save the party tax profile. navigate to party tax profile page and choose the party type as ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ and query the operating unit concerned. Before using the third party tax profiles. You can create / update the third party information from the e-business tax page. Once you associate the operating unit with its legal entity. Please follow the instructions under chapter ‘Managing Tax Profiles and Registrations’ in Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide to create a third party tax profile. For more details about this option. In order to use tax regimes subscribed under ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. it is necessary to set up the party / party site. Country Defaults Country default controls let you default the transaction tax-related values in the countries that you do business. Click on the icon under the label titled ‘Update Tax Profile’. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 11 . After setting this checkbox. of its associated legal entity. please refer to the Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide.3. Warning: Checking the ‘Use Subscription of the Legal Entity’ box for the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ is an irreversible setting. You can also setup the default ‘Tax Authority’ for the country. you cannot update the operating unit tax profile or maintain separate tax content for this operating unit. You can default tax regime and tax for tax registrations belonging to the legal establishment in the applicable country by choosing the option against the tax regime or tax you entered as the default tax. To start using tax defined for the legal entity. all tax content subscribed to ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’ will no longer be applicable.

the tax lines will not be defaulted. The eTax API is called to avail the eBTax services to calculate the tax applicability. and ‘Additional Tax Attribute’ available on both purchase order and requisitions are available in the ‘Appendix’ section below. The 'Tax determination attributes'. Regardless of the availability of tax definitions in e-business tax. a message will be displayed to the user. The purchase documents makes a call to eTax services for tax calculation even if there are no tax definitions available in tax repository. Purchase documents call the eTax services for tax calculation on saving the purchase documents (Requisition/PO/Releases). An error occurred during Tax Calculation. When saving the purchase document. Tax will be recalculated when the document is submitted for Approval. Tax calculation is based on the values of the 'Tax determination attributes' along with the ‘Additional Tax Attributes’ on purchasing documents. then these tax lines are defaulted on the purchase document. Subsequently. Your transactions have been saved. Therefore ebusiness tax determines the tax applicability and purchasing only controls calls to the eBTax services. Please correct the problem or contact your System Administrator.Figure 3: Country Defaults Tax Defaulting Purchase documents call the eTax services for tax calculation every time the purchase order is saved regardless of the taxability of the document line/schedule/distribution. If calculation results in applicable tax lines. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 12 . Once the purchase document is saved the Manage Tax menu is enabled. if there are tax calculation errors in ebusiness tax. Following is the error message that appears.

Save the purchase document (PO/Release/Requisition) Tax information will be displayed only after the purchase document is saved. Enter the purchase document details.An unexpected error has occurred. The following error message will be display on clicking the 'Approve' button. For troubleshooting the tax setups. Steps: 1. Please correct the problem or contact your System Administrator. 2. Figure 4: Manage Tax link on purchase order entry form E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 13 .The tax will be recalculated on submission for approval. which navigates to a web page where the tax details can be viewed. Setup Ebusiness tax. The ‘Manage Tax’ link is enabled. If the tax calculation is still erroring the document cannot be submitted for approval. please refer the troubleshooting section of this article. Error Messages: Unexpected error occurred during Tax Calculation Exception: xxx . Please contact your system administrator.(PO/Release/Requisition) 3.

1. Distributions The above tabs will display the tax line details for each shipment in the Schedules tab and non-recoverable and recoverable tax distributions for each distribution in the distributions tab. This page has the following two tabs for PO/Releases. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 14 . We can no longer make a shipment as non-taxable by setting the tax classification to NULL in ebusiness tax. This is the only place where we can find the ‘Taxable Flag’ unlike the previous versions where they could be viewed from the distributions and purchase order entry form. Schedules 2. In other places. Distributions If there are no taxes applicable for the purchase document the Manage Tax menu will still be enabled.Displaying Tax Information Tax information will be displayed only after the purchase document is saved. 1. if the tax is applied on the purchase order then the details of the tax on schedule / distributions are available through the ‘Manage Tax’ link. In purchase order summary form ‘Taxable Flag’ will be displayed. Tax code details and recovery rate cannot be viewed from the Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary form. Also the taxability of a shipment (schedule) can be seen from the purchase order summary (Shipment window > Taxable flag can be added to the ‘Folder View’). The 'Manage Tax' link on the toolbar of the purchase document will be enabled on saving the purchase document and the users can navigate to the "Tax" page where defaulted tax information can be viewed. Overriding the defaulted tax with a zero-rated tax classification is intended to minimize regression due to non-availability of this functionality. Lines 2. There will be no tax lines seen on expanding the 'Details' in the 'Schedules Tab' of this 'Tax' page. This is no longer available in the ‘Enter Purchase Order’ screen as seen in releases prior to R12. The Tax page will have the following tabs for requisition. Manage Tax is available as a drop down in the ‘Professional Buyer’s Workcenter’.

If there is a tax calculation error while saving the purchase documents. Query the purchase document or save the purchase document (Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL)) 2. Click on Actions > Manage Tax from the toolbar from Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL) forms and Tools > Manage Tax for Requisition Entry (POXRQERQ) form. There is a ‘Additional Tax Information’ button available from the ‘Manage Tax’ page.Figure 5: Purchase Order Tax Page Steps: 1. Modifying Tax Information Overriding Tax Defaulted Tax information can be overridden in purchase orders and releases. Tax line can be manually added to the purchase orders/releases even if they have not been defaulted. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 15 . This link is available after saving the purchase document. the additional tax information page will be greyed out and the tax cannot be overridden in such a case.1. Override behaviour will be governed e-business tax as described in Note 458218.

This field will have the existing tax classification for each tax line. The tax page will appear with details of tax lines.Figure 6: Additional Tax Information Page Steps: 1. 4. Query the purchase document (Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary form) or save the purchase document (Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL)) 2. Locate the tax classification field. Click on Actions > Manage Tax (Tools > Manage Tax for Requisition) from the toolbar from Purchase Order Summary/Requisition Summary/Enter Purchase Order (POXPOEPO)/Enter Releases (POXPOERL) forms. Click on Apply and this will navigate you back to the manage tax page. 3. This page will have the new tax calculation based on the new tax classification rate. 5. Choose the new tax from the LOV. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 16 . Click on the 'Additional Tax Information' button.

Once the application tax option has been disabled. 4. This is similar to defining the tax hierarchy in ‘Purchasing Options’ prior to release 12. 5. 1. 2. it would not possible to re-enable this option again for that operating unit. Prior to ebusiness tax. This is similar to defining the tax hierarchy in ‘Purchasing Options’ prior to release 12. The tax hierarchy is now available in ebusiness tax through ‘Application Tax Options’ available by each operating unit for Purchasing application.Tax Hierarchy The tax hierarchy is now available in ebusiness tax through ‘Application Tax Options’ available by each operating unit for Purchasing application. Application Tax Options is available only for backward compatibility of the former Tax Defaulting Hierarchy. which would determine the source and the order of defaulting on purchase orders. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 17 . The tax will be defaulted based on the defaulting order and the source option specified. Supplier Supplier Site Item Ship-To Location Payables Financial Option Figure 7: Application Tax Options Supplier You can attach tax to the supplier using the following steps. If you are using complex tax rules you may choose to disable the application tax options. a tax hierarchy would be defined either in payable options or in purchasing options. 3.Application Tax Options . For purchasing application we can choose up to the following 5 sources to default the tax. This is a one-time option. Application Tax Options is available only for backward compatibility of the former Tax Defaulting Hierarchy.

2. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a self-assessed tax*. 6. 5. * A self-assessed tax is a tax calculated and remitted for a transaction. In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a self-assessed tax*. 6. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party” and query the Supplier in the ‘Party Name’ for whom you like to define the tax. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party Site” and query the Supplier (using the ‘Party Name’ field) for whom you like to define the tax. Choose the site for which you want to define the tax and click on update icon (Pencil icon). 6. Click on update icon (Pencil icon). Navigate to the ‘Purchasing’ tab. Now choose the tax from ‘Input Tax Classification Code’ field LOV*. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier site. Choose ‘Yes’ from drop down for the ‘Taxable’ field. where tax was not levied but it is deemed as due. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 18 . Navigate to Items > Master Items Query the item for which you want to define the tax. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier. Item You can attach tax to the item using the following steps. Navigate to Inventory/Purchasing Responsibility. 1. where tax was not levied but it is deemed as due. 1. 5. 5. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. Supplier Site You can attach tax to the supplier site using the following steps. 4. * A self-assessed tax is a tax calculated and remitted for a transaction. 2. In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’. 3. 4.1. 2. 3. 3. 4.

Following are mandatory tax rule types required before enabling the tax for transactions. The place of supply rule determines the tax on the ship-to location based on the tax jurisdiction for the tax. for a given tax. Determine Taxable Basis . Tax engine requires some of the mandatory tax rule types to be defined either by definining defaults available for these rule types.* The tax will only be available in ‘Input Tax Classification Code’ field LOV if the tax has been associated with a ‘Tax Type’ in the tax configuration for this tax prior to enabling the tax. E-business tax provides flexibility to define all kinds of taxation rules that you normally encounter in your business scenario. Determine Place of Supply . exemptions and discounts. The User-friendly interface makes it easier for the implementation team to configure rules based on their requirements. the tax engine will first use the rule. Determine Tax Registration . after the tax rules which would affect it have been taken into consideration for a specific tax. Tax Rules Tax rules provide flexibility to use the tax as required by the business / tax authority. it is the result of the place of supply derivation. Rules can be defined even after the tax is live. on which tax is calculated.The arrived at value. the default for the tax rule will be used. or by defining tax rules that will determine the value for these mandatory tax rule types. Calculate Tax Amounts .The specific jurisdiction where the supply of goods or services is deemed to have taken place for tax purposes. In case the rule does not evaluate a value. quantity or action. These rules may include deductions. responsibilities and rights are upheld. Tax for the Payables Financial Option can be applied through the ‘Application Tax Options’ where tax to be applied can be selected for this option. modifications. Determine Tax Applicability . E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 19 . the result will be an ordered list of applicable taxes.The calculation of tax amount and formula to be used for calculating this amount.The registration of a party with a tax authority to ensure tax rights. If both are defined.The process and the data that identifies all the taxes that need to be determined/levied for a given transaction. This is available though the subscription owner profile in ebusiness tax.

Enter the following values a. 6. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 20 . Class Qualifier: <In our case it is 'Ship To'> 5. Tax Determining Factor Set: <Enter a code for your Tax Determining Factor Set> b. 3. Regime Code: <Regime code where the rule will be applicable> Scroll down to the 'Associate Tax Determining Factors' region.Figure 8: Tax Rules There are 2 methods available to define a rule.g. Determining Factor Class: <In our case it is 'Geography'> b. You can alternatively use the ‘Guided Rule Entry’ option to define tax rules. define applicability of tax only for ship to location as New York City 1. 2. Expert Rule Guided Rule Expert Rule The below steps will guide you through a step-by-step process to create a tax rule using the expert rule. 2. 4. For e. 1. 8. Go to responsibility 'Tax Managers' Navigate to Advanced Setup Options > Tax Determining Factor Sets Click on 'Create' button Enter the following values a. Name: <Enter a name for your Tax Determining Factor Set> Set Usage: Tax Rules Optionally Enter: a. 7.

9. 10. Value/From Range: NEW YORK Click on 'Finish' button. 18. define applicability of tax only for ship to location as New York City 1. Determining Factor Set Code: <Choose the 'Determining Factor Set Code' defined in step 4 above from the LOV> Click on Next to complete Step 1 of 3 Enter the following details: a. Query the tax in the Tax Configuration > Tax Rules page Click on Expert Rule Entry icon against the ‘Determine Tax Applicability’ rule. Tax Condition Set: <Enter a code for 'Tax Condition Set'> b.g. 23. For e. 24. Result: <for our case the value is 'Not Applicable'> Click on Next to complete Step 2 of 3 Enter the value of Rule Order and check the 'Enable' checkbox Click on 'Finish' to create the rule. Rule Code: <Enter a Rule Code> b. Provide a name for the tax rule code and the effectivity. Effective From: <Enter the effective date for this rule> d. Enter the following values: a. 12. 'Class Qualifier' and 'Determining Factor Name' defaulted and greyed out Enter the following values: a. Guided Rule You can also use the Guided Rule entry to define the rules for each tax. Operator: Not Equal To b. This step guides you through a step-by-step process to create a tax rule. 17. 21. 13. Determining Factor Set: <Enter the value from the LOV for the 'Tax Determining Factor Set' defined in step 4 above> Click on 'Continue' button We will see the 'Determining Factor Class'. 14. 15. 2. Query the tax in the Tax Configuration > Tax Rules page Click on Guided Rule Entry icon against the ‘Determine Tax Applicability’ rule. Name: <Enter a Rule Code> c. You can choose to apply this rule for all transactions or only for specific transactions. Condition Set Code: <Select the 'Tax Condition Set' defined in step 12 above from the LOV> b. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 21 . 16. 3. 4. 22. 20. You can alternatively use the ‘Expert Rule Entry’ option to define tax rules. c. 19. Determining Factor Name: <In our case it will be 'City'> Click on 'Apply' to save the 'Tax Determining Factor Set' Navigate to Advanced Setup Options > Tax Condition Sets Click on 'Create' button Enter the following a. 11.

6. 11.Transaction Fiscal Classification Party Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize parties. Navigate to Trading Community > Administration > Classifications c. Fiscal Classification Fiscal Classification allows you a way to classify each part of your transaction and define tax rules based on these classifications. In our case the rule combined with operation was: If Ship To not equal to New York.Product Fiscal Classification Nature of the transaction . In the ‘Transactions’ tab enter the details for the location. In our case it will be New York. Steps: The below is an example of defining a rule for party fiscal classification for the above mentioned example: 1. In our case choose not equal to. Choose the result for the rule and its operation. Also choose the operations. Click on ‘Next’ button. 7. Parties involved in the transaction . As already defined ‘Key Concepts’ section. Enter the condition set code and the order of preference for this rule. Go to responsibility ‘Trading Community Manager’ b. It only allows you to classify each part of a transaction so that you may create rules based on them for specific tax requirements. The result for this rule is that tax will not be applicable in such a case.5. Fiscal Classification is a way that tax authority classifies each part of a transaction. For example a tax authority could claim a reduced tax rate for transaction in which the goods are purchased from a supplier establishment that have been classified as ‘Research and Development’ organization by the tax authority in order to promote research activities. d. 9. 1. It is not necessary to define fiscal classification to setup taxes in e-business tax. product and nature of transaction. 2. So choose the option ‘Not Applicable’. 8. Define Party Classification in TCA a. Click on Next and choose Enable to apply this rule. Click on ‘Create Class Category’ button.Party Fiscal Classification Products involved in the transaction . So the rule becomes: If Ship To not equal to New York the tax is ‘Not Applicable’. 3. Click on Enable and the click on ‘Next’ button. equal to/not equal to.g. 10. For e. Enter the following details E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 22 . E-business tax allows you classifications based on party. We can model three types of fiscal classification in e-business tax.

Click on ‘Create’ button. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 23 . Description: Research and Development g. Description: <Enter the description for your party classification> e. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the party fiscal classification. (This step also returns the concurrent request id submitted for definition to take effect). Meaning: <Enter the name for meaning of your party classification> iii. Effective From i. Party Classification: <Choose the ‘Party Classification’ defined in TCA during step 1 above> e. Fiscal Classification Type Code: <Define a code for your party fiscal classification code> f. Meaning and Description (Description is optional) by which you would like to define your supplier establishment. Click on ‘Apply’ button. 2. Click on ‘OK’. Meaning: Research and Development iii. i. h. Name: <Define a name for your party fiscal classification code> g. Effective From: <Enter the effective date> h. In the Tax regimes define all regimes to which this party fiscal classification will be applicable.i. For this example the following needs to be entered to define a party classification of type ‘Research and Development’: i. Click on ‘Apply and Create Class Codes’ f. Class Category Name: <Enter a name for you party classifications> ii. Class Code: Research and Development ii. Go to responsibility ‘Tax Managers’ b. Click on Compile and this would submit concurrent program to define your party classification in TCA. Enter the value for Class Code. Create Fiscal Classification for the party in e-business tax a. Navigate to Parties > Party Classification c. Enter the following details for each regime: i. d. Regime Code ii.

Select the party type and party from the LOV and click on ‘Go’. Navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles c. d. Navigate to the ‘Classifications’ tab. e.Figure 9: Party Fiscal Classification Figure 10: Party Fiscal Classification (Supplier Type) 3. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 24 . Click on Update pencil icon. Go to responsibility ‘Tax Managers’ b. In our case choose Party Type as ‘Third Party’ and Party as the supplier that needs to be defined as a ‘Research and Development’ type organization. Attach the Party Fiscal Classification to the party in PTP (Party Tax Profile) a.

Value/From Range: <In our case 'Research and Development'> c. For example. h. Determining Factor Class: Party Fiscal Classification ii. Tax Condition Sets i. g. Class Qualifier: Ship From Party iii. Click on button ‘Add Another Row’. 4. all domestically purchased items that are used as office supplies. (Follow steps 3. will be sold at a lower rate. Operator: Equal To ii. Create a new tax status and tax rate. i. Tax Status: <Defined in step 4> d. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the party tax profile. Please use the following specification to create the rule. 5 and optionally 6 in-case recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. In our example the supplier ‘Fiscal Classification Code’ is ‘Research and Development’. Inventory Based Non-Inventory Based Intended Use Classification Inventory Based This is used to classify categories defined in Oracle Inventory. Tax Rate: < Defined in step 4> Therefore the rule becomes: When Ship From Party has a Party Fiscal Classification Value of ‘Research and Development’ then apply the tax rate defined in step 4 above.f. 5. Steps: E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 25 . Choose the ‘Fiscal Classification Type Code’ defined step 2 above from the LOV. 2. Choose the ‘Fiscal Classification Code’ for the supplier based on the available codes defined in TCA. Product Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize a product. There are three types of product classification available in e-business tax. Tax Determining Factor Set i. 1. 3. Determining Factor Name: <'Fiscal Classification Type Code' defined in step 3 above> b. This can only be used if Oracle Inventory is in installed status. a.

Navigate to Products > Product Classifications c. For e. In our example associate the category defined in step 1 above to the Purchase Category Set (This is a seeded category set available by default i. Click on ‘Create’ button to create a new ‘Product Fiscal Classification’. (Please refer to the page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for Assigning Items to Categories and page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for defining an item) Define a ‘Product Fiscal Classification’ for the above category in ebusiness tax. Enter the following details for each regime: i. e. Name: <Define a name for your product fiscal classification code> g. Inventory Category Set: <Choose the category set defined in step 2 above>.e. For e.g. d. Regime Code ii. we will associate the category ‘Office Supplies’ in the Purchasing Category Set. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the product fiscal classification. a. Go to ‘Tax Managers’ responsibility. In Oracle Inventory define a category. 4. (Please refer to the page 4-68 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to update an inventory category to a category set) Assign items to the category defined in step 1. 3. in our case we will define a category called ‘Office Supplies’. Effective From: <Enter the effective date> h. Effective From i. in our case we will create an item ‘File 6x6’ which is a purchased item with the category ‘Office Supplies’.g. Fiscal Classification Type Code: <Define a code for your product fiscal classification > f. In the Tax regimes define all regimes to which this product fiscal classification will be applicable. (Please refer to the page 4-66 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to create an inventory category) Create a new category set and associate the category set with the category created in step 1 above. 2. In our example we need to choose Purchasing (Purchasing Category Set) against which we have defined a category ‘Office Supplies’. b. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 26 .1.

Tax Rate: < Defined in step 5> Create a purchase order with category ‘Office Supplies’. Tax Status: <Defined in step 5> h. The rate should be one created in step 5 above. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Office Supplies'> (Please note the value of the category segments are concatenated without delimiters therefore query this LOV with value of one of the segments and use the category description to choose the correct segment) g. Determining Factor Class: Product – Inventory Linked ii. e. 5 and optionally 6 incase recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 27 . 6.Figure 11: Product Fiscal Classification (Inventory Based) 5. 7. Tax Determining Factor Set i. Operator: Equal To ii. Create a new tax status and tax rate. Tax Condition Sets i. Determining Factor Name: <'Fiscal Classification Type Code' defined in step 4 above > f. (Follow steps 3. Please use the following specification to create the rule.

You will now be able to view the ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’. Non-Inventory Based This is used to classify categories that are not defined in Oracle Inventory. to update the information in this category. Steps: 1. Click the Next 5 arrow to check the entire list under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’). You may create sub categories by clicking on the ‘+’ icon under ‘Create Sub – Level’ heading. For example in our case we will create a sub-category called ‘STATIONARIES’. In our example we will define it as ‘Office Supplies’ iii. The advantage of such a classification is that. Define a ‘Product Fiscal Classification’ for the non-inventory category in e-business tax. d. Product Classification Source: From the drop down ensure to choose Oracle E-Business Tax. h. Enter the following details E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 28 . Click on the pencil icon below the ‘Update’ field of PRODUCT_CATEGORY fiscal classification code. Navigate to Products > Product Classifications c. all purchased items that are used as stationary materials for your office supplies. l. f. (If you are not able to view it. it can also be used if Oracle Inventory is not in installed status. Go to ‘Tax Managers’ responsibility. Click on ‘Apply’ j. e. Effective From: <Enter an effective date> i. We will continue to use the above example we without using Oracle inventory example. Name: <Enter a name for the fiscal classification which will be used as the category>.Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the category used in purchase order is ‘Office Supplies’ then apply the rate used in step 5 above. Enter the following details i. Click on ‘Go’ button. will be sold at a lower rate. This would retrieve the seeded fiscal classification type code: PRODUCT_CATEGORY. Click on ‘Create’ button to create a new category. a. Fiscal Classification Code: <Enter a code for the fiscal classification which will be used as the category>. k. g. b. In our example we will define it as ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ ii.

Click on ‘Apply’ n. Name: <Enter a name for the fiscal classification which will be used as the sub-category>. Create a new tax status and tax rate. o. Click on ‘Apply’ to save the fiscal classification. In our example we will define it as ‘Stationeries’ iii. Click the Next 5 arrow to check the entire list under ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’). Determining Factor Class: Product – Non-Inventory Linked ii. Determining Factor Name: ‘Product Category’ b. 3. Tax Condition Sets i. 5 and optionally 6 incase recovery is required in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. (Follow steps 3. (If you are not able to view it. a. Please use the following specification to create the rule.i. Tax Determining Factor Set i. In our example we will define it as ‘STATIONARIES’ ii. You will now be able to view the ‘STATIONARIES’ under ‘OFFICE_SUPPLIES’ category of ‘PRODUCT_CATEGORY’. Figure 12: Product Fiscal Classification (Non-Inventory Based) 2. Fiscal Classification Code: <Enter a code for the fiscal classification which will be used as the sub-category>. Effective From: <Enter an effective date> m. Operator: Equal To E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 29 .

Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the ‘Product Classification’ field entered in additional tax information page from the ‘Manage Tax’ link on the purchase order is ‘Office Supplies/Stationeries ’ then apply the rate used in step 2 above. Scroll to the ‘Product Classification’ field and choose the product classification ‘Office Supplies/Stationeries’ from the LOV. Click on Apply and the new tax rate will be used based on the rule created above. The difference is that for inventory based defaulting automatically occurs when we choose the inventory-based items.g. Click on the Actions > Manage Tax link from menu. Example of Intended Use can be recovery tax on alcohol is based on its use. While for noninventory based intended use. There are two types of intended use. the recovery rate will be higher than when it is used for direct ‘Retail Sale’. Click on ‘Additional Tax Information’ button. Value/From Range: <In our case 'Office Supplies/Stationeries'> c. Tax Status: <Defined in step 5> d. Steps: 1. 1. In Oracle Inventory define categories for intended use. the codes for ‘Intended Use’ must be created in e-business tax. the Intended use must be explicitly specified from the ‘Intended Use’ field seen from the ‘Additional Tax Information’ page after navigating to the tax page though the ‘Manage Tax’ link. 6. Inventory Based Non-Inventory Based For upgraded instances intended use is always inventory based. In this whitepaper we will discuss example of inventory based ‘Intended Use’. If it is used for ‘Industrial Manufacturing’. For non-upgrade customers this choice can be made only once. 2. Also for non-inventory based intended use. 5. For e. 8. Tax Rate: < Defined in step 5> Create a purchase order and save. in our case we will define a category called ‘Industrial Use’ and ‘Retail Sales’. 7.4. ii. Intended Use This is used to classify transactions based on purpose for which a product maybe used. (Please refer to the page 4-66 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to create an inventory category) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 30 .

(Please refer to the page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for Assigning Items to Categories and page 4-74 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for defining an item) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 31 .e. Create a new category set and associate the category set with the category created in step 1 above or use the default INTENDED_USE category set.2. we will associate the category ‘Industrial Use’ and ‘Retail Sales’ in the INTENDED_USE Category Set.g. Assign items to the categories defined in step 1. in our case we will create an item ‘Industrial Alcohol’ which is a purchased item with the category ‘Industrial Use’. In our example associate the categories defined in step 1 above to the INTENDED_USE Category Set (This is a seeded category set available by default i. For e. (Please refer to the page 468 of Oracle Inventory User's Guide for steps to update an inventory category to a category set) Figure 13: Intended Use (Inventory Category) 3.

Operator: Equal To E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 32 . Please use the following specification to create the rule.Figure 14: Intended Use (Item Assignment) 4. Create a new recovery rate for your tax. Tax Determining Factor Set i. 5. a. Tax Condition Sets i. Determining Factor Name: Intended Use b. (Follow step 6 in the section ‘TAX SETUP’ below) Create an Expert / Guided Rule as shown in the ‘Tax Rules’ section above. Determining Factor Class: Transaction Input Factor ii.

Document Fiscal Classification: To classify based on the documents required / the type of documents used for the transaction.6. For e. Export Sales User Defined Fiscal Classification: Used for defining transaction based on any other classifications from transaction other then the above mentioned. Value/From Range: <In our case ‘Industrial Use’> (Please note the value of the category segments are concatenated without delimiters therefore query this LOV with value of one of the segments and use the category description to choose the correct segment) c. Seeded Transaction Business Categories • Expense Report • Purchase pre-payment transaction • Purchase transaction • Sales transaction • Sales transaction adjustment • Intercompany transaction New categories can be created under the seeded categories.g. Transaction Fiscal Classification The classification is used to categorize transactions according to the requirements of a tax authority. This is used when the nature of the transaction itself determines the tax and the tax rate that applies. Transaction Business Category: To classify transactions based on the nature of business. For e.g. Tax Recovery Rate: < Defined in step 4> Create a purchase order with category ‘Office Supplies’. The ‘Transaction Fiscal Classification’ must be entered manually from the ‘Additional Tax Information’ page (Purchase Orders > Manage Tax > Click on ‘Additional Tax Information’ button). So users can define a user defined fiscal classification of type ‘Sample Sales’ and create rules to define tax rates for such a transaction. Three Types of Transaction Fiscal Classification’ can be defined in e-business. ii. The recovery rate should be defaulted from the one created in step 4 above. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 33 . a sample sale may invite a lower tax. Therefore the following rule will be applied: If the ‘Intended Use’ of the item in purchase order is ‘Industrial Use’ then apply the recovery rate used in step 4 above.

Tax Rate: In tax rate define the following (Step 5 in ‘TAX SETUP’ section): a) Rate Type: Quantity b) UOM: <Unit of Measure for the purchase> c) Quantity Rate: <Rate of tax per quantity> E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 34 . then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate.Tax in Interface . as was the functionality prior to release 12. unlike the functionality prior to release 12. During AutoCreate the tax will be redefaulted on the purchase order based on the tax determining attributes of the purchase order. TAXABLE_FLAG will be used as an item attribute for item creation in Oracle Inventory to update the taxability of the item. PDOI Tax classification can be provided in the PO_LINES_INTERFACE for overriding the tax line information using the TAX_NAME. Please follow the below mentioned changes in the 1. Requisition Import If the requisition lines interface (PO_REQUISITIONS_INTERFACE_ALL) does not specify any tax details. which will be derived based on the existence of tax lines on the shipment and will not be affected by the TAXABLE_FLAG provided in the interface. taxable flag on the PO document transaction table. In order to define tax based on quantity we can follow the steps mentioned in the ‘TAX SETUP’ section below. Tax classification can be provided for overriding the tax line information. Tax information provided through the interface will be considered as an override and not defaulting information. If TAX_CODE_ID field based on the old AP tax codes is specified. Tax will not be part of shipment grouping criteria so it is possible to have requisition lines with different tax values being grouped into a single PO shipment. Tax information provided through the interface will be considered as an override and not defaulting information. Tax overridden on the requisition will no longer be passed to the purchase order. Tax During AutoCreate During AutoCreate the tax will be redefaulted on the purchase order based on the tax determining attributes of the purchase order. A new field TAX_NAME is introduced in release 12. If tax details are not specified in the interface. TAX_CODE_ID field is supported on the data import for backward compatibility. Tax overridden on the requisition will no longer be passed to the purchase order. Quantity Based Tax One of the features of e-business tax for purchasing is the capability to define tax on the basis of quantity instead of the Line amount. If the PO lines interface (PO_LINES_INTERFACE) does not specify any tax details. However. Tax will be recalculated on the PO document created through autocreate. then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. then ebusiness tax will determine the appropriate tax classification and recovery rate. then the tax classification will be derived and passed on to ebusiness tax. Therefore it should fulfill all the criteria for overriding a tax as mentioned in above under the heading ‘Modifying Tax Information’ (Overriding Tax).

Tax Rule: In tax rules of for the tax. use the following as default value (Step 7 in ‘TAX SETUP’ section): a) Determine Taxable Basis: STANDARD_QUANTITY Figure 16: Quantity Based Tax (Tax Rules) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 35 .Figure 15: Quantity Based Tax (Tax Rate) 2.

define which regimes need to support recovery / Exemptions / Exceptions / Overrides Set up Tax Regime i.TAX SETUP Following are the brief setup steps for defaulting basic tax in purchasing. Click on ‘Next’ to choose the subscriptions for the regime. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Regime) a. Tax setups will be available for tax across legal entities / operating units (use ‘Global Configuration Owner’ as the Configuration Owner in the rest of the setups) or you may use ‘Party Specific’ that only allows tax setups to be used for the specific legal Entity / operating unit or you E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 36 . These steps can be used for performing quick tests for using tax in purchasing. Configuration for Taxes and Rules: Choose if the regime will be available as ‘Common Configuration’ i. Allow Tax Exceptions c. Define the parties (legal Entity / operating unit) that subscribe to this tax. (Responsibility: Tax Managers.A Tax Regime is usually defined for a country b. Controls and defaults – Following options can be checked. Party Subscription Options i. Allow Tax Recovery ii. Based on the business requirement the setups can be complex involving multiple tax rules. d. Regime Level .e. Instead of replicating choices for different OUs. Allow Tax Exemptions iii. ii. 1.

e. d. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. 2. Defaults: Set the following options/defaults. iii. Allow Tax Exemptions h. Allow Tax Recovery Rate Override i. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Set up Tax Taxes) a. Allow Tax Rate Rules: Checked ii. For e. Allow Tax Exceptions ii. Tax Exceptions/Exemptions Controls: Check the following options to allow Tax Exceptions and Tax Exemptions. Default Recovery Settlement: Immediate j. Configurations for Product Exceptions: Choose if the product exceptions can be ‘Common Configuration’ to allow the regime to use product exceptions across all the legal entities / operating units units (use ‘Global Configuration Owner’ as the Configuration Owner when setting up product exceptions) or choose ‘Party-Specific Configuration’ to configure party specific product exceptions. Check the following options to allow tax recovery and override. Parent Geography Type: Based on the geography of the tax regime. Click on ‘Finish’ to save the tax regime. Set to Prorated for tax to arrive at an amount calculated previously. Allow Entry of Manual Tax Lines g.g. may use ‘Common Configuration with Party Overrides’ which will allow you to define portion of the tax setups to be overridden and available only for your specific legal Entity / operating unit. Geography Type: Based on the applicability of the tax to a geography c. VAT. Allow Tax Rounding Override ii. Tax Recovery Controls: Recovery rate is not mandatory and is totally optional. Allow Override for Calculated Tax Lines iii. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. f. i. i. Sales etc. i. i.e. Applied Amount Handling: Recalculated is set by default. the following can be checked for overriding tax rounding/tax line and entry of manual tax line.g. Once the allow recovery rate tab is checked for a tax then it will not be live till recovery rate is defined. Controls: Check the options required for your tax. Tax Type: Based on the type of tax for e. Save the Tax details by clicking on ‘Apply’ E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 37 . Allow Tax Recovery ii.

Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. i. India etc (based on your tax). Geography Name: Name of the jurisdiction geography. Parent Geography Type: Based on the geography of the tax regime. UK. Default Recovery Settlement: Immediate e. Allow Tax Rate Override d. Parent Geography Name: Name of the parent geography. Choose the options required for your tax. Setup Tax Jurisdiction Code 5. Allow Tax Exemptions ii. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Effective From: <specify the effective date> f. Default Tax Jurisdiction Settings: Set the following options / defaults i. Save the Tax Status details by clicking on ‘Apply’ Setup Tax Status 4.3. Default Effective From: <specify the effective date> * There should be at least one default jurisdiction. Rate Details: Click on the icon under the ‘Rate Details’ and set the following. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Rate) a.g. Tax Rate Defaults: Set the following option. if the parent geography type was country. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Set as Default Rate: Checked Setup Tax Rate E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 38 . Geography Type: Based on the applicability of the tax to a geography b. i. c. e. if the geography type was country. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Status) a. For e. Rate Type: Percentage (For calculating the tax rate based on percentage) c. d.g. the geography name could be United States. Set as default Tax Jurisdiction: Checked ii. Percentage Rate: <Set the rate for the tax> d. the geography name could be United States. UK. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Jurisdiction) a. i. Default Controls: Following options are available. India etc (based on your tax). Allow Tax Exceptions iii. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. For e. Set as Default Tax Status: Checked (For defaulting it as the tax status) c.

Click on ‘Apply’ *Tax accounts can to be defined at the tax and rate level. Ledger: Primary Ledger Name ii. Set as Default Rate: Yes iv. f. Recovery rate can to be defined at the tax and rate level. i.e. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Once the allow recovery rate tab is checked for a tax then it will not be live till recovery rate is defined. ii. Setup Tax Recovery Rate* (Responsibility: Tax Managers. Click on ‘Apply’ vi. Determine Taxable Basis: STANDARD_TB v. a. Query the tax for the Configuration Owner (Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1) b. Save the Tax Rate details by clicking on ‘Apply’ *There can be multiple taxes under a regime. Setup the following default rule types i. If defined at both the places then rate level takes precedence. If defined at both the places then rate level takes precedence. Click on ‘Create’ iii. Calculate Tax Amounts: STANDARD_TC Setup Tax Rules Update Tax 8. 7. Determine Tax Registration: Ship From Party iv. Tax Recoverable/Liability: <Enter the code combination for this account> v. to make it available for transactions Query the Tax E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 39 . multiple statuses under a tax and multiple tax rates under a status. Recovery Rate Periods: Set up the following values i. Effective From: <specify the effective date> iii. Percentage Recovery Rate: <Recovery Rate%> ii. Default Effective From: <specify the effective date> *Recovery rate is not mandatory and is totally optional. Configuration Owner: <Based on the tax regime setup for ‘Configuration for Taxes and Rules’ in Step 1> b. Default Effective From: <Date effective> Tax Accounts: Click on the icon under the ‘Tax Accounts’ and set the following. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Recovery Rules) a. Navigation: Tax Configuration > Tax Recovery Rate) a. Determine Place of Supply: Ship To ii. 6. Determine Tax Applicability: Applicable iii. Operating Unit: <Enter the value of Operating Unit> iv.

following setups are required. Enabled: Checked Setup Configuration Owner Tax Options Setup Application Tax Options* 10. Defaulting Order 2: <Choose from the drop down list> vi. d. Entity Name: Purchase Order iii. 9. Update the following option: i.e. Application Name: Purchasing iv. (i. Defaulting Order 3: <Choose from the drop down list> vii. In the Main Tab check on ‘Allow Tax Applicability’. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. For e. Check ‘Set for Self Assessment / Reverse Charge’ if this is a selfassessed tax. Supplier Site. b. Operating Unit: Vision <Operating Unit> iii. Navigation: Defaults and Controls > Application Tax Options) i.Tax Hierarchy’.g. Set up the following for enabling tax on Purchase Orders i. Defaulting Order 1: <Choose from the drop down list> v. Navigation: Defaults and Controls > Configuration Owner Tax Options) a. Make Tax Available for Transactions: Checked ii.b. Application Name: Purchasing iv. Defaulting Order 4: <Choose from the drop down list> viii. Apply the changes. Ship-To Location or Payables Financial Options). Effective From: <specify the effective date> v. In the tax page navigate to Parties > Party Tax Profiles. f. c. Click on update icon (Pencil icon). a. Choose ‘Party Type’ as “Third Party” and query the Supplier in the ‘Party Name’ for whom you like to define the tax. Defaulting Order 5: <Choose from the drop down list> *Defining ‘Application Owner Tax Options’ is optional 11. (Responsibility: Tax Managers. e. Setup Tax on Source: Depending on the source from where tax needs to be defaulted. Default Primary Recovery Rate*: <Choose the setup in step 6 from the LOV> c. for supplier. Application Tax Options: <Operating Unit> ii. Navigate to Tax Registrations tab and click on ‘Create’ button and add the tax regimes/taxes applicable to the supplier. Configuration Owner: <As defined in the tax regime> ii. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 40 . Event Class: Purchase Order and Agreement vi. Item. please define the setups as mentioned in the section for ‘Application Tax Options . Supplier.

receivables etc. Each tax code will be migrated with each tax code having its regime to rate flow. but will not have an associated regime to rate flow in e-business tax. The tax was operating unit based.e. Also. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 41 . 1. In release 12 a centralized repository will be used to store taxes from across applications. the operating unit will still continue to own the tax. This means that the tax regimes for migrated taxes will subscribe to party with ‘Operating Unit Owning the Tax Setup’ i. including the tax codes within a tax group. Each tax code. If tax codes are not part of any tax groups then there will be no Direct Rate Determination rule. 2. migrates to EBusiness Tax as a tax classification code. Click on Actions > Manage Tax to navigate to the tax details page. a shortcut approach is used to calculate taxes based on the passed Tax Classification Code. The tax group will also be migrated as a tax classification. All other Regime Determination Templates must use location based determining factors. Payables and Purchasing tax codes migrate as input tax classification codes. A new Regime Determination Template Standard Tax Classification Code (STCC) will be created during migration using determining factor of Tax Classification Code -which will indicate that the tax calculation would be based on the old Release 11i approach. In release 11i. with the operating unit owning the tax setup. You may define additional rules to determine taxes to be defaulted on a transaction.12. The tax used in purchasing was stored in payables and tax calculation API’s from payables were called for determining tax amount. UPGRADE CONSIDERATIONS Following are some of the important impacts upon upgrade. tax was maintained separately for payables. Since the upgrade path for release 12 is only though 11i. When the template is STCC. The tax setup will be upgraded as partyspecific configuration owners. To group all related taxes classifications under its related tax group. This is a special Regime Determination Template which does not use Location based Determining Factors. this article would discuss only impacts on purchasing perspective. we will only be considering this release in our considerations for upgrade. with a supplier defined in step 11 above and save the purchase order. 3. This will be available as ‘Regime Determination Set’ on the configuration tax owner option for the ‘Operating Unit Owning Tax Content’. Create a Purchase Order You could also view a demonstration of the tax setups for purchasing though the viewlets attached with this white paper. a direct rate determination rule is created during migration that will be based on the tax classification code that has the same name as tax group code.

For each of these Tax Jurisdictions. It will then call ebusiness tax API's to calculate tax. 1. Direct Rate Determination Rules for the defaulted tax classification code would determine the applicability of one or more taxes on a taxable line. Tax. Once the tax lines are calculated. COUNTY. 5. E-Business Tax includes the tax classification code field as part of the supplier or supplier site party tax profile. Both these hierarchies will be independent of the other unlike 11i tax hierarchy where payables based hierarchy could be used in purchasing. The upgrade will automatically create Tax Jurisdictions for each Tax Zone within the context of a Regime and Tax. 4. 3. Release 11i Purchasing and Payables defaulting hierarchy are upgraded to Application Tax Options for each OU separately for Purchasing and Payables respectively. 9. 6. 2. Purchasing will populate tax-determining attributes to global temporary tables. For more detailed impact please refer to the Oracle Applications Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 and Oracle Financials and Oracle Procurement Functional Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12. the upgrade will create a Tax Jurisdiction Rate with a percentage rate associated with the relevant tax Regime. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 42 . appropriate tables in ebusiness tax is populated with tax details and the purchasing tables are updated to indicate taxable line. Supplier and supplier sites migrate to Trading Community Architecture (TCA) as TCA parties and party sites. taxes or jurisdictions. 7. as well as the ability in Release 12 to define registration status that can be used in rules. CITY and POSTAL CODES as well as TAX ZONES to cover ZIP code ranges or groups of ZIP ranges with the same GEO code.4. DATA FLOW Following is the mechanism of calls to the ebusiness tax to calculate tax. Additional Release 12 functionality is available to define multiple registrations for the same party and different regimes. Tax Registrations defined at HR locations or HR Organization levels in Release 11i are upgraded as Tax Registrations at Party Tax Profile for Legal Establishments. For these parties. The current recovery rates will be upgraded as "primary" recovery rates with the Release 11i Accounting based recovery rules upgraded as Recovery Rate Rules. The data from the global temporary tables will be deleted. For Location based taxes. Tax Status (STANDARD) and Tax Jurisdiction. location values will be upgraded into the Trading Community Architecture (TCA) Geography model as legislative geography elements such as STATE. 8.

Tax Status: ZX_STATUS_B d. Tax Jurisdictions: ZX_JURISDICTIONS_B f. SELECT * FROM zx_status_b WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. SELECT * FROM zx_taxes_b WHERE DECODE('&tax_name'. SELECT * FROM zx_rates_b WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'.tax) = nvl('&tax_name'. Tax Rules: ZX_RULES_B To get a dump of the eTax setups. Please provide the tax regime code when prompted. Taxes: ZX_TAXES_B c.'xxx'.tax) = nvl('&tax_name'.'xxx'. Tax Rates: ZX_RATES_B e.'xxx') AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'.Following are the main ebusiness tax tables that will contain the setup information that will help support in troubleshooting ebusiness tax information.'xxx') AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. SELECT * FROM zx_regimes_b WHERE tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. you can use the following set of queries. SELECT * FROM zx_jurisdictions_b WHERE DECODE('&tax_name'.null. Tax Regimes: ZX_REGIMES_B b. SELECT * FROM zx_rules_b E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 43 . a. If the issue is limited to a tax then provide the tax name when prompted else please leave it blank.null.

This is linked to the PO_DISTRIBUTIONS_ALL. ZX_LINES_DET_FACTORS: This table holds all the information of the tax line transaction for both the requisitions as well as the purchase orders/releases.WHERE tax = '&tax_name' AND tax_regime_code = '&tax_regime_code'. RECOVERABLE_TAX: Recoverable tax amount NONRECOVERABLE_TAX: Non Recoverable tax amount d. This is linked to the PO_HEADERS_ALL. If the distribution is recoverable then the flag will be set to Y and there will be values in the RECOVERY_TYPE_CODE and RECOVERY_RATE_CODE. TRX_ID: Transaction ID.PO_HEADER_ID TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID.REQUISITION_HEADER_ID / PO_HEADERS_ALL. This is linked to the PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. Following are the main ebusiness tax tables that will contain the transaction information that will have the tax details after tax is calculated.PO_HEADER_ID TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. TRX_ID: Transaction ID. a. ZX_LINES: This table will have the tax lines for associated with PO/Release schedules.PO_DISTRIBUTION_ID RECOVERABLE_FLAG: Recoverable Flag.LINE_LOCATION_ID TRX_LINE_DIST_ID: Transaction Line Distribution ID. TRX_ID: Transaction ID. This is linked to the PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL.LINE_LOCATION_ID b.PO_HEADER_ID E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 44 . This is linked to the PO_HEADERS_ALL. ZX_REC_NREC_DIST: This table will have the tax distributions for associated with PO/Release distributions. This is linked to the PO_REQUISITION_HEADERS_ALL. PO_REQ_DISTRIBUTIONS_ALL: This table will have the tax distributions for associated with Requisition distribution. c.

Ship To/Bill To information is required for calculation of location-based tax. For location-based taxes it should be Determine Applicable Regime. party specific. Depending upon the set up above check whether the configuration owner has subscribed to the regime. For the configuration owner (OU or LE) as determined above check the Configuration Owner Tax Option for the event class.Party tax profile of Operating Unit. This is linked to the PO_REQUISITION_LINES_ALL. For detailed steps please review the tax simulator viewlet attached to metalink Document ID (Note) for this whitepaper. Navigate to the Oracle Tax Simulator and enter the Header and Line information as appropriate. 3. Check that every set up entity is effective for the transaction date. Check whether the OU has subscribed to LE setups.g. check following tax set ups. 2. Useful Tips: 1. Check the Regime Determination Set. Troubleshooting Tips 1. Check the configuration option e. Ship from Ship to and Bill From Bill to LOVs change depending upon the application selected. Tax Simulator helps on audit trail with respect to which Tax Rules were satisfied in calculating a particular tax.LINE_LOCATION_ID TROUBLESHOOTING Tax Simulator Simulator is a powerful user interface too that can be used to simulate Tax Calculation based on what-if scenarios. common configuration or common with party override.REQUISITION_LINE_ID / PO_LINE_LOCATIONS_ALL. It gives flexibility to test new and/or changed tax rules. First Party locations need to be associated with the legal establishment for the tax simulator to calculate tax. Determine the configuration owner subscription . Check the Tax Applicability flag. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 45 . party specific configurations. Check for the Tax Applicability flag at main tab and at registration tab Regime to Rate Flow: Depending upon the regime subscription option e. You can start using the Oracle Tax Simulator by attaching this responsibility to your user. Check that one status is default and every status has a default 2. Click on ‘Tax Lines’ to display the tax lines for your tax.g. Check the Party Tax Profile of the Third Party (supplier) and third party site (supplier site).TRX_LINE_ID: Transaction Line ID. 4.

Obtain the AUDSID for your login. Check whether the tax is by default Applicable. 3. Just before saving the PO/Requisition. Set the following profile options on at user level for the user saving the purchase order. (* Sometime AUDSID is not available for a few customers Please ignore this step in such a case) 4. Save the purchase order / requisition and then stop immediately afterwards by. Now change the responsibility to purchasing and open the Purchase Order/Requisition Form where this issue is happening and enter the details. FND: Debug Log Enabled = 'Y' FND: Debug Log Level = 'Statement' FND: Debug Log Module = % 2. you will find the AUDSID field.trc <filename>. Tax Log and File Versions If there is an error while calculation please use the Note 417238. 1. 5. turn trace on by: Help > Diagnostics > Trace > Trace with Binds 6. 5. check that every jurisdiction has a default rate. There should be at least one valid jurisdiction for the place of supply determined. For obtaining this. Go to Help->About Oracle Applications. Below are the information that will be sufficient for Oracle Support to progress the service request for any ebusiness tax calculation issues. 9.rate. SQL> select max(log_sequence) from fnd_log_messages. Tax Rules: Check the default place of supply or the rule for the tax.1 to obtain the tax debug log. If not then at least one rule must be satisfied. In case of jurisdiction specific rates.out explain=<found username/password> E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 46 . Obtain the max log sequence using the following query. Help > Diagnostics > Trace > No Trace 8. Please retrieve trace with tkprof. Run the trace file through tkprof as follows: tkprof <filename>. perform the following from just before opening Purchase Order / Requisition form. You will get a message showing the location of the trace file.

trc file1234. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 47 .example: tkprof file1234. Please get the debug log using the following query. * If the AUDSID is not available please use the following query to retrieve the tax log.out explain=<apps/apps> 10. 11. Navigate to Purchasing/Purchasing Super User/System Administrator Responsibility. SQL> select * from fnd_log_messages where log_sequence > <output from step1> and (module like 'ZX%' or module like 'zx%) and audsid = <audsid from step 3 above> order by log_sequence. Provide the output of ‘Diagnostics: Appscheck’ concurrent program. Click on View > Request and Click on Submit a New Request Click on OK for option Single Request Choose the concurrent program Diagnostics: Apps Check Select the following parameters Application1= Ebusiness Tax Application2 = Purchasing Submit the Request and upload the output of the program for validating the file version information. SQL> select * from fnd_log_messages where log_sequence > <output from step1> and (module like 'ZX%' or module like 'zx%) and user_id = (SELECT user_id FROM fnd_user where user_name = ‘&Username’) order by log_sequence.

1 Oracle E-Business Tax Release 12 Known Issues How to obtain tax debug logfile when using application version 12 or higher FAQ: Purchasing Integration With E-Business Tax Oracle E-Business Tax key benefits.1 Note 397158. 2. 3. Tax Log Shows 'Error Unable To Get The HQ_ESTB_PARTY_TAX_PROF_ID For Legal_Entity xx' Oracle E-Business Tax Documentation Resources. Oracle E-Business Tax Implementation Guide Oracle E-Business Tax User Guide Oracle Financials and Oracle Procurement Functional Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 Oracle Applications Upgrade Guide: Release 11i to Release 12 (zipped) Note 458218. some new features and resource material R12 Unexpected Error Occurred During Tax Calculation R12 Oracle E-Business Tax Configuration Defaulted Tax Rate From E-Business Tax Cannot Be Overriden E-Business Tax Calculation Issues After Entering The Next Line/ Deleting Shipments/ Adding New Shipments in Purchase Order Defaulted Tax Rate From E-Business Tax Cannot Be Overriden E-Business Tax Calculation Error Occurs.1 Note 398841.1 Note 458218.APPENDIX References Note 406376.1 Note 415698.1 Note 461844.1 What to do with E-Business tax and Legal Entity SRs? E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 48 . Release 12 1.1 Note 417238.1 Note 458320.1 Note 437693.1 Oracle Internal References Note 419415.1 Note 456310. 4.

Tax Determination Attributes Requisitions ======= Header ---------Requisition Type Transaction Currency Tax Header (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax) ---------------Taxation Country Document Sub-type Line ------Item Unit of Measure Quantity Unit Price Amount Need-by Date Tax Classification Ship-to Organization Ship-to Location Supplier Supplier Site Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) --------------------------------Business Category Intended Use User-defined Fiscal Classification Product Fiscal Classification Product Category Assessable Value Distribution --------------Quantity Amount Charge Account Tax Recovery Rate Project Task E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 49 .

Award Expenditure Type Expenditure Organization Expenditure Date Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Intended Use POs/Releases ========= Header ----------PO Document Type Transaction Currency Rate Type Rate Date Rate FOB Supplier Supplier Site Bill-to Location Provisional Tax Determination Date (for Consumption Advice Orders) Tax Header (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax) ---------------Taxation Country Document Sub-type Line -----Item Unit of Measure Unit Price Shipment ------------Quantity Amount Need-by Date Tax Classification Ship-to Organization Ship-to Location Source Document (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 50 .

Muhittin. E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective Page 51 . Mani. I am very grateful to Chandu Tadanki for his constant encouragement and support. Thanks to Anand Naik for providing guidance at various situations.Source Shipment (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Business Category Intended Use User-defined Fiscal Classification Product Fiscal Classification Product Category Assessable Value Distribution ---------------Quantity Amount Account CCID Tax Recovery Rate Project Task Award Expenditure Type Expenditure Organization Expenditure Date Source Distribution (for Scheduled Releases of Planned PO) Additional Tax Attributes (Navigation: Tools > Manage Tax > Additional Tax Information) -------------------------------Intended Use (defaults from shipment level) Acknowledgement I wish to record my sincere appreciation towards: My team mates Ajith. Also Anand Naik and Vasvi Kedia from Product Management. A Special thankyou to Andrea Balasuriya from Product Release Readiness Team for constantly providing help from every direction. Selvan and Subhashini for all their help and feedback in completing this document. Ranjith Palani and Rajalingam Ramaswamy of Product Development Team. and Clarina Allen and Janet Flores from Procurement Support team for reviewing this whitepaper.

Worldwide Inquiries: Phone: +1.650. PeopleSoft. whether expressed orally or implied in law. .com Copyright © 2007. This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic or mechanical.A. Oracle. JD Edwards.506. Oracle. for any purpose. We specifically disclaim any liability with respect to this document and no contractual obligations are formed either directly or indirectly by this document. including implied warranties and conditions of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.650.7200 oracle. nor subject to any other warranties or conditions.7000 Fax: +1. and Siebel are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. This document is provided for information purposes only and the contents hereof are subject to change without notice. All rights reserved.E-business Tax – A Purchasing Perspective October 2007 Author: Varkey Joseph Oracle Corporation World Headquarters 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. without our prior written permission. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.506. This document is not warranted to be error-free. CA 94065 U.S.

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