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# SASURIE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, VIJAYAMANGALAM

ENGINEERING

## STAFF NAME:E POONGODI

V DEEPIKA
(FOR FIFTH SEMESTER ECE)

## 1.Define the line parameters?

The parameters of a transmission line are:
Resistance (R)
Inductance (L)
Capacitance (C)
Conductance (G)
Resistance (R) is defined as the loop resistance per unit length of the wire. Its
unit is ohm/Km
Inductance (L) is defined as the loop inductance per unit length of the wire. Its
unit is Henry/Km
Capacitance (C) is defined as the loop capacitance per unit length of the wire. Its
unit is Farad/Km
Conductance (G) is defined as the loop conductance per unit length of the wire.
Its unit is mho/Km

2. What are the secondary constants of a line? Why the line parameters are called
distributed elements?

## The secondary constants of a line are:

Characteristic Impedance
Propagation Constant

Since the line constants R, L, C, G are distributed through the entire length of the
line, they are called as distributed elements. They are also called as primary constants.

## 3. Define Characteristic impedance

Characteristic impedance is the impedance measured at the sending end of the
line. It is given by Z0 = Z/Y,where
Z = R + jωL is the series impedance
Y = G + jωC is the shunt admittance
4. Define Propagation constant
Propagation constant is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of the
sending end current or voltage to the receiving end current or voltage of the line. It gives
the manner in the wave is propagated along a line and specifies the variation of voltage
and current in the line as a function of distance. Propagation constant is a complex
quantity and is expressed as
γ =α+jβ
The real part is called the attenuation constant α whereas the imaginary part of
propagation constant is called the phase constant β

## 5.What is a finite line? Write down the significance of this line?

A finite line is a line having a finite length on the line. It is a line, which is
terminated, in its characteristic impedance (ZR=Z0), so the input impedance of the finite
line is equal to the characteristic impedance (Zs=Z0).

## 6.What is an infinite line?

An infinite line is a line in which the length of the transmission line is infinite.
A finite line, which is terminated in its characteristic impedance, is termed as infinite
line. So for an infinite line, the input impedance is equivalent to the characteristic
impedance.

## 7.What is wavelength of a line?

The distance the wave travels along the line while the phase angle is changing
through 2Π radians is called a wavelength.

## 8.What are the types of line distortions?

The distortions occurring in the transmission line are called waveform
distortion or line distortion. Waveform distortion is of two types:
a) Frequency distortion
b) Phase or Delay Distortion.

## 9.How frequency distortion occurs in a line?

When a signal having many frequency components are transmitted along the
line, all the frequencies will not have equal attenuation and hence the received end
waveform will not be identical with the input waveform at the sending end because each
frequency is having different attenuation. This type of distortion is called frequency
distortion.

## 10.How to avoid the frequency distortion that occurs in the line?

In order to reduce frequency distortion occurring in the line,
a) The attenuation constant α should be made independent of frequency.
b) By using equalizers at the line terminals which minimize the frequency
distortion. Equalisers are networks whose frequency and phase
characteristics are adjusted to be inverse to those of the lines, which result
in a uniform frequency response over the desired frequency band, and
hence the attenuation is equal for all the frequencies.

## 11.What is delay distortion?

When a signal having many frequency components are transmitted along the
line, all the frequencies will not have same time of transmission, some frequencies being
delayed more than others. So the received end waveform will not be identical with the
input waveform at the sending end because some frequency components will be delayed
more than those of other frequencies. This type of distortion is called phase or delay
distortion.

12. How to avoid the Delay distortion that occurs in the line?
In order to reduce frequency distortion occurring in the line,
a) The phase constant β should be made dependent of frequency.
b) The velocity of propagation is independent of frequency.
c) By using equalizers at the line terminals which minimize the frequency
distortion. Equalizers are networks whose frequency and phase
characteristics are adjusted to be inverse to those of the lines, which
result in a uniform frequency response over the desired frequency
band, and hence the phase is equal for all the frequencies.

13.What is a distortion less line? What is the condition for a distortion less line?
A line, which has neither frequency distortion nor phase distortion is called a
distortion less line. The condition for a distortion less line is RC=LG. Also,
a) The attenuation constant α should be made independent of frequency.
b) The phase constant β should be made dependent of frequency.
d) The velocity of propagation is independent of frequency.

## 14.What is the drawback of using ordinary telephone cables?

In ordinary telephone cables, the wires are insulated with paper and twisted in
pairs, therefore there will not be flux linkage between the wires, which results in
negligible inductance, and conductance. If this is the case, the there occurs frequency and
phase distortion in the line.

## 15.How the telephone line can be made a distortion less line?

For the telephone cable to be distortion less line, the inductance value should
be increased by placing lumped inductors along the line.

16.What is Loading?
Loading is the process of increasing the inductance value by placing lumped
inductors at specific intervals along the line, which avoids the distortion
17.What are the types of loading?
a) Continuous loading
b) Patch loading
c) Lumped loading

## 18.What is continuous loading?

Continuous loading is the process of increasing the inductance value by
placing a iron core or a magnetic tape over the conductor of the line.

## 19.What is patch loading?

It is the process of using sections of continuously loaded cables separated by
sections of unloaded cables which increases the inductance value

## 20.What is lumped loading?

Lumped loading is the process of increasing the inductance value by placing
lumped inductors at specific intervals along the line, which avoids the distortion

## 21.Define reflection coefficient

Reflection Coefficient can be defined as the ratio of the reflected voltage to the
incident voltage at the receiving end of the line
Reflection Coefficient K=Reflected Voltage at load /Incident voltage at the load
K=Vr/Vi

## 22. Define reflection loss

Reflection loss is defined as the number of nepers or decibels by which the
current in the load under image matched conditions would exceed the current actually
flowing in the load

## 23.What is Impedance matching?

If the load impedance is not equal to the source impedance, then all the power
that are transmitted from the source will not reach the load end and hence some power is
wasted. This is called impedance mismatch condition. So for proper maximum power
transfer, the impedances in the sending and receiving end are matched. This is called
impedance matching.

## 24. Define the term insertion loss

The insertion loss of a line or network is defined as the number of nepers or
decibels by which the current in the load is changed by the insertion .
Insertion loss=Current flowing in the load without insertion of the
network/Current flowing in the load with insertion of the network
25.When reflection occurs in a line?
Reflection occurs because of the following cases:
1) when the load end is open circuited
2) when the load end is short-circuited
3) when the line is not terminated in its characteristic impedance
When the line is either open or short circuited, then there is not resistance at the
receiving end to absorb all the power transmitted from the source end. Hence all the
power incident on the load gets completely reflected back to the source causing
reflections in the line. When the line is terminated in its characteristic impedance, the
load will absorb some power and some will be reflected back thus producing reflections.

26.What are the conditions for a perfect line? What is a smooth line?
For a perfect line, the resistance and the leakage conductance value were
neglected. The conditions for a perfect line are R=G=0.
A smooth line is one in which the load is terminated by its characteristic
impedance and no reflections occur in such a line. It is also called as flat line.

12 MARKS
1. Obtain the general solution of Transmission line?
2. Explain about waveform distortion and distortion less line condition?
3. Explain about reflection loss?
4. Discuss in details about inductance loading of telephone cables and derive the
attenuation constant (i) and phase constant (ii) and velocity of signal transmission
(v) for the uniformly loaded cable?
5. Derive the equation of attenuation constant and phase constant of TL in terms of R,
L, C, G?
6. Explain in details about the reflection on a line not terminated in its
characteristic impedance (z0)?
7. Explain in following terms
(i) Reflection factor (ii) Reflection loss (iii) Return loss
8. Explain about physical significance of TL?
9. Derive the equation for transfer impedance?
10. Derive the expression for input impedance of lossless line?
11. Explain about telephone cable?
12. Explain about different type of TL?
UNIT II-RADIO FREQUENCY LINE

1. State the assumptions for the analysis of the performance of the radio frequency
line.
1.Due to the skin effect ,the currents are assumed to flow on the surface of the
conductor. The internal inductance is zero.
2.The resistance R increases with  f while inductance L increases with f .
Hence L>>R.
3.The leakage conductance G is zero

2.State the expressions for inductance L of a open wire line and coaxial line.
For open wire line ,

-7 -7
L=9.21*10 (/r +4ln d/a)=10 (r+9.21log d/a) H/m

## For coaxial line,

-7
L = 4.60*10 [log b/a]H/m

## 3.State the expressions for the capacitance of a open wire line

For open wire line ,

C=(12.07)/(ln d/a)µµf/m

## 4.What is dissipationless line?

A line for which the effect of resistance R is completely neglected is called
dissipationless line .

5.What is the nature and value of Z0 for the dissipation less line?
For the dissipation less line, the Z0 is purley resistive and given by,
Z0=R0 =  L/c

Answer:
0 and = LC

## 7.What are nodes and antinodes on a line?

The points along the line where magnitude of voltage or current is zero are
called nodes while the the points along the lines where magnitude of voltage or current
first maximum are called antinodes or loops.

## 8.What is standing wave ratio?

The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of voltage or current on a
line having standing waves called standing waves ratio
Emax Imin
S=  = 
Emin Imin
8.What is the range of values of standing wave ratio?

## The range of values of standing wave ratio is theoretically 1 to infinity.

9.State the relation between standing wave ratio and reflection coefficient.

Ans: S= 1+K

1-K

## 10.What are standing waves?

If the transmission is not terminated in its characteristic impedance ,then there
will be two waves traveling along the line which gives rise to standing waves having
fixed maxima and fixed minima.

## 11.What is called standing wave ratio?

The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of current or voltage on a line
having standing wave is called the standing-wave ratio S. That is,

S= E max = I max

Emin I min

12.State the relation between standing were ratio S and reflection co-efficient k.
The relation between standing wave ratio S and reflection co-efficient k is,
1+ k
S =
1- k

S-1
Also k =
S+1
13. How will you make standing wave measurements on coaxial lines?
For coaxial lines it is necessary to use a length of line in which a
longitudinal
slot, one half wavelength or more long has been cut. A wire probe is inserted
into the air dielectric of the line as a pickup device, a vacuum tube voltmeter or
other detector being connected between probe and sheath as an indicator. If the
meter provides linear indications, S is readily determined. If the indicator is non
linear, corrections must be applied to the readings obtained.

## 14.Give the input impedance of a dissipationless line.

The input impedance of a dissipationless line is given by,

Z s = Es = R0 1+ k <
 -2s
Is 1- k < -2s

15.Give the maximum and minimum input impedance of the dissipationless line.
Maximum input impedance,

R max = R0 1+ k
1- k

=sRo
Minimum input
impedance,

R min = Ro 1+ k
1- k

=
Ro
S

## 16.Give the input impedance of open and short circuited lines.

The input impedance of open aned short circuited lines are given by,
2 s
Zsc = jRo tan

17.Why the point of voltage minimum is measured rather than voltage
maximum?
The point of a voltage minimum is measured rather than a voltage
maximum because it is usually possible to determine the exact point of
minimum voltage with greater accuracy.

## 18. What is the use of eighth wave line?

An eighth wave line is used to transform any resistance to an impendence with a
magnitude equal to Roof the line or to obtain a magnitude match between a resistance of
any value and a source of Ro internal resistance.
19. Give the input impendence of eighth wave line terminated in a pure resistance
Rr.
The input impendence of eighth wave line terminated in a pure resistance Rr. Is
given by

Zs =
(ZR+jRo/Ro+jZR)
From the above equation it is seen that
Zs = Ro.

## 20. Why is a quarter wave line called as impendence inverter?

A quater wave line may be considered as an impendence inverter because it can
transform a low impendence in to ahigh impendence and vice versa.

## 21. What is the application of the quarter wave matching section ?

An important application of the quarter wave matching sectionis to a couple a
transmission line to a resistive load such as an antenna .The quarter –wave matching
section then must be designed to have a characteristic impendence Ro so chosen that the
antenna resistance Ra is transformed to a value equal to the characteristic impendence Ra
of the transmission line.The characteristic impendence Ro of the matching section
then should be

Ro’ =  Ra
Ro

## 22. What do you mean by copper insulators?

An application of the short circuited quarter wave line is an insulator to support
an open wire line or the center conductor of a coaxial line .This application makes se of
the fact that the input impendence of a quarter –wave shorted line is very high ,Such lines
are sometimes referred to as copper insulators.

## 23. Bring out the significance of a half wavelength line.

A half wavelength line may be considered as a one- to – one
transformer. It has its greatest utility in connecting load to a source in cases where the
load source cannot be made adjacent.

## 24. Give some of the impendence –matching devices.

The quarter – wave line or transformer and the tapered line are some of the
impendence –matching devices.

## 25. Explain impendence matching using stub.

In the method of impendence matching using stub ,an open or closed stub line of
suitable length is used as a reactance shunted across the transmission line at a designated
distance from the load ,to tune the length of the line and the load to resonance with an
antiresonant resistance equal to Ro.

26.Give reasons for preferring a short- circuited stub when compared to an open –
circuited stub.
A short circuited stub is preferred to an open circuited stub because of
greater ease in constructions and because of the inability to maintain high enough
insulation resistance at the open –circuit point to ensure that the stub is really open-
circuited .A shorted stub also has a lower loss of energy due to radiation ,since the short –
circuit can be definitely established with a large metal plate ,effectively stopping all field
propagation.

27.What are the two independent measurements that must be made to find the
location and length of the stub.
The standing wave ratio S and the position of a voltage minimum are the
independent measurements that must be made to find the location and length of the stub.

28.Give the formula to calculate the distance of the point from the load at which the
stub is to be connected.
The formula to calculate the distance of the point from the load at which the
stub is to be connected is,

-1
S1 = ( +π-cos |K|)/(2β)

29. Give the formula to calculate the distance d from the voltage minimum to the
point stub be connection.
The formula to calculate the distance d from the voltage minimum to the point of
stub be connection is,

-1
d= cos |K| / (2β)

30. Give the formula to calculate the length of the short circuited stub.
The formula to calculate the length of the short circuited stub is,

-1
L=λ/2Π tan (√s/(s-1))

## This is the length of the short – circuited stub to be placed d meters

towards the load from a point at which a voltage minimum existed before
attachment of the stub.

## 31. What is the input impendence equation of a dissipation less line ?

The input impendence equation of a dissipation less line is given by

(Zs/Ro)=(1+|K|(Ф-2βs)/ (1-|K|(Ф-2βs)

## 32.Give the equation for the radius of a circle diagram.

The equation for the radius of a circle diagram is

2
R=(S -1)/2S and

2
C = (S +1)/2S
Where C is the shift of the center of the circle on the positive Ra axis.

## 33.What is the use of a circle diagram?

The circle diagram may be used to find the input impendence of a line mof any
chosen length.

34. How is the circle diagram useful to find the input impendence of short and open
circuited lines?
An open circuited line has s =  ,the correspondent circle appearing as the
vertical axis .The input impendence is then pure reactance , with the value for various
electrical
lengths determined by the intersections of the corresponding s circles with the
vertical axis.

A short circuited line may be solved by determining its amittance .The S circle is
again the vertical axis, and susceptance values may be read off at appropriate intersection
of the s circles with the vertical axis.

## 35. List the applications of the smith chart.

The applications of the smith chart are,
(i) It is used to find the input impendence and input admittance of the line.
(ii) The smith chart may also be used for lossy lines and the locus of points on a
line then follows a spiral path towards the chart center, due to attenuation.
(iii) In single stub matching

## 36. What are the difficulties in single stub matching?

The difficulties of the smith chart are
(i) Single stub impedance matching requires the stub to be located
at a definite point on the line. This requirement frequently calls
for placement of the stub at an undesirable place from a
mechanical view point.
(ii) For a coaxial line, it is not possible to determine the location of
a voltage minimum without a slotted line section, so that
placement of a stub at the exact required point is difficult.
(iii) In the case of the single stub it was mentioned that two
adjustments were required ,these being location and length of
the stub.

## 37. What is double stub matching?

Another possible method of impedance matching is to use two stubs in which the
locations of the stub are arbitrary,the two stub lengths furnishing the required
adjustments.The spacing is frequently made λ/4.This is called double stub matching.

38. Give reason for an open line not frequently employed for impedance
matching.
An open line is rarely used for impedance matching because of radiation losses
from the open end,and capacitance effects and the difficulty of a smooth adjustment of
length.

## 39. State the use of half wave line .

The expression for the input impendence of the line is given by
Zs = Zr

Thus the line repeats is terminating impedance .Hence it is operated as one to one
transformer .Its application is to connect load to a source where they can not be made
adjacent.

40. Why Double stub matching is preferred over single stub matching.
Double stub matching is preferred over single stub due to following
disadvantages of single stub.

## 1. Single stub matching is useful for a fixed frequency . So as frequency changes

the location of single stub will have to be changed.
2. The single stub matching system is based on the measurement of voltage
minimum .Hence for coxial line it is very difficult to get such voltage
minimum, without using slotted line section.

12 MARKS
1. Explain about half wave transformer?
2. Application of smith chart?
3. Explain about voltage and current waveform of dissipation less line?
4. Derive the expression for the input impedance of the dissipation less line and the
expression for the input impedance of a quarter wave line. Also discuss the application
of quarter wave line?
5. Explain single stub matching on a transmission line and derive the expression and the
length of the stub used for matching on a line?
6. Design a single stub match for a load of 150+j225 ohms for a 75 ohms line at 500MHz
using smith chart?
7. A 30 m long lossless transmission line with characteristic impedance (zo) of 50 ohm is
terminated by a load impedance (ZL) = 60 + j40 ohm. The operating wavelength is
90m. find the input impedance and SWR using smith chart?
8. Explain double stub matching on a transmission line and derive the expression and the
length of the stub used for matching on a line?
9. Explain about / 8 wave transformer?
10. explain about properties of
smith chart?
UNIT III-GUIDED WAVES

## 1. What are guided waves? Give examples

The electromagnetic waves that are guided along or over conducting or
dielectric surface are called guided waves.
Examples: Parallel wire, transmission lines

## 2. What is TE wave or H wave?

Transverse electric (TE) wave is a wave in which the electric field
strength E is entirely transverse. It has a magnetic field strength Hz in the direction
of propagation and no component of electric field Ez in the same direction

## 3. What is TH wave or E wave?

Transverse magnetic (TM) wave is a wave in which the magnetic field
strength H is entirely transverse. It has a electric field strength Ez in the direction
of propagation and no component of magnetic field Hz in the same direction

## 4. What is a TEM wave or principal wave?

TEM wave is a special type of TM wave in which an electric field E
along the direction of propagation is also zero. The TEM waves are waves in which both
electric and magnetic fields are transverse entirely but have no components of Ez and
Hz.it is also referred to as the principal wave.

## 5. What is a dominant mode?

The modes that have the lowest cut off frequency is called the dominant
mode.

## 6. Give the dominant mode for TE and TM waves

Dominant mode: TE10 and TM10

## 7. What is cut off frequency?

The frequency at which the wave motion ceases is called cut-off frequency
of the waveguide.

## 8. What is cut-off wavelength?

It is the wavelength below which there is wave propagation and above
which there is no wave propagation.

9. Write down the expression for cut off frequency when the wave is propagated in
between two parallel plates.
1/2
The cut-off frequency, fc = m/ (2a () )

## 10. Mention the characteristics of TEM waves.

a) It is a special type of TM wave
b) It doesn’t have either e or H component
c) Its velocity is independent of frequency
d) Its cut-off frequency is zero.
11. Define attenuation factor
Attenuation factor = (Power lost/ unit length)/(2 x power transmitted)

12. Give the relation between the attenuation factor for TE waves and TM waves
2
TE = TM (fc/f)

## 13. Define wave impedance

Wave impedance is defined as the ratio of electric to magnetic field strength
Zxy
= Ex/ Hy in the positive direction
Zxy
= -Ex/ Hy in the negative direction

## 14. What is a parallel plate wave guide?

Parallel plate wave guide consists of two conducting sheets separated by a
dielectric material.

## 15.Why are rectangular wave-guides preferred over circular wave-guides?

Rectangular wave-guides preferred over circular wave guides because of the
following reasons.
a) Rectangular wave guide is smaller in size than a circular wave guide of the
same operating frequency
b) It does not maintain its polarization through the circular wave guide
c) The frequency difference between the lowest frequency on dominant
mode and the next mode of a rectangular wave-guide is bigger than in a
circular wave guide.

## 16.Mention the applications of wave guides

The wave guides are employed for transmission of energy at very high
frequencies where the attenuation caused by wave guide is smaller.
Waveguides are used in microwave transmission.Circular waveguides are used as
attenuators and phase shifters

12 MARKS
1. Discuss the characteristics of TE and TM waves and also derive the cut off
frequency and phase velocity from the propagation constant?
2. Derive the expression for the field strength for TE waves between parallel plates
propagating in Z direction?
3. Derive the expression for attenuation of TM waves in between parallel plates?
4. Derive the expression for attenuation of TE waves in between parallel
Plates?
5. Derive the expression for the field strength for TM waves between
Parallel plates propagating in Z direction?
6. Obtain the expression for the field components of an electromagnetic wave
propagating between a pair of perfectly conducting planes?
7. Derive the expression for wave impedance of TE, TM and TEM wave between a
pair of perfectly conducting planes?

## 8. Explain about transverse electromagnetic waves between a pair of perfectly

conducting planes?
9. Prove that the velocity of propagation?

## 1.Why is circular or rectangular form used as waveguide?

Waveguides usually take the form of rectangular or circular cylinders because of
its simpler forms in use and less expensive to manufacture.

## 2. What is an evanescent mode?

When the operating frequency is lower than the cut-off frequency, the propagation
constant becomes real i.e., γ = α . The wave cannot be propagated. This non- propagating
mode is known as evanescent mode.

3.What is the dominant mode for the TE waves in the rectangular waveguide?
The lowest mode for TE wave is TE10 (m=1 , n=0)
4. What is the dominant mode for the TM waves in the rectangular waveguide?
The lowest mode for TM wave is TM11(m=1 , n=1)

## 5. What is the dominant mode for the rectangular waveguide?

The lowest mode for TE wave is TE10 (m=1 , n=0) whereas the lowest mode for
TM wave is TM11(m=1 , n=1). The TE10 wave have the lowest cut off frequency
compared to the TM11 mode. Hence the TE10 (m=1 , n=0) is the dominant mode of a
rectangular waveguide.Because the TE10 mode has the lowest attenuation of all modes in a
rectangular waveguide and its electric field is definitely polarized in one direction
everywhere.

6.Which are the non-zero field components for the for the TE10 mode in a
rectangular waveguide?
Hx, Hz and Ey.

7. Which are the non-zero field components for the for the TM11 mode in a
rectangular waveguide?
Hx, Hy ,Ey. and Ez.

## 8. Define characteristic impedance in a waveguide

The characteristic impedance Zo can be defined in terms of the voltage-current
ratio or in terms of power transmitted for a given voltage or a given current.
Zo (V,I) =V/I
9.Why TEM mode is not possible in a rectangular waveguide?
Since TEM wave do not have axial component of either E or H ,it cannot
propagate within a single conductor waveguide

10.Explain why TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular waveguide do not exist.
For TM modes in rectangular waveguides, neither m or n can be zero because
all the field equations vanish ( i.e., Hx, Hy ,Ey. and Ez.=0). If m=0,n=1 or m=1,n=0 no
fields are present. Hence TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular waveguide do not exist.

## 11. What are degenerate modes in a rectangular waveguide?

Some of the higher order modes, having the same cut off frequency , are
called degenerate modes. In a rectangular waveguide , TEmn and TMmn modes ( both m ≠0
and n ≠ 0) are always degenerate.

12 MARKS
1. Derive the field configuration, cut off frequency and velocity of propagation for TM
waves in rectangular wave – guides?
2. Determine the solution of electric and magnetic fields of TE waves guided along
rectangular wave – guides? `
3. Explain the wave impedance of a rectangular wave – guide and derive the
expression for the wave impedance of TE,TM, and TEM mode?
4. Discuss the characteristics of TE and TM waves and also derive the cut off
frequency and phase velocity from the propagation constant?
5. Derive the expression for attenuation of TE10 waves in rectangular wave guide?
6. Derive the expression for attenuation of TM 11 waves in rectangular waveguide?
7. Explain about excitation modes in rectangular wave guide?
8. Explain about dominant mode in rectangular wave guide? `
9. Determine the solution of electric and magnetic fields of TM waves guided along
rectangular wave – guides?
10. Explain about characteristic impedance in rectangular wave guide?
11. Explain about degenerate mode in rectangular wave guide?
UNIT V-CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS

## 1.What is a circular waveguide?

A circular waveguide is a hollow metallic tube with circular cross-
section for propagating the electromagnetic waves by continuous reflections from the
surfaces or walls of the guide
2.Why circular waveguides are not preferred over rectangular waveguides?
The circular waveguides are avoided because of the following reasons:
a) The frequency difference between the lowest frequency on the dominant
mode and the next mode is smaller than in a rectangular waveguide, with b/a=
0.5
b) The circular symmetry of the waveguide may reflect on the possibility of the
wave not maintaining its polarization throughout the length of the guide.
c) For the same operating frequency, circular waveguide is bigger in size
than a rectangular waveguide.

## 3.Mention the applications of circular waveguide.

Circular waveguides are used as attenuators and phase-shifters

## 4.Which mode in a circular waveguide has attenuation effect decreasing with

increase in frequency?
TE01

## 5.What are the possible modes for TM waves in a circular waveguide?

The possible TM modes in a circular waveguide are : TM01 , TM02 ,
TM11, TM12

## 6.What are the root values for the TM modes?

The root values for the TM modes are:
(ha)01 = 2.405 for TM01
(ha)02 = 5.53 for TM02
(ha)11 = 3.85 for TM11
(ha)12 = 7.02 for TM12

## 7.Define dominant mode for a circular waveguide.

The dominant mode for a circular waveguide is defined as the lowest
order mode having the lowest root value.

## 8.What are the possible modes for TE waves in a circular waveguide?

The possible TE modes in a circular waveguide are : TE01 , TE02 ,
TE11, TE12

## 9. What are the root values for the TE modes?

The root values for the TE modes are:
(ha)01 = 3.85 for TE01
(ha)02 = 7.02 for TE02
(ha)11 = 1.841 for TE11
(ha)12 = 5.53 for TE12
10. What is the dominant mode for TE waves in a circular waveguide
The dominant mode for TE waves in a circular waveguide is the
TE11 because it has the lowest root value of 1.841

## 11. What is the dominant mode for TM waves in a circular waveguide

The dominant mode for TM waves in a circular waveguide is the
TM01 because it has the lowest root value of 2.405.

## 12. What is the dominant mode in a circular waveguide

The dominant mode for TM waves in a circular waveguide is the
TM01 because it has the root value of 2.405. The dominant mode for TE waves in a
circular waveguide is the TE11 because it has the root value of 1.841 .Since the root
value of TE11 is lower than TM01 , TE11 is the dominant or the lowest order mode
for a circular waveguide.

## 13. Mention the dominant modes in rectangular and circular waveguides

For a rectangular waveguide,
the dominant mode is TE01
For a circular waveguide,
the dominant mode is TE11

## 14.Why is TM01 mode preferred to the TE01 mode in a circular waveguide?

TM01 mode is preferred to the TE01 mode in a circular waveguide, since
it requires a smaller diameter for the same cut off wavelength.

## The performance parameters of microwave resonator are: (i)

Resonant frequency
(ii) Quality factor
(iii) Input impedance

## Resonant frequency of microwave resonator is the frequency at which the energy in

the resonator attains maximum value. i.e., twice the electric energy or magnetic
energy.

## 17.Define quality factor of a resonator.

The quality factor Q is a measure of frequency selectivity of the resonator. It
is defined as

## Q = 2 ∏ x Maximum energy stored / Energy dissipated per cycle

= ω W/ P
Where W is the maximum stored energy
P is the average power loss
18.What is a resonator?
Resonator is a tuned circuit which resonates at a particular frequency at which
the energy stored in the electric field is equal to the energy stored in the magnetic field.

## 19.How the resonator is constructed at low frequencies?

At low frequencies upto VHF ( 300 MHz) , the resonator is made up of the
reactive elements or the lumped elements like the capacitance and the inductance.

20.What are the disadvantages if the resonator is made using lumped elements at
high frequencies?
1) The inductance and the capacitance values are too small as the frequency
is increased beyond the VHF range and hence difficult to realize .

## 21.What are the methods used for constructing a resonator?

The resonators are built by
a) using lumped elements like L and C
b) using distributed elements like sections of coaxial lines c)
using rectangular or circular waveguide

## 22.What is a transmission line resonator or coaxial resonator?

Transmission line resonator can be built using distributed elements like
sections of coaxial lines. The coaxial lines are either opened or shunted at the end sections
thus confining the electromagnetic energy within the section and acts as the resonant circuit
having a natural resonant frequency.

## 23.Why transmission line resonator is not usually used as microwave resonator?

At very high frequencies transmission line resonator does not give very high
quality factor Q due to skin effect and radiation loss. So, transmission line resonator is not
used as microwave resonator

## 24.What are cavity resonators?

Cavity resonators are formed by placing the perfectly conducting sheets on the
rectangular or circular waveguide on the two end sections and hence all the sides are
surrounded by the conducting walls thus forming a cavity. The electromagnetic energy is
confined within this metallic enclosure and they acts as resonant circuits .

## 25.What are the types of cavity resonators?

There are two types of cavity resonators. They are:
a ) Rectangular cavity resonator b )
Circular cavity resonator

## 26.Why rectangular or circular cavities can be used as microwave resonators?

Rectangular or circular cavities can be used as microwave resonators because
they have natural resonant frequency and behave like a LCR circuit.

## 27.How the cavity resonator can be represented by a LCR circuit?

The electromagnetic energy is stored in the entire volume of the cavity in
the form of electric and magnetic fields. The presence of electric field gives rise to a
capacitance value and the presence of magnetic field gives rise to a inductance value and the
finite conductivity in the walls gives rise to loss along the walls giving rise to a resistance
value. Thus the cavity resonator can be represented by a equivalent LCR circuit and
have a natural resonant frequency

## 28.Name the three basic configurations of coaxial resonators.

The basic configurations of coaxial resonators are:
d) Quarter wave coaxial cavity e)
Half wave coaxial cavity
f) Capacitance end coaxial cavity

## 29.What is the dominant mode for rectangular resonator?

The dominant mode of a rectangular resonator depends on the
dimensions of the cavity.
For b<a<d, the dominant mode is TE101

## 30.What is the dominant mode for circular resonator?

The dominant mode of a circular resonator depends on the dimensions
of the cavity.
Ford< 2a, the dominant mode is TM010

## 31.When a medium is said to be free- space.

A free-space medium is one in which there are no conduction currents and no
Charges.
12 MARKS

## 1. Derive the Q-factor of a rectangular cavity resonator?

2. Derive the TM wave components in circular wave guides using Bessel functions?
3. What is meant by cavity resonator? Derive the expression for the resonant
frequency of the rectangular cavity resonator?
4. Derive the expression for cut off frequency, phase constant and phase velocity of
wave in a circular wave guide?
5. Derive the expression for the resonant frequency of the circular cavity resonator?
6. Derive the expression for the resonant frequency of the semi circular cavity resonator?
7. Derive the TE wave components in circular wave guides using Bessel functions?
8. Derive the expression for the wave impedance in circular wave guide?
9. Derive the field strength or equation in cylindrical co – ordinates systems?
UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS

## EC 1305 — TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES - Anna University Question Papers

« on: July 17, 2008, 10:21:14 PM »

• Quote

## B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007.

Fifth Semester

(Regulation 2004)

## Time: Three hours

Maximum: 100 marks

## 1. Define propagation constant of a transmission line.

2. Calculate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line if the following measurements have
been made on the line Zoc= 550 /__-60 degree ohm and Z sc = 500/__30 degree.
3. What are the applications of the quarter—wave line?
4. A 50 ohm line is terminated in load ZR =90+j60 ohm. Determine the reflection coefficient.
5. What are the characteristics of principal wave?
6. Define the cut—off frequency of a guide.
7. A rectangular waveguide with dimensions a = 8.5 cm and b = 4.3cm is fed by 5 GHz carrier. Will
a TE11 mode be propagated?
8. Define wave impedance and write the expression for wave impedance of TE waves in rectangular
guide.
9. What are the applications of cavity resonators?
10. Write Bessel's function of first kind of order zero.

PART B — (5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) Derive the expressions for the input impedance of a transmission line. (10)
(ii) A cable has the following parameters:
R: 48.75 ohm/km, L: 1.09 mH/km, G: 38.75 MU/km and C: 0.059 uf/km.
Determine the characteristic impedance, propagation constant and wavelength for a source of f:
1600 Hz and Es: 1.0 volts. (6)

Or

(b) (i) A cable has been uniformly loaded by an inductance such that wl >> R . Assuming leakage
conductance to be nil, deduce an expression for attenuation and phase constant without neglecting
R.
(ii) A transmission line has the following parameters per km R: 15 ohm, C: 15 uf, L: 1 mH and G: 1 uU.
Find the additional inductance to give distortion-less transmission. Calculate attenuation and phase
constant for the loaded line. ( 8 )

12. (a) (i) Deduce the expression for constant — S circle for the dissipation-less line and explain. ( 8 )
(ii) A transmission line is terminated in ZL. Measurements indicate that the standing wave minima are
102 cm apart and that the last minimum is 35 cm from the load end of the line. The value of
standing wave ratio is 2.4 and R0 :250 ohm. Determine wave length and load impedance. ( 8 )

Or

(b) (i) Explain the procedure of double stub matching on a transmission line with an example. ( 8 )
(ii) Determine the length and location of a single short circuited stub to produce an impedance match
on a transmission line with R0 of 600 Q and terminated in 1800 Q. ( 8 )

13. (a) (i) Derive the expressions for the field components of TM waves between parallel plates,
propagating in Z direction. (10)
(ii) For a frequency of 6 GHz and plane separation = 7 cm. Find the following for the TE1o made z
(1) Cutoff frequency
(2) Phase and group velocity. (6)

Or

(b) (i) Explain wave impedance and obtain the expressions of wave impedance for TE and TM waves
guided along parallel planes, Also sketch the variation of wave impedance with frequency. (10)
(ii) For a frequency of 5 GHz and plane separation of 8 cm in air, find the following for TM mode (6)
(1) Cut-off wave length
(2) Characteristic impedance and
(3) Phase constant.

14. (a) (i) Obtain the solution of Electric and Magnetic fields of TM waves guided along rectangular
wave guide. (10)
(ii) A rectangular waveguide measures 3 >< 4.5 cm internally and has a 10 GHz signal propagated in
it. Calculate the cut-off wavelength, the guide wavelength and the characteristic wave impedance for
the TE mode. (6)

Or

(b) (i) Discuss the attenuation of electromagnetic wave s guided along rectangular waveguide. ( 8 )
(ii) What are the dimensions of a waveguide with the following specifications?
(1) At a frequency of 9959.5 MHz, the guide wavelength for TE mode is 87.57% of the cut-off
wavelength
(2) TEao and TEiz mode have the same cut-off frequency. ( 8 )

15. (a) (i) Determine the solution of electric and magnetic fields of TM waves guided along circular
waveguide. (10)
(ii) A circular waveguide has an internal diameter of 4 cm. For a 10 GHZ signal propagated in it in the
TEn mode, calculate cut—off wavelength, guide wavelength and characteristic impedance. Uhm:
1.84 (6)

Or

(b) (i) Obtain the expression for resonant frequency of circular cavity resonator. ( 8 )
(ii) Calculate the resonant frequency of a rectangular resonator of dimensions a: 3 cm, b: 2 cm and d
= 4 cm if the operating mode is TEioi. Assume free space within the cavity. (8 )

Re: EC 1305 — TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES - Anna University Question Papers
« Reply #1 on: August 25, 2008, 08:12:12 PM »

• Quote

## EC335 - Transmission Lines and Waveguides

Total Marks:100
Maximum Hours:3 Hrs

## This is exam consists of two sections Part A and Part B

Part A questions carry 2 marks each
Part B questions carry 15 marks

Answer all

## PART - A (10 x 2 = 20 Marks)

1. Why frequency and phase distortion occur in transmission line? Write the condition of no distortion
in terms of line parameters.
2. What is meant by reflection loss and insertion loss in a transmission line?
3. An air-filled coaxial transmission line has outer and inner conductor radii equal to 6 cm and 3cm,
respectively. Calculate the values of a) inductance per unit length, b) capacitance per unit length and
c) characteristic impedance of the line.
4. A loss less transmission line with Z0 = 50 ohm is terminated in an impedance equal to 50+j50
ohm. What is the reflection coefficient and VSWR on the line.
5. A 100-ohm load is to be matched to a 50-ohm line. Determine the characteristic impedance of a
quarter wavelength matching section
6. State the reasons, which necessitate the use of stub matching in practice.
7. What is the function of the m-derived section in a composite filter?
8. Sketch the variation of characteristic impedance of a low-pass constant K filter as a function of
frequency.
9. What is the function of delay equalizer? Where it is used.
10. Show under what condition a symmetrical lattice network with series arm impedances Z1 and
diagonal impedances Z2 will be a constant resistance network.

PART - B (5 x 16 = 80 Marks)

11.a) Derive the expressions for the voltage and current at any point on the transmission line in
terms of propagation constant, length and characteristic impedance of the line. (or)
11.b)deduce an expression for input impedance in terms of reflection coefficient.

12.a) What are the special considerations of radio frequency lines? A radio frequency line with Z0 =
70 ohm is terminated by ZL = 115 - j80ohm at attentuation constant = 2.5m. Find the VSWR & the
maximum and minimum line impedances. Derive the formula used.(or)
12.b) A loss less line has a standing -wave ratio of 4. The Ro is 150 ohm and the maximum voltage
measured on the line is 135 V. Find the power being delivered to the load. Derive the equation us
13.a) A loss less line with Z0 = 300 ohm in operated at 200 MHz. The line is terminated with a load ZL
to produce VSWR = 4.48, the first voltage minimum occurs at 6cm from the load end. Determine two
stubbing positions nearest to the load and the corresponding lengths of short-circuited stubs having a
characteristic impedance of 300 ohm for matching.(or)
13.b) A 50 ohm line feeds an inductive load Z = 35+j35 ohm. Design a double stub tuner to match
this load to the line (make use of a Smith's chart).

14.a) Design a composite low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 10KHz for a load resistance of 500
ohm. It should have high attenuation at 10.65 KHz.(or)
14.b) Design a composite high-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 10KHz for a load resistance of
500 ohm with high attenuation at 9.39 KHz.
15.a) Design a symmetrical 600ohm bridged - T resistance attenuator to have an attenuation of
20dB.(or)
15.b) A length of telephone cable is driven from a 600 ohm resistance. The measured insertion loss in
dB is tabulated:
f(Hz) --> 30 100 500 1000 2000 4000 6000 loss(dB) --> 3.8 3.8 4.6 6.6 10.5 16.4 20.7 Design a
lattice network to equalize the cable within 2dB from 30 to 4000 Hz. The overall insertion loss of the
cable and equalizer must not exceed 20dB.