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ENGINEERING

V DEEPIKA

(FOR FIFTH SEMESTER ECE)

The parameters of a transmission line are:

Resistance (R)

Inductance (L)

Capacitance (C)

Conductance (G)

Resistance (R) is defined as the loop resistance per unit length of the wire. Its

unit is ohm/Km

Inductance (L) is defined as the loop inductance per unit length of the wire. Its

unit is Henry/Km

Capacitance (C) is defined as the loop capacitance per unit length of the wire. Its

unit is Farad/Km

Conductance (G) is defined as the loop conductance per unit length of the wire.

Its unit is mho/Km

2. What are the secondary constants of a line? Why the line parameters are called

distributed elements?

Characteristic Impedance

Propagation Constant

Since the line constants R, L, C, G are distributed through the entire length of the

line, they are called as distributed elements. They are also called as primary constants.

Characteristic impedance is the impedance measured at the sending end of the

line. It is given by Z0 = Z/Y,where

Z = R + jωL is the series impedance

Y = G + jωC is the shunt admittance

4. Define Propagation constant

Propagation constant is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of the

sending end current or voltage to the receiving end current or voltage of the line. It gives

the manner in the wave is propagated along a line and specifies the variation of voltage

and current in the line as a function of distance. Propagation constant is a complex

quantity and is expressed as

γ =α+jβ

The real part is called the attenuation constant α whereas the imaginary part of

propagation constant is called the phase constant β

A finite line is a line having a finite length on the line. It is a line, which is

terminated, in its characteristic impedance (ZR=Z0), so the input impedance of the finite

line is equal to the characteristic impedance (Zs=Z0).

An infinite line is a line in which the length of the transmission line is infinite.

A finite line, which is terminated in its characteristic impedance, is termed as infinite

line. So for an infinite line, the input impedance is equivalent to the characteristic

impedance.

The distance the wave travels along the line while the phase angle is changing

through 2Π radians is called a wavelength.

The distortions occurring in the transmission line are called waveform

distortion or line distortion. Waveform distortion is of two types:

a) Frequency distortion

b) Phase or Delay Distortion.

When a signal having many frequency components are transmitted along the

line, all the frequencies will not have equal attenuation and hence the received end

waveform will not be identical with the input waveform at the sending end because each

frequency is having different attenuation. This type of distortion is called frequency

distortion.

In order to reduce frequency distortion occurring in the line,

a) The attenuation constant α should be made independent of frequency.

b) By using equalizers at the line terminals which minimize the frequency

distortion. Equalisers are networks whose frequency and phase

characteristics are adjusted to be inverse to those of the lines, which result

in a uniform frequency response over the desired frequency band, and

hence the attenuation is equal for all the frequencies.

When a signal having many frequency components are transmitted along the

line, all the frequencies will not have same time of transmission, some frequencies being

delayed more than others. So the received end waveform will not be identical with the

input waveform at the sending end because some frequency components will be delayed

more than those of other frequencies. This type of distortion is called phase or delay

distortion.

12. How to avoid the Delay distortion that occurs in the line?

In order to reduce frequency distortion occurring in the line,

a) The phase constant β should be made dependent of frequency.

b) The velocity of propagation is independent of frequency.

c) By using equalizers at the line terminals which minimize the frequency

distortion. Equalizers are networks whose frequency and phase

characteristics are adjusted to be inverse to those of the lines, which

result in a uniform frequency response over the desired frequency

band, and hence the phase is equal for all the frequencies.

13.What is a distortion less line? What is the condition for a distortion less line?

A line, which has neither frequency distortion nor phase distortion is called a

distortion less line. The condition for a distortion less line is RC=LG. Also,

a) The attenuation constant α should be made independent of frequency.

b) The phase constant β should be made dependent of frequency.

d) The velocity of propagation is independent of frequency.

In ordinary telephone cables, the wires are insulated with paper and twisted in

pairs, therefore there will not be flux linkage between the wires, which results in

negligible inductance, and conductance. If this is the case, the there occurs frequency and

phase distortion in the line.

For the telephone cable to be distortion less line, the inductance value should

be increased by placing lumped inductors along the line.

16.What is Loading?

Loading is the process of increasing the inductance value by placing lumped

inductors at specific intervals along the line, which avoids the distortion

17.What are the types of loading?

a) Continuous loading

b) Patch loading

c) Lumped loading

Continuous loading is the process of increasing the inductance value by

placing a iron core or a magnetic tape over the conductor of the line.

It is the process of using sections of continuously loaded cables separated by

sections of unloaded cables which increases the inductance value

Lumped loading is the process of increasing the inductance value by placing

lumped inductors at specific intervals along the line, which avoids the distortion

Reflection Coefficient can be defined as the ratio of the reflected voltage to the

incident voltage at the receiving end of the line

Reflection Coefficient K=Reflected Voltage at load /Incident voltage at the load

K=Vr/Vi

Reflection loss is defined as the number of nepers or decibels by which the

current in the load under image matched conditions would exceed the current actually

flowing in the load

If the load impedance is not equal to the source impedance, then all the power

that are transmitted from the source will not reach the load end and hence some power is

wasted. This is called impedance mismatch condition. So for proper maximum power

transfer, the impedances in the sending and receiving end are matched. This is called

impedance matching.

The insertion loss of a line or network is defined as the number of nepers or

decibels by which the current in the load is changed by the insertion .

Insertion loss=Current flowing in the load without insertion of the

network/Current flowing in the load with insertion of the network

25.When reflection occurs in a line?

Reflection occurs because of the following cases:

1) when the load end is open circuited

2) when the load end is short-circuited

3) when the line is not terminated in its characteristic impedance

When the line is either open or short circuited, then there is not resistance at the

receiving end to absorb all the power transmitted from the source end. Hence all the

power incident on the load gets completely reflected back to the source causing

reflections in the line. When the line is terminated in its characteristic impedance, the

load will absorb some power and some will be reflected back thus producing reflections.

26.What are the conditions for a perfect line? What is a smooth line?

For a perfect line, the resistance and the leakage conductance value were

neglected. The conditions for a perfect line are R=G=0.

A smooth line is one in which the load is terminated by its characteristic

impedance and no reflections occur in such a line. It is also called as flat line.

12 MARKS

1. Obtain the general solution of Transmission line?

2. Explain about waveform distortion and distortion less line condition?

3. Explain about reflection loss?

4. Discuss in details about inductance loading of telephone cables and derive the

attenuation constant (i) and phase constant (ii) and velocity of signal transmission

(v) for the uniformly loaded cable?

5. Derive the equation of attenuation constant and phase constant of TL in terms of R,

L, C, G?

6. Explain in details about the reflection on a line not terminated in its

characteristic impedance (z0)?

7. Explain in following terms

(i) Reflection factor (ii) Reflection loss (iii) Return loss

8. Explain about physical significance of TL?

9. Derive the equation for transfer impedance?

10. Derive the expression for input impedance of lossless line?

11. Explain about telephone cable?

12. Explain about different type of TL?

UNIT II-RADIO FREQUENCY LINE

1. State the assumptions for the analysis of the performance of the radio frequency

line.

1.Due to the skin effect ,the currents are assumed to flow on the surface of the

conductor. The internal inductance is zero.

2.The resistance R increases with f while inductance L increases with f .

Hence L>>R.

3.The leakage conductance G is zero

2.State the expressions for inductance L of a open wire line and coaxial line.

For open wire line ,

-7 -7

L=9.21*10 (/r +4ln d/a)=10 (r+9.21log d/a) H/m

-7

L = 4.60*10 [log b/a]H/m

For open wire line ,

C=(12.07)/(ln d/a)µµf/m

A line for which the effect of resistance R is completely neglected is called

dissipationless line .

5.What is the nature and value of Z0 for the dissipation less line?

For the dissipation less line, the Z0 is purley resistive and given by,

Z0=R0 = L/c

Answer:

0 and = LC

The points along the line where magnitude of voltage or current is zero are

called nodes while the the points along the lines where magnitude of voltage or current

first maximum are called antinodes or loops.

The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of voltage or current on a

line having standing waves called standing waves ratio

Emax Imin

S= =

Emin Imin

8.What is the range of values of standing wave ratio?

9.State the relation between standing wave ratio and reflection coefficient.

Ans: S= 1+K

1-K

If the transmission is not terminated in its characteristic impedance ,then there

will be two waves traveling along the line which gives rise to standing waves having

fixed maxima and fixed minima.

The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of current or voltage on a line

having standing wave is called the standing-wave ratio S. That is,

S= E max = I max

Emin I min

12.State the relation between standing were ratio S and reflection co-efficient k.

The relation between standing wave ratio S and reflection co-efficient k is,

1+ k

S =

1- k

S-1

Also k =

S+1

13. How will you make standing wave measurements on coaxial lines?

For coaxial lines it is necessary to use a length of line in which a

longitudinal

slot, one half wavelength or more long has been cut. A wire probe is inserted

into the air dielectric of the line as a pickup device, a vacuum tube voltmeter or

other detector being connected between probe and sheath as an indicator. If the

meter provides linear indications, S is readily determined. If the indicator is non

linear, corrections must be applied to the readings obtained.

The input impedance of a dissipationless line is given by,

Z s = Es = R0 1+ k <

-2s

Is 1- k < -2s

15.Give the maximum and minimum input impedance of the dissipationless line.

Maximum input impedance,

R max = R0 1+ k

1- k

=sRo

Minimum input

impedance,

R min = Ro 1+ k

1- k

=

Ro

S

The input impedance of open aned short circuited lines are given by,

2 s

Zsc = jRo tan

17.Why the point of voltage minimum is measured rather than voltage

maximum?

The point of a voltage minimum is measured rather than a voltage

maximum because it is usually possible to determine the exact point of

minimum voltage with greater accuracy.

An eighth wave line is used to transform any resistance to an impendence with a

magnitude equal to Roof the line or to obtain a magnitude match between a resistance of

any value and a source of Ro internal resistance.

19. Give the input impendence of eighth wave line terminated in a pure resistance

Rr.

The input impendence of eighth wave line terminated in a pure resistance Rr. Is

given by

Zs =

(ZR+jRo/Ro+jZR)

From the above equation it is seen that

Zs = Ro.

A quater wave line may be considered as an impendence inverter because it can

transform a low impendence in to ahigh impendence and vice versa.

An important application of the quarter wave matching sectionis to a couple a

transmission line to a resistive load such as an antenna .The quarter –wave matching

section then must be designed to have a characteristic impendence Ro so chosen that the

antenna resistance Ra is transformed to a value equal to the characteristic impendence Ra

of the transmission line.The characteristic impendence Ro of the matching section

then should be

Ro’ = Ra

Ro

An application of the short circuited quarter wave line is an insulator to support

an open wire line or the center conductor of a coaxial line .This application makes se of

the fact that the input impendence of a quarter –wave shorted line is very high ,Such lines

are sometimes referred to as copper insulators.

A half wavelength line may be considered as a one- to – one

transformer. It has its greatest utility in connecting load to a source in cases where the

load source cannot be made adjacent.

The quarter – wave line or transformer and the tapered line are some of the

impendence –matching devices.

In the method of impendence matching using stub ,an open or closed stub line of

suitable length is used as a reactance shunted across the transmission line at a designated

distance from the load ,to tune the length of the line and the load to resonance with an

antiresonant resistance equal to Ro.

26.Give reasons for preferring a short- circuited stub when compared to an open –

circuited stub.

A short circuited stub is preferred to an open circuited stub because of

greater ease in constructions and because of the inability to maintain high enough

insulation resistance at the open –circuit point to ensure that the stub is really open-

circuited .A shorted stub also has a lower loss of energy due to radiation ,since the short –

circuit can be definitely established with a large metal plate ,effectively stopping all field

propagation.

27.What are the two independent measurements that must be made to find the

location and length of the stub.

The standing wave ratio S and the position of a voltage minimum are the

independent measurements that must be made to find the location and length of the stub.

28.Give the formula to calculate the distance of the point from the load at which the

stub is to be connected.

The formula to calculate the distance of the point from the load at which the

stub is to be connected is,

-1

S1 = ( +π-cos |K|)/(2β)

29. Give the formula to calculate the distance d from the voltage minimum to the

point stub be connection.

The formula to calculate the distance d from the voltage minimum to the point of

stub be connection is,

-1

d= cos |K| / (2β)

30. Give the formula to calculate the length of the short circuited stub.

The formula to calculate the length of the short circuited stub is,

-1

L=λ/2Π tan (√s/(s-1))

towards the load from a point at which a voltage minimum existed before

attachment of the stub.

The input impendence equation of a dissipation less line is given by

(Zs/Ro)=(1+|K|(Ф-2βs)/ (1-|K|(Ф-2βs)

The equation for the radius of a circle diagram is

2

R=(S -1)/2S and

2

C = (S +1)/2S

Where C is the shift of the center of the circle on the positive Ra axis.

The circle diagram may be used to find the input impendence of a line mof any

chosen length.

34. How is the circle diagram useful to find the input impendence of short and open

circuited lines?

An open circuited line has s = ,the correspondent circle appearing as the

vertical axis .The input impendence is then pure reactance , with the value for various

electrical

lengths determined by the intersections of the corresponding s circles with the

vertical axis.

A short circuited line may be solved by determining its amittance .The S circle is

again the vertical axis, and susceptance values may be read off at appropriate intersection

of the s circles with the vertical axis.

The applications of the smith chart are,

(i) It is used to find the input impendence and input admittance of the line.

(ii) The smith chart may also be used for lossy lines and the locus of points on a

line then follows a spiral path towards the chart center, due to attenuation.

(iii) In single stub matching

The difficulties of the smith chart are

(i) Single stub impedance matching requires the stub to be located

at a definite point on the line. This requirement frequently calls

for placement of the stub at an undesirable place from a

mechanical view point.

(ii) For a coaxial line, it is not possible to determine the location of

a voltage minimum without a slotted line section, so that

placement of a stub at the exact required point is difficult.

(iii) In the case of the single stub it was mentioned that two

adjustments were required ,these being location and length of

the stub.

Another possible method of impedance matching is to use two stubs in which the

locations of the stub are arbitrary,the two stub lengths furnishing the required

adjustments.The spacing is frequently made λ/4.This is called double stub matching.

38. Give reason for an open line not frequently employed for impedance

matching.

An open line is rarely used for impedance matching because of radiation losses

from the open end,and capacitance effects and the difficulty of a smooth adjustment of

length.

The expression for the input impendence of the line is given by

Zs = Zr

Thus the line repeats is terminating impedance .Hence it is operated as one to one

transformer .Its application is to connect load to a source where they can not be made

adjacent.

40. Why Double stub matching is preferred over single stub matching.

Double stub matching is preferred over single stub due to following

disadvantages of single stub.

the location of single stub will have to be changed.

2. The single stub matching system is based on the measurement of voltage

minimum .Hence for coxial line it is very difficult to get such voltage

minimum, without using slotted line section.

12 MARKS

1. Explain about half wave transformer?

2. Application of smith chart?

3. Explain about voltage and current waveform of dissipation less line?

4. Derive the expression for the input impedance of the dissipation less line and the

expression for the input impedance of a quarter wave line. Also discuss the application

of quarter wave line?

5. Explain single stub matching on a transmission line and derive the expression and the

length of the stub used for matching on a line?

6. Design a single stub match for a load of 150+j225 ohms for a 75 ohms line at 500MHz

using smith chart?

7. A 30 m long lossless transmission line with characteristic impedance (zo) of 50 ohm is

terminated by a load impedance (ZL) = 60 + j40 ohm. The operating wavelength is

90m. find the input impedance and SWR using smith chart?

8. Explain double stub matching on a transmission line and derive the expression and the

length of the stub used for matching on a line?

9. Explain about / 8 wave transformer?

10. explain about properties of

smith chart?

UNIT III-GUIDED WAVES

The electromagnetic waves that are guided along or over conducting or

dielectric surface are called guided waves.

Examples: Parallel wire, transmission lines

Transverse electric (TE) wave is a wave in which the electric field

strength E is entirely transverse. It has a magnetic field strength Hz in the direction

of propagation and no component of electric field Ez in the same direction

Transverse magnetic (TM) wave is a wave in which the magnetic field

strength H is entirely transverse. It has a electric field strength Ez in the direction

of propagation and no component of magnetic field Hz in the same direction

TEM wave is a special type of TM wave in which an electric field E

along the direction of propagation is also zero. The TEM waves are waves in which both

electric and magnetic fields are transverse entirely but have no components of Ez and

Hz.it is also referred to as the principal wave.

The modes that have the lowest cut off frequency is called the dominant

mode.

Dominant mode: TE10 and TM10

The frequency at which the wave motion ceases is called cut-off frequency

of the waveguide.

It is the wavelength below which there is wave propagation and above

which there is no wave propagation.

9. Write down the expression for cut off frequency when the wave is propagated in

between two parallel plates.

1/2

The cut-off frequency, fc = m/ (2a () )

a) It is a special type of TM wave

b) It doesn’t have either e or H component

c) Its velocity is independent of frequency

d) Its cut-off frequency is zero.

11. Define attenuation factor

Attenuation factor = (Power lost/ unit length)/(2 x power transmitted)

12. Give the relation between the attenuation factor for TE waves and TM waves

2

TE = TM (fc/f)

Wave impedance is defined as the ratio of electric to magnetic field strength

Zxy

= Ex/ Hy in the positive direction

Zxy

= -Ex/ Hy in the negative direction

Parallel plate wave guide consists of two conducting sheets separated by a

dielectric material.

Rectangular wave-guides preferred over circular wave guides because of the

following reasons.

a) Rectangular wave guide is smaller in size than a circular wave guide of the

same operating frequency

b) It does not maintain its polarization through the circular wave guide

c) The frequency difference between the lowest frequency on dominant

mode and the next mode of a rectangular wave-guide is bigger than in a

circular wave guide.

The wave guides are employed for transmission of energy at very high

frequencies where the attenuation caused by wave guide is smaller.

Waveguides are used in microwave transmission.Circular waveguides are used as

attenuators and phase shifters

12 MARKS

1. Discuss the characteristics of TE and TM waves and also derive the cut off

frequency and phase velocity from the propagation constant?

2. Derive the expression for the field strength for TE waves between parallel plates

propagating in Z direction?

3. Derive the expression for attenuation of TM waves in between parallel plates?

4. Derive the expression for attenuation of TE waves in between parallel

Plates?

5. Derive the expression for the field strength for TM waves between

Parallel plates propagating in Z direction?

6. Obtain the expression for the field components of an electromagnetic wave

propagating between a pair of perfectly conducting planes?

7. Derive the expression for wave impedance of TE, TM and TEM wave between a

pair of perfectly conducting planes?

conducting planes?

9. Prove that the velocity of propagation?

Waveguides usually take the form of rectangular or circular cylinders because of

its simpler forms in use and less expensive to manufacture.

When the operating frequency is lower than the cut-off frequency, the propagation

constant becomes real i.e., γ = α . The wave cannot be propagated. This non- propagating

mode is known as evanescent mode.

3.What is the dominant mode for the TE waves in the rectangular waveguide?

The lowest mode for TE wave is TE10 (m=1 , n=0)

4. What is the dominant mode for the TM waves in the rectangular waveguide?

The lowest mode for TM wave is TM11(m=1 , n=1)

The lowest mode for TE wave is TE10 (m=1 , n=0) whereas the lowest mode for

TM wave is TM11(m=1 , n=1). The TE10 wave have the lowest cut off frequency

compared to the TM11 mode. Hence the TE10 (m=1 , n=0) is the dominant mode of a

rectangular waveguide.Because the TE10 mode has the lowest attenuation of all modes in a

rectangular waveguide and its electric field is definitely polarized in one direction

everywhere.

6.Which are the non-zero field components for the for the TE10 mode in a

rectangular waveguide?

Hx, Hz and Ey.

7. Which are the non-zero field components for the for the TM11 mode in a

rectangular waveguide?

Hx, Hy ,Ey. and Ez.

The characteristic impedance Zo can be defined in terms of the voltage-current

ratio or in terms of power transmitted for a given voltage or a given current.

Zo (V,I) =V/I

9.Why TEM mode is not possible in a rectangular waveguide?

Since TEM wave do not have axial component of either E or H ,it cannot

propagate within a single conductor waveguide

10.Explain why TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular waveguide do not exist.

For TM modes in rectangular waveguides, neither m or n can be zero because

all the field equations vanish ( i.e., Hx, Hy ,Ey. and Ez.=0). If m=0,n=1 or m=1,n=0 no

fields are present. Hence TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular waveguide do not exist.

Some of the higher order modes, having the same cut off frequency , are

called degenerate modes. In a rectangular waveguide , TEmn and TMmn modes ( both m ≠0

and n ≠ 0) are always degenerate.

12 MARKS

1. Derive the field configuration, cut off frequency and velocity of propagation for TM

waves in rectangular wave – guides?

2. Determine the solution of electric and magnetic fields of TE waves guided along

rectangular wave – guides? `

3. Explain the wave impedance of a rectangular wave – guide and derive the

expression for the wave impedance of TE,TM, and TEM mode?

4. Discuss the characteristics of TE and TM waves and also derive the cut off

frequency and phase velocity from the propagation constant?

5. Derive the expression for attenuation of TE10 waves in rectangular wave guide?

6. Derive the expression for attenuation of TM 11 waves in rectangular waveguide?

7. Explain about excitation modes in rectangular wave guide?

8. Explain about dominant mode in rectangular wave guide? `

9. Determine the solution of electric and magnetic fields of TM waves guided along

rectangular wave – guides?

10. Explain about characteristic impedance in rectangular wave guide?

11. Explain about degenerate mode in rectangular wave guide?

UNIT V-CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS

A circular waveguide is a hollow metallic tube with circular cross-

section for propagating the electromagnetic waves by continuous reflections from the

surfaces or walls of the guide

2.Why circular waveguides are not preferred over rectangular waveguides?

The circular waveguides are avoided because of the following reasons:

a) The frequency difference between the lowest frequency on the dominant

mode and the next mode is smaller than in a rectangular waveguide, with b/a=

0.5

b) The circular symmetry of the waveguide may reflect on the possibility of the

wave not maintaining its polarization throughout the length of the guide.

c) For the same operating frequency, circular waveguide is bigger in size

than a rectangular waveguide.

Circular waveguides are used as attenuators and phase-shifters

increase in frequency?

TE01

The possible TM modes in a circular waveguide are : TM01 , TM02 ,

TM11, TM12

The root values for the TM modes are:

(ha)01 = 2.405 for TM01

(ha)02 = 5.53 for TM02

(ha)11 = 3.85 for TM11

(ha)12 = 7.02 for TM12

The dominant mode for a circular waveguide is defined as the lowest

order mode having the lowest root value.

The possible TE modes in a circular waveguide are : TE01 , TE02 ,

TE11, TE12

The root values for the TE modes are:

(ha)01 = 3.85 for TE01

(ha)02 = 7.02 for TE02

(ha)11 = 1.841 for TE11

(ha)12 = 5.53 for TE12

10. What is the dominant mode for TE waves in a circular waveguide

The dominant mode for TE waves in a circular waveguide is the

TE11 because it has the lowest root value of 1.841

The dominant mode for TM waves in a circular waveguide is the

TM01 because it has the lowest root value of 2.405.

The dominant mode for TM waves in a circular waveguide is the

TM01 because it has the root value of 2.405. The dominant mode for TE waves in a

circular waveguide is the TE11 because it has the root value of 1.841 .Since the root

value of TE11 is lower than TM01 , TE11 is the dominant or the lowest order mode

for a circular waveguide.

For a rectangular waveguide,

the dominant mode is TE01

For a circular waveguide,

the dominant mode is TE11

TM01 mode is preferred to the TE01 mode in a circular waveguide, since

it requires a smaller diameter for the same cut off wavelength.

Resonant frequency

(ii) Quality factor

(iii) Input impedance

the resonator attains maximum value. i.e., twice the electric energy or magnetic

energy.

The quality factor Q is a measure of frequency selectivity of the resonator. It

is defined as

= ω W/ P

Where W is the maximum stored energy

P is the average power loss

18.What is a resonator?

Resonator is a tuned circuit which resonates at a particular frequency at which

the energy stored in the electric field is equal to the energy stored in the magnetic field.

At low frequencies upto VHF ( 300 MHz) , the resonator is made up of the

reactive elements or the lumped elements like the capacitance and the inductance.

20.What are the disadvantages if the resonator is made using lumped elements at

high frequencies?

1) The inductance and the capacitance values are too small as the frequency

is increased beyond the VHF range and hence difficult to realize .

The resonators are built by

a) using lumped elements like L and C

b) using distributed elements like sections of coaxial lines c)

using rectangular or circular waveguide

Transmission line resonator can be built using distributed elements like

sections of coaxial lines. The coaxial lines are either opened or shunted at the end sections

thus confining the electromagnetic energy within the section and acts as the resonant circuit

having a natural resonant frequency.

At very high frequencies transmission line resonator does not give very high

quality factor Q due to skin effect and radiation loss. So, transmission line resonator is not

used as microwave resonator

Cavity resonators are formed by placing the perfectly conducting sheets on the

rectangular or circular waveguide on the two end sections and hence all the sides are

surrounded by the conducting walls thus forming a cavity. The electromagnetic energy is

confined within this metallic enclosure and they acts as resonant circuits .

There are two types of cavity resonators. They are:

a ) Rectangular cavity resonator b )

Circular cavity resonator

Rectangular or circular cavities can be used as microwave resonators because

they have natural resonant frequency and behave like a LCR circuit.

The electromagnetic energy is stored in the entire volume of the cavity in

the form of electric and magnetic fields. The presence of electric field gives rise to a

capacitance value and the presence of magnetic field gives rise to a inductance value and the

finite conductivity in the walls gives rise to loss along the walls giving rise to a resistance

value. Thus the cavity resonator can be represented by a equivalent LCR circuit and

have a natural resonant frequency

The basic configurations of coaxial resonators are:

d) Quarter wave coaxial cavity e)

Half wave coaxial cavity

f) Capacitance end coaxial cavity

The dominant mode of a rectangular resonator depends on the

dimensions of the cavity.

For b<a<d, the dominant mode is TE101

The dominant mode of a circular resonator depends on the dimensions

of the cavity.

Ford< 2a, the dominant mode is TM010

A free-space medium is one in which there are no conduction currents and no

Charges.

12 MARKS

2. Derive the TM wave components in circular wave guides using Bessel functions?

3. What is meant by cavity resonator? Derive the expression for the resonant

frequency of the rectangular cavity resonator?

4. Derive the expression for cut off frequency, phase constant and phase velocity of

wave in a circular wave guide?

5. Derive the expression for the resonant frequency of the circular cavity resonator?

6. Derive the expression for the resonant frequency of the semi circular cavity resonator?

7. Derive the TE wave components in circular wave guides using Bessel functions?

8. Derive the expression for the wave impedance in circular wave guide?

9. Derive the field strength or equation in cylindrical co – ordinates systems?

UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS

« on: July 17, 2008, 10:21:14 PM »

• Quote

Fifth Semester

(Regulation 2004)

Maximum: 100 marks

2. Calculate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line if the following measurements have

been made on the line Zoc= 550 /__-60 degree ohm and Z sc = 500/__30 degree.

3. What are the applications of the quarter—wave line?

4. A 50 ohm line is terminated in load ZR =90+j60 ohm. Determine the reflection coefficient.

5. What are the characteristics of principal wave?

6. Define the cut—off frequency of a guide.

7. A rectangular waveguide with dimensions a = 8.5 cm and b = 4.3cm is fed by 5 GHz carrier. Will

a TE11 mode be propagated?

8. Define wave impedance and write the expression for wave impedance of TE waves in rectangular

guide.

9. What are the applications of cavity resonators?

10. Write Bessel's function of first kind of order zero.

PART B — (5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) Derive the expressions for the input impedance of a transmission line. (10)

(ii) A cable has the following parameters:

R: 48.75 ohm/km, L: 1.09 mH/km, G: 38.75 MU/km and C: 0.059 uf/km.

Determine the characteristic impedance, propagation constant and wavelength for a source of f:

1600 Hz and Es: 1.0 volts. (6)

Or

(b) (i) A cable has been uniformly loaded by an inductance such that wl >> R . Assuming leakage

conductance to be nil, deduce an expression for attenuation and phase constant without neglecting

R.

(ii) A transmission line has the following parameters per km R: 15 ohm, C: 15 uf, L: 1 mH and G: 1 uU.

Find the additional inductance to give distortion-less transmission. Calculate attenuation and phase

constant for the loaded line. ( 8 )

12. (a) (i) Deduce the expression for constant — S circle for the dissipation-less line and explain. ( 8 )

(ii) A transmission line is terminated in ZL. Measurements indicate that the standing wave minima are

102 cm apart and that the last minimum is 35 cm from the load end of the line. The value of

standing wave ratio is 2.4 and R0 :250 ohm. Determine wave length and load impedance. ( 8 )

Or

(b) (i) Explain the procedure of double stub matching on a transmission line with an example. ( 8 )

(ii) Determine the length and location of a single short circuited stub to produce an impedance match

on a transmission line with R0 of 600 Q and terminated in 1800 Q. ( 8 )

13. (a) (i) Derive the expressions for the field components of TM waves between parallel plates,

propagating in Z direction. (10)

(ii) For a frequency of 6 GHz and plane separation = 7 cm. Find the following for the TE1o made z

(1) Cutoff frequency

(2) Phase and group velocity. (6)

Or

(b) (i) Explain wave impedance and obtain the expressions of wave impedance for TE and TM waves

guided along parallel planes, Also sketch the variation of wave impedance with frequency. (10)

(ii) For a frequency of 5 GHz and plane separation of 8 cm in air, find the following for TM mode (6)

(1) Cut-off wave length

(2) Characteristic impedance and

(3) Phase constant.

14. (a) (i) Obtain the solution of Electric and Magnetic fields of TM waves guided along rectangular

wave guide. (10)

(ii) A rectangular waveguide measures 3 >< 4.5 cm internally and has a 10 GHz signal propagated in

it. Calculate the cut-off wavelength, the guide wavelength and the characteristic wave impedance for

the TE mode. (6)

Or

(b) (i) Discuss the attenuation of electromagnetic wave s guided along rectangular waveguide. ( 8 )

(ii) What are the dimensions of a waveguide with the following specifications?

(1) At a frequency of 9959.5 MHz, the guide wavelength for TE mode is 87.57% of the cut-off

wavelength

(2) TEao and TEiz mode have the same cut-off frequency. ( 8 )

15. (a) (i) Determine the solution of electric and magnetic fields of TM waves guided along circular

waveguide. (10)

(ii) A circular waveguide has an internal diameter of 4 cm. For a 10 GHZ signal propagated in it in the

TEn mode, calculate cut—off wavelength, guide wavelength and characteristic impedance. Uhm:

1.84 (6)

Or

(b) (i) Obtain the expression for resonant frequency of circular cavity resonator. ( 8 )

(ii) Calculate the resonant frequency of a rectangular resonator of dimensions a: 3 cm, b: 2 cm and d

= 4 cm if the operating mode is TEioi. Assume free space within the cavity. (8 )

Re: EC 1305 — TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES - Anna University Question Papers

« Reply #1 on: August 25, 2008, 08:12:12 PM »

• Quote

Total Marks:100

Maximum Hours:3 Hrs

Part A questions carry 2 marks each

Part B questions carry 15 marks

Answer all

1. Why frequency and phase distortion occur in transmission line? Write the condition of no distortion

in terms of line parameters.

2. What is meant by reflection loss and insertion loss in a transmission line?

3. An air-filled coaxial transmission line has outer and inner conductor radii equal to 6 cm and 3cm,

respectively. Calculate the values of a) inductance per unit length, b) capacitance per unit length and

c) characteristic impedance of the line.

4. A loss less transmission line with Z0 = 50 ohm is terminated in an impedance equal to 50+j50

ohm. What is the reflection coefficient and VSWR on the line.

5. A 100-ohm load is to be matched to a 50-ohm line. Determine the characteristic impedance of a

quarter wavelength matching section

6. State the reasons, which necessitate the use of stub matching in practice.

7. What is the function of the m-derived section in a composite filter?

8. Sketch the variation of characteristic impedance of a low-pass constant K filter as a function of

frequency.

9. What is the function of delay equalizer? Where it is used.

10. Show under what condition a symmetrical lattice network with series arm impedances Z1 and

diagonal impedances Z2 will be a constant resistance network.

PART - B (5 x 16 = 80 Marks)

11.a) Derive the expressions for the voltage and current at any point on the transmission line in

terms of propagation constant, length and characteristic impedance of the line. (or)

11.b)deduce an expression for input impedance in terms of reflection coefficient.

12.a) What are the special considerations of radio frequency lines? A radio frequency line with Z0 =

70 ohm is terminated by ZL = 115 - j80ohm at attentuation constant = 2.5m. Find the VSWR & the

maximum and minimum line impedances. Derive the formula used.(or)

12.b) A loss less line has a standing -wave ratio of 4. The Ro is 150 ohm and the maximum voltage

measured on the line is 135 V. Find the power being delivered to the load. Derive the equation us

13.a) A loss less line with Z0 = 300 ohm in operated at 200 MHz. The line is terminated with a load ZL

to produce VSWR = 4.48, the first voltage minimum occurs at 6cm from the load end. Determine two

stubbing positions nearest to the load and the corresponding lengths of short-circuited stubs having a

characteristic impedance of 300 ohm for matching.(or)

13.b) A 50 ohm line feeds an inductive load Z = 35+j35 ohm. Design a double stub tuner to match

this load to the line (make use of a Smith's chart).

14.a) Design a composite low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 10KHz for a load resistance of 500

ohm. It should have high attenuation at 10.65 KHz.(or)

14.b) Design a composite high-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 10KHz for a load resistance of

500 ohm with high attenuation at 9.39 KHz.

15.a) Design a symmetrical 600ohm bridged - T resistance attenuator to have an attenuation of

20dB.(or)

15.b) A length of telephone cable is driven from a 600 ohm resistance. The measured insertion loss in

dB is tabulated:

f(Hz) --> 30 100 500 1000 2000 4000 6000 loss(dB) --> 3.8 3.8 4.6 6.6 10.5 16.4 20.7 Design a

lattice network to equalize the cable within 2dB from 30 to 4000 Hz. The overall insertion loss of the

cable and equalizer must not exceed 20dB.

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