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Affixation

It’s generally defined as the formation of words by adding affixes to a word or affixes to
stems (root-raíz).

Inter – nación-al-izar

According to the positions which affixes occupy in words, affixation falls into two
subclasses:

- Prefixes (prefixation)
- Suffixes (suffixation)

Prefixes – root – suffixes/safixis/

Suffixes have only a small semantic role. Their primary function is to change the
grammatical function of stems (cathegory).

1. Denominal nouns: a noun comes from another noun.

1.1. Concrete: the suffixes of this group are added to noun bases to produce
concrete nouns:

-eer, -er, -ess (female), -ette, let, -ist, -ian, -an

Professions came from verbs doesn’t belong to this group.

1.2. Abstract: the following suffixes come at the end of noun stems to form
abstract nouns:

-age, -dom, -ery (-ry), -hood, -ing, -ship, -ism

word stem meaning


wastage waste desperdicio, pérdidas
(desperdicio, derroche)
mileage mile (milla) distancia, tarifa
officialdom official burocracia
slavery slave (esclavo) esclavitud
adulthood adult adultez
Learning learn (v) saber,conocimientos, AP
terrorism terror terrorismo
friendship friend amistad
sportsmanship sportsman (deportista) Deportividad

2. Deverbal nouns: noun comes from a verb

2.1. They are combined with verb stems to create largely nouns denoting people:

-ant, -ee, -ent, -er (-or)


People that makes the action or suffer it.

word stem meaning


assistant /ə'sɪstənt/ assist (ayudar, assistir) dependiente empleado
employee /ɪm'plɔɪ'i:/ employ (contratar, emplear, empleado, -da
trabajar para alguien)
informant /ɪn'fɔ:rmənt/ inform (informar, notificar) informador, -ra, informante
trainer /'treɪnər / train (entrenar, enseñar) entrenador, -dora
respondent /rɪ'spɑ:ndənt / respond demandado, -da
(responder, contester)
dependent /dɪ'pendənt/ depend on dependiente, -ta
(depender de sb/sth)

2.2. Suffixes verb abstract nouns, denoting action (result, process, state, etc.):

-age, -al, -ance, -ation (-ition, -tion, -sion, -ion), -ence, -ing, -ment

word stem meaning


survival /sər'vaɪvəl/ survive supervivencia
linkage link (unir, enlazar, conectar) enlace, vínculo
carriage/'kærɪdʒ/ carry (llevar, cargar) carrueaje, coche
dismissal /dɪs'mɪsəl/ dismiss despido, destitución (minister)
attendance /ə'tendəns/ attend asistencia, atención
Survivor /sər'vaɪvər/ survive (supervivir, perdurar) superviviente
performance /sər'vaɪvər/ perform (representar, interpretar) representación, interpretación
protection /prə'tekʃən/ protect sb/sth protección
building /'bɪldɪŋ/ build edificio
savings /'seɪvɪŋs/ save (guardar, ahorrar) ahorros
statement /'steɪtmənt/ state (exponer, plantear) declaración, afirmación
judgement /'dʒʌdʒmənt/ judge (juzgar) sentencia, fallo, juicio

3. De-adjective nouns: nouns come from adjectives

-ity, -ness

popularity, happiness
Denominal nouns
stem result meaning
atheist (ateo, -a) atheism ateísmo
retail retailer
duke dukedom, duckest
veterinary veterinarian
lyrics lyricist letrista, compositor
rhetoric rhetoricist
music musician
statistics statistician estadístico, -ca
priest (sacerdote, cura) priesthood, priestess sacerdocio, sacerdotisa
child childhood niñez, infancia
law lawyer abogado
person personality personalidad
senate senator senador, -dora
science scientist científico, -a

Reverbal nouns
stem result meaning
advertise advertisement anuncio, aviso
(anunciar, revelar)
invent invention, inventor invento, inventor
grow (crecer) grower /'grəʊər/ cultivador, -dora
enjoy enjoyment diversion
produce producer productor
consume consumer consumidor
free freedom libertad
equip equipment equipo, material
televise television television
suggest (sugerir, proponer) suggestion sugerencia, insinuación
explain explanation explicación
inform information, informant información, informador, -ra
confide in (confiar) confidence confianza
accommodate accommodation alojamiento, hospedaje
(alojar, hospedar)

De-Adjective nouns
stem result meaning
active activity actividad
lazy (perezoso, holgazán) laziness pereza, flojera
mad madness locura, demencia
familiar familiarity familiaridad, conocimiento
creative creativity creatividad
sensible sensibility sensibilidad, delicadeza
authentic (auténtico) authenticity autenticidad