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CY3F8 Virtual Reality
7: Input Devices and p Tracking Technologies
AB & FH Autumn 2010-11
Interaction and VR
“ Interaction with a virtual world is a key ingredient of a VR experience. Indeed, if the display of a virtual world I d d if th di l f it l ld does not respond at least to a user’s physical movement, then it is not considered virtual reality.” – ‐ Sherman and Craig, 2003
• • • • Should be easy and intuitive Are often unnatural (but humans adapt) May or may not mimic real life Often rely on metaphors and people s Often rely on metaphors and people’s familiarity with them
i. A high update rate alone isn’t necessarily an advantage. • Phase Lag: The total time delay of the tracker system. latency + update rate or the true age of an atom of data as it leaves the tracker system. • • Wayfinding – Interaction Tasks 3.28/11/2010 Interaction Tasks 1. • Manipulation Comprising selection and action (sometimes performed simultaneously) Navigation Travel – How the user moves through space How the user knows where they are and where they are going 2. signal relative to the background noise. • Update rate: The time taken to process the data from the sensors and calculate a position. • Registration: The correspondence between actual position and reported position. Interacting with others • Shared environments • Collaborative environments 4. 2 .e. drift. Changing world parameters Tracking Technology – Performance Criteria The following come from S. If running faster than the capture (latency part) it may reuse old data (static accuracy may be high).g. • Signal to noise ratio: What it says. Interacting with the VR system • e. Kalawsky – The Science of Virtual Reality: • Static accuracy: The ability of the tracker to determine the coordinates of a position in space. if a long integration period is used then the dynamic accuracy may be very high integration period is used then the dynamic accuracy may be very high • Latency: The latency is the time taken to get new data from the sensors including how quickly the sensors respond to changes in position. Basically calibration both initial and over time. This is the value without averaging or similar filters applied • Dynamic Accuracy: The accuracy of the system as the sensor is moved. Highly dependant on the integration period of samples.
y. responsiveness. pitch. Optical Trackers • Active: LEDs • Passive: fiducials.e. registration and robustness.e. yaw – A 6 DoF tracker will measure both position and orientation • Number of simultaneous targets – Some tracking system can’t track many targets at once – Others must reduce performance for every additional target due to limited bandwidth or similar • Workspace – Some trackers have a fixed maximum workspace. natural markers in the environment • Inherent trade of between accuracy and range of operation • Can get either image processing or fixed transducer types Can be inside out or outside in i. – Very low latency • Cons: – Tend to have a limited range of operation. • More usually cables and kinematic links with sensorised joints • Pros: – Good accuracy responsiveness Good accuracy. retroreflective markers. receivers are fixed or • Can be inside‐out or outside‐in i. Physical links have a fixed length. receivers are fixed or mobile – Outside‐in has the advantage that a number of cameras can be used to track a single target which increases accuracy and improves line‐of‐sight – Inside‐out has the advantage of being maximally sensitive to orientation • Image processing systems require controlled light conditions 3 .28/11/2010 But consider also: • Degrees of freedom per target Tracking Technology – Performance Criteria – Normally a 3 DoF tracker will measure EITHER position x. cables get tangled if rotated – Low transparency.z OR orientation roll. others may lose performance as workspace increases Mechanical Trackers • Includes joystick and mouse (older).
great for real time real time – Can be made simply. pressure) but can be compensated for – Position accuracy better than orientation (unless target has big gap between emitters) 4 . • Usually target has emitters and receivers are in fixed locations. responsiveness. • Pros: – Good accuracy. temperature.28/11/2010 Optical Trackers • Pattern recognition systems used to be less attractive because the computation was too high but processing time is minimal now • Pros: – High data rates (much faster than sound). robustness and registration (if workspace kept small) – Can have multiple targets (but at a reduction in update rate) • Cons: – Occluded sensors have a big impact on performance – Acoustic properties affected by environment (humidity. often depth less accurate (same reason as humans) Magnetic Trackers • For a while magnetic trackers were the most widely used solution though not any longer • AC type (7‐14Khz usually) – Uses three‐axis magnetic dipole source and three‐axis magnetic sensors – Metallic or other ferrous materials in the environment can induce distortions as AC causes eddy currents (in newer technology this effect is greatly reduced) • DC type (pulsed) – Three axis magnetometers or hall effect sensors (mutually orthogonal) Three axis magnetometers or hall effect sensors (mutually orthogonal) – Leave a short time delay for eddy‐currents to die out – Affected by any permanent magnetic field (earth. they measure change and are susceptible to drift • Time‐of‐flight: – More vulnerable to acoustic noise. low latency – Can track multiple targets though update rate drops (probably not much more than 10 at once for real time) • Cons: – Lose accuracy and registration rapidly as working volume increases (S/N ratio drops) Acoustic Trackers • Use ultrasound either time‐of‐flight or phase coherent measurement techniques. motors etc) • Can also use Earth magnetic field intentionally for yaw measurement • Pros: – Very responsive. power outlets. Can have lots of receivers to maximise line of sight • Phase systems: – Better performance because of higher data rates – Can operate continuously rather than having to wait for an echo to return – Don’t measure absolute position they measure change and are susceptible to drift Don t measure absolute position. easy access to technology – Passive systems very scalable (many targets) • Cons: – Line of sight – Ambient noise (even for IR) – Non‐uniform performance across axes.
y. bend sensors.0098m/s2 (1 milli‐g).z much less accurate.g. Sensor Fusion in Trackers • Rarely actually use one technology in isolation • More common to get information from multiple sources and fuse the data to get a better estimate • Common sensor fusion techniques include Kalman filtering and Bayesian networks • Inertial sensors for orientation are usually combined with a 3 axis magnetometer to adjust for yaw drift • Inertial sensors for position are very often combined with optical or acoustic sensors to account for drift • Other sensing technologies are used such as force sensors. Accelerometers are double integrated to get position • Errors accumulate with time: e g error of 0 0098m/s2 (1 milli g) error is Errors accumulate with time: e.0098 t2/2 = 4.5 meters after 30 seconds • Filtering techniques can account for large part of white noise (evenly distributed noise) • Can’t account of Gyro Bias Drift – fundamental limitation of gyros • Pros: – – – – Unlimited working volume No line‐of‐sight issues Tilt sensing very accurate Highly responsive • Cons: – Yaw and position has measurement drift. capacitance and GPS but normally in combination with the main ones those already discussed Input Devices ‐ Examples • • • • • • • • • Standard keyboard and mouse Joysticks Wired gloves Motion Capture Suits Force balls 3D/6 DOF wands and mice Speech recognition Biosensors Eye/gaze tracking 5 . Errors accumulate quickly over time. error is double‐integrated: 0.28/11/2010 Inertial Trackers • Combine multi‐axis gyroscopes (angular velocity) and accelerometers (MEMS) • Measure roll and pitch accurately using accelerometers (earth gravity field) • Yaw must be integrated from gyro measurement • Position x. error of 0.
28/11/2010 Input Devices – Wired Gloves PinchGlove DataGlove CyberGlove CyberGrasp Input Devices – Force Balls SpacePilot SpaceBall SpaceMouse SpaceTraveler Input Devices – Wands and Mice Wanda 3D Pointer Intersense Wand (used in the Reading CAVE) 6 .
Pattern is denser the further away it is • Normal camera + depth sensing used together to isolate individual users and find facial characteristics and gestures • Speech recognition can isolate separate voice commands (probably using something like ICA) and select which person is talking from camera feed 7 . face and speech recognition • Normal camera plus 2 cameras for depth sensing and 4 microphones • Depth sensing works by projecting a pattern on the Depth sensing works by projecting a pattern on the scene (presumably in IR).com/watch?v=Jd3‐eiid‐ Uw Input Devices – MS Kinect • Wide variety of input types: capable of gesture.28/11/2010 Input Devices – Wii Remote • Most real trackers like the Wii Remote combine multiple sensing technologies • Has inertial components (3‐axis accelerometer and 3‐axis gyro) • O i l Optical components. High speed Hi h d cmos camera on the remote (inside looking out) with an IR pass filter detects 4 IR LEDs on the sensor bar • http://www.youtube. Two cameras for depth are sensitive to pattern.
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