cracking IAS academy’s

- IAS Express -

August 2010

National
*Court of inquiry ordered into Mangalore air crash: A court of inquiry has been appointed to inquire into the May 22 crash of an Air India Express aircraft at the Mangalore airport, in which 158 people, including a sixmember crew, were killed. Air Marshal (Retd.) Bhushan Nilkanth Gokhale will hold the investigation. Tropical cyclone Phet was the third named cyclone of the 2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. The low pressure area in the Arabian Sea was converted into a Tropical Cyclone on 31 May. It initially moved to the northwest direction near Oman but later turned more towards the North before reaching the Arabian Peninsula and later to a northeastern track onto Pakistan. It lashed the coastal areas and some other parts of Gujarat late on June 6.
Ajaat movement - anti-caste social reform movement The ajaat was a bold social movement of the 1920s and '30s that at its peak had tens of thousands of committed followers in what are present-day Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. It was led by social reformer Ganpati Bhabhutkar better known as Ganpati Maharaj. Apart from the usual anti-liquor and anti-violence norms of such movements, he attacked caste frontally. Many stopped idol worship at his call. He pressed for gender equality and even railed against private property. And, in the 1930s, he and his followers declared themselves as ‘ajaat.'The movement waned over years, as some followers left on the caste issue, and with its Gurus's death in 1944.

* Vaxiflu-S: India launched its first indigenously manufactured anti-influenza vaccine that will protect people against the A (H1N1) flu, which has killed over 1,500 people in the country since the pandemic broke out last year. Manufactured by Zydus-Cadila Healthcare, Vaxiflu-S is a monovalent singledose vaccine will be effective for one year. It can be used only by people in the age group 18*India committed to n-liability regime: Assuring the US of India's commitment to a 60 and is not meant for children, pregnant nuclear liability regime, External Affairs women and those allergic to eggs. Minister S M Krishna has invited American companies to invest in India and make a robust *Code of conduct for safe and honourable partnership with two-way trade in advanced tourism unveiled: It was conceptualised and technology products. Krishna, who leads the first India-US strategic dialogue at the ministerial level with US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, said encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship by engaging the mediumsized companies in the US and India is another priority.
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drafted by Ministry of Tourism in association with the Indian chapter of Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), Save the Children - India, an NGO, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC) and Equitable Tourism Option (EQUATIONS).
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cracking IAS academy’s

- IAS Express -

August 2010

• The code has been evolved keeping in mind said that 'relatives' included not only male but the objectives such as encouraging tourism also female members of a family. activities with respect for basic rights like dignity, safety and freedom from * Indo- France air exercise Garuda-IV: at Istres airbase in France. The joint air exercise

‘Garuda’ was started in February 2003 at the residents. Indian Air Base of Gwalior. The exercise • The other aspects covered by this code are commences biennially to foster relationship prevention of prostitution, sex tourism and between both the countries. forms of sexual exploitations in tourism, *Himachal Pradesh - paying for the procurement of plastic waste: Himachal forced or involuntary drug use, manipulated Pradesh had emerged the first state in the entire and incorrect information, cultural and Asian sub-continent which was paying for the social intolerance which could increase procurement of plastic waste and using the same for constructive activities like road vulnerability to crime. mettling. and enhancing prevention of activities like * Wage Board term extended: The term of the Wage Board for Working Journalists and NonJournalists and Other Newspaper Employees has been extended till December 31. The board's term, under the chairmanship of Justice G.R. Majithia, ended on May 23. Justice Majithia had sought an extension up to December 31 to submit his report. * Finance Ministry Constitutes Technical Advisory Group for Unique Projects: TAGUP Committee has been constituted in pursuance of the Finance Minister’s Budget Speech 2010-11 wherein he proposed to set up a Technology Advisory Group for Unique Projects under the Chairmanship of Shri Nandan Nilekani for an effective tax * Meghalaya to have winter capital: Tura, administration and financial governance system district headquarters of West Garo Hills, is through creation of IT projects which are reliable, secure and efficient. about 340 km from from Shillong. *Domestic Violence Act scope widens, woman can be prosecuted: A woman can be prosecuted under the Domestic Violence Act as failure to bring charges against women involved could encourage the men to instigate the female members of a family to commit violence, the Delhi High Court has ruled. Interpreting the provisions the Act, the court
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exploitation of both tourist and local

* (26th) Sainik School to be set up in Mizoram: A Sainik School is going to come up in Mizoram at Chhingchhip in Serchhip district. It will be the 26th such institution in India and the fourth in the northeast. Assam, Manipur and Nagaland have Sainik Schools. Sainik Schools were conceived in 1961 by then defence minister V.K. Krishna Menon to rectify the
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cracking IAS academy’s

- IAS Express -

August 2010

regional and class imbalance amongst the the 184-ft high grand white structure, Victoria officer cadre of the military and prepare Memorial, in Kolkata. students for entry into the National Defence Academy (NDA) and the Indian Naval *Centre approves scheme to deal with Academy. human trafficking: The scheme includes: 1. Establishment of Integrated Anti-Human *First of 6 Bamboo Bazaars launched at Trafficking Units (IAHTU) in 335 police Chennai: The Handicrafts Development Wing districts. of the Union Textile Ministry has planned to organize 6 “Bamboo Bazaars” in various parts 2. Training of trainers, who would eventually of the country in this year. These Bazaars train 10,000 police officers. provide an opportunity for artisans to display their talent. On June 4, 2010, the first in this series was launched at Valluvar Kootam, Chennai by Union Textile Minister Dayanidhi Maran. It is a 10 day exhibition and artists from North East States are participating who have been trained by experts from Indonesia. The remaining 5 Bamboo Bazaars will be conduced in other state capitals. Green hiker campaign In collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism, the World Wildlife Fund launched its Green Hiker Campaign 2010, which focuses on spreading awareness about the vulnerability of the Himalayan ecosystem that needs to be addressed by tourists, trekkers and mountain-lovers themselves. (Arjun Bajpayee, the youngest Indian to scale Mount Everest). *Centre approves CPMF scholarship scheme to attract young medicos: to serve in Central paramilitary paramilitary forces forces (CPMF). will provide Central special

scholarship of Rs 10,000 per month to 25 medical students from the next academic session who are willing to serve in the forces after completion of their studies. The scheme is aimed at attracting talented medicos to CPMF medical services. The CPMFs –Assam Rifles, BSF, CISF, CRPF, ITBPF, SSB and NSG have a vast network of 39 composite hospitals and about 550 unit or training institution hospitals to provide health care coverage. * Smriti Manjusha - The Time Capsule of Gujarat: On June 7, 2010, the Chief Minister of Gujarat Narendra Modi seals a 90-kg Time Capsule called "Kaal Sanduk" or Smriti Manjusha". This time capsule inscripts the progress of the state since its formation on May 1, 1960. It was lowered it under the ground for posterity at the site of Mahatma Mandir at Gandhi Nagar. The scripts are written on a 1003

*Tata Steel unveiled its new nation-wide campaign "Greenfection" to raise awareness among the citizens to save the environment. The launch was marked by the green lighting of

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This museum had to come up by 2010. *India's first integrated waste mgmt plant operations etc has been constituted for a period coming up in Kanpur: Infra firm a2z of one year. An amount of Rs. Museum of Moving Images (MoMI). * Civil aviation safety advisory council set up: The Government has set up a Civil Aviation Safety Advisory Council (CASAC) with the view of strengthening the aviation safety environment through synergisation of available expertise.000 years. Hindi. which is considered a better replacement for coal with lesser emissions. The council comprising of 28 members drawn from various aviation subsectors such as airlines (both public and private). Mumbai MoMi or Museum of Moving Images was planned by the Government of India to be set up in Mumbai on a 25 acre campus.cracking IAS academy’s . The Council has been set up under the Chairmanship of Director General of Civil Aviation. air worthiness. The process for setting up the project was started by the Films' Division in the 10th Plan and was continuing with hardly any progress in the 11th Plan. flight operations. has been awarded the project by Kanpur Municipal Corporation (KMC). It is slated to be third largest museum in the world after the similar ones in New York and London. solid waste. They have been written in subsequent power generation for captive and Gujarati. 42 crores was earmarked for the 11th plan Period for this project. The Red Saree. last 1. • A2Z. *The first World Classical Tamil Conference got off to a rousing start in Coimbatore on June 23rd 2010. Kabra Kala village is situated on a mound. It should merchant use. is the tale of the Nehru-Gandhi family told through the story of Sonia Gandhi. a subsidiary of A2Z Maintenance and Engineering Services Limited. MoMI Mumbai is first ever of its kind in Asian Region.IAS Express - August 2010 feet long. It contained 29 audio-visual • Majority of the fuel used in the plant will be compact discs prepared by the Government of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) derived from Gujarat. • a2z Infrastructure. chairman and managing director) plans to set up 10-15 Mw capacity power plants in various cities. which Call: us: 09884554654 4 . • The power plant is scheduled to be operational by March 2011 and will have the capacity to produce 15 Mw power. (Amit Mittal. the museum has been visualized with a view to giving impetus to the movement of showcasing the history of Indian Cinema and its global impact. Infrastructure will set up India’s first integrated municipal solid waste management plant in * India has 'negligible risk' for mad cow Kanpur. and is spread over a radius of 600 to 700 meters. *Artifacts dating back to Harappan era unearthed in Jharkhand: Artifacts dating back to the Harappan era have been unearthed in Kabra Kala village in Jharkhand’s Palamu District. The project touted to be Asia’s largest disease: India has received 'the most secure would comprise management of the city’s solid status' for the deadly mad cow disease. Javier Moro’s latest novel. three-feet wide special paper mixed waste in an environment friendly manner and with plastic. English and Sanskrit. depending on the availability of processed solid waste.

safety and security in Call: us: 09884554654 5 . The exhibition train will showcase information about sports and Information Technology for the people and specially youngsters. The disease then occurred in Europe. It happens to be the country's first mobile lok adalat to reach specifically rural poor to settle litigations at their doorstep without any cost to them. Commonwealth Express 'Commonwealth Express' will promote the sporting event to he hosted in the national capital Delhi in October this year. will be initially in Ranga Reddy district (Telangana). the state Health Minister DN Thakarpa said the declaration was based on animal health worldwide. Sweden and Finland. Sikkim Encephalopathy (BSE). known towards converting itself into the healthiest technically as Bovine Spongiform state in India within the next five years. • The World Organization for Animal Health implementation of Smoke free Laws which was (OIE) is an international inter-governmental well appreciated by different international organization responsible for improving organizations. at its 78th general session held in Paris * India’s first Smoke Free State is recently. • The infectious protein is resistant to commercial inactivation procedures such as heat. which gauges ongoing domestic and deterioration of the brain. • With this recognition. Claiming that Sikkim had made great progress in country with reference to BSE. which means that it may not be completely destroyed in the rendering process.cracking IAS academy’s . New Zealand. Those prion proteins carry the *Global Peace Index 2010 . Smoke Free Status held at Goa last year. *Andhra Pradesh first to launch mobile adalat: The Andhra Pradesh cabinet okayed launching of mobile lok adalat at three places in the state on a pilot scheme.Inda Ranks 128: disease between individuals and cause The GPI. the Middle East (Israel) and North America. • BSE or mad cow disease is a fatal disease of the nervous system of cattle. The mobile lok adalat. Norway. • 'The World Organization for Animal Health. This category was declared as a ''Smoke Free State'' on the represents the most secure status of a World No Tobacco Day on May 31. Australia. • BSE was first diagnosed in cattle in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986. BSE is a type of international conflict.IAS Express - August 2010 means the country has a 'negligible risk' for the illness. • The infectious agent in BSE is believed to be a specific type of misfolded protein called a prion. It has acquired the 'mad cow' name as one of its common symptoms is aggressive behaviour in the affected animals. one in each of the region. recognized India as having ‘SIKKIM’: In a landmark development 'negligible risk' for mad cow disease. Kadapa (Rayalaseema) and Visakahapatnam (Coastal Andhra Pradesh). India joins an objective assessment of smoke free status as per exclusive group of 12 other countries which the norms laid in the National Level Review of includes Argentina. The train will make its first stop at Amritsar where the Queen's Baton will arrive on the same day. transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Asia.

including the likelihood of violent demonstrations and perceptions of criminality. This is the fourth edition of the Global Peace Index (GPI). The government would appoint empowered committees.000 persons would be covered under all these categories. who chaired the nine-member team): It has recommended a compensation of Rs10 lakh for the next of kin of the deceased. and Japan. A dance of this sort began when Indian Foreign Secretary Ms. no appeal would be filed in cases where the matter pertains to an individual grievance without any major repercussion or where the matter pertains to a case of pension or retirement benefits without involving any principle and without setting any precedent or financial implications. on June 24. Iceland. and the total payout could be to the tune of Rs1. registered overall increases in several indicators. It has been expanded to rank 149 independent states and updated with the latestavailable figures and information for 2008-09. Rs5 lakh for those with permanent disability.cracking IAS academy’s . involves coordinated steps like a a step back for every forward step. and Rs2 lakh for those with renal disease and cancer. Challenges to orders of Tribunals would be an exception rather than a matter of routine. Of the over two crore cases pending in courts. The top three countries are New Zealand. * Recommendations made by the Group of Ministers (GoM) on the Bhopal gas tragedy (Union home minister P Chidambaram. there is no recommendation for the bulk of 5. However. there is no leading partner — both dancers play equally important roles. to be chaired at the national level by the Attorney General.58 lakh victims who are covered under the injured category. The bottom three countries are Sudan. Iraq. The policy also provides that in service matters. Under the new litigation policy the government would cease to be "a compulsive" litigant and expressed the hope that the state governments too would follow the centre's example and would come up with their own policy of this sort to reduce the number of cases pending in courts. Call: us: 09884554654 6 . Unnecessary and frequent adjournments by government lawyers will be frowned upon and infractions dealt with seriously.IAS Express - August 2010 society and militarization in 149 countries. *New litigation policy to reduce court cases: The policy would be implemented from the beginning of July 2010 and comes within a year of its national consultation for reducing pendency and delays in court cases in October last year. and. CHA CHA It is a complicated dance which begins with the second beat. to monitor implementation of the policy and to fix accountability of the government departments to follow the principles laid down by the policy. Mr. It is of Cuban origin. An appeal would not be filed in service matters merely because the order of the Administrative Tribunal affects a number of employees and appeals would not be filed to espouse the cause of one section of employees against another. Afghanistan. As many as 30. 70 per cent of them involved the government as either petitioners or respondents.500 crore.Salman Bashir. Nirupama Rao met with her Pakistani counterpart.

Shaik Shakir Hussian as new *India's poverty rate may 'fall' to 24% by Chief Executive Officer. especially in Africa. appointed Dr. not been made. slashing the number of extremely poor by Additional Director of Income Tax) in 188 million. In the field of child mortality rate. The commission.Tamil *CIC to challenge Delhi high court order in Supreme Court: The Central Information Commission will move the Supreme Court against a decision of the Delhi high court scrapping the procedures being followed by the panel in disposing of appeals. Hussain is a Indian Revenue rate from 51 per cent in 1990 to 24 per cent in Service (IRS) officer and currently serving as 2015.cracking IAS academy’s . took note of a Patna high court ruling which had allowed Bihar's state Nadu and West Bengal -. The legal matters would be jointly handled by the state and central governments and curative petitions regarding the ‘meagre’ *Shakir Hussian to be Haj Committee’s new CEO: The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) civil and criminal liability would be filed. [The rate of of India for Haj. India witnessed improvement but it was slow and highlighted disparity.IAS Express - August 2010 It also proposes a government take-over of the Bhopal Memorial Hospital Trust and an action plan worth Rs982 crore. under the supervision of a joint task force Lack of access to sanitation is another area headed by the Union minister for of concern where sufficient progress has environment. malaria and child health and a good chance to reach the target for access to clean drinking water. The GoM has recommended the toxic waste lying at the plant site should be cleaned-up by the state government with all technical and financial support from the central government. strong interventions in addressing AIDS. [Haj Committee of India is a Asia is not sufficient to halve the level of committee in India formed under Haj poverty by that target date.] The report suggests that while the economic crisis took a heavy toll of jobs and an income around the world. respectively but economically better off 7 Call: us: 09884554654 . "Two states -. while deciding to move the apex court. for making United Nations report on the Millennium arrangements for the pilgrimage of Muslims Development Goals for 2010.have reduced information commission to frame its own the child mortality rate by 70 to 56 % rules for the conduct of its business. This would be done states like Maharashtra and Gujarat have shown almost no improvement". But progress in the rest of South Hyderabad. Mumbai. A special Hajj passport is poverty in China is expected to fall to issued for this purpose. according to a Committee Act 2002. its impact does not threaten to derail the MDG target of cutting extreme poverty by 50%.] around five per cent by 2015. The UN report cites big gains in getting children into primary schools in many poor countries. Haj Committee of 2015: India is expected to reduce its poverty India.

the health workers. According to Ansari. achieving universal primary education. A decision by the Supreme Court will also bring uniformity in the functioning of the information commissions across the country. in respect of protecting the rights of information seekers. They are eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. now called Skilled Birth Attendants (SBA)." a bench of Justice Badar Durrez Ahmed and justice Veena Birbal had said. "The chief information commissioner has no powers to make rules under the RTI Act. ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development. We have decided to approach the Supreme Court so that the matter could be clarified. At present. meanwhile. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that all 192 UN member states agreed to achieve by the year 2015. "Not only autonomy in the functioning of the CIC has thus been impinged upon. The commission. reducing Child Mortality Rate.IAS Express - August 2010 "There seems to be a contradiction between the Patna high court and Delhi high court decisions. saying the commissioner had no power to enact such regulations under the transparency law. According to the new guidelines. the implication of the high court order was that a single or division bench cannot decide an appeal before the commission. Concern was also expressed by one information commissioner that the high court ruling impinged upon the functional autonomy of the panel. * New guidelines aimed at reducing maternal mortality: to meet India's commitment to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing MMR to less than 100 deaths by 2015. MMR in India is as high as 254 deaths per 100.000 live births. and 8 Call: us: 09884554654 . promoting gender equality and empowering women. 2007." the court added. drawn up by the commissioner to decide the procedure for special appeals before the panel. has been halted at the cost of jeopardising the RTI movement launched by the civil society and strongly supported by the UPA government. will possess technical competenceto administer routine care. improving maternal health." MM Ansari said. malaria. but the future course of action. "The CIC by formulating the regulations and prescribing the procedure for deciding appeals has clearly violated the provisions of the RTI Act. The order was passed on a plea of the DDA (Delhi Development Authority) seeking quashing of the Central Information Commission (Management) Regulations.cracking IAS academy’s . Both the "appropriate government" and the "competent authority" have been empowered by the rules to make rules to carry out provisions of the Act. The Delhi high court had last month struck down the rules framed by the chief information commissioner on the procedure for deciding appeals before the panel under the Right to Information (RTI) Act. has decided to continue with its routine business and conduct daily hearings." the bench said. and other diseases. he said. combating HIV/AIDS." chief information commissioner Wajahat Habibullah said.

Under the public-private partnership. The ship was carrying rocket launchers. Bangalore-based Radiant Info Systems Ltd will set up the unit. during pregnancy and childbirth. in which case they will refer the mother and the child to an appropriate facility. sophisticated arms and ammunition and anti-aircraft guns for the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia. reaching the health facility and receiving treatment are the main causes of maternal and infant mortality that the new guide seeks to address. The dubious Pakistan-bound ship. a major cause of death during child birth. 9 . compelling them to join a legal battle and restrain As per this new initiative. *Technology Express to popularize IT: The train. The SBAs will be capable of handling common obstetric and neonatal emergencies and in time detect situations beyond their expertise . It has been branded as ‘Harsamadhan’. Haryana has launched this web portal through a centralised computer-based system. to be manned by educated convicts. *Haryana first with web portal for public grievances: Haryana became the first Indian state to launch a web portal for quickly addressing public grievances. Delay in recognising complications . MV Aegean Glory. which is a combination of two words ‘har’ (everyone) and ’samadhan’ (solution). the government them from expressing a view similar to the one will empower the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANM). was brought to Kolkata port by the Coast Guard and the Calcutta Port Trust authorities. The guideline has been prepared keeping in mind that these workers would be providing care at the sub-centre level or in a domiciliary setting. *India’s first BPO to come up in Hyderabad’s Cherlapally Central Jail: India’s first Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) facility in jail will become a reality with the Andhra Pradesh government giving its nod to the proposal.IAS Express - August 2010 identify and manage complications arising about information technology in remote areas and small towns. This was in news in relation to Khusboo case. named Technology Express will be launched from Kharagpur (West Bengal) after the Commonwealth Games to raise awareness Call: us: 09884554654 that invited the SLAPP.cracking IAS academy’s . They will also assist delivery at home and A strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP) aims to intimidate and silence critics by during the post-partum period. the government decided to allow private industry including BPOs to set up their units in prisons. and administering drugs during emergency to stabilise the patient prior to referral . As part of jail reforms and to provide income generating opportunities to prisoners. Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) staff nurse and Multipurpose Health Worker to undertake certain life saving measures like allowing them to dispense uterotonic drugs to prevent Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH). The module can also be used by the nongovernmental organisations and private sector health facilities.

The aircraft is capable of operating from rough. in which equitable access to global atmospheric space is absent.IAS Express - August 2010 continue their protest till the authorities do *India's first (first of India’s six C-130J Super Hercules airlifters) Super Hercules air-lifter: Purchased from the US in a $1 billion deal. the tactical transport "aircraft now enters flight test in preparation for delivery at the end of the year. 1493 crore tunnel has been designed to provide easy access between Himachal Pradesh’s Keylong and Jammu and Kashmir’s Leh district.cracking IAS academy’s . under the new law. South Africa and Brazil support India on this concept. The flexible design of the Super Hercules enables it to be configured for many different missions.8 kilometre-long is also set to become the world longest tunnel at an altitude between 3053 and 3080 metres. members of khap panchayat. has illegally grabbed their lands sans any proper compensation. allowing the aircraft to quickly switch between roles. The United Nations is aiming to 10 . dirt strips and is the prime transport for air dropping troops and equipment into hostile areas. The farmers complained that the government is not doing justice to the owners and tillers of agricultural lands and that they would Call: us: 09884554654 justice to them. Such cases would be tried by fast track courts to provide speedy justice to the victims. Much of the special mission equipment added to the Super Hercules is removable. which is executing this project. *New bill will treat all khap members as accomplices: Alarmed by the steep rise in suspected honour killings. According to Moily. * India Says Global Climate Accord Must Include Principle of Carbon Budget: A global climate accord must include the principle of a climate budget that is shared between nations based on their historical emissions. India cannot and will not accept any international agreement in which equity is absent. allowing for one aircraft to perform the role of many. the central government has decided to bring a new bill providing for the prosecution of the entire khap panchayat for ordering violent punishment for young couples marrying against their diktats. who order the killing of the couples who dare to go against the dictates of these panchayats will be treated as accomplices in the crime. When completed in 2015. explosives detained: A Karachi-bound cargo vessel (S G Zyat) from Bangladesh with military hardware and explosives was recently detained by the police at Diamond Harbour in West Bengal’s South 24 Parganas district. *Allahabad farmers protest against acquisition of lands for power project: Members of the farming community in Allahabad staged a mass protest against the acquisition of their agricultural lands for a proposed power project. The farmers also alleged that Jaypee Group. *Pak-bound vessel with military hardware. the 8. *Rohtang tunnel project: The Rs. The C-130J primarily performs the tactical portion of an airlift mission. China.

The move to more tightly regulate the mining of rare earths has sparked concern abroad. the scientists said in a two-page memorandum. prompting the government to International *China tightens control on rare earth elements: Rare earths are a select group of 17 elements that are crucial to many of the world's most advanced technologies. however. also resulted in keeping in check the prices of the elements for foreign companies. The rising importance of the 17 rare earth elements. [Rare earth elements or rare earth metals are a collection of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table. Several countries. yttrium.IAS Express - August 2010 broker a global climate treaty in December in Copenhagen.] The Chinese government is now considering tightening its control over the production and export of the valuable minerals. They also happen to be found widely in China. and the fifteen lanthanides. which is estimated to account for more than 95% of their global supply. Indian origin. which are crucial to a range of green technologies from hybrid cars and wind turbines to solar cells.cracking IAS academy’s . The mining of rare earths has also resulted in severe environmental damage in China's south. and allowing detained civilians access to their consulates. Flotilla incident UN Security Council recently condemned the Israeli attack on a flotilla of six ships carrying aid and pro-Palestine activists to the Gaza Strip while seeking a "full explanation" from the Jewish state and an impartial investigation into the incident. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare earths since they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. The illegal mining and unregulated trade has. The agreement should ensure carbon-dioxide output peaks by 2015 and are cut to half the 1990 levels by 2050. is consider tighter regulations. or Cabinet. are heavily dependent on China for rare earth elements. Kamla Persad-Bissessar. examining a proposal that calls for limiting *Multiracial Trinidad and Tobago elects a the production of rare earths to a select woman of Indian origin to the post of Prime group of State-run enterprises. release of the ships. She defeated three-term Prime Call: us: 09884554654 11 . by restricting private companies' access to their mines and their license to trade. The Security Council statement called for lifting the Gaza blockade. a person of regulating supply and prices. has seen a proliferation of illegal mines in China. Many countries have abandoned projects to mine the elements. a move that Minister: The Caribbean island nation of would give the government almost Trinidad and Tobago ushered in a new era on complete control over both the destinations May 24 by electing its first woman Prime of export and a much greater say in Minister. China's State Council. namely scandium. including the United States.

recently approved in first reading a Bill that amends a 2003 national security law to exclude the goal of “integration into EuroAtlantic security and membership in NATO”. which is centered on the two dominant ethnic groups. Manning took the political gamble of calling midterm elections in the hope of catching the opposition parties unprepared. the National Joint • The four countries have clarified that the BASIC is a forum for discussion and not a negotiating group. It is expected that the other developing countries will be invited to take part in the deliberations.IAS Express - August 2010 Minister Patrick Manning in a closely fought election. India and China did not object to a demand for a technical paper by the Alliance of Small Island States that was blocked by Saudi Arabia and other oil producing countries. * Ukraine drops NATO membership plans: Ukraine has officially taken NATO Action Committee (NJAC). South Africa. India and China) countries will meet in Rio de Janeiro in late July. was able to stitch together a coalition of the five main opposition parties. For these countries. this exercise is important to determine the future trajectory of negotiating position on the temperature threshold. Kamla Persad-Bissessar. This exercise takes on additional importance due to the inclusion of 1. Mr. She brought the Congress of the People. the Movement membership off its agenda in a volte face on for Social Justice and the Tobago policy ardently pursued by the previous Organization of the People into a united President. Facing a no-confidence motion on the grounds of corruption. “inclusive” character during the campaign to break out of Trinidad's usual style of politics. The Bill submitted by President Viktor Yanukovych commits Ukraine to “a non-bloc policy which means nonparticipation alliances”. This is a part of the agreement that the four countries agreed to at their May meeting in Cape Town.cracking IAS academy’s . the BASIC (Brazil. leader of the United National Congress (UNC). This will be the third quarterly meeting of the four countries. Kiev formally applied to join NATO in 2008. Viktor Yushchenko. and even though the alliance failed to immediately give the green light to the Ukrainian bid. The coalition of parties led by Kamla Persad-Bissessar had stressed its multiracial. However.5 degrees threshold in the latest text on the Bali track. Yushchenko vowed to in military-political Call: us: 09884554654 12 . This could explain the reason behind a session on “science and possible scenarios”. In Bonn. *Rio BASIC meet in July-end to invite other developing nations: Ahead of the August round of negotiations at Bonn. The Ukrainian Parliament coalition for “People's Partnership”.

and Norway. famous for his lack of political lineage. The freedom of movement thus link from Al-Qaeda and accept allegiance to guaranteed to more than 400 million people the Afghan constitution. Spain and Portugal had already been roped in.N. refrain from house searches. *Naoto Kan is Japanese Premier: Naoto Kan. • As a goodwill gesture. Netherlands. members. now primary aim at present is to draw Taliban comprising 22 of the 27 EU states besides foot-soldiers away from the cycle of Switzerland. declaration advocating peace talks with armed opposition groups. When the Schengen process should be taken-off a U. who resigned citing his failure to stay in step with the people's wishes.673 km external sea and 7. • The Taliban has vehemently opposed the Jirga and has stressed that it would participate in reconciliation efforts only after the exit of foreign forces from Afghanistan. blacklist. the declaration urged Afghan and NATO-led forces to release Taliban prisoners who had “unknowingly chosen the wrong path and those prisoners where [there] is no evidence against them.721 km land be integrated. Iceland. France and Germany. • Analysts point out that the government's * Schengen at 25: The Schengen area. a 16-article non-binding Around 137 people associated with the Taliban are on this list. A severe flood burst in RIVER DIKE in south-eastern China's Jiangxi province. night raids and Their attempt blossomed into something more stop air strikes that can kill innocent substantial when the big two EU founder civilians. • The resolution highlighted that the international and Afghan forces should constitutes one of the EU's founding goals. Luxembourg] decided to dispense with border checks in the 1960s.IAS Express - August 2010 win NATO membership as the only way to “safeguard Ukrainian sovereignty”. was elected Japan's Prime Minister. Convention entered into force a decade later. * National Consultative Peace Jirga: The National Consultative Peace Jirga comprising around 1. the Benelux three [Belgium. by offering them amnesty and absence of internal barriers in a territory along other incentives.borders. The hard-core militants can a 42. During the early days of the elimination of national boundaries. Call: us: 09884554654 13 . He succeeds Yukio Hatoyama. provided they completely de. entails the militancy.cracking IAS academy’s .600 delegates issued at the end of its deliberations. complementary to the other objectives related to the movement of goods and services. joined forces • The conference recommended that those in the historic agreement at the Belgian town of who participate in the proposed peace Schengen in 1985.

099 square kilometres Aegypti . *Dhaka blaze: Bangladeshi firefighters said *The way forward in Nepal: A political and that an illegal chemical warehouse had fuelled a constitutional crisis of sorts was averted in toxic blaze that ripped through one of Dhaka's Nepal when Nepal’s three major political most densely populated areas. thus saving the country’s four-year-old peace process from breaking Call: us: 09884554654 14 .911 sq mi). The area currently covers a to dengue and over 11. Nepali Congress (NC) and Communist Party of Nepal. Cyprus. Israel says its soldiers boarded the its term by a year. near the point where the borders of Germany. • websites. 10 deaths due done so.the mosquito which transmits (1. [Aedes an area of 4. Norway. France. 6 other websites: A Pakistani court famous. Luxembourg meet. and *Pak court orders ban on Google.000 infections have been population of over 400 million people and reported so far across the country. and blockade of Gaza has arrived in the Israeli port voted in favor of a bill proposing extension of of Ashdod. for posting blasphemous material. members except Ireland and the United Kingdom are required to implement *Emergency declared in Honduras: A state Schengen and – with the exceptions of of national emergency has been declared in Bulgaria. and Switzerland. 1985. The Schengen rules were absorbed into allegedly European Union (EU) law by the Pakistani authorities had blocked popular social Amsterdam Treaty in 1999.IAS Express - August 2010 • Schengen is a small wine-making village Irish-owned Rachel Corrie from the sea and and commune in far south-eastern did not meet any resistance. All EU caricatures of Prophet Mohammed. Yahoo.664. when the has reportedly ordered a ban on nine leading Schengen Agreement was signed. including Google and Hotmail. dengue]. an hour before the expiry of Israeli military while trying to break the the Constituent Assembly’s (CA’s) tenure. although the networking website Facebook in May over the area includes three non-EU member states: holding of a competition on blasphemous Iceland.Unified *Israel diverts Gaza aid ship Rachel Corrie Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML)] inked a to Ashdod: An aid ship intercepted by the compromise deal. killing nearly parties [Unified Communist Party of Nepal120 people.312. The village became Hotmail. and Romania – have Honduras over dengue outbreak. Luxembourg.cracking IAS academy’s . Maoist (UCPN-Maoist). on June 14.

This increase in the defence budget of not finish its task because of differences around Rs 64 billion was considered as “a between the political parties on a number of must” given the intensified battle against the issues necessitating a term extension. which had a two-year the inflation rate of 12 per cent is taken into mandate to write a new constitution.935% by allocating Rs 442. and the speedy Canadian Foreign Minister Lawrence Cannon establishment of a national consensus said Canada was following the United Nations' government. United states is the place where the Michael Jackson museum is coming up. • The extension of the CA term may have saved the peace process but the real challenge begins now as the parties have to sit down together and settle many *Canada announces new economic sanctions the development: Canada announced a new round the Tehran government from Taliban insurgents. of Mr. without delay. Father of the pop legend. pursuing the development of nuclear weapons. especially in the former conflict-affected areas and has decided to extend its tariff concession to Sri Lanka for another six months. Nepal. 2010. *EU offers to extend GSP+: The European Union is reportedly impressed with the postwar development in Sri Lanka. contentious issues.173 billion for assumption being that two years was sufficient 2010-11. Gary. The European Union citing Sri Lanka's alleged human rights violations has decided to suspend the GSP+ tariff concession in February 2010.cracking IAS academy’s . Security Council approved a resolution recently to strengthen sanctions and called on individual countries and blocs of nations to expand their own sanctions regimes against Iranian individuals and organizations.IAS Express - August 2010 down. Indiana. around 5% in real terms in defence spending if • The Assembly. could account. • At this sensitive juncture. Indian policy on Iran to discourage nuclear weapon towards Nepal needs to avoid misjudgments and mistakes of the past: the of economic sanctions against Iran aimed at best course will be to endorse the three. Joe has signed a deal to create a $300 million worth museum dedicated to his late son. *G-8 Muskoka Accountability Report: The Accountability Report takes stock of the G-8 progress in meeting its recent development commitments. The U. the CA's term Pakistan increased its defence budget by was set to expire on May 28. Under the interim statute adopted after *Pakistan increases defence budget by 17 %: the overthrow of the monarchy.N. This reflects a marginal increase of time to write the new constitution. the 16.dissuading point agreement calling for the resignation. Call: us: 09884554654 . The report is a major step forward in assessing the extent to which the G15 lead.

S. Cheonan The sinking of Seoul's warship Cheonan fuelled tensions with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. maritime security and other matters of mutual interest. an attempt to hike resurrect a carbon trade scheme and call it breaks a significant taboo here. *G8 pledges $7. Italy. influencing policy and mobilizing resources to address global development * France paralyzed by general strike: France challenges. and to Africa. * Australia's first woman Prime Minister: demonstrations across the country brought forth Australia appointed its first woman Prime an estimated two million persons. in many neighboring nations. Call: us: 09884554654 16 . The next SAARC conference will be held in Madives in 2011. Its findings Russia and the US. France. Germany. education. peace and security.3 bn to reduce child with more than half of voters turning out mortality in poor countries: World leaders despite political turmoil and ethnic bloodshed. Japan. and South Korea of aggravating the situation. Although Minister. SAARCPOL The ministerial-level meeting of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) held in June 2010 covered aspects like anti-terrorism campaigns. The strike call was given by the country's eight major trade unions and 200 security. The DPRK envoy accused the U. Canada. South Korea and an international team of investigators blamed North Korea for sinking the ship with a submarine-fired torpedo. to facilitate exchange of regional information. prevention of drug and human trafficking. The G8 members are Britain. see retirement at 60 — introduced by a Socialist government in 1983 — as their right. who vowed to end France's retirement age of 62 is still lower than division over a controversial mining tax. killing 46 sailors. This report shows that Canada has was paralyzed on June 25. relaxation in visa laws. paving the way for parliamentary elections in October and diplomatic recognition for the interim government. Pakistan’s Interior Minister Rehman Malik said there should be a SAARC-pol. with the European Union demonstrate the G-8’s leadership in catalyzing as a permanent observer. where many elections within months. *Kyrgyzstan votes on Constitution: Kyrgyzstan held a referendum to try to create Central Asia's first parliamentary democracy. modification in immigration laws. just like Interpol. 2010 by a crippling a strong record on delivering on G-8 general strike in protest at the government's commitments in health. food decision to rise the retirement age from 60 to 62.cracking IAS academy’s . Julia Gillard. action. The Cheonan corvette was sunk on March 26 near the border between the Koreas. and donor groups have pledged $7. • The referendum calls on voters to support changes to the constitution that would devolve power from the president to a prime minister.IAS Express - August 2010 8 has lived up to its promises.3 billion in aid by 2015 to reduce child mortality and save women in poor countries from dying in childbirth.

Both the US and Russia have military bases in the country. the declaration said implementation of the Basel norms will raise the amount and improve the quality of capital. • Kyrgyzstan was part of the Soviet Union before its independence in 1991. *G-20 nations for balanced approach to growth. as a step towards restoring democracy. • While growth is returning. • The referendum was supported by measures. Strengthening the recovery is the key. • The bloc. and the social impact of the crisis is still widely felt. money laundering and terror financing. unemployment in many countries remains at unacceptable levels. • The G20 nations also took note of the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and called for sharing best practices to protect the marine environment. there is a need to follow through on delivering existing stimulus plans. before stepping aside. Ms Otunbayeva G-20 countries might also autonomously ask their banks to pay such a levy. even as the UK has just imposed a tax on banks and some other Call: us: 09884554654 17 . the bloc agrees to set up a working group to make recommendations on how to fight this menace. • Advanced economies have committed to fiscal plans that will halve deficits by 2013 and stabilize or reduce government debt by 2016. • India reiterated its opposition to a single global bank tax to create a corpus for future bailouts of banks if any.the only woman ever to lead a Central Asian republic . prevent accidents related to offshore exploration. considered better representative body than rich nations grouping of G-8. • Parliamentary elections would be held every five years and the president limited to a single six-year term in office. economy on its way to recovery amid debt crisis in some European nations.would remain interim president until the end of 2011. the recovery is uneven and fragile. • The bloc also talked of addressing the issue of tax havens. • Asserting that corruption threatens the integrity of markets. To sustain recovery. while working to create the conditions the UN. resolved to continue with free international trade and refrain from protectionist . the US and Russia.cracking IAS academy’s . • Calling for prudential norms for financial sectors. fiscal deficit: With the global for robust private demand. the G-20 countries called for striking a balance between stimulus measures to sustain economic expansion and reducing fiscal deficit to tackle the mess of government finances.IAS Express - August 2010 • Under the new charter.

But Pakistan is deeply suspicious of industry. As of June Party.2 against Iran: The fresh EU sanctions include a billion in aid to Afghanistan since the ouster of ban on investments. • According to the constitution. technical assistance and the Taliban regime in 2001 in the US-led technology transfers to Iran's key oil and gas campaign. with an estimated Social population of 169. saying New Delhi's "critical and positive role" there was a key part of the war-torn nation's * Russian objections to EU’s fresh sanctions future success.1 million in 2020.cracking IAS academy’s . the India and World government must ask the legislature for a * Israel regrets naming India to explain confidence vote within 30 days of the killings off Gaza: Israel expressed regret for cabinet being appointed. the biggest of three parties that won a 2009. Islamabad also nation by 2020: According to the Pakistan asked New Delhi to compensate it with 200. • Russia has slammed unilateral measures against Iran by the European Union (EU) * Pak for neutral determination of India’s and the United States following the recent power projects: After seeking World Bank’s United Nations Security Council (UNSC) arbitration to settle the dispute over the vote for a fourth round of sanctions against Kishenganga Tehran.9 million at the end of June Democrats. the country in the world. Pakistan will have a total premier: Necas is leader of the Civic Democrat population of 210. Pakistan was the sixth most populous majority in May 28-29 elections. • The election’s winners. having bracketed India with other violence-hit • Necas has said that he aims to finish the countries while explaining its position on the coalition agreement by July 7 and have his firing on peace activists in the sea off Gaza. corruption measures. so it can prepare its own budget for 2011. His *US backs India's involvement in potential cabinet is expected to promise to Afghanistan: The United States has strongly introduce public finance reforms and anti. Pakistan threatened to seek determination by neutral experts for * Pak to become fourth most populous another power plant of India. . India has provided USD 1. were not able to find coalition 2009. Hydro-Electric Project in Jammu and Kashmir.000 Call: us: 09884554654 18 India's role in Afghanistan. partners to form a majority government.IAS Express - August 2010 *Petr Necas appointed as new Czech Economic Survey.backed India's involvement in Afghanistan. cabinet in place by mid-July.

India would take a Basin as it wants. India. The 45 MW Nimoo Bazgo project in Leh district of J&K is being developed by the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation on the river Indus. The project is likely to be ready for commissioning by next August. . within three months of the receipt of Pakistan and possibly Iran. SCO's plan to take into its fold more countries Pakistan needs to convey its objections. According to the central Asian countries. They will be taken from the eight member States of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).explore the nature of rule changes for joining river projects on the western rivers of Indus the SCO that are under way. Afghanistan will be one of the core issues at the SCO summit.IAS Express - August 2010 Million Acre Feet of water for the loss it claims to have incurred due to filling of Baglihar Dam in J&K. “All that India needs to view on joining the SCO after the criteria are do is to provide information to Pakistan adopted. with Uzbekistan likely to highlight the insufficient involvement of countries like Iran and India. India already Tashkent. Indian officials An entry into the SCO will allow India to play a greater role in the region. if from the near neighbourhood. Call: us: 09884554654 19 reiterated to their Pakistani counterparts that none of its projects would result in substantive reduction in quantum of water flowing across the Line of Control. India could build as many run-of-the. scheduled for June in Pakistan for such projects. India's inclination comes amid the about the projects six months in advance. Jhelum and Indus. provided Pakistan with information about Nimoo Bazgo and 32 other projects it is building or has plans to build on Chenab. keen on joining Shanghai destroy the agriculture sector in the *India Cooperation Organization (SCO): The country’s Sindh Province. India does not need enrolment are expected to be unveiled around to take any formal clearance from the next SCO summit. including any. Russia and China to IWT. In fact. Its permanent campus will be at Maidan Garhi in South Delhi.cracking IAS academy’s . Pakistan’s stance is that it would significantly lessen the quantum of water flow in Indus and Suru in Pakistan and * South Asian University to start functioning in August: The South Asian University (SAU) [it will use a temporary campus at Akbar Bhawan. The rules for information from us. besides helping to narrow down the differences with its neighbours towards a solution in Afghanistan. The India’s stance is that Nimoo Bazgo is government had asked the missions in four a run-of-the-river project. India] will begin its first academic session from August 2010 with 50 students.

However. expansion only in the non-permanent category Call: us: 09884554654 20 . their exposure to wide Asian geopolitics could help them narrow down their differences. said.cracking IAS academy’s . The two sides signed three agreements including a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on agricultural cooperation. an air services pact and an MoU between the Foreign Service Institute of India and the Diplomatic Academy of South Africa. with Uzbekistan coming on board. executive chairman. Pakistan and Mongolia are observers. India is South Africa's largest trading partner in south and south-east Asia and one of South Africa's top ten trading partners globally. Iran. be increased in both categories. has said that expansion of only non-permanent seats does not constitute reform of the world body and demanded that membership. "There cannot be Politically and economically. *India. with the first bridge being China. On the negative side. from the South African side. South Africa sign three pacts: India and South Africa signed three agreements. By joining the grouping. "Equally. South African President Jacob Zuma and India's Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma launched the India-South Africa CEOs Forum on June 3rd 2010.IAS Express - August 2010 Politically. India." Hardeep Singh Puri. India (along with Pak and Afghanistan) can serve as a second bridge between east and the central parts of Asia. including an air services pact. China. Africa Rainbow Minerals. the SCO will give India a fuller Asian identity than is the case at present. business ties and agreed to jointly work to reform the UN Security Council. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. *India pushes for expansion of permanent seats in UNSC: India. Tajikistan. Most of the regional groupings of which it is a member are inclined eastward. The SCO membership will also enable India to diversify its relationship with China by extending cooperation to antiterrorism and security-related issues. India's envoy to the UN. The newly-launched CEOs forum would be headed by Ratan Tata from the Indian side and Patrice Motsepe. the organisation was renamed SCO five years later. India will also get an opportunity to interact with countries in the region that are interested in tackling the Iran issue. to ramp up their any reform without expansion in both the categories of membership. which is seeking a permanent berth in the UN Security Council. it will become yet another forum where India and Pakistan will sit across the table. Founded in 1996 as Shanghai Five with Russia.

"India supports a number of developing countries from East Asia. In March High Representative for foreign affairs and last year.IAS Express - August 2010 or any of its other variants does not constitute reform and is merely the perpetuation of the about 128 counties saying 'yes' to New Delhi's presence in the Security Council. South country in west Africa will soon get its first call Africa and Brazil is seeking permanent center . Kazakhstan's withdrew from the electoral race leaving India with a clean slate for 2010-11. Latin by developed countries to narrow the difference American and Caribbean countries and the between fake medicines and counterfeits. This year.000 crore annually. which adds up to • The attempt by the developed countries could adversely affect exports of generics from India worth Rs 30. Germany." At the meeting in the UN headquarters. in Geneva. In 2009." he said. an annual gathering of 193 members of the World Health Organisation (WHO). centre: Burkina Faso . India along with Japan. distribution of seats that addresses the lack support to India in its fight against an attempt of representation of African. To win.the small land-locked current inefficiency by the same ineffective *India to help Burkina Faso set up first call means in vogue since 1963. India had submitted that its genuine generic medicines were seized at European ports Call: us: 09884554654 21 are of drugs produced in intellectual property . India also underlined the need for equitable *India gets help in drugs piracy fight: A geographical distribution. lack of adequate representation of Asian countries in the permanent membership. India needs two-thirds of the General Assembly vote. membership of the Security Council. member states of the UN had *EU keen on closer security ties: India and finally abandoned the 'Open Ended the European Union exchanged notes for a Working Group' (OEWG) on the issue closer security partnership in intelligence that had dragged on for 15 years without sharing and anti-piracy operations during EU yielding any substantive results. • Countries such as Thailand and Indonesia supported India’s position at the recent world health assembly. Earlier this year. India is also running for a nonpermanent seat of the Council for which elections will be held in October." Puri said. Charter-based Latin America and Africa have extended their interaction with top Indian policy makers. the old talks were replaced by the security policy Catherine Ashton's two-day new "inter-governmental negotiations.cracking IAS academy’s .with support from India. Counterfeits violation agreements.

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because EU followed intellectual property circumvent the more liberal guidelines of the laws that went beyond the international WIPO and WTO treaties, ostensibly to protect Trips agreement and this should not be intellectual property and copyrighted material, but perhaps to ensure that royalties stay exactly • The Indian drugs that were seized at where they belong. Some have even gone so far European airports were off patent both in as to call it an “international piracy pact”. India and the countries where they were being exported to, but there were companies in Europe that held patents to variants of these medicines. • The international health assembly decided that WHO should convene an intergovernmental working group, which will look at its role in ensuring availability of good-quality, safe, efficacious and affordable drugs, and also look at its relationship International with Medical the controversial AntiProducts • Many developing nations have voiced their displeasure against the formulation the ACTA, and some have even formed a coalition to try to break it, or at least weaken the stringent terms. According to the English Club, ACTA will try to implement a variety of major provisions, from the criminalization of peer-to-peer engine development, to thought crime (such as imminent infringement), and the seizure of international pharmaceutical shipments – even those that just past through a stentorian country’s port. • In 2007, the EU and a number of other WTO members began work on a new international agreement – the Antiallowed to become the norm.

Counterfeiting Taskforce. • International Medical Products AntiCounterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT) was launched by WHO in 2006, but it allegedly represents the interest of multinational pharmaceutical firms. WHO, in partnership with IMPACT, has been actively considering using the term counterfeit to define fake and spurious medicines. * India mobilizing forces against AntiCounterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA): The ACTA, or the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement, is now widely acknowledged as a controversial way that some of the wealthier nations (U.S., EU, Canada, Japan, and

Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). The EU's objective with ACTA partners is to have a new plurilateral treaty improving global standards for the enforcement of IPR, to more effectively combat trade in counterfeit and pirated goods. • It is feared that it could hamper India’s trade in a number of areas including pharmaceuticals and IT products. Therefore India and China have decided to rake up the
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Australia) and corporations are trying to use to
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issue at the World Trade Organization (WTO). There are serious concerns that ACTA will limit access to medicine hamper diffusion of green technology needed to fight climate change in the software sector, give holders of huge patent portfolios the possibility to eliminate competition from start-ups, smaller sized companies and open source

financed

through

a

credit

from

the

International

Development

Association

(IDA), the World Bank's concessionary lending arm, and has 35 years to maturity and a 10-year grace period. It is

complemented with $64 million from the Indian government's budget.

projects *Kanishka Bombing Inquiry Commission

introduce Internet monitoring and three blames Canadian govt for its failure in strikes out Internet disconnection policies terror attack: hamper competition, innovation and trade create a captive institution. *India to set up panel for boosting economic ties with U.S.: India will set up a high-level committee to identify areas for expanding economic ties with the US, from where it expects an estimated investment of $ 250-300 billion in infrastructure space. The committee, to be set up under Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia, would coordinate with various ministries and prepare a roadmap before US President Barack Obama’s India visit in November 2010. *World Bank loan to help India battle natural disasters: The World Bank has approved $255 million assistance to India to help mitigate the risks and vulnerability of people to natural disasters. The first phase of India's National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Programme is
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The final report into the 1985 Air India Kanishka bombing recommended ex-gratia payment to the families of 329 victims, mostly of Indian origin. It also blamed the Canadian government for its failure to prevent the country’s worst terrorist attack. Justice John Major, the head of the Kanishka bombing inquiry commission in a live press conference in Ottawa said that the Canadian authorities should have known that Air India Flight 182 was a terrorism target. The failure of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Canada’s spy agency Canadian Security and Intelligence Services (CSIS) to prevent the tragedy is inexcusable. Justice Major's report also makes clear that Air India was grossly negligent in its own responses, relying on screening equipment that frequently malfunctioned, explosives detection machines it knew did not work, and staff untrained in using them.
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*Nikki Haley wins Republican governor from Beijing and has conveyed its reservations nomination in South Carolina: If elected in to influential countries of the Nuclear Suppliers the November elections, Ms. Haley would be Group (NSG). China has confirmed that the first Indian American female and also the Chinese and Pakistani officials have signed an first ever female governor of South Carolina. agreement to finance the construction of two Ms. Haley, who was born Nimrata Randhawa, nuclear reactors to be built by the China starts as a favourite against Democrat Vincent National Nuclear Corporation at the Chashma Sheheen as South Carolina has strongly site in Pakistan. China earlier built two favoured the Republican. The state has never reactors for Pakistan before it joined the NSG voted for a Democratic presidential candidate in 2004. since Jimmy Carter in 1976. *India-US CEO FORUM (2
nd

The NSG forbids transfer of nuclear materials to the countries who have not meet in June signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation

2010, The first meeting in November 2009 suggest $ 10 bn debt fund for India): for development of infrastructure. They presented recommendations to both governments in four core areas: (i) Infrastructure; (ii) Clean Energy; (iii) Education and (iv) e-Health/Biotechnology. Reconstituted last year with 12 CEOs from India and the USA nominated by Prime Minister Manmohan Manmohan Singh and President Barack Obama respectively, the forum is co-chaired by Ratan Tata, Chairman, Tata Sons and Dave Cote, CEO of Honeywell Corp.

Treaty (NPT). It, however, made one-time exception for India in September 2008 by clearing the India-US nuclear deal in view of New Delhi's flawless non-proliferation record. While New Delhi is reasonably confident that the China-Pakistan nuclear deal will not pass muster at the 45-nation NSG due to Islamabad's dubious proliferation record, there are apprehensions that Beijing will try to hard-sell it by using its growing global clout. The Obama administration has decided to object to a China-Pakistan civilian nuclear deal for establishing two atomic reactors in Pakistan.

*India taps NSG over China-Pakistan n- *India, Canada sign civil nuclear deal: The deal: Concerned about the China-Pakistan deal provides for cooperation in civil nuclear nuclear deal, India has sought more details on it energy including import of uranium and
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It • The lake in Tamil Nadu's Tiruvallur district is home to 160 different fish species and more than 110 varieties of terrestrial and aquatic birds and small mammals and reptiles. *Pulicat lake facing ecological crisis: Pulicat lake. The deal also water ecosystem after Chilka in Orissa.2. The goal was to put the capsule into a 250-kilometrehigh orbit.cracking IAS academy’s .) such as resupply missions to the International Space Station. of Canada’s strong attitude in the past when it slapped sanctions against India after the Pokhran I and II tests in 1974 and 1998 respectively. is envisages cooperation in fields of nuclear waste facing an ecological crisis with its area management and radiation safety. has described Pulicat Lake as "Threatened Lake of the Year 2010". Defence News * SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket: Falcon 9 a new private enterprise rocket with High Earth Orbit (HEO) [A High Earth Orbit is a geocentric orbit whose apogee lies above that of a geosynchronous orbit (35. The shrinking and fish dwindling due to silting and agreement assumes significance in the context indiscriminate fishing. which deals with protection of environment and nature. carrying a mock-up of the company's spacecraft. the country's second largest brackish Call: us: 09884554654 • *Massive decline in butterflies in Himalayas: The lofty western Himalayas are being slowly robbed of their butterflies. a German-based NGO. which once extended to 460 square km. has reduced to 350 square km in a few decades. leading to a huge reduction in aquatic population.786 km)]. Global Nature.1.5 metres. Science & Technology Ecology. SpaceX's brand new rocket soared off its launch pad into thin clouds at mid-afternoon. with at least 50 percent of the species showing a massive decline in less than a decade due to human interference. a study has found. Earlier the lake's depth used to be four metres. ‘Hasiru Habba’ to commemorate ‘World Environment Day’ on June 5. but now it is 1. This was due to rapid shrinking of the water spread area mainly due to silting in the lake's northern part. The study has demanded setting up of an independent organisation on the lines of the Chilka Lake Development Authority in Orissa for managing Pulicat. capability.000 km (100 . SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket achieved Earth orbit nine minutes into the flight as planned on June 3rd 2010.Low Earth Orbit (LEO) refers to a satellite which orbits the earth at altitudes between 160 . which it did. 25 .240 miles) above the Earth's surface. • The lake area. This has led to "lower aquatic life".IAS Express - August 2010 equipment from Canada. can also be used to launch heavier payloads into Low Earth Orbit (LEO . named Dragon. * Bengaluru International Airport (BIA): on June 3rd 2010 announced the launch of a fiveday green carnival.

• It will depart from Dutch Harbor. • identified: "NY3" bacteria has an "extraordinary capacity" to clean up some of the oil spill by breaking up the oil by producing compounds called rhamnolipids. A second launch was scheduled for 9 alpine regions. It is built by KARI. the national space agency of South Korea. is now spotted only in some June 2010 but the launch was scrubbed due to a pockets of Ladakh. green underwing. These compounds can help break polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). and the altered ocean's ability to absorb carbon from the atmosphere. ice conditions.S. • ICESCAPE will involve more than 40 scientists who plan to sample the physical and chemical characteristics of the ocean and sea ice. • One of its goals is to collect observations to compare to NASA's satellite views of ocean biology and sea ice in order to improve the understanding of this key component on Earth's climate system. a medium-sized white butterfly Space Center.IAS Express - August 2010 *Bacteria that can clean up oil spill NASA plans ICESCAPE Arctic voyage The National Aeronautics and Space Administration unveiled details of its first Arctic oceanographic research voyage on June 4. a carcinogenic and mutagenic compound released with the oil spill. the Naro Lofty bath. with the first stage provided by Khrunichev (Russia). • The rhamnolipids. will study the climate change in the Arctic. named "Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment" or ICESCAPE. can help degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). white *Fern's Evolution gives Arsenic Tolerance blue linen and violet meadow blue. and Korean Air. which that may clean toxic land: Researchers have are typical high-altitude butterflies also need identified a gene that allows a type of fern to to be conserved. Alaska on the U. tolerate high levels of arsenic and hope it can help create plants that can clean up soil and water contaminated by the poison.cracking IAS academy’s . especially in Call: us: 09884554654 26 . Other species like large malfunction of a fire protection system. • NASA plans to send a second voyage in 2011. human beings and animals. as well as the biological characteristics of the microscopic plant and animal life that regulate the flow of carbon into and out of the sea. but both launches ended in with black streaks. which made its maiden flight on 25 August 2009. It was twice launched from the country's new spaceport. once common in the failure. common meadow blue. the dusky green underwing. • The mission. • The voyage will last five weeks has begun on June 15. *Naro-1: previously designated Korea Space Launch Vehicle or KSLV is South Korea's first carrier rocket. Coast Guard icebreaker Healy. which are thought to be very toxic to the human body. which is non-toxic to microbial flora.

It actually sucks the arsenic out of the soil and puts it in the fronds”. even if they are less efficient under ideal conditions. and the chlorophyll is replaced by dye molecules. • Dye sensitised solar cells could prove to be an inexpensive alternative to silicon solar cells currently used in most solar panels. coating and packaging industries. • Dye-sensitised solar cells used in larger solar panels such as those in residential solar power systems have only achieved 8–9 % efficiency to date.000 times more arsenic than other plants. • The world’s fastest computer is based at the American Department of Energy’s Oak 27 * Dye-sensitised solar cell: The prestigious 2010 Millennium Prize was recently awarded to Michael Grätzel for his invention and development of dye-sensitized solar cells. known as "Grätzel cells". roll-to-roll process with production equipment is similar to manufacturing lines used by the printing. A layer of the 10-micrometer thick material is sandwiched between two glass plates or embedded in plastic. meaning the cells give a better performance over the whole day. a fern. • Pteris vittata. In plants. mimicking the principles of solar energy conversion in natural photosynthesis that occurs in plants. can tolerate 100 to 1. DSC cells capture more power in low light or even rainy conditions. “It’s the only multicellular organism that can do this. Often described as "artificial photosynthesis". is a third generation photovoltaic technology.” • Dye sensitised solar cell technology uses readily available materials that are relatively non-toxic. Gratzel says in real working conditions the difference shrinks. and China now runs 24 of the top 500 computers in the world. But America’s Jaguar machine still has the fastest actual performance.98 petaflops. well below the 13% and upwards of polycrystalline and monocrystalline silicon based solar panels.cracking IAS academy’s . • In DSC cells the leaf structure is replaced by a porous titanium oxide nanostructure. However. *China has world’s fastest supercomputer: The Nebulae supercomputer has a theoretical peak performance of 2. sunlight is absorbed in the leaf by chlorophyll. the dye solar cell (DSC). • The latest list of the world’s 500 fastest supercomputers places a Chinese computer based in Shenzhen second when measuring actual performance. and first in terms of its theoretical maximum. • The cells can be manufactured as flexible sheets in a low-cost. is a cheap white pigment used in paints. which converts carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose. Call: us: 09884554654 . • DSC cells separate the harvesting of light from charge carrier transport. • Grätzel's innovation. dye solar cells are made of low-cost materials and do not require elaborate manufacturing equipment. providing energy for the plant. used instead of expensive high purity silicon as a semiconductor. Titanium dioxide.IAS Express - August 2010 parts of India’s West Bengal and neighbouring Bangladesh.

Nebulae reports a theoretical peak capability of almost 3 petaflop/s.3 petaflop/s.000 volumes from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library. One petaflop/s refers to one quadrillion calculations per second. which is the highest ever on the TOP500. protons and The study illustrates that the electrogenic workings of cyanobacteria is an important conduit of solar energy into the biosphere. PhD. sheets or even hollow balls. * World's largest oceanography: As part of a partnership between Google.IAS Express - August 2010 Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. the amount of solar energy that is harvested by cyanobacteria exceeds more than 25 times the energy consumed by humans.271 PFlop/s running the same benchmark as that used to test Jaguar. Technology at the University of Maryland Baltimore (UMB). • Cyanobacteria fix within themselves an estimated 25 Giga tons of carbon. • There exists a diversity of different species of cyanobacteria all over the world. • Tennessee. the 100. the world's largest oceanography library. *Blue green bacteria may help generate 'green' electricity”: Using blue-green bacteria. • Cyanobacteria utilize the energy of sunlight to drive photosynthesis. • Colonies of cyanobacteria can form filaments.cracking IAS academy’s . The bacteria can generate and transfer highenergy electrons--generate electricity to the external environment under illumination.75 petaflop/s and it has a theoretical peak capability of 2. from temperate ponds to some of the most inhospitable environments imaginable such as the Sahara desert or the Antarctic glaciers. Ms Ilia Baskakov. Nebulae is located at the newly built National Supercomputing Centre in • Shenzhen. have been digitized and are being made accessible to public. the University of California and the UC San Diego Libraries. scientists at the University of Maryland 28 Call: us: 09884554654 . into oxygen. Center for Biomedical Engineering and • While most of the high-energy electrons derived from water are utilized by the cyanobacterial cells for their own needs. Called Jaguar. said associate professor. in the form of CO2 per year and account for 20-30 percent of Earth’s total photosynthetic productivity. and have already achieved 1. • The UMB researchers discovered that cyanobacteria possess a natural lightdependent electrogenic activity. On a global scale. its record is 1. researchers have for the first time developed a way to convert sunlight directly into electricity in a CO2-free manner. a process where the energy of light is used to split water molecules electrons. In part due to graphics accelerators.

the world's smallest and lightest for have found Moon's minerals may have at least 100 times more water than previously indicated by remote sensing data from the Indian spacecraft Chandrayaan-1 and other lunar sample analysis. • cyanobacteria. in addition to being far more compact and lightweight than conventional microscopes. • need for trained technicians to analyze the images produced images are analyzed by computer so that results are available To harvest those electrons from • instantaneously. called the anode. LUCAS generates holographic images of microparticles or cells by employing a lightemitting diode to illuminate the objects and a digital sensor array to capture their images. that serves as both a growth chamber for cyanobacteria and an electron harvester. also obviates the Call: us: 09884554654 . • March 2010. the cyanobacteria grow in direct contact with a conductive surface. including red blood cells. the scientists developed a photosynthetic microbial fuel cell. has created a miniature microscope. at the Carnegie Institution's Geophysical Laboratory in Washington now estimate that the volume of water molecules locked inside minerals in the Moon's interior could exceed the amount of water in the Great 29 • The lensless microscope. the lensless microscope is capable of accurately identifying cells and particles. lightest *World's telemedicine * Moon has more water than Great Lakes: • Scientists microscope invented: Aydogan Ozcan. HIV and tuberculosis in areas where there are great distances between people in need of health care and the facilities capable of providing it. a US space agency NASA radar experiment aboard Chandrayaan-1. • The technology has the potential to help monitor diseases like malaria. Inside the transparent PMFC. • In telemedicine applications. or PMFC. Samples are loaded using a small chip that can be filled with saliva or a blood smear for health monitoring.IAS Express - August 2010 BioMET laboratories found that a fraction of these electrons are donated to the external environment. found thick deposits of waterice near the Moon's North Pole. • Scientists Instead of using a lens to magnify objects. When exposed to light cyanobacteria were found to produce an electrical current. India's first lunar spacecraft launched by the Indian Space Research Organization in October 2008. an engineer. white blood cells and platelets. smallest. With blood smears. where the electrons are moving directly from the cyanobacteria to the anode. • The microscope builds on imaging technology known as LUCAS (Lensless Ultra-wide-field Cell Monitoring Array platform based on Shadow imaging).cracking IAS academy’s .

types of lunar rocks that display a range of incompatible indicates that trace water element may be signatures at low concentrations but ubiquitous within the Moon's interior.cracking IAS academy’s . began to cool. • The boson --also known as the God particle -.will provide an insight into the nature of all matter. • Atlas lunar magma ocean that is thought to have formed at some point during the compacting process. potentially as early as the *Israel to build world’s biggest seawater time of lunar formation and magma ocean desalination plant: crystallization. The 300. water either escaped or was preserved as hydroxyl molecules in the crystallizing minerals. revealing insights into the nature of the cosmos. Gut-residing Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva to bacteria can also play a role in disorders of the Call: us: 09884554654 30 . An instrument inside Atlas called the calorimeter is used for measuring energy and is made up of seven concentric layers. the world’s *Gut-residing bacteria trigger arthritis in largest and highest energy particle accelerator genetically susceptible individuals: Our gut. healthy immune system. • Scientists are hoping that new sub-atomic particles will emerge. a quarter of LHC: Scientists have simulated the sounds set the country’s needs. This impact put a large amount of material into Earth's orbit that ultimately compacted to form the Moon.5 billion years ago. During this cooling. designed to shed light on fundamental like that of most mammals. • The is one of the experiments at the LHC. • The "listen to the data" and pick out the Higgs particle if and when they finally detect it. • The origin of the Moon is now commonly scientists believe that finding the Higgs believed to be the result of a Mars-size object that impacted the Earth 4.IAS Express - August 2010 Lakes on the US-Canada border that hold 20 percent of the Earth's surface fresh water.000-sq-metre Sorek desalination facility. to be made by the subatomic 'God' particle at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). • Each layer is represented by a note and their identification of water from multiple pitch is different depending on the amount of energy that is deposited in that layer. to be constructed near the coastal city of Ashkelon. is filled with thousands of species of bacteria. The process of converting scientific data into sounds is called sonification. many of which questions in physics. will supply *Scientists create sound of 'God' particle at 150 million cubic metres annually. • The LHC Sound project aimed to allow are helpful and aid in the development of a physicists at the European Organisation for normal.

broken control wheels. disorders in which the body attacks its own cells. especially autoimmune Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). also known as the African Green Monkey Virus. a remote military zone 300 miles (485 kilometers) northwest of the South Australian state capital of Adelaide. 'Universe of Particles' The "Universe of Particles" exhibition.2). After taking photo images from all angles of the 1. The exhibition's innovative design plunges the visitor into the fascinating world of particles. currently being explored by the CERN via the LHC and other accelerators. took scientists to the capsule's Earth in 2007 but a series of technical glitches . termed Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or type 2 (HIV. First recognized in the early 1980s. additional zoonotic transfers of primate lentiviruses from species other than chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys are possible. as well as in persons who keep primates as pets. from the Big Bang to the present day.forced it to miss its window to maneuver into the Earth's orbit until this year. The bewildering environment is designed to force visitors to abandon conventional ideas and contemplate a field of research beyond their common experience. AIDS represents the endstage of infection with one of two lentiviruses. are retroviruses that are found in over 40 species of African primates. 31 .including a deterioration of its ion engines. respectively) have been transmitted to humans. Hayabusa landed on it twice in late 2005. It was the first time a spacecraft • Helicopters successfully landed on an was originally due to return to asteroid and returned to Earth. and phylogenetic evidence indicates that lentiviruses from these species (SIVcpz and SIVsm.2) (1. • Hayabusa Sakamoto of the’ Japan Aerospace Agency’ had launched the Exploration explorer in 2003. The risk for acquiring SIV infection would be expected to be highest in persons who hunt primates and prepare their meat for consumption. • Seiichi Japanese space agency said the aim of the $200 million project was to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system. • The Australia: Hayabusa explorer is back on Earth after seven years of journey covering 4-billion mile (6billion kilometer). respectively. from the infinitesimally large to the infinitesimally small. while HIV-2 has remained largely restricted to West Africa. HIV-1 has spread to most parts of the world. The purpose of the "Universe of Particles" exhibition is for visitors to confront the great questions of contemporary physics. installed in the Globe of Science and Innovation. was previewed to the media on 25 June.cracking IAS academy’s . The closest simian relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been found in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys).640-foot (500-meter) long asteroid.IAS Express - August 2010 immune system. Because humans come in frequent contact with primates in many parts of subSaharan Africa. Call: us: 09884554654 malfunctioning of electricity-storing batteries . It turns out that rheumatoid arthritis is one such disorder. as well as paving the way for future sample return missions. The spacecraft has created history by landing safely on the earth after its tryst with the asteroid. *Japanese explorer) Space Recovered Capsule in (Hayabusa The *Hayabusa reached an asteroid called Itokawa in 2005. and the landing site in the Woomera Prohibited Area.

including preservation. Council will seek to world on opinion the its and increase concerning mobilize awareness XINGYUN.IAS Express - August 2010 Hayabusa is indeed carrying asteroid care. Chinese Academy of Sciences Calculation Institution and the South China Supercomputing Centre. management. global warming. it would be only the fourth space sample return in history . sustainability. Headquartered in Nevada (USA).cracking IAS academy’s • If . EMILY is already in force Constitution or formation of an authority by the at the Zuma beach in California. A formal decision in the matter spurt out to a swimmer in difficulty and has to be taken by the Cabinet. Ltd. and solar matter from the Genesis mission. in Palakkad district. comet material by Stardust. samples. acid rain. climate change. biological diversity. The normal performance is almost double that of TIANHE-1. indoor air quality. biodiversity. The 14-member * EMILY Is The Enticing New Robot Jayakumar committee has suggested Lifeguard On The American Beach: EMILY State is an acronym for EMergency Integrated constitution of a tribunal by the government under Article 323 B of the Lifesaving lanYard. oil spills. desertification. engineering. TIENHE -1 was developed in October 2009 at ‘National University of Defence Technology’. planning. history. etc. pull the swimmer back to the shoreline. sciences. Jayakumar Committee report: on the ecological damage caused by the Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Company at Plachimada sustainable development. It has been developed for DNA sequencing and for cloud computing. that is one thousand million million calculations per second. * K. hazardous wastes. EMILY is an Centre under the Environment (Protection) Act instrument that has been constructed for two as has been done in the case of tanneries in principal purposes. XINGYUN is now the server of ‘Dawn 6000’ which has been jointly developed by Dawning Information Industry Co. justice. water quality. pollution. economy. When compared with a dual core processor of a personal computer. protect and better the universe around us". it can be said that the one day work of the dual core processor will be done in 1 second by this all new super computer developed by the Chinese. ethics.. protection. species migration. The computer works at almost three times speed as compared to the previous super computer named ‘TIANHE-1’ during its peak performance. * Global Council on Environment: A new global environment advocacy organization has been launched to "preserve. etc. religious statesman Rajan Zed is its president while environmental advocate Jim Meiklejohn is secretary. • Named "Global Council on Environment" (GCE). One of the objectives is to Tamil Nadu. issues environment. law. The other objective is to 32 conservation. • According to Zed. the fastest super computer developed in China This super computer can perform one quadrillion calculations. anticipate assistance. it aims to raise the environment standards of the world. ozone. ecology. Kerala. EMILY Call: us: 09884554654 .including moon matter collected by the Apollo missions.

geology. GRACE data are important tools for studying Earth's ocean.cracking IAS academy’s . It aims to dig a tunnel and divert water of Neelam River from Nauseri. and climate.IAS Express - August 2010 is an instrument that has a radio that permits the ‘real’ lifeguard to communicate with the individual swimmer having problems.a joint mission of NASA and the German Space Agency has been making detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field since its launch in March 2002. • Indian plan is to divert water through a 21 KM long tunnel before it enters Pakistani Administered Kashmir. forests. • The water and natural springs are main source for drinking and irrigation of land. as they feel this project will reduce flow of water in the Neelam River when it enters Pakistani Administered Kashmir. which will make life miserable for the local people. concerns about prospective environmental hazards on local economy and biodiversity. GRACE shows how mass are distributed around the planet and how it varies over time. (i. which have been declared endangered globally. as it plays a key role in the configuration of Himalayan ecosystem. and it will have severe impact on their project: Neelam-Jhelum Hydro Electric Project. to 2015 from 2012. about 41 KM East of Muzaffarabad. • Gravity is determined by mass. • The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extended the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Grace) space mission. • River Administered Kashmir. disaster: Project capital is Neelam located of Jhelum near Neelam River or Kishen Ganga will join River Jhelum at Bandipore on the Indian side of LOC instead of its present convergence at Domel in Muzaffarabad. 33 environment of the area. • The government of Pakistan wishes to resolve project will have very serious impact on this issue bilaterally. but there is also talk of invoking the arbitration process enshrined in the Indus Water Treaty of 1960. • Pakistan has serious objections to this project.a tributary of the Jhelum River. operated jointly with the German aerospace centre here. and release the water into Bonar Madumati Nullah .e) after the completion of this project. Environmental groups have expressed their Call: us: 09884554654 . Pakistani Pakistani Administered Kashmir. and this diversion of river will have serious water shortage. the water of * Neelam Jhelum Hydroelectric Project . • The project will also have serious impact on the habitat of various rare species considered on the verge of extinction.an environmental Hydroelectric Muzaffarabad. Ecologists say the project area has significant conservational importance due to abundant of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) GRACE . By measuring gravity. • The mission measures changes in sea-floor pressure and shows how the mass of the oceans change. The diverted water would be used for generating electricity and feeding the Wullar Lake in the process. aquatics life and presence of many species of wild life. It also measures and monitors ice sheets and changes in the storage of water and snow on the continents.

was established with the stated intent to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food. * Chinese Bank unveils worlds 'biggest' IPO: The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) announced its huge dual listing in Shanghai and Hong Kong. Call: us: 09884554654 The Oil-for-Food Programme. dumped in a third world country".cracking IAS academy’s .IAS Express - August 2010 Economy * Damodaran heads RBI panel on improving customer services: The committee. India Food Bank. as a response to arguments that ordinary Iraqi citizens were inordinately affected by the international economic sanctions aimed at the demilitarization of Saddam Hussein's Iraq. The Dutch prosecutors have accused Trafigura of illegally exporting hazardous waste to Ivory Coast in 2006. Trafigura . the biggest bank in China by customers. The panel will also examine international experiences in this regard. Chaired by the former Securities and Exchange Board of India Chairman.resource pools he calls them . the trial of Trafigura for illegally exporting hazardous waste to Ivory Coast in 2006 begins in Amsterdam. • Pitroda will put his project.a Swiss-based multinational company was named in the Iraq Oil-for-Food Scandal. and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to boost its military capabilities. • He is working on a draft to set a countrywide network of private food banks . *RIL makes Seventh oil discovery: Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) announced its seventh oil discovery in exploration block CB-ONN2003/1 (CB 10 A and B) near Ahmedabad in Gujarat. 2003 after the U.24 billion A shares in its IPO in Shanghai and another 25. It was more than 500 tonnes of a mixture of fuel. In 2006. The dump was a health crisis in Côte d'Ivoire in which a ship registered in Panama. chartered Trafigura Beheer BV.that will work as a parallel distribution system to disburse food and allied infrastructure to people living on the edge of the poverty line and below in the vast Indian heartland. Damodaran. The sanctions were discontinued on November 21. disposed of toxic waste in the Ivorian port of Abidjan. awarded under the NELP-V round of exploration bidding. RBI had introduced the Code of Bank’s Commitment to Customers. invasion of Iraq. currently advisor to the Prime Minister on Public Information Infrastructure and Innovations. medicine.to make India hunger-proof and food-reliant. It may also lay down a suitable time-frame for disposal of customer complaints. is on a new mission . 2010. imposed in the wake of the first Gulf War.S. the Probo Koala. The prosecutors say that "the waste is thrown over the fence. Mr M. established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) and terminated in late 2003. The programme was introduced by United States President Bill Clinton's administration in 1995. will study the structure and efficacy of the customer grievance redress system now in place in banks and suggest measures for expeditious resolution of complaints. plans to sell as many as 22.India Food Bank: Knowledge and telecommunication evangelist Sam Pitroda. The company was reported to be behind the Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste dump in 2006. caustic soda.4 billion shares in Hong Kong. which could be the world's largest-ever initial public offering. and hydrogen sulfide transported from Europe as toxic waste. *Pitroda . in place by the end of 2010 with the help of a 34 . On June 1. and the humanitarian functions turned over to the Coalition Provisional Authority. ABC.

over 300. Asko Parpola. This Call: us: 09884554654 35 . plantation. which has been instrumental in safeguarding our borders on there. founded by Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. flights. is getting the Indira Gandhi Pariavaran Puraskar for the year 2008 in recognition of Isha Foundation’s massive ecological initiative. between 1978 and 1981 and gained highly valuable terrain and enemy information. Institute of Pondicherry have raised 8. mountaineer and former Army officer Col prestigious Mac Gregor Memorial medal. world cruises. contribution to environmental conservation and • The United Nations World Food Programme awareness generation. Karunanidhi Classical Tamil movement to raise the green cover of Tamil Award: at the inauguration of the World Nadu by 10%. Dehradun swords are made on order and exported to the European countries and the US. by the United Services of India in 1888. In the last 5 years.cracking IAS academy’s . Colonel Narinder Kumar has led multiple expeditions in the Siachen area.roughly *Mac Gregor Memorial medal: Veteran 35% is considered food insecure. Project Green Hands is a massive people’s *Kalaignar M. expeditions. Isha volunteers across Tamil Nadu and Professor-Emeritus of Indology. paints a more alarming picture saying nearly 350 million of India's population . running and trekking across Himalayas and adventure Awards and Honours * Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar for 2008: Isha Foundation. in the memory of Major General Sir Charles Metcalfe Mac Gregor to recognize consuming less than 80 percent of the total Narinder Kumar has been decorated with energy requirements. University of Helsinki. river rafting. population of Tamil Nadu to plant an additional 106 million trees within the next 10 years. The goal is to mobilize the entire Finland. is the highest award given by the Indian Global Food banking Network.000 Classical Tamil Conference.IAS Express - August 2010 Chicago-based international organization.2 million trees for World Cultures. a Stanford government to individuals or organizations in University think-tank that provides food aid recognition of exceptional & outstanding to 30 nations. exemplary service in the fields of Military reconnaissance. called ‘Project Green Hands’ to prevent and reverse environmental degradation and to enable sustainable living. polar expeditions. Mac Gregor memorial medal was instituted *Dehradun emerging as new sword market: Swords manufactured here are not available in the Indian local markets.

*Wipro wins Microsoft country partner award: Wipro has won the 2010 Microsoft country partner of the year award for delivering market-leading customer solutions built on Microsoft technology.D Tata was first made an honorary Group Captain in 1948.cracking IAS academy’s . Nestor of Canada and Nenad Zimonjic of *IAF confers honorary Group Captain rank on Tendulkar: In recognition of his glorious Call: us: 09884554654 As per the IAF records. past year by Freescale Semiconductor.D. Tata and Vijaipat Singhania. 36 .IAS Express - August 2010 *L and T Infotech wins 'Service Supplier' achievement as a cricketer. 1944. later promoted as Air Commodore in October 1966 and finally made the honorary Air Vice Marshal in 1974. Mr. Yashwant Rao Patangshah Vikramshah Mukane was the first to be granted the honorary rank of Flight Lieutenant on September 30. Grätzel cells. J. who claimed their first French Open men's doubles title. in her capacity as the 'Distinguished Service Supplier' Award for the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. *3-G solar cells inventor Gratzel wins Millennium Technology Prize: The 2010 Millennium Prize Laureate Michael Grätzel is the father of third generation dye-sensitized solar cells. *Benazir Bhutto Democracy Award for Suu Kyi: Myanmar’s pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi has become the first recipient of the new Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Award for Democracy presented by a committee set up by the ruling party in Pakistan.R. based semiconductor design and manufacturing company. Sports Serbia. have just made their debut in the Czech Republic were defeated by Daniel consumer products. Till date the government has granted honorary ranks to 21 persons including noted industrialists and aviation enthusiasts J.R. Singhania.gave her assent. former ruler of Jawhar. The Award is given to a company that demonstrates superior service. which promise electricity-generating windows and low-cost *French Open: Paes loses in doubles final: Leander Paes of India and Lukas Dlouhy of solar panels. a US. was the last to be granted the honorary rank in October 1990 after he flew round-the-globe in a micro-light aircraft. The list includes rulers of a number of erstwhile princely States. the IAF had mooted award: Leading IT service company L and T the proposal to bestow an honorary rank and Infotech has been honored with the the President of India.

With this. both finalists of the Cup triumph since Mohammad previous Azharuddin had led them to the title in Sharjah championship failed to advance from the first in 1995. World Cup victory to advance to the Round of S. India had beaten round as reigning champions Italy were Sri Lanka by eight wickets in the final.a Slovak third Super Series title in a row by registering a football player). 21-11 at the Starting the 100-day countdown to this year’s Indonesian Open final.Karthik was declared Player of the Match loss against Slovakia.IAS Express - August 2010 *Nadal lifts his fifth French Open crown: Relay (QBR) arrived in India from Pakistan The win. On that occasion also. which was launched by Queen winners. came to an end as India won the Asia Cup tournament after crushing defending champions *Italy eliminated. covering 71 (American John Isner vs. It was also the second London on October 29 last year in the presence time he had won the French Open title without of Indian President Pratibha Patil. eliminated from South Africa 2010 with a 2-3 D. put him through the historic Wagah Border on June 25.cracking IAS academy’s . 13-21. Nehwal put behind a nervous start to rout *Queen’s Baton Relay arrives in India: Japan’s Sayaka Sato 21-19. culminate in New Delhi for the Games from October 3 to 14. Brazil in 1966 and Indian badminton star Saina Nehwal won the France in 2002. who used their first ever his match winning 66 runs off 84 balls. second on the all-time list of French Open 2010. the Queen’s Baton Call: us: 09884554654 37 . The QBR. one behind Bjorn Borg whose last Elizabeth II at the Buckingham Palace in title here came in 1981.Afridi was declared Player of the Series. the baton is nearing * Longest tennis match in history: the end of its 190. will now dropping a set. Nicolas Mahut of nations and territories across the world. This was India's first historic win: For the first time in World Cup Asia history. having first achieved that feat in start a 100-day national tour which would 2008. Italy became just the fourth title-holder to fail to advance from the first stage following * Saina Nehwal wins Indonesian Open: they themselves in 1950. thumping victory in Indonesian Open final.000-km journey. France) John Isner won a three-day battle as he finally brought an end to the longest ever tennis * India beat Sri Lanka comprehensively to match with his defeat of Nicolas Mahut at lift Asia Cup Title: A 15-year-old title drought Wimbledon. (Róbert Vittek . 16. Slovakia advance with Sri Lanka by 81 runs. Commonwealth Games. Nadal's fifth since 2005.

The oil slick formed may remain cohesive. A small percentage of oil may dissolve in the water. losing between 20 and 40 percent of its mass and becoming denser and more viscous (i. coastal areas. it initially spreads in the water (primarily on the surface). Wildlife. depending on its relative density and composition. rocks and boulders. as well as temperature. and wind move the oil onto shore with the surf and tide. and microorganisms. Beach sand and gravel saturated with oil may be unable to protect and nurture normal vegetation and populations of the substrate biomass. it interacts with sediments such as beach sand and gravel. and Recreation Oil spills present the potential for enormous harm to deep ocean and coastal fishing and fisheries. Oil Spill Interaction with Shoreline If oil waste reaches the shoreline or coast. and the remainder eventually congeals into sticky tar balls. more resistant to flow). causing erosion as well as unregulated recreational boating. but long-term ecological effects may be worse. Waves.cracking IAS academy’s .e.. Part of the oil waste may sink with suspended particulate matter. The immediate effects of toxic and smothering oil waste may be mass mortality and contamination of fish and other food species. Oil Spill Behavior When oil is spilled in the ocean. water currents. Waves. compounds partially evaporates. some being accidental spills or leaks. Damage to Fisheries. vegetation. water currents. and terrestrial habitats of both wildlife and humans. oxygen. oil waste weathers Call: us: 09884554654 interrupting the food chain on which fish and 38 .IAS Express - August 2010 ARTICLES Oil spills in the marine environment Oil wastes that enter the ocean come from many sources. or may break up in the case of rough seas. Over time. and marine and terrestrial habitats in the path of the drift. and some being the results of chronic and careless habits in the use of oil and oil products. Oil that contains volatile organic contamination. Oil waste poisons the sensitive marine and coastal organic substrate. and (deteriorates) and disintegrates by means of photolysis (decomposition by sunlight) and biodegradation (decomposition due to microorganisms). untreated waste disposal from factories and industrial facilities. Most waste oil in the ocean consists of oily storm water drainage from cities and farms. The rate of biodegradation depends on the availability of nutrients. The oil residue also can disperse almost invisibly in the water or form a thick mousse with the water. Rocks and boulders coated with sticky residue interfere with recreational uses of the shoreline and can be toxic to coastal wildlife. impacting the open ocean. and wind force the oil slick to drift over large areas.

open ocean. regional business activity declines. snorkeling and scuba diving. Property values for housing tend to decrease. Recent research many recreational activities and related facilities that have been developed for fishing. Dispersants break the oil slick apart. Cleanup and Recovery The techniques used to clean up an oil spill depend on oil characteristics and the type of environment involved.cracking IAS academy’s . Fertilizers like phosphorus and nitrogen are spread over the oil-slicked shoreline to foster the contaminate or destroy the marine organic substrate and thereby interrupt the food chain are also harmful to the wildlife. • Bioremediation: use of microorganisms (like Pseudomonas) or biological agents to break down or remove oil. These chemicals pose their own danger. 39 . so species populations may change or disappear. and on which their reproductive success is based. allowing oil droplets to mix with water and be absorbed into the aquatic system more quickly. however. • Often. coastal. which break down the oil into natural components like fatty acids and carbon dioxide. for example. and future investment is risky. beaches. oil spills in tropical areas are handled with dispersants -. and other resident and tourist attractions.or open sea -. boating. using boats that suck or scoop the oil from the water and into containment tanks.spills. This makes it easier to skim oil from the surface. Oil waste that invades and pollutes these areas and negatively affects human activities can have devastating and longterm effects on the local economy and society. This broken-down oil can be absorbed by marine life and into the food chain. But the dispersed oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral. A slick like this may Call: us: 09884554654 indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals. nature parks and preserves. if done properly. buoyant booms which float on the water and a skirt that hangs below the water contain the slick and keep the oil from spreading out. or wetland. Other forms of biological agents can also be used in marine -. • Controlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water. Long-term ecological effects that also call for sorbents -. Coastal populated and areas attract are usually thickly growth of microorganisms.chemicals which break down oil much more quickly than the elements can alone. Pollution-control measures include • Long. But it can only be done in low wind and can cause air pollution.IAS Express - August 2010 sea creatures depend.large sponges that absorb the oil from the water. swimming.

Sustaining Recovery and Dynamism for Inclusive Development environmentally resilient. Supporting new engines of growth: regional connectivity. This problems. socially By serving as automatic stabilizers. 2. Strengthening social protection . This has been shown to engineering with the region’s unique traditional have clear benefits. But countries will also need to make agriculture more socially of inclusive by returning ownership of land and increasing aggregate demand and supply – resources to farmers. as technologies and products. Because of market basic rights. and establishing the region on a more inclusive and economically empowering the poor. Promoting agriculture and rural immediately development: fostering a second green environmentally-friendly many technological revolution .A agriculture – so are likely to benefit from well functioning financial system is crucial to agricultural growth.cracking IAS academy’s ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SURVEY . Now. Since the 1970s such economic growth. 1. For this purpose it green innovations . it needs a second. Enhancing financial inclusion . credit and insurance balanced economic growth. especially women. If the poor Revolution which helped the region achieve are to release their pent-up demand they will significant yield increases – though the high need access to a more diverse and appropriate input intensity also caused well documented range of financial products and services. For this purpose.Green Growth emphasizes environmentally sustainable consumption and proposes an agenda with five prongs.In Asia and the Pacific the innovations will initially need government majority of poor people live in the rural areas support. products tailored to their requirements – on more knowledge-intensive green revolution that more favourable terms and with less stringent combines advances in science and agricultural demands for collateral. systems of inclusive development. failures such investments may so not be profitable. but this will not be enough to growth was based largely on the Green ensure expanded aggregate demand. as the region aims for more would include savings. interventions need to investments sustain a trajectory from poverty to security.production that foster low-carbon.IAS Express - August 2010 knowledge to make agriculture more OF ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2010 . social protection not only support households at countries can take an industrial policy approach times of crisis but also enhance opportunities – encouraging strategic collaborations between for individual development. and derive most of their income from 4. Survey 2010 explores ways sustainable path of development and boosting 3. Rather than using government and industry to promote in environmentally-friendly short-term measures. Governments will need to Call: us: 09884554654 40 .

With some of the world’s withhold moisture content in the soil and makes largest and fastest-growing economies. It aids in that is more inclusive and sustainable. Nowadays microreturns them to the soil. Asia the soil easier to cultivate. The compost produced environment that fosters an inclusive. The putrefying nature of the waste makes it less viable for storage and transportation. convert fast degradable organic waste into The Bio-bin process involves humus like substance. But this should be alkalinity. It is an excellent medium for and the high temperatures combine to kill off growing plants that recycles the nutrients and disease causing pathogens. organism culture known as BTM (Bio Trigger Apart from being clean. It has the capacity to cooperative action . It supplies part of the and the Pacific can become an even greater 16 essential elements needed by the plants and economic powerhouse if it develops a more helps to reduce the adverse effects of excessive integrated regional market. It also hinders the recovery of The concept of composting gave rise to Bio-Bin Composting recyclable materials. mainly fungi and bacteria. acidity. fertilizers and it is better. Limited land resource a system known as ‘Bio-bin’ which is an inavailable for dumping of waste which is ever vessel composting. It prevents water evaporation due to generate more putrescible waste as compared to heat. Evolving a regional framework for for growing vegetables. It helps to keep the soil cool on the basis of a new development paradigm in summer and warm in winter. Waste. especially when used 5. composting significantly reduces the bin so as to accelerate the process of Call: us: 09884554654 41 .IAS Express - August 2010 ensure an institutional and regulatory amount of garbage.cracking IAS academy’s . developed countries. Ammonia and nitrogen. Bio-Bin is the innovation to increasing with increase in population has lead find a better way to dispose off the putrescible India to think over techniques of reducing waste and turn it into compost on site in a waste at the source itself. expanding from greengrocer viable technique to serve the purpose. Developing countries like preventing soil erosion by keeping the soil India covered. It is now being used at Composting is one such and the most various trial sites. which is high in carbon circulation of oxygen into the Bin. waste to becoming an effective vessel for the Composting is a biological process in which collection and disposal of Putrescible Food micro-organisms. fairer and from composting is a kind of organic fertilizer more efficient banking system and expands and which can be used instead of chemical safeguards the options for the poor. safe and Mechanism) is also added to the content of Bioeconomic. relatively short time.

methane is a significant contributor to the greenhouse effect and has a GWP of 21. The massive stock of greenhouse gas held in the Arctic permafrost and in undersea deposits called methane clathrates poses a serious threat. The organics which takes considerable time to degrade like paper. GWPs are based on the heatrisk of diseases in the environment due to flies absorbing ability of each gas relative to that of and mosquitoes. kitchens. but mostly on the ocean seabed. are the places where composting can be carried out on large scale using Bio-bins. hotels & restaurants. shopping centers.societies etc. only goes to Bio-bin. inclusion compounds. Global Warming Potential (GWP). forming a solid similar to ice. On medium scale.IAS Express - August 2010 composting. it is estimated that there are more than 24. They are found in frozen tundra regions in the permafrost layer. Although it is very difficult to estimate global quantities of methane clathrates. By assigning a GWP value it allows policy makers to compare the impacts of emissions and reductions of different gases. canteens of commercial & industrial places. Methane clathrate (methane hydrate. They used to be called molecular compounds. The use of this technique not only greenhouse gases to trap heat in the eliminates foul odour but also minimizes the atmosphere. For instance. The Bio-bin can be used on a small scale in atmosphere over a given number of years). GWP is the global warming impact that This means methane is approximately 21 times a GHG would have over a 100-year timeframe. 3. hydromethane. Besides it also alters the quality of the final compost product. This value Nitrous oxide is 310 times more is used to compare the abilities of different absorptive than carbon dioxide. schools etc. It should be noted that putrescible waste. 2.000 gigatones of carbon stored in the oceans alone. methane ice or "fire ice") is a solid clathrate compound in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water. Gardens. Bio-bins can be brought into practice in buildings. This could theoretically lead to exponential temperature increase with very dramatic global consequences. more heat-absorptive than carbon dioxide per All greenhouse gases have what is called a unit of weight. as well as the decay rate of each gas (the amount removed from the 1. Usage of Bio-bin: carbon dioxide (CO2). however with the prospect of global warming it is possible that there might be a positive feedback mechanism. institutions like colleges. housing. wood.cracking IAS academy’s . cardboard etc. thereby increasing temperatures further. whereby rising temperatures lead to the melting of clathrates and the subsequent release of methane. All the generated waste should be segregated at source and then only it can be transferred to a Bio-bin for composting. and can linger Call: us: 09884554654 42 . and adducts (chiefly in the case of urea and thiourea). One of the most frightening potential sources of greenhouse gas comes from special concentrated compounds of methane called clathrates. malls. Global Warming Potential Clathrates are also called host-guest complexes. which can be degraded fast. should not make their way to Bio-bin as the process of composting can become prolonged & takes more days to obtain final compost product. These are stable at low temperatures.

Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework the Protocol. 2005. this target represents a 29% cut). and permitted increase of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland. Japan in December 1997. under which the industrialized countries However. 1998.IAS Express - August 2010 in the atmosphere for over a hundred years. and closed on March 15. The agreement came into force on February 16.cracking IAS academy’s . and PFCs .2% compared to the year gases. To achieve this goal the concept of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has come into vogue as a part of Kyoto Protocol. This warming is largely the result of emissions of carbon dioxide and other Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s) from human activities including industrial processes. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialized countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment to invest in emission reducing projects in developing countries as an alternative to what is generally considered more costly emission reductions in their own countries. a developed country can take up a greenhouse gas reduction project activity in a developing country where the cost of GHG reduction project activities is usually much lower. such as deforestation etc. 6% for Japan. although if the Earth warms too rapidly. 1990 (but note that. Under CDM. The treaty was negotiated in Kyoto. through sheer quantity carbon will reduce their collective emissions of dioxide is the most problematic of greenhouse greenhouse gases by 5. nitrous oxide. our economy. National targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US. To protect ourselves. The developed country would be given credits (Carbon Credits) for meeting its emission reduction targets. fossil fuel combustion. 0% for Russia. The objective is the “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”. Carbon Credits in India Our earth is undoubtedly warming. The aim is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases . methane. Call: us: 09884554654 . compared to the emissions methane emitted from permafrost areas could levels that would be expected by 2010 without outweigh carbon dioxide. we must reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.carbon dioxide. sulfur hexafluoride. HFCs (Hydrofluro Carbon). and our land from the adverse effects of climate change. 43 Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). and changes in land use. 1999. Addressing climate change is not a simple task.calculated as an average over the five-year period of 200812. opened for signature on March 16. while the developing country would receive the capital and clean technology to implement the project.

United Kingdom. Carbon credits are measured in units of America. Developed countries that have Developing countries (non-Annex I) exceeded the levels can either cut down such as India. There are currently 24 such Annex-II Parties. Protocol. very fast. This serves countries are currently listed in the three purposes: a) Avoids restrictions on growth because Convention’s Annex-I. If at 12-13 Euros. plus countries with economies in transition b) It means that they cannot sell emissions (EITs). New of certified emission reductions (CERs). agree to reduce their dioxide reduction. UAE etc have no immediate two main groups: A total of 41 industrialized restrictions under the UNFCCC.and developing economies can potentially grow operation and Development (OECD) in 1992. are known as non-Annexcountries that reduce their emission of GHG I countries. countries can credits from developing countries or invest in trade in the international carbon credit market. members of the Organization for Economic Co. fell to below 7 Euros. The UNFCCC divides countries into South Africa.cracking IAS academy’s . Japan. they must buy emission Emissions Trading) mechanism. European States. Pakistan. Its rate stood at 22 Euros in emissions (particularly carbon dioxide) to target April. including the relatively wealthy industrialized countries that were pollution is strongly linked to industrial growth. Iran. They currently number 145. and several Central and Eastern nations to over-pollute. Phillippines. Japan. Srilanka. Spain etc are also and reduction commitments under the Kyoto included in Annex-II. India signed and Call: us: 09884554654 44 . Afghanistan. Sigapore. Kuwait. CER is equivalent to one tonne of carbon France. emissions. Saudi Arabia.IAS Express - August 2010 Carbon credits are certificates issued to developing countries. Kenya. including the Russian Federation. The OECD members of c) They get money and technologies from Indian scenario: India comes under the third category of Annex-I (not the EITs) are also listed in the the developed countries in Annex II. the credits to industrialized nations to permit those Baltic States. China. Australia. All other countries not listed in the Convention’s Annexes. mostly the signatories to UNFCCC. or borrow or buy carbon credits Brazil. Spain. Each Zealand. before stabilizing levels below their 1990 emissions levels. conservation. Australia. Newzealand. United Kingdom. Canada. (greenhouse gases) which causes global Annex I countries such as United States warming. Austria. to countries with quantified emission limitation Canada. Austria. Countries like United States of Countries with surplus credits can sell the same America. Germany etc. Malaysia. from developing countries. Convention’s Annex-II . Under IET (International they cannot do so.

the total CO2-equivalent emissions in 1990 were 10. the major sources of GHG’s emission in India are as follows: • Paddy fields • Enteric fermentation from cattle and buffaloes • Municipal Solid Waste Call: us: 09884554654 . its application often involves the manipulation of 45 transportation. through the Designated National Authority (DNA).cracking IAS academy’s . Other than Industries and Bioremediation Bioremediation is the use of living organisms. fermentation emission can also be reduced According to Report on National Action through proper feed management. to degrade the environmental contaminants into less toxic forms. If India can capture a 10% share of the global CDM market. Plan for operationalising Clean Development Mechanism(CDM) by Planning Commission. as countries/companies save carbon credits to meet strict targets in the future. India is well ahead in establishing a fullfledged system in operationalising CDM. primarily microorganisms. For bioremediation to be effective. annual CER revenues to the country could range from US$ 10 million to 300 million (assuming that CDM is used to meet 10-50% of the global demand for GHG emission reduction of roughly 1 billion tonnes CO2. which was approximately 3% of global emissions. whereas enteric few years. prices can be expected to rise. As bioremediation can be effective only where environmental conditions permit microbial growth and activity. When microorganisms are imported to a contaminated site to enhance degradation we have a process known as bioaugmentation.5 per tonne of CO2). Govt. and prices range from US$ 3. The microorganisms may be indigenous to a contaminated area or they may be isolated from elsewhere and brought to the contaminated site. Biodegradation of a compound is often a result of the actions of multiple organisms. microorganisms must enzymatically attack the pollutants and convert them to harmless products. As the deadline for meeting the Kyoto Protocol targets draws nearer. 352 Gg (Gigagrams). 01.5-5. 2002 and has Of the above three sources the emerged as a world leader in reduction of emissions from the paddy fields can be reduced greenhouse gases by adopting Clean through special irrigation strategy and Development Mechanisms (CDMs) in the past appropriate choice of cultivars. of India.IAS Express - August 2010 ratified the Protocol in August. It uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi or plants to degrade or detoxify substances hazardous to human health and/or the environment. Contaminant compounds are transformed by living organisms through reactions that take place as a part of their metabolic processes.

bioremediation is useful for the complete destruction of a wide variety of contaminants. water. On the grand scale. the major component of fossil fuels. collectable form. The residues for the treatment are usually harmless products and include carbon dioxide. such as land mines. a linkage between the bacteria's ability to degrade TNT and the explosive compound found in land mines has inspired research to utilize P.cracking IAS academy’s . Note:. known as Pseudomonas. Microbes able to degrade the contaminant increase in numbers when the contaminant is present.Pseudomonas putida has been found to be useful in the detection of certain chemicals. Examples bioremediation: Deinococcus radiodurans of microbes used for non-soluble. and cell biomass. have evolved a taste for hydrocarbons. and fungi obtain both energy and tissuebuilding material from petroleum. The bacteria have been genetically modified to digest are naturally found in both soil and water and solvents and heavy metals. yeasts. Dehalococcoides ethenogenes bacteria are being used to clean up chlorinated solvents bacteria that have been linked to cancer. the biodegradative population declines. • Theoretically. Many species of microorganisms: bacteria. as well as toluene are able to digest the solvents much faster than and ionic mercury from highly radioactive using traditional clean up methods. Many compounds that are legally considered to be hazardous can be Call: us: 09884554654 46 . nuclear waste. when the contaminant is degraded. The fuel-eating bacteria. Advantages of bioremediation • Bioremediation is a natural process and is therefore perceived by the public as an acceptable waste treatment process for contaminated material such as soil. putida as a way of detecting land mines from soil content.IAS Express - August 2010 environmental parameters to allow microbial Geobacter sufurreducens bacteria can growth and degradation to proceed at a faster turn uranium dissolved in groundwater into a rate. Bioremediation for Marine Oil Spills: Degradation of oil by microorganisms is one of the most important long-term natural processes for removal of oil from the marine environment.

Phytoremediation takes advantage of the Call: us: 09884554654 47 . groundwater. from land to water or air. • Bioremediation can prove less expensive than other technologies that are used for clean-up of hazardous waste. This also eliminates the need to transport quantities of waste off site and the potential threats to human health and the environment that can arise during transportation. • Bioremediation often takes longer than other treatment options. such as chlorinated organic or high aromatic hydrocarbons. the complete destruction of target pollutants is possible. hence it is not easy to predict the rates of clean-up for a bioremediation exercise. and wastewater is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses. and woody species) to remove. PHYTOREMEDIATION Phytoremediation.cracking IAS academy’s .IAS Express - August 2010 transformed to harmless products. suitable environmental growth conditions. trace elements. an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils. organic compounds. or render harmless such environmental contaminants as Roots take up metals from contaminated soils and transport the metals to stems and leaves. This eliminates the chance of future liability associated with treatment and disposal of contaminated material. bioremediation has its limitations. Important site factors required for success include the presence of metabolically capable microbial populations. forbs. often without causing a major disruption of normal activities. • Biological processes are often highly specific. Some contaminants. • Bioremediation can often be carried out on site. They are degraded either slowly or not at all. there are no rules to predict if a contaminant can be degraded. for example. heavy metals. • Instead of transferring contaminants from one environmental medium to another. are resistant to microbial attack. and appropriate levels of nutrients and contaminants. Limitations • Like other technologies. and radioactive compounds in soil or water. such as excavation and removal of soil or incineration. contain. Leaves accumulate metals and are harvested to prevent soil recontamination.

Large green plants have the capability to move large amounts of soil solution into the plant body through the roots and evaporate this water out of the leaves as pure water vapor in a process called transpiration. Ipomea alpina accumulates around 12. metabolized. Plants transpire water to move nutrients from the soil solution to leaves and stems. However. while a normal plant accumulates around 100ppm of heavy metal.IAS Express - August 2010 unique and selective uptake capabilities of plant root systems. but has no distinct edge. it is an area of intense biological and chemical activity influenced by compounds exuded by the root. marsh grasses).000 ppm of copper from contaminated soil. poplar tress (Papulus spp). acetic. hybrid poplars. and by microorganisms feeding on the compounds. The phytoremediation concept is based on the well-known ability of plants and their associated rhizospheres [The rhizosphere is the zone of soil surrounding a plant root where the biology and chemistry of the soil are influenced by the root.complex root secretions. and other organic acids) that make the ions of both nutrients and contaminants more mobile in the soil. Such species are good candidates for phytoremediation plants because they take up and "process" large volumes of soil water. some plants are notoriously poor at water conservation.g.] to concentrate and/or degrade highly dilute contaminants. or vaporized out of the leaves along with the transpired water. Indian mustard Brassica juncea are used to extract the heavy metal lead from contaminated soil. and contaminant storage/degradation abilities of the entire plant body. 2. which "feed" the microorganisms by providing carbohydrates. and to cool the plant. usually because they normally grow in moist environments (e. Haumaniastrum robertii accumulates around 10. bioaccumulation. 4. Call: us: 09884554654 48 . Rather. amongst others.000 ppm of cadmium or zinc from the contaminated soil.. Root exudates . Some examples of plants used in phyoremediation practices are water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes). Thlaspi caerulescens accumulates upto 26. contaminants present in the soil water are also taken up and sequestered. During this process. The rhizosphere is the zone of soil surrounding a plant root where the biology and chemistry of the soil are influenced by the root. where photosynthesis occurs.cracking IAS academy’s . 3. together with the translocation. bulrush. also contain natural chelating agents (citric. willows.200 ppm of cobalt from the contaminated soil surface. Low water use is a trait considered desirable in most economically important plants. This zone is about 1 mm wide. 1.

Phytoremediation is environment friendly method EF accounting (ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT AND BIOCAPACITY) It measures how much land and water area a demand and supply in Economics. and is therefore much bioproductive area (whether land or equal to overshoot. and to absorb the waste it We maintain this overshoot by liquidating the technology. productive adequately addressed. the global ecological deficit cannot be The ecological footprint (EF) measures how compensated through trade. Phytoremediation is conducted at the site of contamination that is in situ 2.000 ppm of heavy metal selenium from the contaminated soil 6. Sebertia acuminata is used to extract heavy metal nickel from the contaminated soil. A national ecological deficit can be using prevailing technology. humanity has been in ecological process ecological reserves or through overshoot with annual demand on resources liquidation of national ecological assets. When used together. deficit. water) a population would require to produce It now takes the Earth one year and five on a sustainable basis the renewable resources months to regenerate what we use in a year. Transfer id faster than natural attenuation 4. contrast. Astragalus racemosus is used to accumulate 10.cracking IAS academy’s . of arable land. Low cost when compared to other chemical procedures 3. Soils are in place and they can be used for cultivation after phytoremediation 7. using prevailing sea). EF and BC are tantamount to the concepts Call: us: 09884554654 49 . Earth’s resources. generates. Fewer or very less water and air emission 6. Overshoot is a vastly Biocapacity (BC) measures the bioproductive underestimated threat to human well-being and supply that is available within a certain area the health of the planet. it consumes. Well suited for large fields or large contaminated sites 5. they form the EF/BC accounts. When the EF is larger than the BC the human population requires to produce the renewable resource accounting results in a resource it consumes and to absorb its wastes. pasture. “EF/BC accounting” is frequently referred to only as “EF accounting”. In exceeding what Earth can regenerate each year. forest. Compatible with engineered technology 8. Since the late compensated through trade with nations that 1970s. Advantages of Phytoremediation: 1.g.IAS Express - August 2010 5. and one that is not (e.

4. he should be given access to a lawyer. The other two techniques measure changes in aspects such as respiration. Narco analysis technique involves the administration of sodium because of population growth India’s total intravenous national Footprint has doubled since 1961. and 17 per cent of the world’s population. India’s Ecological Footprint in 2003 was 0. the Ecological Footprint is now in wide use by scientists. blood pressure. individuals. Article 20 (3) of the Call: us: 09884554654 . Focusing on individual consumption. significantly lower than the world average of 2. If the accused volunteers for a lie detector test. nation. 2. brain-mapping tests and talk freely. blood flow.2 global hectares. emotional and legal implication of such a test should be explained to him by the police and his lawyer. or all of shall be compelled to be a witness against humanity—we can assess our pressure on the himself) planet. business. pulse and galvanic skin resistance. NHRC guidelines The NHRC's guidelines are as follows: 1. and ranking India 125th among 152 countries. institutions working to monitor ecological resource use and advance sustainable development. whether to be subsequent or inculpatory governments. The magistrate shall consider all factors relating to the detention. At the same time. The consent should be recorded before a judicial magistrate. including the length of detention and the nature of interrogation. 6. which helps us manage our ecological between protects speaking of proves an and individual's remaining the choice silent. businesses. 7. 8. During the hearing before the magistrate. the person in question should also be told in clear terms that the statement that is made shall not be a “confessional” statement to the magistrate but will have the status of a statement made to the police. 4 per cent of the world’s biocapacity. and exculpatory. a drug which lowers inhibitions on contributing to the degradation of its natural part of the subject and induces the person to capital. Constitutionality of narcoanalysis The Supreme Court declared that forced narco-analysis. The truthfulness or falsity on part of the subject is assessed by relying on the records of the physiological responses. 3. No lie detector tests should be administered except on the basis of consent of the accused. city. 50 polygraph tests are violative of Article 20(3) of the Constitution of India.IAS Express - August 2010 By measuring the Footprint of a population— Constitution (No person accused of any offence an individual. An option should be given to the accused whether he wishes to avail himself of such test. and the physical. The actual recording of the lie detector test shall be done by an independent agency (such as a hospital) and conducted in the presence of a lawyer. Conceived in 1990 by Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees at the University of British Columbia. assets more wisely and take personal and irrespective collective action in support of a world where testimony humanity lives within the Earth’s bounds. agencies.8 global hectares per person. pentothal.cracking IAS academy’s . the person alleged to have agreed should be duly represented by a lawyer. A full medical and factual narration of the manner of the information received must be taken on record. At the hearing. India represents approximately 6 per cent of the world’s Ecological Footprint. 5.

cracking IAS academy’s . will now serve as president until the end of 2011 right against self-incrimination. It held Articles 20 and statements or gestures but also physiological 21 to be non-derogable and under the responses. While to privacy. which Kyrgyzstan's referendum Kyrgyz citizens have voted brings these techniques within the purview of overwhelmingly in favour of a new the ban imposed by Article 20(3) of the constitution. compelling a person to make bodily substances such as blood. Thus. especially forward. Roza Otunbayeva. the court broadened the understanding “compelling of “testimonial evidence” to include not only against terror suspects. In the context of the Article 21 of the Constitution (which involuntary administration of either of these guarantees that no person shall be deprived of tests come within the scope of ‘testimonial his life or personal liberty except under the compulsion. led by Roza Call: us: 09884554654 51 . The changes mean the leader of the testimonial acts for the purpose of invoking the interim government.' thereby attracting the protective procedure established by law). In the process it declared the statute and it most certainly comes into conflict impugned tests to be unconstitutional even in with the right against self-incrimination. and the Constitutional Court will be abolished. during a state of emergency.IAS Express - August 2010 Forcible interference with a person's The judgment read Article 20 into mental processes is not provided for under any Article 21. The results obtained through respect of civil proceedings. the same could not be said for the “personal liberty” under Article 21. The Supreme Court that a person's right to make a statement or made a distinction between “physical remain silent involves the exercise of the right evidence” and “testimonial evidence”. which leads to a physiological response. which are “communicative” in Constitution they could not be suspended even nature as well. Thus the person ends up imparting personal knowledge about relevant facts. Therefore. semen. techniques in question. hair and fingernail clippings Article 21 as well. the court held shield of Article 20 (3). sweat. It thus broadened the could be readily characterised as physical understanding of the terms “privacy” and evidence. the court held that the observers said was largely transparent and results of these tests should be treated as peaceful. a statement would amount to a contravention of sputum. in a referendum that international Constitution. the subject makes a terror suspects against their consent. [The provisional government. mental effort. Taking this logic The court rejected the argument of public interest”. Thus. it held that The court held that in a polygraph test the impugned tests could not be conducted on and a brain-mapping test.

unanimously adopted a final report that includes a 64-point action plan. Opposition will no longer need official permission to hold protests outside administrative buildings and central squares across the country. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said a parliamentary system could be too weak for Kyrgyzstan. the US and Russia. pro-Bakiyev elements organised resistance to the interim government by seizing government offices and taking officials hostage. The sizeable Uzbek community displayed sympathy to the new government in Bishkek.] The new constitution paves the way for Kyrgyzstan to be declared a parliamentary republic. The referendum was supported by the UN. with a president's powers being largely devolved to parliament.N. but will not be entitled to run for president again. In Osh. However. the interim president. Proposed changes in the Constitution Under the new constitution. headquarters in New York of Osh and Jalalabad. Among the Kyrgyz population. As Roza Otunbayeva. NPT Review Conference The just-ended Nuclear Non- The referendum was held just two weeks after violent clashes between Kyrgyz Proliferation Treaty Review Conference held at and Uzbek ethnic groups in the southern cities the U.cracking IAS academy’s . Uzbeks are in the minority. The Fergana Valley is an area of largely devout Muslims as well as the recruiting ground for Islamist movements. came into power after an uprising in April 2010 that deposed President Tensions have been high in the area since President Kurmanbek Bakiyev was ousted in an uprising on 7 April 2010. struggled to control the south. Roza Otunbayeva will remain interim president until 31 December 2011. The communal violence was sparked by a clash between Kyrgyz and Uzbek gangs in the southern city of Osh. as a step towards restoring democracy. The Constitutional Court will be abolished and its powers will be transferred to the Supreme Court. Although negotiations Call: us: 09884554654 ran into difficulties over 52 conflicting interests between nuclear powers . Nobody will face criminal action for criticizing officials. The minority Uzbek population makes up 15% of Kyrgyzstan's five million people. His stronghold in the south became the centre of instability. Kurmanbek Bakiyev. In some areas of the Fergana Valley. The number of seats in parliament will increase from 90 to 120. No single political party will be allowed to win more than 65 seats. Many local Kyrgyz fear the Uzbeks want to grab Kyrgyz lands and join Uzbekistan. they outnumber the Kyrgyz population. Osh is situated in a fertile plain known as the Fergana Valley. the president will serve a single six-year term in office rather than a maximum of two five-year terms. and fuel further instability and "extremism".IAS Express Recent crisis August 2010 Otunbayeva. This seems to be a significant factor in the violence of recent weeks. who is in self-exile in Belarus. The maximum age limit for a serving president will be increased by five years to 70. well-established criminal elements and drug dealers exploited the power vacuum.

create the climate for that to happen. also conference. But in a major ban treaty. It will also take time to The NPT regime will not work unless parties. France and developing nuclear weapons and Israel is a de China. For the first time.IAS Express - August 2010 and non-nuclear states. Still. nuclear conventional forces and missile weapons because of deep-rooted defense regional confrontation. nuclear reduction talks expedite this vision. We urge the parties need to squarely face this weighty reality. The hopes of many published a proposal last year-end that called non-nuclear for a reduction in nuclear arsenals around the countries were dashed when the conference world to 2. the aside from tackling nuclear nonproliferation. dialogue to prepare for the 2014 meeting? we need to urgently make the most of the numerous policy points it incorporates. world will eventually need a comprehensive also ratchet up successes directed at the international law to support steps to rid the abolition of nuclear weapons. While not set up a meeting of experts for a policy the final document is a product of compromise. These countries developed nuclear powers will cover. Nuclear powers planet of nuclear weapons. to gather wisdom from around the world to Traditionally. step forward. The agenda of talks among the five facto nuclear power. It is also reality that systems. The For example. which is a discuss follow-up measures at the review Japanese-Australian joint initiative.cracking IAS academy’s . North Korea. India and Pakistan have There is now a need to seek a multilateral conducted nuclear tests. in which the United States has an unless confidence-building and negotiations for overwhelming advantage. among other things. peace-building and arms control are promoted to solve regional problems. Iran is suspected of framework that includes Britain. have centered on the United States and Russia. It also called for could not agree on a road map for the work to begin on drawing up a nuclear weapons abolition of nuclear weapons. the parties agreed to report treaty to ban nuclear weapons" proposed by on progress toward nuclear disarmament when nongovernmental they meet in 2014 for the preparatory meeting International Commission on Nuclear Nonfor the 2015 NPT review conference and to Proliferation and Disarmament. the conference strengthened its Prospects for the signing of the treaty function to check nuclear disarmament efforts. have yet to take shape. nuclear risks cannot Call: us: 09884554654 53 . the parties managed to If it is difficult to immediately start prevent the talks from stalling. which is what negotiations among the nuclear powers. the adopted final document made reference to the idea of "a organizations. why happened in 2005 when they last met.000 or less by 2025.

and smaller coalition partner Social Democratic Party development cooperation. Residents and local Partnership. Marine Corps Futenma Air Base in Okinawa. Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama has announced his resignation after just eight months in office on June 2. however Cooperation Agreement (which is still the current legal framework for cooperation) that Okinawa is the focal point of the security opened the door to the broad political dialogue treaty between the US and Japan which has that has since evolved.S. Under the pact. It comes after he broke an election pledge to move an unpopular US confrontations more positively. and adopted the EU-India Joint Action Plan (the during last year’s campaign. Security policy that does not rely has threatened to abandon the government unless on nuclear weapons is affected not only by the base is moved out of Okinawa.subsidises the US military presence while the US guarantees Japan's security. “watered down” version of what was originally intended to push nations towards universal disarmament and strengthen the non1960s US-Japan split in Okinawa base dispute 1.IAS Express - August 2010 be dispelled. Call: us: 09884554654 54 . Japan. 2010. The issue is the U. In recognition of both sides’ political economic importance the EU-India Strategic Partnership was created in 2004 to enable the partners to better address complex international globalisation. Prime Minister Yukio ‘JAP’) which defined common objectives and Hatoyama and his Democratic Party of Japan proposed a wide range of supporting activities promised to revisit the matter if elected. In addition to approaching the nuclear powers. President Barack Obama agreed the two sides could discuss the Futenma issue at a cabinet-level working group. EU-INDIA RELATIONS Introduction proliferation regime. leaders at the 2005 Summit politicians want the base off the island entirely. it also needs to hone its diplomatic initiative to ease regional In November 2009. Japan .cracking IAS academy’s . Their in the areas of political. The final document is described as a military base away from the island of Okinawa. and through regular World War II. EU-India relations date back to the early when It diplomatic was relations the were 1994 established. disarmament among nuclear powers but also by the future of regional confrontation.which is prevented from maintaining a war-ready army by its and constitution . but there has been no apparent progress. issues To in the context the of underpin Strategic base elsewhere in Okinawa. In 2006. notably through annual balanced military power in north-east Asia since Summits since 2000. Japan and the United States agreed to move the air ministerial and expert-level meetings. economic. Japan is advocating the abolition of nuclear weapons.

IAS Express - August 2010 The Joint Action Plan was reviewed at (“Atalanta”cooperation on anti-piracy). Trade in goods between both Political cooperation with India is partners more than doubled from €25. and on Sri Lanka). financial services and retail. negotiations for which are still under way. Human rights issues are addressed in In 2006. 2. Economic and Trade Relations The EU is India’s most important trading partner. Annual Summits have delivered EU FDI inflow into India amounted to significant outcomes. though there is has continued to be strengthened in recent still much potential for trade growth.6 billion embedded in an institutional framework that in 2000 to € 61 billion in 2008. research and technology. economic and development cooperation. and in Exchanges maritime security 55 Call: us: 09884554654 . science and technology. Senior destination for India’s outward investment in Officials Meetings. peace the 2008 Summit which has since focused on building and peace keeping and regional issues promoting four priorities: security. nonproliferation. and in parallel a The completion of the FTA negotiations Sectoral Dialogues and possible remains a strategic objective for both sides. IT and energy. meetings of Political and sectors which include steel. October last year to explore possible bilateral cooperation. Political Cooperation 3. Essential political themes in investments into the EU reached €2. is reflected in a number of other forums which The EU is also becoming a prime include regular Ministerial meetings. agreement between Europol and India). Technology. and the EU-India automobiles. In Information addition to the Summits. the Summit endorsed a the EU-India Human Rights Dialogue held in proposal to prepare for the negotiation of a Free Delhi on an annual basis. Trade Agreement. In 2008. Indian Security Dialogue. people-to-people and cultural exchanges. not only on political €0. pharmaceuticals.cracking IAS academy’s . the political dialogue pharmaceutical.4 billion. Many reputed European issues but also in the areas of trade and companies are investing in India in diverse investment. particular crisis management. years. Geographical Directors.9 billion in 2008. 4. the EU Financial institutions and banks play a relationship are the fight against terrorism (EU crucial role in funding most major European Coordinator de Kerchove visited India in acquisition by Indian companies. peace and within the South Asian region (primarily a comprehensive sustainable specific dialogue on Afghanistan and possibly development. civil aviation. and areas such as energy. automobiles. ports.

towards India’s achievement of the Millennium Migration is becoming an increasingly Development Goals (MDGs) and to provide important subject in the relationship and is Call: us: 09884554654 56 . nuclear energy) energy efficiency of which health. and a horizontal. and being explored. EU-wide Civil Aviation Agreement was signed in 2008. when the EU and India agreed Science and Technological development (FP7). Scientific Cooperation Research cooperation between the EU Environment. Food Processing. The increased and India started in the mid-1980s and the first importance given to Climate Change mitigation EU-India Science and Technology (S&T) and related cooperation activities was reflected Agreement was signed in 2001 and extended in when the 2008 Summit in Marseilles adopted a 2009. Cooperation Instrument A separate agreement on nuclear fusion The main objectives of the EU-India research cooperation was signed at the 2009 Cooperation Programme are to contribute Summit. the European 6. 5. to expedite cooperation activities on Climate Indian organisations are participating in Change mitigation. The Commission is negotiating a civil nuclear Programme energy (fission) research agreement with India. Pharmaceuticals and cooperation on migration related issues are Biotechnology. clean energy (clean coal research projects in various technological areas technology.IAS Express - August 2010 Joint Working Groups have been set up covered through regular meetings in Delhi of to facilitate exchanges on subjects as diverse as the EU-India Working Group on Visa and Agriculture. in 2009 by the Member States. Clean India has become the fourth largest Development and Climate Change. environment. A Joint Customs Cooperation Committee serves to strengthen dialogue on a wide range of issues in that field. Follow-up international partner for the EU under the 7th activities were confirmed at the Summit in (2007-2013) EU Framework Programme for November 2009. and ICT are the most prominent. India has become a full partner in Negotiations to secure the conclusion of the International Thermonuclear Experimental an EU-India Maritime Agreement are ongoing. food agriculture and renewable energy (in particular solar biotechnologies energy). Telecommunications and Consular Issues. A Joint EU-India Call for Proposals on Solar Energy Research was launched in 2009 EU-India under the Cooperation Development On the basis of a mandate granted to it with €5 million contributions from each side. Joint Work Programme on Energy. Reactor (ITER) nuclear fusion project. Ways to strengthen Information Technology.cracking IAS academy’s .

This impairment can range conducted in 2009 the second MIP (2011-13) from learning disabilities to more severe allocates an indicative total of €210 million to cognitive or intellectual disabilities. established in New Delhi as a one-stop shop to provide EU companies with information on of rules. which can be passed from one dialogues in various sectors. 2007-2013 Fragile X syndrome (FXS) planning period allocated a total of €260 million for the above activities over the four years from 2007-2010. The enough of a protein that is needed by the body's Call: us: 09884554654 57 . the environment and biotech. in Europe and India and will support EU-India a single gene. 7.) increased allocation for the social sectors. and sustainable technologies in because the mutated gene cannot produce which Europe has considerable experience. but with an referred to as mental retardation.IAS Express - August 2010 support for the implementation of the EU-India EBTC office is located in New Delhi but three Joint Action Plan (JAP). The EBTC will also promote speech and language development. Kolkata and Indicative Bangalore will open later this year.physical and behavioral features and delays in related matters. key market Symptoms also can include characteristic barriers. standards. Under the Preparatory Action for India. transport. or mutation. (Also the same sectors as previously. promoting climate change as a general crossSymptoms of Fragile X syndrome occur cutting issue. The Programme first (MIP) Multi-annual under the regional centres in Mumbai. Preparatory Actions Financing under the Community budget for ‘Preparatory Actions’ in India was introduced by the European Parliament in 2007 to promote EU interests in business and research exchanges. It the most common cause of inherited Following a Mid-term Review exercise mental impairment. regulations. the establishment of research networks between It results from a change. a European Business and Technology Centre (EBTC) has been FXS is the most common known cause autism or "autistic-like" behaviors. and general trade and investment. Fragile X appears in The Centre is focusing primarily on families of every ethnic group and income energy. level. generation to the next.cracking IAS academy’s .

According to them. which are important for (FXS). or emotional symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome the synapses. in part. usability of this protein. Call: us: 09884554654 58 . and behavior. while a person with very little or no and function normally. potential drug is the chemical compound called The underlying cause of Fragile X is a MPEP. change in a single gene. Some females have mental signalling in certain communication pathways impairment. One such sensation. In particular. the Fragile X Mental Recent developments . Neuroscientists from NCBS and NYU transmitting nerve signals. that involve the mGluRs. to develop symptoms. which is found brain area involved in Fragile X syndrome on the X chromosome. such as large abnormally high signalling involved in FXS. emotion. Fragile X occurs Researchers at India's National Centre because the FMR1 gene is unable to make for Biological Sciences (NCBS) and New York normal amounts of usable Fragile X Mental University's Center for Neural Science have Retardation Protein. called mGluR5. and this is responsible and some have a normal IQ. More than theory” was put forward by M. A person with nearly brain known to mediate emotion's influence normal levels of FMRP usually has mild or no on memory—are affected in FXS model mice. In addition. a subclass of these share certain medical problems as well as many mGluRs. retardation The most noticeable and consistent “mGluR (Metabotropic glutamate receptor) effect of Fragile X is on intelligence. FMRP plays identified novel synaptic defects in an area of a critical role in the development of the the brain that is involved in the debilitating connections between nerve cells (neurons). ears and a long face. the lack of (intelligence quotient) of 75 or less. is implicated in the common physical characteristics. especially cells in the brain.cracking IAS academy’s . for many of the symptoms of FXS and probably People with Fragile X syndrome also autism too. almond-shaped part of the having Fragile X are. The amount and normal FMRP has more severe symptoms. Bear and 80 percent of males with Fragile X have an IQ others in 2004.IAS Express - August 2010 cells.synaptic defect in Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The effect FMRP synthesis and the regulation of signal of Fragile X on intelligence is more variable in transmission by it result in exaggerated females. The amount of FMRP in the body is one studied how neurons and synapses in the factor that determines how severe the effects of amygdala—a small. determine how The mGluR theory of fragile X mental severe the effects of Fragile X are. or FMRP. having Fragile This suggested that mGluR5 blockers could be X is often associated with problems with potential therapeutic agents for FXS. some have learning disabilities.F.

a former postdoctoral fellow marriage.brother and sister).cracking IAS academy’s . Madhya Pradesh.the absence of sanction to inter-caste marriage . The only thing which is left for the Khaps here is. Together. Punjab. and parts of Western Uttar Pradesh. these deficits was forced to tie Rakhi on her husband . its neurons were not properly communicating with each other. the punishment is generally simply that of death. Khap Panchayat in India way to declare a married couple. the wife the breakdown occurs. NCR. Call: us: 09884554654 59 Izzat and women . It has also authority from defending the honor of a caste group been mentioned in some news reports that Khaps which in turn necessitates the cohesiveness of the Panchayat plays an important role in regulating the same. These caste panchayats are the logical outcome of A unit of khap takes care of the social affairs of the caste relations in rural society which derives its almost 84 villages from the same caste. What are Khap Panchayats? What is their role? It is this latter sphere . ‘institution’ like caste/khap Panchayat to survive. women are the repositories of this izzat of a . The breach of honour is of more serious kind here. is to discuss the ways to deliver this death to the transgressor. lynching or even killing couples who marry either in the same gotra (there can be numerous gotras within a caste) or who "indulge" in inter caste determined that there were defects on both sides of synapses in the amygdala—that is. a professor at NCBS. In the latter kind of honour breach. Among their briefs . While in the former.Honour or izzat is the central reason for the functioning of these caste panchayats. society. for example in some instances Khaps have been able to prohibit consumption of liquor.a simple impair the ability of neurons in the amygdala to communicate and encode information. identified the are in fact "brother and sisters" (of the same gotra) molecular correlates of these defects. an NCBS graduate student.community. They help in regulating the society in a ‘certain’ way which keeps the traditions intact and thus helps in strengthening the ‘bhaichara’ (brotherhood) among the community. and Aparna full legitimacy and authority among the sections of Suvrathan.the most primal of which is the custodianship of "honour". their caste . NYU Professor Eric Klann and Charles Hoeffer. Haryana.which forms the A Khap is a fairly old system of social bed rock of our village society and in its final administration in the villages of Northwestern India analysis gives the material conditions for the covering Rajasthan. Sumantra arrangement of caste lords in a village and enjoy Chattarji. that is marrying in in the Center for Neural Science and now at same gotra. is to order brutal maiming. In the popular perception of rural society and as well as in the Hindu scriptures. the "logic" purported is that the couple NYU School of Medicine. giving and therefore their marrying each other is an assault the researchers a firm understanding of where on their honour (in some cases of this kind.IAS Express - August 2010 Khap Panchayats are the self proclaimed Using electrophysiological recordings from neurons in the amygdala.

a congregation of caste panchayats these caste panchayats maintain strict endogamy representing the Jat neighbourhoods from Haryana. The alternative to both types patriarchal caste domain (mainly Jats in Haryana). The court villages. deployed for the security of Manoj and Babli Thus. marrying in the neighbouring village as it forms part Ordinary citizens are caught in the of bhaichara (brotherhood).cracking IAS academy’s .” One of the Ved Pal Moan. pseudo-modernism only strengthens the to ensure that property remains within the forces of revivalism. another absurd code was invoked by from the paternal and maternal sides are already the khap: that the couple violated the custom of not barred. 1955 that would ban marriages within the He was escorted by a police party and a warrant same gotra (clan within which men and women officer of the High Court. clear the real motive is to control women's sexuality and indeed. Under this Act. The first is no replacement for the second. it is khaps. It was decided that panchayats would now fight for legal status to A sad example of the gotra row is that of legitimately maintain the “social order. sent shock waves izzat comes from the woman. it is the woman who holds the key to actually facilitated the accused in perpetrating the the honour of a caste group and it is by not letting crime. A recent landmark judgment by the Additional Sessions Court at Karnal in the ManojBabli “honour” killing case. caste (in various instances in the same gotra) that however. brutally beaten to death last year main agendas of this sarv-khap panchayat was to when he tried to secure his wife who was confined push for amendments to the Hindu Marriage by her parents at Singhwal village in Jind district. In the warped logic of among caste panchayat leaders. and it succeeded in executing and the outdated feudal values represented by the it in June. Conclusion The khaps must clearly be told both by the enforcement agencies and elected 60 . Ved Pal had married are considered siblings and hence cannot marry). A khap congregation contradiction between two sets of values — the held in March 2009 publicly pronounced the death blind consumerism of the neo-liberal dispensation. The greatest danger to this ideology of were given the death sentence. Recent issues Kurukshetra on April 13. a female "dishonours" her family/clan/ took serious note of the fact that the policemen caste and community by her "shameful conduct". as it reminded them the caste system that dictates terms of life in that they were not above the Constitution. Act. the woman to marry beyond the fold of her own After the judgment in the Manoj-Babli case. and thus the honour of their caste group and the Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan was called at "purity" of caste itself. sentence for Ved Pal. of distortions lies in the spread of healthy and The sarv khap panchayat also called for progressive values that can be unleashed through social boycott of individuals who raised their voice only a new social reform movement in the entire against the caste panchayats.IAS Express - August 2010 community. in which five accused law Call: us: 09884554654 Hindi belt. As couples are selectively targeted. marriages between certain lineages In this case. neither within his gotra nor within the same village.

has certainly brought the Call: us: 09884554654 61 . No one should have the panchayats had a very limited or no role to play in licence to run a parallel judiciary. they are threatening the constitutionally India. In India the to their socio-political movement as well as sections institution of Panchayati Raj or the third tier of the of them coming up as confident. The rising assertiveness of Dalits – owing Judiciary. In the dictum “Jiski lathi uski bhains” (the powerful Haryana. groups. khaps are the crucial call the shots). caste marriages and ultimately stiff and violent The larger objective was to give the power to the resistance on the parts of caste panchayats. the crucial thing is to understand what shift in the power dynamics (an example of this can hold this archaic set of laws together with set of be seen in rural Haryana) between different caste modern and formal institutions like Panchayati Raj. there are certain questions which really guaranteed right to life of people. for example. new economic opportunities has brought a gradual Now. However. broader social change monsters like Khaps will not there is some resistance to khaps as well. though in only smile on the face of ‘emerging’ India but will minimalist sense but the resistance is growing. and the absence of anti caste movements in functioning of every political party. why is the case that the elected appropriate punishment. mobilisation which becomes so very central to the polity. The thrive and be defended by the gatekeepers of Indian role of increasing democratisation and opening of Polity.clientele nature of Indian The younger generation must stand forth as politics. Police and the larger State.IAS Express - August 2010 representatives that no one has any quarrel with partial democratization in village society. if not entirely.cracking IAS academy’s . It can be stated that Khaps are the classic example of patron . This by defying and discarding the dubious notions of decentralization of the government at the grass root "honour". where these panchayats have been given responsible social activists and lead the struggle for political patronage and thus have become immune change in an otherwise feudal society that lives by to constitutional framework of law and order. But when under guise of doing despite this drive of democratization in Villages of so. modern individuals government was introduced with lots of hopes in – is inevitably leading up to various cases of inter order to further decentralise the governing process. channels to galvanise caste based political Thus. level. that instead of the first place which gives life to khap panchayats questioning the very existence of khaps. it’s a vicious circle of caste relations. they must face the perplex one such as. the Khaps and proves to us that without the actualization of controls the lever of political stability. The disregard for the matters of governance that are otherwise the due process of law on the part of the khaps usurped by Khap Panchayats? threatens the constitutionally guaranteed right to life of people. In many states this institution is the idea of such archaic laws and eventually quite vibrant and the enthusiasm of the people from questioning the whole edifice of caste panchayats lower rungs has been visible and effective. This last person and make him/ her participate in the section of young people are consistently challenging governing process. But upholding traditions.

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