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I. Trigonometric Formulas

1. sin 2 ! " cos2 ! # 1 2. 1 " tan 2 ! # sec2 ! 3. 1 " cot 2 ! # csc2 ! 4. sin $ &! % # & sin !

5. cos $ &! % # cos ! 6. tan $ &! % # & tan ! 7. sin $ A " B % # sin A cos B " sin B cos A 8. sin $ A & B % # sin A cos B & sin B cos A 9. cos $ A " B % # cos A cos B & sin A sin B 10. cos $ A & B % # cos A cos B " sin A sin B 11. sin 2! # 2 sin ! cos !

'cos2 ! & sin 2 ! ( 12. cos 2! # )2 cos 2 ! & 1 (1 & 2 sin 2 ! * 13. tan ! #

sin ! 1 # cos ! cot ! cos ! 1 # sin ! tan ! 1 cos ! 1 sin !

14. cot ! # 15. sec ! # 16. csc ! #

,+ 17. cos . & ! / # sin ! 02 1 ,+ 18. sin . & ! / # cos ! 02 1

**II. Differentiation Formulas
**

1.

d dx d 2. dx d 3. dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx

$ x % # nx

n

n &1

$ fg % # fg '" gf '

,f . 0g - gf ' & fg ' /# g2 1

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

f $ g $ x %% # f ' $ g $ x %% g ' $ x %

$ sin x % # cos x $ cos x % # & sin x $ tan x % # sec2 x $ csc x % # & csc x cot x $ sec x % # sec x tan x $ cot x % # & csc2 x

$e % # e

x

x

$a % # a

x

x

ln a

$ ln x % #

1

x

1 1" x 2 1

1& x 2 1

$ tan

$ sin

&1

x%#

x%#

&1

$ sec x % #

&1

x

x 2 &1

**III. Integration Formulas
**

1.

2 adx # ax " C

n

x n "1 2. 2 x dx # "C , n 3 1 n "1

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

2 x dx # ln x 2e

x x 2 a dx #

1

"C

dx # e x " C ax "C ln a

2 ln xdx # x ln x & x " C 2 sin xdx # & cos x " C

**2 cos xdx # sin x " C
**

2 tan xdx # ln sec x

" C or & ln cos x " C

9.

10. 2 cot xdx # ln sin x " C 11. 2 sec xdx # ln sec x " tan x " C 12. 2 csc xdx # ln csc x & cot x " C 13. 2 sec2 xdx # tan x " C 14. 2 sec x tan x # sec x " C 15. 2 csc2 xdx # & cot x " C 16. 2 csc x cot xdx # & csc x " C 17. 2 tan 2 xdx # tan x & x " C

1 4 dx ,x 18. 5 2 # tan &1 . / " C 2 a 0a1 6 a "x dx 4 ,x 19. 5 # sin &1 . / " C 0a1 6 a2 & x 2 x 4 1 dx # sec&1 "C 20. 5 2 2 a a 6 x x &a

**IV. Formulas and Theorems
**

1. Limits and Continuity A function y # f $ x % is continuous at x = a if: i) f $ a % is defined (exists) ii) lim f $ x % exists, and iii) lim f $ x % # f $ a %

x 7a x 7a

Otherwise, f is discontinuous at x = a . The limit lim f $ x % exists if and only if both corresponding one-sided limits exist and are equal – that is, lim f $ x % # L 8 lim" f $ x % # L # lim& f $ x %

x 7a x 7a x 7a x 7a

2. Intermediate Value Theorem A function y # f $ x % that is continuous on a closed interval 9 a , b : takes on every value Note: If f is continuous on 9 a , b : and f $ a % and f $ b % differ in sign, then the equation between f $ a % and f $ b % .

**f $ x % # 0 has at least one solution in the open interval $ a , b % .
**

3. Limits of Rational Functions as x 7 ;< 1. lim

f $x % # 0 if the degree of f $ x % = the degree of g $ x % x 7;< g $ x % x 2 & 2x Example: lim 3 #0 x 7< x " 3

2. lim

**f $x % is infinite if the degree of f $ x % > the degree of g $ x % x 7;< g $ x %
**

Example: lim

3. lim

**f $x % is finite if the degree of f $ x % = the degree of g $ x % x 7;< g $ x %
**

2x 2 & 3x " 2 2 #& 2 x 7< 10 x & 5x 5

x 3 " 2x #< x 7"< x 2 " 8

Note: The limit will be the ratio of the leading coefficient of f $ x % to g $ x % Example: lim

4. Horizontal and Vertical Asymptotes 1. A line y = b is a horizontal asymptote of the graph of y # f $ x % if either 2. A line x = a is a vertical asymptote of the graph of y # f $ x % if either

x 7a " x 7<

lim f $ x % # b or lim f $ x % # b .

x 7&<

lim f $ x % # ;< or lim& f $ x % # ;<

x 7a

5. Average and Instantaneous Rate of Change 1. Average Rate of Change: If $ x 0 , y 0 % and $ x 1 , y 1 % are points on the graph of y # f $ x % , then the average rate of change of y with respect to x over the interval 9 x 0 , x 1 : is

2. Instantaneous Rate of Change: If $ x 0 , y 0 % is a point on the graph of y # f $ x % , then the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at x 0 is f ' $ x 0 % .

f $ x 1 % & f $ x 0 % y 1 & y 0 >y # # x1 & x 0 x 1 & x 0 >x

6. Definition of Derivative f $x " h % & f $x % f $x % & f $a % or f ' $ a % # lim f ' $ x % # lim h 70 x 7a h x &a The latter definition of the derivative is the instantaneous rate of change of f $ x % with respect to x at x = a . Geometrically, the derivative of a function at a point is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function at that point. 7. The number e as a limit

1, 1. lim . 1 " / # e n 7"< 0 n1 2. lim $1 " n % n # e

n 70

1

n

8. Rolle’s Theorem If f is continuous on 9 a , b : and differentiable on $ a , b % such that f $ a % # f $ b % , then there is at least one number c in the open interval $ a , b % such that f ' $ c % # 0 . 9. Mean Value Theorem If f is continuous on 9 a , b : and differentiable on $ a , b % , then there is at least one number c in the open interval $ a , b % such that

f $b % & f $a % # f ' $c % . b &a

10. Extreme Value Theorem If f is continuous on the closed interval 9 a , b : , then f $ x % has both a maximum and a minimum on 9 a , b : .

11. To find the maximum and minimum values on a function y # f $ x % , locate 1. the points where f ' $ x % is zero or where f ' $ x % fails to exist 2. the end points, if any, on the domain of f $ x % . Note: These are the only candidates for the value of x where f $ x % may have a maximum or a minimum.

12. Let f be differentiable for a < x < b and continuous for a ? x ? b . 1. f is increasing on 9 a , b : if and only if f ' $ x % @ 0 for every x in $ a , b % .

2. f is decreasing on 9 a , b : if and only if f ' $ x % = 0 for every x in $ a , b % .

13. Suppose that f '' $ x % exists on the interval $ a , b % . 1. f is concave upward on $ a , b % if and only if f '' $ x % @ 0 for every x in $ a , b % . 2. f is concave downward on $ a , b % if and only if f '' $ x % = 0 for every x in $ a , b % . To locate the points of inflection of y # f $ x % , find the points where f '' $ x % # 0 OR where f '' $ x % fails to exist. These are the only candidates where f $ x % may have a point of inflection. Then test these points to make sure that f '' $ x % = 0 on one side and f '' $ x % @ 0 on the other. 14. If a function is differentiable at a point x = a , it is continuous at that point. The converse is false, i.e. continuity does not imply differentiability. 15. Local Linearity and Linear Approximation The linear approximation to f $ x % near x # x 0 is given by y # f $ x 0 % " f ' $ x 0 %$ x & x 0 % for x sufficiently close to x 0 . To estimate the slope of a graph at a point – just draw a tangent line to the graph at that point. Another way is (by using a graphing calculator) to “zoom in” around the point in question until the graph “looks” straight. This method will always work. If we “zoom in” and the graph looks straight at a point, say $ a , f $ a % % , then the function is locally linear at that point. The graph of y # x has a sharp corner at x = 0. This corner cannot be smoothed out by “zooming in” repeatedly. Consequently, the derivative of x does not exist at x = 0, hence, is not locally linear at x = 0. 16. Newton’s Method Let f be a differentiable function and suppose r is a real zero of f . If x n is an approximation to r, then the next approximation x n "1 is given by x n "1 # x n &

f $xn % provided f ' $ x n % 3 0 . f ' $xn %

Successive approximations can be found using this method. 17. Dominance and Comparison of Rates of Change Logarithmic functions grow slower than any power function x n . Among power functions, those with higher powers grow faster than those with lower powers. All power functions grow slower than any exponential function a x , a @ 1 . Among exponential functions, those with larger bases grow faster than those with smaller bases. We say, that as x 7 < :

$ %

$

%

1. f $ x % grows faster than g $ x % if lim

If f $ x % grows faster than g $ x % as x 7 <, then g $ x % grows slower than f $ x % as x 7 < . 2. f $ x % and g $ x % grow at the same rate as x 7 < if lim nonzero).

f $x % g $x % # < or lim # 0. x 7< g $ x % x 7< f $ x %

f $x % # L 3 0 (L is finite and x 7< g $ x %

For example, 1. e x grows faster than x 3 as x 7 < since lim

**ex #< x 7< x 3 x4 #< 2. x 4 grows faster than lnx as x 7 < since lim x 7< ln x
**

3. x 2 " 2x grows at the same rate as x 2 as x 7 < since lim

x 2 " 2x #1 x 7< x2

To find some of these limits as x 7 < , you may use a graphing calculator. Make sure that an appropriate window is used. 18. Inverse Functions 1. If f and g are two functions such that f $ g $ x % % # x for every x in the domain of g , and,

g $ f $ x % % # x , for every x in the domain of f , then, f and g are inverse functions of each

other. 2. A function f has an inverse function if and only if no horizontal like intersects its graph more than once. 3. If f is either increasing or decreasing in an interval, then f has an inverse function over that interval. 4. If f is differentiable at every point on an interval I , and f ' $ x % 3 0 on I , then g # f &1 $ x % is differentiable at every point of the interior of the interval f $ I % and g ' $ f $ x % % # 19. Properties of y # e x 1. The exponential function y # e x is the inverse function of y = lnx . 2. The domain is the set of all real numbers, &< = x = < . 3. The range is the set of all positive numbers, y > 0. 4.

f '$x %

1

.

d x $e % # e x . dx 5. e x A e x # e x " x .

1 2 1 2

**6. y # e x is continuous, increasing, and concave up for all x . 7. lim e x # "< and lim e x # 0
**

x 7"<

ln x

x 7&<

8. e

# x , for x @ 0; ln e x for all x .

$ %

20. Properties of y # ln x 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The natural logarithm function y # ln x is the inverse of the exponential function y # e x . The domain of y # ln x is the set of all positive numbers, x > 0. The range of y # ln x is the set of all real numbers, &< = y = < . y # ln x is continuous and increasing everywhere on its domain. ln $ ab % # ln a " ln b .

,a6. ln . / # ln a & ln b . 0b 1 7. ln a r # r ln a . 8. y # ln x < 0 if 0 < x < 1.

9.

x 7"<

**lim ln x # "< and lim" ln x # &< .
**

x 70

**10. log a x # 21. L’Hopital’s Rule If lim
**

x 7a

ln x . ln a

f $x % f '$x % f $x % f '$x % 0 < is of the form or , and if lim exists, then lim = lim . x 7a g ' $ x % x 7a g $ x % x 7a g ' $ x % g $x % < 0

. 22. Trapezoidal Rule If a function f is continuous on the closed interval [a, b ], where [a, b ] has been partitioned b &a into n subintevals 9 x 0 , x 1 : , 9 x 1 , x 2 : ,.., 9 x n &1 , x n : , each length of , then

2a f $ x % dx D

b

b &a Bf $ x 0 % " 2f $ x 1 % " 2f $ x 2 % " ... " 2f $ x n &1 % " f $ x n % C . F n E

n

The Trapezoidal Rule is the average of the Left and Right hand sums. 23. Simpson’s Rule Let f be continuous on [a, b ]. b b &a Bf $ x 0 % " 4f $ x 1 % " 2f $ x 2 % " 4f $ x 3 % " ... " 4f $ x n &1 % " f $ x n % C , Then 2 f $ x % dx D F a 3n E where n is an even number of subintervals of equal length on [a, b ]. 24. Properties of the Definite Integral Let f $ x % and g $ x % be continuous on 9 a , b : . 1. 2. 3. 4.

**2a c A f $ x % dx # c 2a f $ x % dx for any constant x . a 2a f $ x % dx # 0 a b 2b f $ x % dx # & 2a f $ x % dx b c b 2a f $ x % dx # 2a f $ x % dx " 2c f $ x % dx , where f is continuous on an interval containing the
**

b b

numbers a, b, and c, regardless of the order of a, b, and c. 5. If f $ x % is an odd function, then 6. 7. 8.

**2 a f $ x % dx # 0 a a If f $ x % is an even function, then 2 f $ x % dx #22 f $ x % dx a b If f $ x % G 0 on 9 a , b : , then 2 f $ x % dx G 0 a b b If g $ x % G f $ x % on 9 a , b : , then 2 g $ x % dx G 2 f $ x % dx a a
**

a

& & 0

25. Definition of Definite Integral as the Limit of a Sum Suppose that a function f $ x % is continuous on the closed interval [a, b ]. Divide the

b &a . Choose one number in each n subinterval, i.e. x 1 in the first, x 2 in the second, …, x k in the kth, …, and x n in the nth.

interval into n equal subintervals, of length >x # Then lim H f $ x k % >x # 2 f $ x % dx # F $ b % & F $ a % .

b n 7< k #1 a n

26. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

2a

b

f $ x % dx # F $ b % & F $ a % , where F ' $ x % # f $ x % , or

d dx

2a f $ x % dx # f $ x % .

x

27. Velocity, Speed, and Acceleration 1. The velocity of an object tells how fast it is going and in which direction. Velocity is an instantaneous rate of change. 2. The speed of an object is the absolute value of the velocity, v $t % . It tells how fast it is going disregarding its direction. The speed of a particle increases (speeds up) when the velocity and acceleration have the same signs. The speed decreases (slows down) when the velocity and acceleration have opposite signs. 3. The acceleration is the instantaneous rate of change of velocity – it is the derivative of the velocity – that is, a $t % # v ' $t % . Negative acceleration (deceleration) means that the velocity is decreasing. The acceleration gives the rate at which the velocity is changing. Therefore, it x is the displacement of a moving object and t is time, then: i). velocity = v $t % # x ' $t % #

dx dt dv d 2 x # dt dt 2

ii). acceleration = a $t % # x '' $t % # v ' $t % # iv). x $t % # 2v $t % dt iii). v $t % # 2 a $t % dt

Note: The average velocity of a particle over the time interval from t 0 to another time t, is Average Velocity = Change in position s $ t % & s $t 0 % , where a $t % is the position of the particle at time t . # Length of time t &t 0 1 b f $ x % dx b & a 2a

28. The average value of f $ x % on 9 a , b : is

29. Area Between Curves If f and g are continuous functions such that f $ x % G g $ x % on 9 a , b : , then the area between the curves is

E F 2a Bf $ x % & g $ x %C dx .

b

30. Integration By Parts If u # f $ x % and v # g $ x % and if f ' $ x % and g ' $ x % are continuous, then 2 udv # uv & 2vdu .

Note: The goal of the procedure is to choose u and dv so that 2vdu is easier to integrate than the original problem. Suggestion: When “choosing” u, remember L.I.A.T.E, where L is the logarithmic function, I is an inverse trigonometric function, A is an algebraic function, T is a trigonometric function, and E is the exponential function. Just choose u as the first expression in L.I.A.T.E (and dv will be the remaining part of the integrand.) For example, when integrating 2 x ln xdx , choose u = x , since

x is an algebraic function, and A comes before E in L.I.A.T.E., and dv # e x dx . One more example, when integrating 2 x tan &1 xdx , let u # tan &1 x , since I comes before A in L.I.A.T.E., and dv # xdx .

31. Volumes of Solids of Revolution Let f be nonnegative and continuous on 9 a , b : , and let R be the region bounded above by

y # f $ x % , below by the x – axis, and the sides by the lines x = a and x = b . 1. When this region R is revolved about the x – axis, it generates a solid (having circular

cross sections) whose volume V # 2 + Bf $ x % C dx . E F a 2. When R is revolved about the y – axis, it generates a solid whose volume

b

2

V # 2 2+ rf $ x % dx .

b a

32. Volumes of Solids with Known Cross Sections 1. For cross sections of area A $ x % , taken perpendicular to the x – axis, volume # 2 A $ x % dx .

b

**2. For cross sections of area A $ y % , taken perpendicular to the y – axis, volume # 2 A $ y % dy .
**

c

a d

33. Trigonometric Substitution 1. For integrals involving

&

+

2

?! ?

+

2

a 2 & u 2 , let u # a sin ! . Then

a 2 & u 2 # a cos ! where

.

2. For integrals involving

a 2 " u 2 , let u # a tan ! . Then

a 2 " u 2 # a sec ! where

&

+

2

=! =

+

2

.

Or integrals involving u 2 & a 2 , let u # a sec ! . Then u 2 & a 2 = ; a tan ! where 0 ?! =

+

2

or

+

2

= ! ? + . Use the positive value if u > a ; the negative value if u < – a.

34. Solving Differential Equations: Graphically and Numerically Slope Fields dy At every point $ x , y % a differential equation of the form dx # f $ x , y % gives the slope of the member of family of solutions that contains the point. A slope field is a graphical representation of this family of curves. At each point in the plane, a short segment is drawn whose slope is equal to the value of the derivative at that point. These segments are tangent to the solution’s graph at the point. The slope field allows you to sketch the graph of the solution curve even though you do not have its equation. This is done by starting at any point (usually the point given by the initial condition), and moving from one point to the next in the direction indicated by the segments of the slope field. Some calculators have built in operations for drawing slope fields; for calculators without this feature, there are programs available for drawing them. Euler’s Method Euler’s Method is a way of approximating points on the solution of a differential equation dy dx # f $ x , y % . The calculation uses the tangent line approximation to move from point to the next. That is, starting with the given point $ x 1 , y 1 % – the initial condition, the point

$x

1

" >x , y 1 " f ' $ x 1 , y 1 % >x % approximates a nearby point to calculate a third point and so on.

The accuracy of this method decreases with larger values of >x . The error increases as each successive point is used to find the next. Calculator programs are available for doing this calculation.

35. Definition of Arc Length If the function given by y # f $ x % represents a smooth curve on the interval 9 a , b : , then the arc length of f between a and b is given by s # 4 1 " f ' $ x % dx . 6a

2

b

36. Work 1. If an object is moved a distance D in the direction of an applied constant force F , then the work W done by the force is defined as W = FD . 2. If an object is moved along a straight line by a continuously varying force F $ x % , then the work W done by the force as the object is moved from x = a to x = b is given by

W # 2 F $ x % dx .

b a

3. Hooke’s Law says that the amount of force F is takes to stretch or compress a spring x units from its natural length is proportional to x . That is, F = kx , where k is the spring constant measured in force units per unit length. 37. Improper Integral

**2a f $ x % dx is an improper integral if
**

b

1. f becomes infinite at one or more points of the interval of integration, or 2. one or both of the limits of integration is infinite, or 3. both (1) and (2) hold. 38. Parametric Form of the Derivative If a smooth curve C is given by the parametric equations x # f $t % and y # g $t % , then the slope

**dy dy dx dx # I , 3 0. dx dt dt dt d 2 y d B dy C d B dy C dx # # I . Note: The second derivative, dx 2 dx J dx K dt J dx K dt E F E F
**

of the curve C at $ x , y % is 39. Arc Length in Parametric Form If a smooth curve C is given by x # f $t % and y # g $t % and these functions have continuous first derivatives with respect to t for a ? t ? b , and if the point P $ x , y % traces the curve exactly once as t moves from t = a to t = b , then the length of the curve is given by

4 s #5 5 6a

b

b 2 2 , dx - , dy dt # 4 Bf ' $t % C " B g ' $t % C dt . ". . dt / / E F E F 6a 0 1 0 dt 1

2

2

40. Polar Coordinates 1. Cartesian vs. Polar Coordinates: The polar coordinates $ r , ! % are related to the Cartesian coordinates $ x , y % as follows: x # r cos ! and y # r sin !

**y and x 2 " y 2 # r 2 x 2. Area in Polar Coordinates: If f is continuous and nonnegative on the interval 9L , M : , then
**

tan ! # the area of the region bounded by the graph of r # f $! % between the radial lines ! # L and ! # M is given by A #

2 1 M 1 M 2 2L Bf $! %C d ! # 2 2L r d ! . E F 2

41. Sequences and Series 1. If a sequence Nan O has a limit L , that is lim an # L , then the sequence is said to converge to

n 7<

**L . If there is no limit, the series diverges. If the sequence Nan O converges, then its limit is
**

unique. Keep in mind that lim ln n

n 7<

n

**# 0; lim x n # 1; lim n n # 1; lim
**

n 7< n 7<

1

**xn # 0 . These limits n 7< n ! a
**

1& r

are useful and arise frequently. 2. The harmonic series

Hn n

#1

<

1

diverges; the geometric series

H ar n n

#0

<

converges to

if

**r = 1 and diverges if r G 1 and a 3 0.
**

3. The p – series

Hnp n

#1

<

1

converges if p > 1 and diverges if p ! 1.

4. Limit Comparison Test: Let

**H an and H b n be a series of nonnegative terms, with an 3 0
**

n #1 n #1

<

<

for all sufficiently large n , and suppose that lim both converge or both diverge. 5. Alternating Series Test: Let i) ii) iii)

bn # c @ 0 . Then the two series either n 7< a n

H an n

#1

<

be a series such that

**the series is alternating, an "1 ? an for all n , and
**

n 7<

lim an # 0

Then the series converges. 6. The n th term test for Divergence: If lim an 3 0 , then the series diverges.

n 7<

**Note: The converse if false , that is, if lim an # 0 , then the series may or may not converge.
**

n 7<

7. A series but

**H an does not converge, then the series is conditionally convergent. that if H an converges, then H an converges. n n
**

< < #1 #1

H an

is absolutely convergent if the series

H an

converges. If

H an converges,

Keep in mind

8. Direct Comparison Test: If 0 ? an ? b n for all sufficiently large n , and then

H bn n

#1

<

converges,

H an converges. If

n #1

<

H an diverges, then

n #1

<

H b n diverges. n

#1

<

9. Integral Test: Let f $ x % be a positive, continuous, and decreasing function on

91, < % and an # f $ n % . The series

H an n

#1

<

will converge if the improper integral,

2 f $ x % dx

1

<

converges. If the improper integral diverges.

2

<

1

f $ x % dx diverges, then the infinite series

H an n

#1

<

10. Ratio Test: Let

H an

i) ii) iii)

**be a series with nonzero terms. If lim
**

n 7<

an "1 = 1 then the series converges absolutely. an

If lim If lim

n 7<

an "1 @ 1 , then the series is divergent. an an "1 # 1 , then the test is inconclusive (and another test an

n 7<

must be used). 11. Power Series: A power series is of the form

H cn x n # c n

#0 < #0

<

0

" c1x " c 2 x 2 " ... " c n x n " ... or

n

H cn $ x & a % n

# c 0 " c1 $ x & a % " c 2 $ x & a % " ... " c n $ x & a % " ...

2

n

in which the center a and the coefficients c 0 , c1 , c 2 , ..., c n , ... are constants. The set of all numbers x for which the power series converges is called the interval of convergence. 12. Taylor Series: Let f be a function with derivatives of all orders throughout some interval containing a as an interior point. Then the Taylor series generated by f at a is < f $k % a $ % x & a k # f a " f ' a x & a " f '' $ a % x & a 2 " ... f $ n % $ a % x & a n " ... $ % H a ! $ % $ % $ %$ % 2 ! $ % n! k #0 The remaining terms after the term containing the n th derivative can be expressed as a remainder to Taylor’s Theorem: < 1 x n n $ n "1% f $ x % # f $ a % " H f $ n % $ a %$ x & a % " R n $ x % # 2a $ x & t % f $t % dt n! k #1

f $ n "1% $ c %$ x & a % , where c lies between x Lagrange’s Form of the Remainder: R n $ x % # $ n " 1% ! and a . The series will converge for all values of x for which the remainder approaches zero as x 7 <.

n "1

**13. Frequently Used Series and Their Interval of Convergence P
**

< 1 # 1 " x " x 2 " x 3 " AAA " x n " AAA # H x n ; IOC $ &1,1% 1& x n #0

< 1 n n # 1 & x " x 2 & x 3 " AAA " $ & x % " AAA # H $ &1% x n ; IOC $ &1,1% 1" x n #0

P

P

e x # 1" x "

x2

2!

"

x3

3!

" AAA "

< xn xn " AAA # H ; IOC $ &<, < % n! n #0 n !

P

< $ &1% x 2n "1 ; IOC &<, < x 2n "1 sin x # x & " & " AAA " $ &1% " AAA # H $ % 3! 5! 7 ! $ 2n " 1% ! n # 0 $ 2n " 1% !

x3

x5

x7

n

n

P

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