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BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

Mitigation of Internal Corrosion


in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
June 2009

2009-0013
The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 130
companies that explore for, develop and produce more than 90 per cent of
Canada’s natural gas and crude oil. CAPP also has 150 associate member
companies that provide a wide range of services that support the upstream oil and
natural gas industry. Together, these members and associate members are an
important part of a $120-billion-a-year national industry that affects the
livelihoods of more than half a million Canadians.

Review by July 2013

Disclaimer

This publication was prepared for the Canadian Association of Petroleum


Producers (CAPP). While it is believed that the information contained herein is
reliable under the conditions and subject to the limitations set out, CAPP does
not guarantee its accuracy. The use of this report or any information contained
will be at the user’s sole risk, regardless of any fault or negligence of CAPP or
its co-funders.

2100, 350 – 7 Avenue S.W. 403, 235 Water Street


Calgary, Alberta St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador
Canada T2P 3N9 Canada A1C 1B6
Tel (403) 267-1100 Tel (709) 724-4200
Fax (403) 261-4622 Fax (709) 724-4225
www.capp.ca Ÿ communication@capp.ca
Contents

1 Failure Statistics ...........................................................................................................1

2 Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation.......................................................................2


2.1 Pitting Corrosion..............................................................................................2
2.2 Vapor Phase Corrosion....................................................................................2
2.3 Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) .....................................................................2
2.4 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) ................................................................3
2.5 Bacteria Corrosion in Sour Gas system..........................................................3
3 Recommended Practices ............................................................................................10

4 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques..............................................................................17

5 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques ............................................................................20

6 Corrosion Inspection Techniques..............................................................................23

7 Leak Detection Techniques .......................................................................................25

8 Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques................................................................... 266

9 Additional Resources .................................................................................................29

Figures
Figure 1.1 Total Sour Gas Pipeline Incidents and Sour Gas Pipeline Incidents/1000 km...............1
Figure 1.2 Sour Gas Pipeline Incidents by Cause...............................................................................1
Figure 2.1 An Example of Internal Corrosion in a Sour Gas Pipeline ..............................................3

Tables
Table 2.1 - Contributing Factors – Mechanisms.................................................................................4
Table 2.2 - Contributing Factors – Operating Practices.....................................................................7
Table 3.1 - Recommended Practices – Design and Construction....................................................10
Table 3.2 - Recommended Practices – Operations...........................................................................13
Table 4.1 – Recommended Practices - Corrosion Mitigation..........................................................17
Table 5.1 – Corrosion Monitoring .....................................................................................................20
Table 6.1 – Corrosion Inspection Techniques ..................................................................................23
Tabel 7.1 - Leak Detection Techniques.............................................................................................25
Table 8.1 - Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques ...........................................................................26

i
Overview

Corrosion is a dominant contributing factor to failures and leaks in pipelines. To


deal with this issue, the CAPP Pipeline Technical Committee has developed
industry recommended practices to improve and maintain the mechanical integrity
of upstream pipelines. They are intended to assist upstream oil and gas producers
in recognizing the conditions that contribute to pipeline corrosion incidents, and
identify effective measures that can be taken to reduce the likelihood of corrosion
incidents.

This document addresses design, maintenance and operating considerations for


the mitigation of internal corrosion in sour gas pipeline systems constructed with
carbon steel materials. Within this document, sour gas corrosion could be
expected to occur when:
• H2S concentration in the gas phase is greater than 500 ppm (These limits
are supplied as a guideline only and may not be absolute)
• H2S is dissolved in free water
This document does not address failures due to environmental cracking such as
sulphide stress cracking (SSC) and hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). This
document also does not address gas gathering systems fabricated with aluminum
and non-metallic materials.

This document is complementary to CSA Z662 and supports the development of


corrosion control practices within Pipeline Integrity Management Programs, as
required by CSA Z662 and the applicable regulatory agency. In the case of any
inconsistencies between the guidance provided in this document and either Z662
or regulatory requirements, the latter should be adhered to.

This document is intended for use by corrosion specialists involved with the
development and execution of corrosion mitigation programs, engineering teams
involved in the design of gathering systems, and operations personnel involved
with the implementation of corrosion mitigation programs and operation of wells
and pipelines in a safe and efficient manner. It contains a consolidation of key
industry experience and knowledge used to reduce oil effluent pipeline corrosion;
however it is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all practices.

Additional recommended practices developed by the CAPP Pipeline Technical


Committee are given below:
• Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Sweet
Gas Pipeline Systems
• Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil
Effluent Pipeline Systems
• Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oilfield
Water Pipeline Systems

June 2009 Page i


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
• Best Management Practice for Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried
Pipeline Systems

These documents are available free of charge on the CAPP website at


www.capp.ca.

June 2009 Page ii


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
1 Failure Statistics
• In 2008, sour gas pipeline systems accounted for 3% of the total pipeline
incidents in Alberta. Sour gas, for these reporting statistics, is gas
containing greater than 10 mole/kilomole (1%) of hydrogen sulphide
(H2S) by volume.
• In 2008, internal corrosion was the cause of 26% of the 31 sour gas
incidents in Alberta.
30 80
# SG Incidents / 1000km
Total SG Incidents 70
25
60
20
50
44

38 39
15 40
33
30 30 31
28 29 28
25 25 25 30
10 23 23 24
20 19
18
8.6 15 20
7.4 13 13 12
10
5 6.0 10
3.8 4.9 3.8 1.5 1.8 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.5
3.6 2.5
2.8 2.1 1.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0
0 0
1985198619871988198919901991 19921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008
# SG Incidents / 1000km 8.6 7.4 3.8 4.9 6.0 3.6 2.5 2.8 2.1 1.7 3.8 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 1.5 1.8 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.5
To tal SG Incidents 25 23 13 20 28 18 13 15 12 10 25 19 23 25 29 38 44 24 30 39 30 33 28 31
SG Length (1000's km) 2.9 3.1 3.4 4.1 4.7 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.8 6.0 6.6 7.5 8.5 9.9 11.4 12.8 14.5 15.8 16.7 19.3 20.2 21.1 21.7 21.3

Figure 1.1 Total Sour Gas Pipeline Incidents and Sour Gas Pipeline Incidents/1000 km

Figure 19b - Sour Gas Pipeline Incidents by Cause

Corrosion (Internal) (CI) Corrosion (External) (CX) All Other Causes


Pipe Failure (PF) Valve Or Fitting Failure (VF) Damage By Others (DO)

30

25

20

15

10

0
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

All Other Causes includes: Earth Movement (2), Girth Weld Failure (3), Mechanical Joint Failure (1),
Miscellaneous (3), Operator Error (3), Overpressure Failure (3), Unknown (1).

Figure 1.2 Sour Gas Pipeline Incidents by Cause

June 2009 Page 1


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
2 Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation

2.1 Pitting Corrosion

Pitting corrosion along the bottom of the pipeline is the primary corrosion
mechanism leading to failures in sour gas pipelines. The common features of this
mechanism are:
• the presence of water containing H2S in combination with any of the
following: CO2, chlorides, elemental sulphur or solids.
• pipelines carrying higher levels of free-water production with no means of
water removal (i.e. no well site separation or dehydration).
• the presence of fluid traps (i.e. low spots) where water and solids can
accumulate due to low gas velocity.
In wet gas gathering systems containing H2S & CO2 the initiation and growth of
pitting corrosion can be influenced by the following variables:
• In sour systems semi-protective iron sulphide(s) scales will form.
• The scales are only protective in the absence of scale disrupters such as
solids, chlorides, methanol, sulphur, high velocities, etc.
• Localized breakdown of iron sulphide(s) scales usually results in
accelerated pitting attack.
2.2 Vapor Phase Corrosion

Vapor phase corrosion is a less common mechanism that has also led to failures.
High rates of methanol injection have been a known contributor to vapor phase
corrosion in sour systems.

Although not specifically addressed in this recommended practice, many of the


preventative measures described in this document will also mitigate this
mechanism.

2.3 Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC)

This document does not specifically address failures due to environmental


cracking mechanisms such as sulphide stress cracking (SSC), or other forms of
cracking such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC), etc. Selection of materials
resistant to SSC and control of combined stress are considered the primary
acceptable means to prevent failures by this mechanism. Stress can result from
welding, installation, soil loading, thermal expansion, and operating pressure.

For more information on requirements to prevent SSC failures refer to:


• CSA Z662, Clause 16 Sour Service
• NACE MR 0175 / ISO 15156, Petroleum and natural gas industries –
Materials for use in H2S containing environments in oil and gas
production.

June 2009 Page 2


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
2.4 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)

This document does not specifically address failures due to environmental


cracking mechanisms related to hydrogen such as hydrogen induced cracking
(HIC), or hydrogen stress cracking (HSC), stepwise cracking (SWC), stress
orientated hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC), etc.

Where considered necessary, specification and use of materials manufactured


with demonstrated HIC resistance is the preferred method of preventing failures
by this mechanism. However, many of the preventative measures described in this
document can help mitigate failures by this mechanism.

For more information on requirements to prevent HIC failures refer to:


• CSA Z662, Clause 16 Sour Service
• NACE MR 0175 / ISO 15156, Petroleum and natural gas industries –
Materials for use in H2S containing environments in oil and gas
production
• NACE TM 0284-96, Evaluation of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel Steels for
Resistance to Hydrogen Induced Cracking
2.5 Bacteria Corrosion in Sour Gas system

This document does not specifically address failures due to Microbiological


Induced Corrosion (MIC) in sour gas systems.

Evidence of bacteria has been reported in some sour gas failure investigations
however there is no industry consensus with regard to the overall contribution to
the corrosion mechanism.

Although not specifically addressed in this recommended practice, many of the


preventative measures described in this document will also mitigate this
mechanism.

Figure 2.1: An Example of Internal Corrosion in a Sour Gas Pipeline

June 2009 Page 3


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Tables 3.1 and 3.2 describe the most common contributors, causes and effects of
internal corrosion in sour gas pipelines. The tables also contain corresponding
industry accepted mitigation measures being used to reduce sour gas corrosion.

Table 2.1 - Contributing Factors – Mechanisms


Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation

Hydrogen • Produced with gas • H2S dissolves in • Effective pigging


Sulphide from the reservoir water to form weak and inhibition
(H2S) acidic solution. programs
• Can be generated by
sulfate reducing • Corrosion rates • Dehydration
bacteria increase with
increasing H2S levels • Small amounts of
H2S (less than 500
• Hydrogen sulphide ppm) can be
can form protective beneficial as a
iron sulphide (FeS) protective FeS film
scales can be established

• Localized breakdown
of FeS scales results
in accelerated pitting

Carbon • Produced with gas • CO2 dissolves in • Effective pigging


Dioxide (CO2) from the reservoir water to form and inhibition
carbonic acid programs

• Stability of protective • Dehydration


iron sulphide (FeS)
scale may be
decreased by an
increase in CO2

• Corrosion rates
increase with
increasing CO2 and
H2S partial pressures
and temperatures

June 2009 Page 4


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation
Oxygen • Ingress from • Oxygen can • Use gas blanketing
compressors or accelerate corrosion and oxygen
vapor recovery units at concentrations as scavengers
(VRU) low as 50 parts per
billion • Minimize oxygen
• Ingress during line ingress and/or
repairs, or inspection • May react with inhibit the pipeline
hydrogen sulphide
• Injection of methanol (H2S) to form • Optimize methanol
elemental sulphur injection and/or use
inhibited methanol
• Typical organic
inhibitor
effectiveness can be
reduced by the
presence of oxygen

Water Holdup • Low gas velocity or • Water acts as the • Install pigging
poor pigging electrolyte for the facilities and
practices allow water corrosion reaction maintain an
to stagnate in the effective pigging
pipelines • Turbulence caused program
by slug flow regime
can accelerate the • Remove water at
corrosion rate the wellsite by
separation or
dehydration

• Control corrosion
through effective
inhibition

Chlorides • Produced with • Initiates pitting by • Remove water at


formation water disrupting protective the wellsite by
scales separation or
• Can be the result of dehydration
spent acid returns • Increases the
from well stimulation localized pitting rate • Control corrosion
through effective
• Increases the inhibition
conductivity of water

• Increased chloride
levels can reduce
inhibitor
effectiveness

June 2009 Page 5


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation
Solids • Loose iron sulphide • Can contribute to • Install pigging
Deposition accumulations are under-deposit facilities and
commonly formed in corrosion and iron maintain an
sour systems sulphide (FeS) scale effective pigging
breakdown program
• Can originate from
drilling fluids, • Solids accumulations • Initially, use well
workover fluids and can reduce the site separators to
scaling waters corrosion inhibitor tank and truck
effectiveness liquids to minimize
• Includes sands, wax the effects of work
and scale • Scale deposition can over and
interfere with completion
• May include corrosion inhibition activities on the
corrosion products pipeline
from down hole or
upstream equipment • Scale inhibition

• Insufficient gas
velocities or poor
pigging practices

Methanol • Excessive quantities • Methanol injection • Avoid over-


of injected methanol can introduce oxygen injection of
into the system methanol

• High quantities of • Effective pigging


methanol may and inhibition
reduce inhibitor
effectiveness • Dehydration or line
heaters
• Methanol can break
down protective FeS
scales

Note:

There is no clearly defined boundary where methanol becomes a corrosion


contributor. Industry experience is that continuous methanol injection should be
limited to a 1:1 water/methanol ratio or the amount required for hydrate inhibition.

The inhibitor added to the methanol is designed to form a passive layer to mitigate O2
corrosion. This inhibitor is not intended to act as film forming inhibitor and should not
be expected to protect against other types of corrosion.

Methanol can contain up to 70 ppm dissolved O2

June 2009 Page 6


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation
Polysulphides • May be produced • Acidic pH is required • Install pigging
with formation water for polysulphides to facilities and
from sour reservoirs destabilize and maintain an
precipitate as effective pigging
• Polysulphides are elemental sulfur program
water soluble
molecules • The precipitated • Implement a
elemental sulfur can corrosion inhibition
• Not detected in contribute to program
standard water accelerated localized
analysis corrosion

Elemental • Produced from • Sulphur deposits • Install pigging


Sulphur reservoir or formed in can initiate and facilities and
the system contribute to maintain an
accelerated effective pigging
• Formed due to the corrosion program
reaction of H2S and
oxygen • Presence of liquid • Implement a
hydrocarbons tend to corrosion inhibition
• Sulphur deposition is keep sulphur in program
more prevalent in solution
liquid hydrocarbon- • Implement sulphur
free systems • Synergistic effects solvent treatments
with chloride ion
accelerates corrosion • Eliminate oxygen
ingress

Table 2.2 - Contributing Factors – Operating Practices


Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation

Drilling and • Introduction of spent • Lower pH • Produce well to


Completion acids and kill fluids well site separator,
Fluid • Higher chloride tankage and
• Introduction of solids content, which can trucking water until
accelerate corrosion drill and complete
• Introduction of and reduce corrosion fluids and solids
bacteria inhibitor are recovered
effectiveness
• Supplemental
• Accelerated pigging and
corrosion due to inhibition of
breakdown of the pipelines before
protective iron and after work over
sulphide scales activities

June 2009 Page 7


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation
Note:
Produce wells to surface test facilities until drilling and completion fluids are recovered
or neutralized. The pH must be 4 or greater before producing the liquids back into the
pipeline unless a specific corrosion control program is applied.

The effect of chemistry of residual stimulation fluids such as chlorides should also be
considered. The existing inhibitor program may not be effective for these conditions.

Critical Gas • Critical gas velocity • A buildup of water • Design pipeline to


Velocity is reached when and solids (elemental exceed critical
there is insufficient sulphur, iron velocity
flow to sweep the sulphides etc.)
pipeline of water and accelerates corrosion • Establish operating
solids targets based on
• Turbulence caused critical gas velocity
by slug flow regime to trigger
can accelerate the appropriate
corrosion rate mitigation
requirements
(pigging, batch
inhibition etc.)

Detrimental • Ineffective pigging • Accelerated • Design pipelines to


Operating corrosion allow for effective
Practices • Ineffective inhibition shut-in and
isolation
• Intermittent operation
• Develop and
• Inadequate pipeline implement proper
suspension practices suspension
procedures,
• Commingling of including pigging
incompatible and inhibition
produced fluids
• Establish
• Flow back of work- acceptable
over fluids into the operating
pipeline parameters

• “Deadlegs” due to • Test for fluid


changes in incompatibilities
production or
operation of pipelines

June 2009 Page 8


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation
Management • Change in production • Unmanaged change • Implement an
of Change characteristics or may result in effective MOC
(MOC) operating practices unexpected process
corrosion
• Well re-completions • Maintain integrity of
and workovers pipeline operation
and maintenance
• Lack of system history and records
operating history and
practices • Re-assess
corrosivity on a
• Changing personnel periodic basis
and system
ownership

June 2009 Page 9


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
3 Recommended Practices

Table 3.1 describes the recommended practices for mitigation of internal


corrosion in the design and construction phase of sour gas pipelines

Table 3.2 describes the recommended practices for mitigation of internal


corrosion in the operating phase of sour gas pipelines

Table 3.1 - Recommended Practices – Design and Construction


Element Recommended Benefit Comments
Practice

Materials of • Use normalized • Normalized ERW • ERW pipe should


Construction electric resistance prevents preferential be installed with the
welded (ERW) or corrosion of the weld seams orientated to
other line pipe that zone the top half of the
meets the pipe to minimize
requirements of CSA • Non-metallic preferential seam
Z245.1 Steel Pipe materials are corrosion
corrosion resistant
• Use CSA Z245.1 • Non-metallic
Sour Service Steel materials may be
Pipe for sour gas used as a liner or a
pipelines, as per the free standing
requirements of CSA pipeline depending
Z662 on the service
conditions. Steel
risers could be
susceptible to
corrosion

Note:

There are CSA and regulatory restrictions on the use of HDPE, Nylon and composite
materials in sour gas service. The application of these materials is changing with
industry experience and technological improvements.

Dehydration • Install gas • Elimination of free • Consider mitigation


dehydration facilities water from the requirements for
system reduces the upset conditions
• Ensure dehydration potential for
units are operating corrosion
properly

June 2009 Page 10


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Element Recommended Benefit Comments
Practice
Water • Install water • Removal of free • Only free water is
Removal separation and water from the being removed
removal system reduces the therefore pigging
potential for and mitigation
corrosion measures may still
be required

Pipeline • Install valves that • Allows the effective • Removes potential


Isolation allow for effective suspension and “deadlegs” from the
isolation of pipeline discontinuation of gathering system
segments pipeline segments
• Be aware of
• Install the valves as • Reduces the amount creating “deadlegs”
close as possible to of lost production between isolation
the tie-in point and flaring during valve and mainline
maintenance at tie-in locations
• Install blinds for activities (i.e. install 12
effective isolation of o’clock tee tie-ins,
inactive segments or above ground
riser tie-ins)

• Develop shut-in
guidelines for the
timing of required
steps to isolate and
lay up pipelines in
each system

Deadlegs • Design and • Avoid corrosion due • Stagnant conditions


construct system to to stagnant lead to accelerated
avoid or mitigate the conditions corrosion
effect of “deadlegs”
• For existing
• Establish an “deadlegs” removal
inspection program or routine
for existing inspection may be
“deadlegs” required

June 2009 Page 11


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Element Recommended Benefit Comments
Practice
Pipeline • Design pipeline • Using smaller lines • Design pipeline
Sizing system to maintain where possible system to take into
flow above critical increases gas account changes in
velocity velocity and reduces well deliverability
water holdup and
• For pipelines that solids deposition • Consider the future
operate below the costs of corrosion
critical velocity mitigation for
ensure corrosion oversized pipelines
mitigation programs
are effective for the • Consider the impact
conditions of crossovers, line
loops and flow
direction changes

Pigging • Install or provide • Pigging is one of the • Multi-disc/cup pigs


Capability provisions for pig most effective have been found to
launching and methods of internal be more effective
receiving capabilities corrosion control than ball or sponge
type pigs
• Use consistent line • Pigging improves the
diameter and wall effectiveness of • Receivers and
thickness corrosion inhibitor launchers can be
treatments permanent or
• Use piggable valves, mobile
flanges, and fittings
• Use pigs that are
properly oversized,
undamaged, and
not excessively
worn

Inspection • Install or provide • Internal inspection • Consideration


Capability capability for using inline should be given to
inspection tool inspection the design of
launching and (“intelligent pigs”) is bends, tees, and
receiving the most effective risers to allow for
method for passage of
• Use consistent line confirming overall inspection tools
diameter and wall pipeline integrity
thickness.
• Proper design allows
• Use piggable valves, for pipeline
flanges, and fittings inspection without
costly modifications
or downtime

June 2009 Page 12


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Table 3.2 - Recommended Practices – Operations
Element Recommended Benefit Comments
Practice

Completion • Produce wells to • Removal of • Supplemental


and Workover surface test facilities stimulation and pigging and
Practices until drilling and workover fluids inhibition of
completion fluids reduces the potential pipelines may be
and solids are for corrosion required prior to or
recovered following workover
activities

Corrosion • Evaluate operating • Effective corrosion • Refer to CSA Z662


Assessment conditions management comes Clause 9 -
(temperature, from understanding Corrosion Control
pressure, water and documenting
quality) and prepare a design and operating • Define acceptable
corrosion mitigation parameters operating ranges
program consistent with the
mitigation program
• Communicate
corrosion assessment, • Consider the effects
operating parameters, of H2S, CO2,
and the mitigation Oxygen, chlorides,
program to field methanol, bacteria
operations and and solids
maintenance
personnel • Consider
supplemental
• Re-assess corrosivity requirements for
on a periodic basis handling completion
and subsequent to a and workover fluid
line failure backflow

June 2009 Page 13


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Element Recommended Benefit Comments
Practice
Corrosion • Develop and • Allows for an • Refer to Section 5
Inhibition and communicate the effective corrosion for Corrosion
Monitoring corrosion inhibition mitigation program Mitigation
and monitoring Techniques
program to field
operations and • Refer to Section 6
maintenance for Corrosion
personnel Monitoring
Techniques
• NOTE: Ensure
personnel • Refer to CSA Z662
understand their Clause 9 –
responsibilities and Corrosion Control
are accountable for
implementation and • Consider provisions
maintenance of for chemical
corrosion injection, monitoring
management devices, and
programs sampling points

• Develop pipeline • Establish shut-in


suspension and guidelines for the
discontinuation timing of requiring
procedures steps to isolate, and
lay up pipelines in
each system

Inspection • Develop an • Creates greater “buy • Refer to Section 7


Program inspection program in” and awareness of for Corrosion
or strategy corrosion mitigation Inspection
program Techniques
• Involve field
operations and • Provides assurance • Refer to CSA Z662
maintenance that the corrosion Clause 9 –
personnel in the mitigation program is Corrosion Control
development of effective
inspection strategy • Risk assessments
should be used to
prioritize
inspections

June 2009 Page 14


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Element Recommended Benefit Comments
Practice
Failure • Recover an • Improved • Adjust corrosion
Analysis undisturbed sample understanding of mitigation program
of the damaged corrosion based on results of
pipeline mechanisms failure analysis
detected during
• Conduct a thorough inspections or as a
failure analysis result of a failure

• Use the results of • Allows for corrosion


failure analysis to mitigation program
reassess corrosion adjustments in
mitigation program response to
inspection results

Repair and • Inspect to determine • Prevents multiple • Refer to Section 7


Rehabilitation extent and severity failures on the same for Corrosion
of damage prior to pipeline Inspection
carrying out repair or Techniques
rehabilitation • Prevents
reoccurrence of • Refer to Section 9
• Based on inspection problem for Repair and
results, use CSA Rehabilitation
Clause 10.8.2 to Techniques
determine extent
and type of repair • Refer to CSA Z662
required Clause 10.8.5 for
repair requirements
• Implement or make
modifications to
corrosion control
program after repairs

Leak • Develop leak • Permits the • Refer to Section 8


Detection detection strategy detection of leaks for Leak Detection
Techniques

• Technique utilized
depends on access
and ground
conditions

June 2009 Page 15


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Element Recommended Benefit Comments
Practice
Management • Implement an • Ensures that change • Unmanaged
of Change effective MOC does not impact the change may result
process integrity of the in accelerated
pipeline system corrosion, using
• Maintain integrity of inappropriate
pipeline operation mitigation strategy
and maintenance for the conditions
records (outside the
operating range)

June 2009 Page 16


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
4 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques

Table 4.1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the
mitigation of internal corrosion in sour gas pipelines.

Table 4.1 – Recommended Practices - Corrosion Mitigation


Technique Description Comments

Pigging • Periodic pigging of pipeline • Pigging is one of the most


segments to remove liquids, solids effective methods of internal
and debris corrosion control

• Can be an effective method of


cleaning pipelines and reducing
potential for bacteria colonization
and under-deposit corrosion

• Selection of pig type and sizing


is important to ensure
effectiveness

• Requires facilities for launching


and receiving pigs

• Common practice to help


productivity of low volume gas
wells

Batch • Periodic application of a batch • Provides a barrier between


Corrosion corrosion inhibitor to provide a corrosive elements and the pipe
Inhibition protective barrier on the inside of surface
the pipe
• Application procedure is
• Initial batch treatment of the important in determining
pipeline is critical at pipeline effectiveness (i.e. volume of
commissioning, after new pipeline chemical, diluent used, contact
construction, repairs, or time, and application interval)
suspension
• Should be applied between two
• Batching is required after any pigs to effectively clean and lay
activity that will disrupt the down inhibitor on the pipe
protective films (inspection, line
repairs, workovers, etc) • Should be used in conjunction
with pigging to remove liquids
and solids (i.e. the inhibitor must
be applied to clean pipe to be
the most effective)

June 2009 Page 17


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Technique Description Comments
Note:

Large diameter lines may require special design and/or procedures to ensure batch
slug remains intact.

Batch programs have numerous variables (including people, chemical and


application) and need to be properly managed to ensure effective implementation
and performance monitoring

Continuous • Continuous injection of a corrosion • Program design is important


Corrosion inhibitor to reduce the corrosivity (e.g. product selection,
Inhibition of the transported fluids or provide performance criteria, production
a barrier film characteristics)

• The effectiveness of the inhibitor


may change with changing
production conditions

Note:

Inhibition programs have numerous variables (including people, chemical and


application) and need to be properly managed to ensure effective implementation
and performance monitoring.

Biocide • Periodic application of a biocide to • Effective in killing bacteria in


Chemical kill bacteria in the pipeline system. systems known to contain
Treatment bacteria

• Use in conjunction with pigging


(to clean the line) will enhance
effectiveness

• Batch application is typically


most effective (e.g. application
down-hole leads to ongoing
treatment of produced fluids
flowing into the pipeline)

• The use of improperly selected


biocides can create a foam that
can be a serious operational
issue

June 2009 Page 18


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Technique Description Comments
Oxygen • Use gas blanketing and oxygen • Oxygen ingress will accelerate
Control scavengers the corrosion potential (can
create sulfur compounds)
• Avoid purging test equipment into
the pipeline

• Optimize methanol injection


and/or use inhibited methanol

• Batch treat pipelines following line


repairs, inspections and
hydrotesting

June 2009 Page 19


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
5 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques

Table 5.1 describes the most common techniques for monitoring corrosion and
operating conditions associated with internal corrosion in sour gas pipelines.

Table 5.1 – Corrosion Monitoring


Technique Description Comments

Gas and Oil • Ongoing monitoring of gas • Acid gas content must be
Analysis composition for H2S and CO2 understood and should be
content. If present, the analysis of periodically re-assessed
liquid hydrocarbon properties
including viscosity is useful

Water Analysis • Ongoing monitoring of water for • Changes in water chemistry will
chlorides, dissolved metals, influence the corrosion potential
suspended solids and chemical
residuals • Trends in dissolved metals (e.g.
Fe, Mn) concentration can
indicate changes in corrosion
activity

• Chemical residuals can be used


to confirm the level of application
and changes in water production

• Sampling location and proper


procedures are critical for
accurate results

Production • Ongoing monitoring of production • Changes in operating conditions


Monitoring conditions such as pressure, will influence the corrosion
temperature and flow rates potential

• Production information can be


used to assess corrosion
susceptibility based on fluid
velocity and corrosivity

June 2009 Page 20


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Technique Description Comments

Mitigation • Ongoing monitoring of mitigation • Chemical pump reliability and


Program program implementation, inhibitor inventory control is
Compliance execution and documentation critical where mitigation program
includes continuous chemical
injection

• The corrosion mitigation program


must be properly implemented
and maintained to be effective

• The impact of any non-


compliance to the mitigation
program must be evaluated to
assess the effect on corrosion

Corrosion • Used to indicate general and • Trends in coupon date can


Coupons pitting corrosion rates indicate changes in corrosion
activity

• Coupons should be used in


conjunction with other monitoring
and inspection techniques

• Coupon type, placement, and


data interpretation are critical to
successful application of this
method

Bio-spools • Used to monitor for bacteria • Bio-spool placement and data


presence and mitigation program interpretation are critical to
effectiveness successful application of these
methods

• Bio-spools should be used in


conjunction with other monitoring
and inspection techniques

• Bacteria presence on surfaces is


considered a better way to
quantify type and numbers
present in the system

June 2009 Page 21


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Electrochemical • There are a variety of methods • The device selection, placement,
Monitoring available such as electrochemical and data interpretation are critical
noise, linear polarization, to successful application of these
electrical resistance, hydrogen methods
foils/probes, and field signature
method • Continuous or intermittent data
collection methods are used

• Electrochemical monitoring
should be used in conjunction
with other monitoring and
inspection techniques

June 2009 Page 22


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
6 Corrosion Inspection Techniques

Table 6.1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the
detection of internal corrosion in sour gas pipelines.

Note: Due to localized corrosion being the prevalent failure mechanism in Sour
Gas Pipelines, hydrotesting alone may not be adequate to prove pipeline
integrity.

Table 6.1 – Corrosion Inspection Techniques


Options Technique Comments
In-Line • Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), • Effective method to accurately
Inspection ultrasonic and eddy current tools determine location and severity
are available. MFL is the most of corrosion
commonly used technique
• In-Line Inspection can find
internal and external corrosion
defects

• The tools are available as self


contained or tethered

• The pipeline must be designed


or modified to accommodate In-
Line Inspection

• To run a tethered tool inspection


it is often necessary to dig
bellholes and cut the pipeline

Non-Destructive Ø Ultrasonic inspection, radiography • An evaluation must be done to


Examination or other NDE methods can be determine potential corrosion
(NDE) used to measure metal loss in a sites prior to conducting NDE
localized area
• The use of multi-film radiography
is an effective screening tool
prior to using ultrasonic testing

• NDE is commonly used to verify


inline inspection results,
corrosion at excavation sites and
above ground piping

• Practical limitations of NDE


methods and the factors
affecting accuracy must be
understood

June 2009 Page 23


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Options Technique Comments
Video Camera / • Visual inspection tool to locate • Used to locate and determine
Boroscope internal corrosion the presence of corrosion
damage, but it is difficult to
determine severity

• This technique may be limited to


short inspection distances

• Cannot directly measure depth


of corrosion pits

• Destructive • Physical cut out of sections from • Consideration should be given


Examination the pipeline to locations where specific
failure modes are most likely to
occur

June 2009 Page 24


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
7 Leak Detection Techniques

Table 7.1 describes common techniques that should be considered for detection
of pipeline leaks caused by internal corrosion in sour gas pipelines. Proactive
leak detection can be an effective method of finding small leaks and mitigating
the consequences of a major product release or spill.

Tabel 7.1 - Leak Detection Techniques


Technique Description Comments

H2S detection • H2S detection can be portable or • Permanent monitors are used at
permanent tools surface facilities

Right-of-Way • Visual inspection by ground • Indications include soil


(ROW) access or aerial surveillance to settlement , gas bubbling, and
Surveillance look for indications of problems water, soil, or vegetation
discoloration

• Can be used in combination with


infrared thermography and flame
ionization surveys

Production • Volume balancing or pressure • Changes in production volumes


Monitoring monitoring to look for indications or pressure can indicate a
of leaks pipeline failure

• This is a more effective tool for


finding large leaks and ruptures

Flame • Electronic instrumentation used to • Equipment is portable and very


Ionization detect very low concentrations of sensitive, pipeline has to be
Survey gas displaced to a combustible gas

• Equipment may be hand held,


mounted on an ATV, or mounted
to a helicopter

Infrared • Thermal imaging is used to detect • Need sufficient volume of


Thermography temperature change on Right-of- escaping gas to create an
Way due to escaping gas or identifiable temperature
produced water difference

• Normally completed using aerial


techniques

Odor Detection • Odorant detection using trained • Capable of detecting pinhole


animals and patented odorants leaks that may be otherwise non-
detectable

June 2009 Page 25


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
8 Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques

Table 8.1 describes the common techniques used for repair and rehabilitation of
pipelines damaged by internal sour gas corrosion.

Prior to the repair or rehabilitation of a pipeline the appropriate codes and


guidelines should be consulted, including:
• CSA Z662, Section 10.10, “Permanent and Temporary Repair Methods”
• CSA Z662, Section 13, “Reinforced composite, thermoplastic lined and
polyethylene pipelines

Table 8.1 - Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques


Technique Description Comments
Pipe Section • Remove damaged section(s) and • When determining the quantity of
Replacements replace. pipe to replace, consider the
extent of the corrosion and as well
as the extent and severity of
damage or degradation of any
internal coatings or linings along
with the condition of the remaining
pipeline

• Impact on pigging capabilities


must be considered (use same
pipe diameter and similar wall
thickness)

• The replaced pipe section should


be coated with corrosion inhibitor
prior to commissioning or coated
with and internal coating
compatible with the existing
pipeline

June 2009 Page 26


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Technique Description Comments
Repair Sleeves • Reinforcement and pressure- • For internal corrosion it may be
containing sleeves may be possible in some circumstances
acceptable for temporary or for the damaged section to remain
permanent repairs of internal in the pipeline as per the
corrosion as per the limitations requirements in CSA Z662 Clause
stated in CSA Z662 10.10 along with proper corrosion
control practices to prevent further
deterioration

• Different repair sleeves are


available including composite,
weld-on and bolt-on types. The
sleeves must meet the
requirements of CSA Z662
Clause 10.10

Polymer Liners • Material selection, liner design, • A variety of materials are


service conditions, and installation available with different
procedures are critical to liner temperature and chemical
performance resistance capabilities

• A polymer liner is inserted in the • Impact on pigging capabilities


steel pipeline must be considered

• The steel pipe must provide the • Polymer liners may eliminate the
pressure containment capability need for internal corrosion
mitigation, corrosion monitoring
and inspection

• Installation of liners will require


review of chemical inhibition
programs of any remaining bare
steel components

June 2009 Page 27


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Technique Description Comments
Composite or • Freestanding composite or plastic • A variety of materials are
Plastic Pipe pipe can be either plowed-in for available with different
new lines, or pulled through old temperature and chemical
pipelines resistance capabilities

• This pipe must be designed to • Freestanding plastic or composite


provide full pressure containment pipelines are limited by pressure
and H2S concentration

• Impact on pigging capabilities


must be considered

• Composite or plastic pipelines


may eliminate the need for
internal corrosion mitigation,
corrosion monitoring and
inspection

• Installation of composite or plastic


pipe will require review of
chemical inhibition programs of
any remaining bare steel
components

Pipeline • Using internally coated steel • Must be pig and inspection tool
Replacement pipeline systems with an compatible
engineered joining system should
also be considered • Refer to Section 4
“Recommended Practices ” in this
• The alteration or replacement of document for details
the pipeline allows for proper
mitigation and operating practices • Ensure that when replacements in
to be implemented kind occur, the alteration or
replacement of the pipeline allows
for proper mitigation and
operating practices to be
implemented

June 2009 Page 28


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
9 Additional Resources

For more background on corrosion in sour systems the reader should refer to the
following technical societies:

National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE):

http://www.nacestore.com/NACE/knowledgebase/KnowledgeBaseIndex.asp

European Federation of Corrosion (EFC):

http://www.efcweb.org/

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME):

http://www.asme.org/catalog/

February 2009 Page 29


Recommended Practice for Mitigation of Internal
Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems